Seniority in the United States House of Representatives

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This is a complete list of current members of the United States House of Representatives based on seniority. For the most part, representatives are ranked by the beginning of their terms in office. Representatives whose terms begin the same day are ranked alphabetically by last name.[a]

How seniority is calculated[edit]

Members of the House are arranged by the number of terms they have served, before being arranged by the beginning date of their most recent continuous service. Where members have served the same number of terms and have the same date of service, they are arranged alphabetically by last name.[1]

Representatives who return to the House after having previously served in the House may be credited with service equal to one less than the number of terms they served. For example, Rep. Steve Chabot had previously served seven terms, from 1995 to 2009, when he was once again elected in 2010. Instead of holding seniority with others whose terms began January 3, 2011, he was credited with six terms, and holds seniority above all representatives whose terms began on or after January 3, 1999. When a representative has served a prior tenure of fewer than two terms (i.e., appointed to fill a vacancy, so their prior tenure length measured in terms, minus one, equals less than one), they are ranked above all others whose service begins on the same day.[citation needed]

Benefits of seniority[edit]

Committee leadership in the House is often associated with seniority, especially in the Democratic Caucus. The Republican leadership, in comparison with the Democratic Party, prioritizes voting records and campaign fundraising over seniority for committee leadership.[2] Party leadership in the House is not strictly associated with seniority.

Seniority also affects access to more desirable office space in the House Office Buildings.

The more senior a representative is, the more likely the representative is to receive desirable committee assignments or leadership posts such as the Democratic Steering and Policy Committee or Republican Policy Committee. Normally, the more senior a representative is in a committee, the more likely the representative will be chosen to be the committee chair (if a member of the majority party) or ranking member (if a member of the minority party). However, in some more powerful and exclusive committees like the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and House Committee on Appropriations, even the most senior member is not guaranteed to be selected as the chair.[citation needed]

Vacancies[edit]

Current seniority list[edit]

