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List of current non-sovereign monarchs

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This is a list of currently reigning constituent monarchs, including traditional rulers and governing constitutional monarchs. Each monarch listed below reigns over a legally recognised dominion, but in most cases possess little or no sovereign governing power. Their titles, however, are recognised by the state. Entries are listed beside their respective dominions, and are grouped by country.

African monarchs[edit]

Asian monarchs[edit]

European Monarchs[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Guernsey Guernsey SarkSark Christopher Beaumont 3 July 2016 Beaumont Hereditary

North American monarchs[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Panama Panama Naso Tjër Di Comarca Reynaldo Santana 02 Oct 2011 Santana Elective and hereditary [1][2]
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Santa Rosa First Peoples Community Nona Aquan 12 Oct 2019 Aquan Elective and hereditary [3][4][5]
First People of Moruga Eric Lewis 21 Feb 2022 Lewis Elective and hereditary [6][7]

South American monarchs[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Bolivia Bolivia Afro-Bolivians Julio Pinedo 18 April 1992 Pinedo Hereditary [8]

Oceanian monarchs[edit]

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
American Samoa American Samoa Manu'a Tu'i Manu'a Vacant 6 July 1904 Elective and hereditary
Fiji Fiji Fiji Tui Viti Vacant Elective and hereditary
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands [oc 1] Kwajalein Iroijlaplap Michael Kabua 19 September 2019 Kabua Elective and hereditary [9]
North Ratak [oc 2] Iroijlaplap Remios Hermios 10 December 1998 Hermios Elective and hereditary [10]
Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Madolenihmw Nahnmwarki Kerpet Ehpel [oc 3] November 2008 Dipwinpahnmei [oc 4] Elective and hereditary [11][12]
Sokehs Nahnmwarki Herculano Kohler 1997 Sounkawad Elective and hereditary [13]
Uh Nahnmwarki Welter John [oc 5] 30 September 1991 Lasialap [oc 6] Elective and hereditary [14]
New Caledonia New Caledonia Kunié High Chief Hilarion Vendégou 26 September 1974 [oc 7] Vao [oc 8] Hereditary [15]
Maré High Chief Dokucas Naisseline 6 June 2007 Naisseline [oc 9] Hereditary [oc 10] [16]
Lifou High Chief Evanes Boula 13 June 1999 Boula [oc 8] Hereditary [oc 11] [17]
New Zealand Kīngitanga [oc 12] Arikinui Tūheitia 21 August 2006 Te Wherowhero [oc 13] Elective and hereditary [oc 14] [18]
Tūwharetoa Arikinui Tumu Te Heuheu Tūkino VIII 5 August 1997 Te Heuheu Hereditary [19]
Palau Palau [oc 15] Koror Vacant Ngerekldeu [oc 16] Elective and Hereditary [oc 17] [20]
Melekeok Reklai Bao Ngirmang 1998 Ngetelngal [oc 16] Elective and Hereditary [oc 17]
Samoa Samoa [oc 18] Tupua Tamasese Tupuola Tufuga Efi [oc 19] 1 July 1983 Sa Tupua Elective and hereditary [21]
Tuimaleali'ifano Va'aletoa Sualauvi II [oc 20] 1977 Tuia'ana Elective and hereditary [22]
Vacant [oc 21] December 1997 Sa Mata'afa Elective and hereditary [23]
Malietoa Fa’amausili Molī 16 August 2018 Sa Mālietoa Elective and hereditary [oc 22] [24]
French Polynesia Tahiti Tahiti Teriʻihinoiatua Joinville Hinoiariki Pomare XI 19 April 2023 Pōmare Elective and hereditary [25]
Tuvalu Tuvalu [oc 23] Funafuti Aliki Siaosi Finiki Elective and hereditary [oc 24] [26][27]
Nanumanga Aliki Talivai Sovola Mouhala Elective and hereditary
Nanumea Aliki Iliala Lima Elective and hereditary [oc 25]
Niutao Aliki Iosefa Lagafaoa Elective and hereditary
Nui Aliki Falani Mekuli Elective and hereditary
Nukufetau Aliki Valoaga Fonotapu Elective and hereditary
Nukulaelae Aliki Aifou Tafia Elective and hereditary
Vaitupu Aliki Londoni Panapa Elective and hereditary
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna Alo (Wallis and Futuna) Alo Tuʻi Lino Leleivai 29 November 2018 Lalolalo Elective and hereditary [oc 26] [28]
Sigave Sigave Tuʻi Eufenio Takala 5 March 2016 Vanai Elective and hereditary [oc 27] [citation needed]
Uvea (Wallis and Futuna) Uvea Tuʻi Felice Tominiko Halagahu (co-claimant) 16 April 2016 Takumasiva Elective and hereditary [oc 28] [29]
Tuʻi Patalione Kanimoa (co-claimant) 17 April 2016

