List of currencies in Europe

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The eurozone as of 2013
  Eurozone member states
  ERM II member states with an opt-out
  ERM II member states
  Other EU member states
  States using the euro as a result of a treaty
  States which have unilaterally adopted the euro

There are 29 currencies currently used in the 50 countries of Europe, all of which are members of the United Nations, except Vatican City, which is an observer with the United Nations General Assembly.[1] All de facto present currencies in Europe, and an incomplete list of the preceding currency, are listed here.

A currency is a medium of exchange, such as money, banknotes, and coins.[2] In Europe, the most commonly used currency is the euro (used by 25 countries); any country entering the European Union (EU) is expected to join the eurozone[3] when they meet the five convergence criteria.[4] Denmark is the only EU member state which has been granted an exemption from using the euro.[3] Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Sweden have not adopted the Euro either, although unlike Denmark, they have not formally opted out; instead, they fail to meet the ERM II (Exchange Rate Mechanism) which results in the non-use of the Euro.[5][6] For countries which hope to join the eurozone, there are five guidelines that need to be followed, grouped in the Maastricht criteria.[3]

The United Kingdom's currency, sterling, is rated fourth on Investopedia's list of the top 8 most tradable currencies, and that it is a "little bit more volatile than the euro".[7] It was ranked just ahead of the Swiss franc, ranked fifth, which is used in Switzerland and Liechtenstein, saying that the set up of the Swiss banking "emphasizes the economic and financial stability policies dictated by the governing board of the SNB". Both are in the top 8 major currencies on Bloomberg.[8] Several countries use currencies which translate as "crown": the Czech koruna, the Norwegian krone, the Danish krone, the Icelandic króna, and the Swedish krona.[9]

At present, the euro is legal tender in 20 out of 27 European Union member states,[10] in addition to 5 countries not part of the EU (Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City, Andorra and Montenegro).[11] Kosovo also uses the euro,[11] but is only partially recognised as an independent state.

European currencies[edit]

List of all European currencies
Country Present currency Currency sign ISO 4217 code Fractional unit Previous currency
 Albania lek[12] L[13] ALL qindarke none
 Andorra euro[14] [15] EUR euro cent none official[14][16]
 Armenia dram ֏ AMD luma ruble
 Austria euro[17] EUR euro cent schilling[18]
 Azerbaijan manat[19] AZN gapik ruble[20]
 Belarus ruble[21][22] Rbl BYN kopeck old ruble[23]
 Belgium euro[24] EUR euro cent franc[25]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina mark[26] KM BAM fening dinar[27]
 Bulgaria lev[28] лв. BGN stotinka old lev (BGL)
 Croatia euro[29] EUR euro cent Kuna[30]
 Cyprus euro[31] EUR euro cent pound[32]
 Czech Republic koruna[33] CZK heller Czechoslovak koruna[34]
 Denmark krone[35] kr. DKK øre rigsdaler[36]
 Estonia euro[37][38] EUR euro cent kroon[39][40]
 Finland euro[41] EUR euro cent markka[42]
 France euro[43] EUR euro cent franc[44]
 Georgia lari[45] GEL tetri kuponi[46]
 Germany euro[47] EUR euro cent mark
 Greece euro[48] EUR euro cent drachma[49]
 Hungary forint[50] Ft. HUF fillér pengő[51]
 Iceland króna[52] kr. ISK aurar old króna[52]
 Ireland euro[53] EUR euro cent punt[54]
 Italy euro[55] EUR euro cent lira[56]
 Latvia euro EUR euro cent lats[57]
 Liechtenstein franc[58][59] CHF CHF rappen, also called
centime, centesimo, and rap
krone[60]
 Lithuania euro[61][62] EUR euro cent litas
 Luxembourg euro[63] EUR euro cent franc[64]
 Malta euro[65] EUR euro cent lira[66]
 Moldova leu[67] L MDL bani cupon[68]
 Monaco euro[69] EUR euro cent franc
 Montenegro euro[69] EUR euro cent D–Mark[70]
 Netherlands euro[71] EUR euro cent guilder[72]
 North Macedonia denar[73] DEN MKD deni old denar[74]
 Norway krone[75] kr. NOK øre speciedaler[76]
 Poland złoty[77] zł. PLN grosz old złoty
 Portugal euro[78] EUR euro cent escudo[79]
 Romania leu[80] lei RON bani old leu[81]
 Russia ruble[82] RUB kopeck Soviet ruble[82]
 San Marino euro[83] EUR euro cent lira[83]
 Serbia dinar[84] DIN RSD para Yugoslav dinar[84]
 Slovakia euro[85] EUR euro cent koruna[85]
 Slovenia euro[86] EUR euro cent tolar[86]
 Spain euro[87] EUR euro cent peseta[87]
 Sweden krona[88] kr. SEK öre riksdaler[88]
 Switzerland franc[89] CHF[89] CHF rappen, also called
centime, centesimo, and rap
none[89]
 Turkey lira[90] TRY kuruş old lira[90]
 Ukraine hryvnia[91] UAH kopeck (копійка) karbovanets[91]
 United Kingdom sterling[92] £ GBP penny (pl. pence) pre-decimal sterling[93]
  Vatican City euro[94] EUR euro cent lira[95]