Rank Member Party District Seniority date Previous service [b]
Committee and leadership positions
1 Don Young R Alaska at-large March 6, 1973 Dean of the House
2 Hal Rogers R Kentucky 5 January 3, 1981
3 Chris Smith R New Jersey 4
4 Steny Hoyer D Maryland 5 May 19, 1981 Majority Leader
5 Marcy Kaptur D Ohio 9 January 3, 1983  
6 Peter DeFazio D Oregon 4 January 3, 1987 Chair: Transportation and Infrastructure
7 Fred Upton R Michigan 6  
8 Nancy Pelosi D California 12 June 2, 1987 Speaker of the House
9 Frank Pallone D New Jersey 6 November 8, 1988 Chair: Energy and Commerce
10 Richard Neal D Massachusetts 1 January 3, 1989 Chair: Ways and Means
11 David Price D North Carolina 4 January 3, 1997 1987–1995  
12 Rosa DeLauro D Connecticut 3 January 3, 1991 Chair: Appropriations
13 Maxine Waters D California 43 Chair: Financial Services
14 Jerry Nadler D New York 10 November 3, 1992 Chair: Judiciary
15 Jim Cooper D Tennessee 5 January 3, 2003 1983–1995  
16 Sanford Bishop D Georgia 2 January 3, 1993
17 Ken Calvert R California 42
18 Jim Clyburn D South Carolina 6 Majority Whip
19 Anna Eshoo D California 18  
20 Eddie Bernice Johnson D Texas 30 Chair: Science, Space and Technology
21 Carolyn Maloney D New York 12 Chair: Oversight and Government Reform
22 Lucille Roybal-Allard D California 40  
23 Bobby Rush D Illinois 1
24 Bobby Scott D Virginia 3 Chair: Education and Labor
25 Nydia Velázquez D New York 7 Chair: Small Business
26 Bennie Thompson D Mississippi 2 April 13, 1993 Chair: Homeland Security
27 Frank Lucas R Oklahoma 3 May 10, 1994 Ranking Member: Science, Space and Technology
28 Lloyd Doggett D Texas 35 January 3, 1995  
29 Mike Doyle D Pennsylvania 18
30 Sheila Jackson Lee D Texas 18
31 Zoe Lofgren D California 19 Chair: House Administration
32 Earl Blumenauer D Oregon 3 May 21, 1996  
33 Robert Aderholt R Alabama 4 January 3, 1997
34 Kevin Brady R Texas 8 Ranking Member: Ways and Means
35 Danny K. Davis D Illinois 7  
36 Diana DeGette D Colorado 1
37 Kay Granger R Texas 12 Ranking Member: Appropriations
38 Ron Kind D Wisconsin 3  
39 Jim McGovern D Massachusetts 2 Chair: Rules
40 Bill Pascrell D New Jersey 9  
41 Brad Sherman D California 30
42 Adam Smith D Washington 9 Chair: Armed Services
43 Gregory Meeks D New York 5 February 3, 1998 Chair: Foreign Affairs
44 Barbara Lee D California 13 April 7, 1998  
45 Steve Chabot R Ohio 1 January 3, 2011 1995–2009
46 John B. Larson D Connecticut 1 January 3, 1999
47 Grace Napolitano D California 32
48 Jan Schakowsky D Illinois 9
49 Mike Simpson R Idaho 2
50 Mike Thompson D California 5
51 Pete Sessions R Texas 17 January 3, 2021 1997–2019
52 Sam Graves R Missouri 6 January 3, 2001 Ranking Member: Transportation and Infrastructure
53 James Langevin D Rhode Island 2  
54 Rick Larsen D Washington 2
55 Betty McCollum D Minnesota 4
56 Adam Schiff D California 28 Chair: Intelligence
57 Stephen F. Lynch D Massachusetts 8 October 16, 2001  
58 Joe Wilson R South Carolina 2 December 18, 2001
59 Michael C. Burgess R Texas 26 January 3, 2003
60 John Carter R Texas 31
61 Tom Cole R Oklahoma 4 Ranking Member: Rules
62 Mario Díaz-Balart R Florida 25  
63 Raúl Grijalva D Arizona 3 Chair: Natural Resources
64 Devin Nunes R California 22 Ranking Member: Intelligence
65 Mike Rogers R Alabama 3 Ranking Member: Armed Services
66 Dutch Ruppersberger D Maryland 2  
67 Tim Ryan D Ohio 13
68 Linda Sánchez D California 38
69 David Scott D Georgia 13 Chair: Agriculture
70 Mike Turner R Ohio 10  
71 G. K. Butterfield D North Carolina 1 July 20, 2004
72 Darrell Issa R California 50 January 3, 2021 2001–2019
73 Emanuel Cleaver D Missouri 5 January 3, 2005