Cook Islands[edit]

Each major atoll in the Cook Islands has a number of arikis, ceremonial high chiefs who together form the Are Ariki, a parliamentary advisory body with up to 24 seats. The only domains not listed below are those of Manuae, on which current information is inadequate, and Penrhyn, whose chiefly line is extinct. Styles and names are listed in their conventional local form. In addition to the generic title of ariki, which is worn at the end of one's name, each chiefly line carries its own unique style, which is placed at the beginning. Thus, if the chief's name is "Henry" and his title is "Ngamaru", he is styled "Ngamaru Henry Ariki".

State Polity Monarch Since House Succession Refs
Cook Islands Cook Islands Aitutaki Manarangi Tutai Ariki 2000 Vaipaepae o Pau Hereditary [30]
Tamatoa Purua Ariki Hereditary [31]
Vaeruarangi Teaukura Ariki Hereditary [32]
Atiu Parua Mataio Kea Ariki Nurau Hereditary [33]
Rongomatane Ada Ariki [oc 29] 1972 Paruarangi Hereditary [30]
Ngamaru Tupuna Ariki 2021 Te Akatuira Hereditary [34]
Mangaia Numangatini Tereapii Ariki 29 August 2020 Nga Ariki Hereditary [35]
Manihiki [oc 30] Te Fakaheo Ariki [oc 31] Hukutahu [oc 32] Hereditary [32][36]
Vacant [oc 33] Matangaro [oc 34] Hereditary
Mauke Tamuera Ariki [oc 35] Nurau Hereditary [33]
Tararo Temaeva Ariki [oc 36] Paruarangi Hereditary [32]
Te Au Marae Ariki Te Akatuira Hereditary [37]
Mitiaro Tou Travel Ariki Nurau Hereditary [31]
Tetava Poitirere Ariki Paruarangi Hereditary [32]
Temaeu Teikamata Ariki 20 February 1985[38] Te Akatuira Hereditary [32]
Pukapuka Aliki Makirai Henry June 2022 Pukapuka Hereditary [39]
Rarotonga Makea Vakatini Phillip Ngamatoa Ariki 20 July 2020 Te Au o Tonga Hereditary [40]
George Taripo Karika Ariki 13 December 2018 Hereditary [41]
Vacant [oc 37] 1994 Hereditary [42][43][44][45]
Pa Tapaeru Marie Ariki [oc 38] 27 June 1990 Takitumu Hereditary [30]
Kainuku Kapiriterangi Ariki 6 May 2006 Hereditary [46]
Tinomana Tokerau Ariki 21 Nov 2013 Puaikura [oc 39] Hereditary [30]


In Fiji, which became a colony of the United Kingdom in 1874, the British monarchs were historically bestowed the title Tui Viti, which translates as "King of Fiji" or "Paramount Chief of Fiji". The last holder of the title (from 6 February 1952) was Queen Elizabeth II, of the House of Windsor. The state became a republic in 1987, abolishing the title by establishing a new constitution. The former Great Council of Chiefs, however, still recognised Elizabeth II as Tui Viti, as the nation's traditional queen and its supreme tribal chief, despite no longer holding a constitutional office. Consequently, while Fiji remains a republic, a monarch or paramount chief is still recognised by traditional tribal politics. The Queen made no official claim to the Tui Viti throne, although until at least 2002, she remained open to the possibility of a constitutional restoration of the monarchy.[47]