Currencies of partially recognized states in Europe[edit]

List of all unrecognized European currencies
Unrecognized country De jure country Present currency Currency sign ISO 4217 (or unofficial) code Fractional unit Previous currency
 Abkhazia  Georgia apsar

Russian ruble (both official)

the apsar has no currency sign

ABK (unofficial)

RUB

the apsar has no fractional unit

kopeck

Soviet ruble
 Kosovo  Serbia euro

Serbian dinar (unofficial, only in Serb majority areas)

DIN

EUR

RSD

cent

Para

Yugoslav dinar
 Artsakh  Azerbaijan Armenian dram

Artsakh dram (both official)

դր. AMD luma Soviet ruble
 North Cyprus  Cyprus Turkish lira
euro (unofficial)
sterling (unofficial)


£

TRY

EUR
GBP

kuruş

cent
penny

Cypriot pound
 South Ossetia  Georgia Russian ruble RUB kopeck Soviet ruble
 Transnistria  Moldova Transnistrian ruble руб PRB (unofficial) kopeck Soviet ruble

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Holy See (Vatican City)". CIA World Factbook. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  2. ^ "cur•ren•cy, definition 1". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Stastna, Kazi (9 December 2011). "Euro: the common currency explained". CBC News. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  4. ^ "Who can join and when?". European Commission. 4 September 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  5. ^ "ERM II". Minestary of Finance. 11 November 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  6. ^ "Sweden and the euro". European Commission. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  7. ^ "Top 8 Most Tradable Currencies". Investopedia. 30 June 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  8. ^ "Currencies: Major World Currencies". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  9. ^ Mapes, Terri. "Currencies in Europe". About.com. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  10. ^ "The euro". Europa. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Introduction". European Central Bank. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  12. ^ "ALL – Albanian Lek". Xe. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  13. ^ "Albanian Lek". Oanda. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  14. ^ a b "By monetary agreement between France (acting for the EC) and Monaco". Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  15. ^ "EUR – Euro". Xe. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  16. ^ "The euro outside the euro area". European Commission: economic and financial affairs. 5 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  17. ^ "Local Currency in Austria". CurrencyName.com. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  18. ^ "Austrian Schilling". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  19. ^ "AZN – Azerbaijani New Manat". Xe. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  20. ^ "Milli valyutamızın tarixi (Azerbaijani)". AZƏRBAYCAN RESPUBLİKASININ MƏRKƏZİ BANKI. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  21. ^ "Banknotes and Coins of the National Bank of the Republic of Belarus". National Bank of the Republic of Belarus. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  22. ^ "BYR – Belarusian Ruble". Xe. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  23. ^ "Belarusian Ruble". Oanda. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  24. ^ "Chronological summary of the history of the Belgian franc". National Bank of Belgium. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  25. ^ "Belgian Franc". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  26. ^ "BAM – Bosnian Convertible Marka". Xe. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  27. ^ "Bosnian Mark". Oanda. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  28. ^ "BGN – Bulgarian Lev". Xe. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  29. ^ "HRK – Croatian Kuna". Xe. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  30. ^ "Papirnati novac hrvatski dinar 1991. – 1994". Kunalipa. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  31. ^ "Cyprus (as of 1 January 2008)". The European Central Bank. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  32. ^ "Cyprus Pound". Oanda. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  33. ^ "CZK – Czech Koruna". Xe. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  34. ^ "Czech Koruna". Oanda. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  35. ^ "DKK – Danish Krone". Xe. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  36. ^ "Danish Krone". Oanda. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  37. ^ "Estonia (since 1 January 2011)". European Central Bank. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  38. ^ "Ministers offer Estonia entry to eurozone January 1". France24. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  39. ^ "Money and currency in Estonia". Visit Estonia. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  40. ^ "Estonian Kroon". Oanda. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  41. ^ "Finland and the euro". European Commission. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  42. ^ "Finnish Markka". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  43. ^ "France and the euro". European Commission. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  44. ^ "French Franc". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  45. ^ "Banknotes". National Bank of Georgia. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  46. ^ "Georgian Lari". Financial Dictionary. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  47. ^ "DM coins". Bundesbank. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  48. ^ "Greece and the euro". European Commission. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  49. ^ "drachma". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  50. ^ "Hungarian Forint". Famous Wonders. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  51. ^ "1925. évi XXXV. törvénycikk (Hungarian)". 1000ev.hu. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  52. ^ a b "Iceland Krona". Oanda. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  53. ^ "Ireland and the euro". European Commission. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  54. ^ Kelly, John (Spring 2003). "The Irish Pound: From Origins to EMU" (PDF). Irish Central Bank. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  55. ^ "Italy and the euro". European Commission. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  56. ^ Del Boca, Alessandra; Fratianni, Michele U.; Spinelli, Franco; Trecroci, Carmine (16 June 2009). "The Phillips Curve and the Italian Lira, 1861–1998". Social Science Research Network. SSRN 1156845. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |url= (help)
  57. ^ "Introduction". Latvijas Banka. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  58. ^ "Europe > Liechtenstein > Currency". Nation Master. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  59. ^ "Liechtenstein Exchange Rate". Greenwichmeantime. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  60. ^ "Liechtenstein Krone Y# 2". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  61. ^ "Lithuanian Litas". Famous Wonders. 22 May 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  62. ^ "EUR– euro". Xe. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  63. ^ "Luxembourg and the euro". European Commission. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  64. ^ "Luxembourg Franc". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  65. ^ "Malta's euro coins". Central Bank of Malta. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  66. ^ "The Coinage of Malta". Central Bank of Malta. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  67. ^ "Moldovan Leu". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  68. ^ "Moldovan Cupon". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  69. ^ a b "Introduction". European Central Bank. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  70. ^ Anderson, Paul (3 January 2002). "Montenegro's euro challenge". BBC. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  71. ^ "Netherlands". Eurozone. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  72. ^ "Netherlands Gilder". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  73. ^ "Ќе се слават 20 години од македонскиот денар (Macedonian)". HobaMakeДohhja. 20 February 2011. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
  74. ^ "Macedonian Denar". Oanda. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  75. ^ "NOK – Norwegian Krone". Xe. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  76. ^ "Norwegian Kroner". Oanda. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  77. ^ "Convert United States Dollar to Polish Zloty". Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  78. ^ "Portugal and the Euro". EU Business. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  79. ^ "Portuguese Escudo". BBC. 2001. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  80. ^ ]"Redenomination of domestic currency". Banca Naţională a României. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  81. ^ "Romanian New Leu". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  82. ^ a b "Russian Rouble". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  83. ^ a b "Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino". The Euro Information Website. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  84. ^ a b "Serbian Dinar". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  85. ^ a b "Slovak Koruna". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  86. ^ a b "Slovenian Tolar". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  87. ^ a b "Spanish peseta". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  88. ^ a b "Swedish Krona". Oanda. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
  89. ^ a b c "Swiss Franc". Oanda. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  90. ^ a b "Turkish Lira". Oanda. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  91. ^ a b "Ukraine Hryvnia". Oanda. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  92. ^ "Celebrating 40 Years of Decimalisation The Story of Decimal Coinage". Royal Mint. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  93. ^ Dawnay, Kit (8 October 2001). "A history of sterling". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  94. ^ "Vatican City". European Central Bank. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
  95. ^ "The New Philatelic and Numismatic Museum – Official celebrative Envelope". Vatican City State. Retrieved 25 July 2013.

External links[edit]