74 Jim Costa D California 16
75 Henry Cuellar D Texas 28
76 Jeff Fortenberry R Nebraska 1
77 Virginia Foxx R North Carolina 5 Ranking Member: Education and Labor
78 Louie Gohmert R Texas 1  
79 Al Green D Texas 9
80 Brian Higgins D New York 26
81 Michael McCaul R Texas 10 Ranking Member: Foreign Affairs
82 Patrick McHenry R North Carolina 10 Ranking Member: Financial Services
83 Cathy McMorris Rodgers R Washington 5 Ranking Member: Energy and Commerce
84 Gwen Moore D Wisconsin 4  
85 Debbie Wasserman Schultz D Florida 23
86 Doris Matsui D California 6 March 8, 2005
87 Albio Sires D New Jersey 8 November 7, 2006
88 Gus Bilirakis R Florida 12 January 3, 2007
89 Vern Buchanan R Florida 16
90 Kathy Castor D Florida 14
91 Yvette Clarke D New York 9
92 Steve Cohen D Tennessee 9
93 Joe Courtney D Connecticut 2
94 Hank Johnson D Georgia 4
95 Jim Jordan R Ohio 4 Ranking Member: Judiciary
96 Doug Lamborn R Colorado 5
97 Kevin McCarthy R California 23 Minority Leader
98 Jerry McNerney D California 9  
99 Ed Perlmutter D Colorado 7
100 John Sarbanes D Maryland 3
101 Adrian Smith R Nebraska 3
102 Peter Welch D Vermont at-large
103 John Yarmuth D Kentucky 3 Chair: Budget
104 Bob Latta R Ohio 5 December 11, 2007  
105 Rob Wittman R Virginia 1
106 André Carson D Indiana 7 March 11, 2008
107 Jackie Speier D California 14 April 8, 2008
108 Steve Scalise R Louisiana 1 May 3, 2008 Minority Whip
109 Gerry Connolly D Virginia 11 January 3, 2009  
110 Brett Guthrie R Kentucky 2
111 Jim Himes D Connecticut 4
112 Blaine Luetkemeyer R Missouri 3 Ranking Member: Small Business
113 Tom McClintock R California 4  
114 Chellie Pingree D Maine 1
115 Bill Posey R Florida 8
116 Kurt Schrader D Oregon 5
117 Glenn Thompson R Pennsylvania 15 Ranking Member: Agriculture
118 Paul Tonko D New York 20  
119 Mike Quigley D Illinois 5 April 7, 2009
120 Judy Chu D California 27 July 14, 2009
121 John Garamendi D California 3 November 3, 2009
122 Ted Deutch D Florida 22 April 13, 2010 Chair: Ethics
123 Tom Reed R New York 23 November 2, 2010  
124 Tim Walberg R Michigan 7 January 3, 2011 2007–2009
125 Bill Foster D Illinois 11 January 3, 2013 2008–2011
126 Kweisi Mfume D Maryland 7 April 28, 2020 1987–1996
127 Karen Bass D California 37 January 3, 2011
128 Mo Brooks R Alabama 5
129 Larry Bucshon R Indiana 8
130 David Cicilline D Rhode Island 1
131 Rick Crawford R Arkansas 1
132 Scott DesJarlais R Tennessee 4
133 Jeff Duncan R South Carolina 3
134 Chuck Fleischmann R Tennessee 3
135 Bob Gibbs R Ohio 7
136 Paul Gosar R Arizona 4
137 Morgan Griffith R Virginia 9
138 Andy Harris R Maryland 1
139 Vicky Hartzler R Missouri 4
140 Jaime Herrera Beutler R Washington 3
141 Bill Huizenga R Michigan 2
142 Bill Johnson R Ohio 6
143 Bill Keating D Massachusetts 9
144 Mike Kelly R Pennsylvania 16
145 Adam Kinzinger R Illinois 16
146 Billy Long R Missouri 7
147 David McKinley R West Virginia 1
148 Steven Palazzo R Mississippi 4
149 David Schweikert R Arizona 6
150 Austin Scott R Georgia 8
151 Terri Sewell D Alabama 7
152 Daniel Webster R Florida 11
153 Frederica Wilson D Florida 24
154 Steve Womack R Arkansas 3
155 Mark Amodei R Nevada 2 September 13, 2011
156 Suzanne Bonamici D Oregon 1 January 31, 2012
157 Suzan DelBene D Washington 1 November 6, 2012
158 Thomas Massie R Kentucky 4
159 Donald Payne Jr. D New Jersey 10
160 Dina Titus D Nevada 1 January 3, 2013 2009–2011
161 Andy Barr R Kentucky 6
162 Joyce Beatty D Ohio 3
163 Ami Bera D California 7
164 Julia Brownley D California 26
165 Cheri Bustos D Illinois 17
166 Tony Cárdenas D California 29
167 Matt Cartwright D Pennsylvania 8
168 Joaquin Castro D Texas 20