Native chiefs in Fiji are considered members of the nobility. The House of Chiefs, consisting of about 70 chiefs of various rank determined by a loosely defined order of precedence, was modeled after the British House of Lords.[48] Tongan chiefs, subordinate to a king, are also considered nobles and have therefore been excluded from the above list.[49]

In American Samoa there are 14 paramount chiefs, with Manu'a traditionally subordinate to the Tu'i Manu'a, a title that is now considered purely historical; the last titleholder, Elisala, died 2 July 1909. The paramount chiefly titles are: on Tutuila, Faumuina, Lei'ato, Letuli, Fuimaono, Tuitele, Satele, Mauga, and in the Manu'a Islands, Laolagi, Aso'au, Lefiti, Sotoa, Galea'i, Misa and Tuiolosega.

See also[edit]


North America[edit]


  1. ^ The government of the Marshall Islands recognises 12 chiefly domains, called mojen, each headed by one or several paramount chiefs. Each domain is represented in the Council of Iroij, an advisory body of traditional chiefs guaranteed by the Constitution.
  2. ^ This domain covers the islands of Ailuk, Aur, Maloelap, Taongi, Utirik and Wotje in the Ratak Chain. Its ruling clan has also laid claim to nearby Wake Island, under the name Eneen-Kio.
  3. ^ This chief is normally referred to as the Isipahu.
  4. ^ The ruling line belongs specifically to the Inenkatau (or Upwutenmai) sept of the Dipwinpahnmei clan.
  5. ^ This chief is normally referred to as the Sangiro.
  6. ^ The ruling line belongs specifically to the Sounpasedo sept of the Lasialap clan.
  7. ^ Hilarion was recognised as grand chef in 1974, but, due to a violent succession dispute with his relative Jean-Marie Vendégou, was not formally enthroned until 7 July 1979. He is also the mayor of the island commune until 2014.
  8. ^ a b A Kanak dynasty.
  9. ^ The Naisseline family is a branch of the Netché, a tribe of Kanaks.
  10. ^ The throne of the grand chef on Maré Island is traditionally held by the chief of Guahma district, an hereditary position.
  11. ^ The throne of the grand chef on Lifou Island, which also rules Ouvéa, is traditionally held by the chief of Lössi district, an hereditary position.
  12. ^ Commonly referred to as the "Māori King Movement". Its elected ariki nui is often called the "Māori King" due to his nationalistic influence over all Māori tribes as a symbol of unity. This title is not officially recognised by the government of New Zealand.
  13. ^ Te Wherowhero is the lineage of the first king. It belongs to the Waikato iwi, which is part of the Tainui confederation.
  14. ^ The monarch is appointed for life by the chiefs of the tribes involved in the Kīngitanga movement. Traditionally, selection is limited to direct descendants of the first king: Pōtatau I, of the Waikato tribe. However, in principle inheritance is open to any lineage should the electing chiefs be in agreement.
  15. ^ Palau is divided into 16 traditional polities. The 16-seat Council of Chiefs, made up of the traditional chiefs from each constituent state, is an advisory body to the President. The chiefs of Koror and Melekeok, the highest chiefs from Eoueldaob and Babeldaob respectively, are recognised as the two paramount chiefs of the nation.
  16. ^ a b This is not the name of the ruling house or clan: it is the ritual name used by the successive chiefs from this lineage.
  17. ^ a b Chiefs are selected by the most senior women of the ruling clan.
  18. ^ There are four paramount chiefs in Samoa, each presiding over a royal lineage (Tama a 'Āiga) of past kings. Chiefs are afforded considerable power. The national parliament, the Fono, is composed exclusively of chiefly titleholders (matai). The office of head of state (the O le Ao o le Malo) is traditionally reserved for the paramount chiefs, although this is not required by the Constitution.
  19. ^ Tufuga Efi has held the chiefly title of Tui Atua Fa'asavali since 1 July 1983.
  20. ^ Va'aletoa Sualauvi has been the head of state since 21 July 2017.
  21. ^ The throne of the Mata'afa has been vacant since 1997; little other information is available.