169 Rodney Davis R Illinois 13 Ranking Member: House Administration
170 Lois Frankel D Florida 21  
171 Richard Hudson R North Carolina 8
172 Jared Huffman D California 2
173 Hakeem Jeffries D New York 8 Democratic Caucus Chair
174 David Joyce R Ohio 14  
175 Dan Kildee D Michigan 5
176 Derek Kilmer D Washington 6
177 Ann McLane Kuster D New Hampshire 2
178 Doug LaMalfa R California 1
179 Alan Lowenthal D California 47
180 Sean Patrick Maloney D New York 18
181 Grace Meng D New York 6
182 Markwayne Mullin R Oklahoma 2
183 Scott Perry R Pennsylvania 10
184 Scott Peters D California 52
185 Mark Pocan D Wisconsin 2
186 Tom Rice R South Carolina 7
187 Raul Ruiz D California 36
188 Chris Stewart R Utah 2
189 Eric Swalwell D California 15
190 Mark Takano D California 41 Chair: Veterans' Affairs
191 Juan Vargas D California 51  
192 Marc Veasey D Texas 33
193 Filemon Vela Jr. D Texas 34
194 Ann Wagner R Missouri 2
195 Jackie Walorski R Indiana 2 Ranking Member: Ethics
196 Randy Weber R Texas 14  
197 Brad Wenstrup R Ohio 2
198 Roger Williams R Texas 25
199 Robin Kelly D Illinois 2 April 9, 2013
200 Jason Smith R Missouri 8 June 4, 2013 Ranking Member: Budget
201 Katherine Clark D Massachusetts 5 December 10, 2013 Assistant Speaker
202 Alma Adams D North Carolina 12 November 4, 2014  
203 Donald Norcross D New Jersey 1
204 Ann Kirkpatrick D Arizona 2 January 3, 2019 2009–2011, 2013–2017
205 Ed Case D Hawaii 1 2002–2007
206 Pete Aguilar D California 31 January 3, 2015
207 Rick W. Allen R Georgia 12
208 Brian Babin R Texas 36
209 Don Beyer D Virginia 8
210 Mike Bost R Illinois 12 Ranking Member: Veterans' Affairs
211 Brendan Boyle D Pennsylvania 2  
212 Ken Buck R Colorado 4
213 Buddy Carter R Georgia 1
214 Mark DeSaulnier D California 11
215 Debbie Dingell D Michigan 12
216 Tom Emmer R Minnesota 6
217 Ruben Gallego D Arizona 7
218 Garret Graves R Louisiana 6
219 Glenn Grothman R Wisconsin 6
220 Jody Hice R Georgia 10
221 French Hill R Arkansas 2
222 John Katko R New York 24 Ranking Member: Homeland Security
223 Brenda Lawrence D Michigan 14  
224 Ted Lieu D California 33
225 Barry Loudermilk R Georgia 11
226 John Moolenaar R Michigan 4
227 Alex Mooney R West Virginia 2
228 Seth Moulton D Massachusetts 6
229 Dan Newhouse R Washington 4
230 Gary Palmer R Alabama 6
231 Kathleen Rice D New York 4
232 David Rouzer R North Carolina 7
233 Elise Stefanik R New York 21
234 Norma Torres D California 35
235 Bonnie Watson Coleman D New Jersey 12
236 Bruce Westerman R Arkansas 4 Ranking Member: Natural Resources
237 Lee Zeldin R New York 1  
238 Trent Kelly R Mississippi 1 June 2, 2015
239 Darin LaHood R Illinois 18 September 10, 2015
240 Warren Davidson R Ohio 8 June 7, 2016
241 James Comer R Kentucky 1 November 8, 2016 Ranking Member: Oversight and Government Reform
242 Dwight Evans D Pennsylvania 3  
243 Brad Schneider D Illinois 10 January 3, 2017 2013–2015
244 David Valadao R California 21 January 3, 2021 2013–2019
245 Jodey Arrington R Texas 19 January 3, 2017
246 Don Bacon R Nebraska 2
247 Jim Banks R Indiana 3
248 Nanette Barragán D California 44
249 Jack Bergman R Michigan 1
250 Andy Biggs R Arizona 5
251 Lisa Blunt Rochester D Delaware at-large
252 Anthony G. Brown D Maryland 4
253 Ted Budd R North Carolina 13
254 Salud Carbajal D California 24
255 Liz Cheney R Wyoming at-large
256 Lou Correa D California 46
257 Charlie Crist D Florida 13
258 Val Demings D Florida 10
259 Neal Dunn R Florida 2
260 Adriano Espaillat D New York 13
261 Drew Ferguson R Georgia 3
262 Brian Fitzpatrick R Pennsylvania 1
263 Matt Gaetz R Florida 1
264 Mike Gallagher R Wisconsin 8
265 Vicente Gonzalez D Texas 15
266 Josh Gottheimer D New Jersey 5
267 Clay Higgins R Louisiana 3
268 Trey Hollingsworth R Indiana 9
269 Pramila Jayapal D Washington 7
270 Mike Johnson R Louisiana 4
271 Ro Khanna D California 17
272 Raja Krishnamoorthi D Illinois 8
273 David Kustoff R Tennessee 8
274 Al Lawson D Florida 5
275 Brian Mast R Florida 18
276 Donald McEachin D Virginia 4
277 Stephanie Murphy D Florida 7
278 Tom O'Halleran D Arizona 1
279 Jimmy Panetta D California 20
280 Jamie Raskin D Maryland 8
281 John Rutherford R Florida 4
282 Lloyd Smucker R Pennsylvania 11
283 Darren Soto D Florida 9
284 Thomas Suozzi D New York 3
285 Ron Estes R Kansas 4 April 11, 2017
286 Jimmy Gomez D California 34 June 6, 2017
287 Ralph Norman R South Carolina 5 June 20, 2017
288 John Curtis R Utah 3 November 7, 2017
289 Conor Lamb D Pennsylvania 17 March 13, 2018
290 Debbie Lesko R Arizona 8 April 24, 2018
291 Michael Cloud R Texas 27 June 30, 2018
292 Troy Balderson R Ohio 12 August 7, 2018
293 Kevin Hern R Oklahoma 1 November 6, 2018
294 Joseph Morelle D New York 25
295 Mary Gay Scanlon D Pennsylvania 5
296 Susan Wild D Pennsylvania 7
297 Steven Horsford D Nevada 4 January 3, 2019 2013–2015
298 Colin Allred D Texas 32
299 Kelly Armstrong R North Dakota at-large
300 Cindy Axne D Iowa 3
301 Jim Baird R Indiana 4
302 Tim Burchett R Tennessee 2
303 Sean Casten D Illinois 6
304 Ben Cline R Virginia 6
305 Angie Craig D Minnesota 2
306 Dan Crenshaw R Texas 2
307 Jason Crow D Colorado 6
308 Sharice Davids D Kansas 3
309 Madeleine Dean D Pennsylvania 4
310 Antonio Delgado D New York 19
311 Veronica Escobar D Texas 16
312 Russ Fulcher R Idaho 1
313 Chuy García D Illinois 4
314 Sylvia Garcia D Texas 29
315 Jared Golden D Maine 2
316 Anthony Gonzalez R Ohio 16
317 Lance Gooden R Texas 5
318 Mark E. Green R Tennessee 7
319 Michael Guest R Mississippi 3
320 Jim Hagedorn R Minnesota 1
321 Josh Harder D California 10
322 Jahana Hayes D Connecticut 5
323 Chrissy Houlahan D Pennsylvania 6
324 Dusty Johnson R South Dakota at-large
325 John Joyce R Pennsylvania 13
326 Andy Kim D New Jersey 3
327 Susie Lee D Nevada 3
328 Andy Levin D Michigan 9
329 Mike Levin D California 49
330 Elaine Luria D Virginia 2
331 Tom Malinowski D New Jersey 7
332 Lucy McBath D Georgia 6
333 Dan Meuser R Pennsylvania 9
334 Carol Miller R West Virginia 3
335 Joe Neguse D Colorado 2
336 Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez D New York 14
337 Ilhan Omar D Minnesota 5
338 Lizzie Pannill Fletcher D Texas 7
339 Chris Pappas D New Hampshire 1
340 Greg Pence R Indiana 6
341 Dean Phillips D Minnesota 3
342 Katie Porter D California 45
343 Ayanna Pressley D Massachusetts 7
344 Guy Reschenthaler R Pennsylvania 14
345 John Rose R Tennessee 6
346 Chip Roy R Texas 21
347 Kim Schrier D Washington 8
348 Mikie Sherrill D New Jersey 11
349 Elissa Slotkin D Michigan 8
350 Abigail Spanberger D Virginia 7
351 Greg Stanton D Arizona 9
352 Pete Stauber R Minnesota 8
353 Bryan Steil R Wisconsin 1
354 Greg Steube R Florida 17
355 Haley Stevens D Michigan 11
356 Van Taylor R Texas 3
357 William Timmons R South Carolina 4
358 Rashida Tlaib D Michigan 13
359 Lori Trahan D Massachusetts 3
360 David Trone D Maryland 6
361 Lauren Underwood D Illinois 14
362 Jeff Van Drew R[c] New Jersey 2
363 Michael Waltz R Florida 6
364 Jennifer Wexton D Virginia 10
365 Fred Keller R Pennsylvania 12 May 21, 2019
366 Dan Bishop R North Carolina 9 September 10, 2019
367 Greg Murphy R North Carolina 3
368 Mike Garcia R California 25 May 12, 2020
369 Tom Tiffany R Wisconsin 7
370 Chris Jacobs R New York 27 June 23, 2020
371 Claudia Tenney R New York 22 February 11, 2021 2017–2019