  22. ^ The lineage associated with this title consists of three branches: Sa Moli, Sa Talavou and Sa Natuitasina (also spelled Gatuitasina). As the succession law dictates, heirs of all three branches are equally entitled to hold the title, and accession of an heir to the title is subject to nomination and consensus from all three branches. The most recent titleholders have been from the Moli sept.
  23. ^ Each island or atoll has a traditional high chief, the ulu-aliki, who is recognised by and plays an active ceremonial role in the national government. Thrones are primarily elective, but candidates are limited to members of a number of chiefly clans.
  24. ^ Funafuti's traditional chieftaincy is limited to senior members of two chiefly clans: Te Aliki a Mua, and Te Aliki a Muli. By custom, succession rotates between the two lineages.
  25. ^ The high chief, or Pulefenua, is elected by a council of chiefs (the Fale Kaupule) from senior members of Nanumea's seven chiefly clans, all of which claim descent from the first settlers.
  26. ^ The king is elected by a council of chiefs from the senior members of the kingdom's four chiefly clans.
  27. ^ The king is elected by a council of chiefs from the senior members of the kingdom's three chiefly clans: the Tamole, the Keletaona, and the Safoka.
  28. ^ The king is elected, traditionally for ten years, by a council of ministers from the senior members of the kingdom's royal clans. These clans correspond to the three districts of the island: Hahake, Hihifo, and Muʻa. The present king is of the Hihifo clan.
  29. ^ Her full name is "Ada Teaupurepure Tetupu".
  30. ^ The two high chiefs on Manihiki also traditionally reign over neighbouring Rakahanga. They represent the populace of both islands in the area Ariki.
  31. ^ The title is also often written as Whakaheo Ariki.
  32. ^ Arikis of this line belong to either the Numatua or Tiangarotonga tribes.
  33. ^ The throne of Te Faingaitu Ariki (alternatively Whaingaitu) is vacant. It is apparently disputed between members of the eligible tribes, but no information is available on the claimants.
  34. ^ Arikis of this line belong to either the Heahiro or Mokopuwai tribes.
  35. ^ Sources are unclear on the name of the current Tamuera Ariki (often written Samuela Ariki).
  36. ^ His name is sometimes written "Te Maeva" or simply "Maeva".
  37. ^ The Makea Nui Ariki is one of three high chiefs in the Te Au o Tonga tribe on Rarotonga. The previous ariki died in 1994, and her successor has yet to be agreed upon. Several members of the tribe claim rightful inheritance of the title. Succession is traditionally limited to the Rangi Makea clan; the three other clans of the tribe (Sadaraka, Mere and Upokotokoa) are considered junior branches. Mere Maraea MacQuarrie, the youngest daughter of the last ariki, is the only known claimant from the Rangi Makea clan, and is apparently the contender most likely to be granted the title. Other contenders include Stanley Adam Hunt, Yolande Browne, and Matapo Oti Oti, all of whom claim descent from the earlier arikis. The first of these, Hunt, was "invested" with the Makea Nui title under the regnal name "Takaia Tutavake"; the ceremony, which took place 16 May 2009, was not recognised by the government.
  38. ^ Her full regnal name is "Tapaeru Teariki Upokotini Marie", most commonly known as "Pa Marie".
  39. ^ There are three separate lineages eligible for the Puaikura Royalty, all of which descend from Tinomana Enuarurutini (ca. 1820–1854) the King of Puaikura and one of his three wives. They are (in order of seniority): Te Pori a Pa, Oakirangi, and Akaiti a Rua. The current Tinomana Ariki revert to the first and only married wive "Te Pori a Pa line".


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Further reading[edit]

  • Soszynski, Henry (1996–2010). "Genealogical Gleanings". University of Queensland. Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
  • Tick, Donald P. (2007–2010). "Royal Timor: Kings, Rajas and Dynasties of Timor". Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  • Van Klinken, Gerry (2007). "Return of the Sultans: The Communitarian Turn in Local Politics". The Revival of Tradition in Indonesian Politics: The Deployment of Adat from Colonialism to Indigenism. London: Routledge: 149–169. SSRN 1309406.