372 Jake Auchincloss D Massachusetts 4 January 3, 2021
373 Cliff Bentz R Oregon 2
374 Stephanie Bice R Oklahoma 5
375 Lauren Boebert R Colorado 3
376 Carolyn Bourdeaux D Georgia 7
377 Jamaal Bowman D New York 16
378 Cori Bush D Missouri 1
379 Kat Cammack R Florida 3
380 Jerry Carl R Alabama 1
381 Madison Cawthorn R North Carolina 11
382 Andrew Clyde R Georgia 9
383 Byron Donalds R Florida 19
384 Pat Fallon R Texas 4
385 Randy Feenstra R Iowa 4
386 Michelle Fischbach R Minnesota 7
387 Scott L. Fitzgerald R Wisconsin 5
388 Scott Franklin R Florida 15
389 Andrew Garbarino R New York 2
390 Carlos A. Giménez R Florida 26
391 Tony Gonzales R Texas 23
392 Bob Good R Virginia 5
393 Marjorie Taylor Greene R Georgia 14
394 Diana Harshbarger R Tennessee 1
395 Yvette Herrell R New Mexico 2
396 Ashley Hinson R Iowa 1
397 Ronny Jackson R Texas 13
398 Sara Jacobs D California 53
399 Mondaire Jones D New York 17
400 Kai Kahele D Hawaii 2
401 Young Kim R California 39
402 Jake LaTurner R Kansas 2
403 Teresa Leger Fernandez D New Mexico 3
404 Nancy Mace R South Carolina 1
405 Nicole Malliotakis R New York 11
406 Tracey Mann R Kansas 1
407 Kathy Manning D North Carolina 6
408 Lisa McClain R Michigan 10
409 Peter Meijer R Michigan 3
410 Mary Miller R Illinois 15
411 Mariannette Miller-Meeks R Iowa 2
412 Barry Moore R Alabama 2
413 Blake Moore R Utah 1
414 Frank J. Mrvan D Indiana 1
415 Troy Nehls R Texas 22
416 Marie Newman D Illinois 3
417 Jay Obernolte R California 8
418 Burgess Owens R Utah 4
419 August Pfluger R Texas 11
420 Matt Rosendale R Montana at-large
421 Deborah K. Ross D North Carolina 2
422 Maria Elvira Salazar R Florida 27
423 Victoria Spartz R Indiana 5
424 Michelle Steel R California 48
425 Marilyn Strickland D Washington 10
426 Ritchie Torres D New York 15
427 Beth Van Duyne R Texas 24
428 Nikema Williams D Georgia 5
429 Julia Letlow R Louisiana 5 March 20, 2021
430 Troy Carter D Louisiana 2 April 24, 2021
431 Melanie Stansbury D New Mexico 1 June 1, 2021
432 Jake Ellzey R Texas 6 July 27, 2021
433 Shontel Brown D Ohio 11 November 2, 2021
434 Mike Carey R Ohio 15
Rank Member Party District Seniority date Previous service [b]
Committee and leadership positions

Delegates[edit]

Rank Delegate Party District Seniority date
(Previous service, if any)
1 Eleanor Holmes Norton D District of Columbia at-large January 3, 1991
2 Gregorio Sablan I[d] Northern Mariana Islands at-large January 3, 2009
3 Stacey Plaskett D United States Virgin Islands at-large January 3, 2015
4 Amata Coleman Radewagen R American Samoa at-large
5 Jenniffer González Colón NPP/R Puerto Rico at-large January 3, 2017
6 Michael San Nicolas D Guam at-large January 3, 2019

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Delegates are non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives.
  2. ^ a b Members elected with substantial prior service receive credit for part of that service when calculating seniority.
  3. ^ A party change does not affect seniority.
  4. ^ Caucuses with the Democrats for the purpose of committee assignments.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Terms of Service for Members of the House of Representatives". Historian of the United States House of Representatives. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
  2. ^ "House Seniority and Committee Leadership". U.S. News & World Report. December 8, 2006.
  3. ^ Man, Anthony. "Congressman Alcee Hastings, after career of triumph, calamity and comeback, dies at 84". sun-sentinel.com.
  4. ^ "DeSantis schedules special election to replace Alcee Hastings for January". The Hill. 2021-05-04.

External links[edit]