List of current monarchies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  Commonwealth realms (parliamentary monarchies in personal union)

This is a list of current monarchies. As of 2022, there are 43 sovereign states in the world with a monarch as head of state. There are 13 in Asia, 12 in Europe, 9 in the Americas, 6 in Oceania, and 3 in Africa.[a]

Types of monarchy[edit]

These are the approximate categories which present monarchies fall into:[citation needed]

  • East and Southeast Asian constitutional monarchies. Bhutan, Cambodia, Japan, and Thailand have constitutional monarchies where the monarch has a limited or ceremonial role. Thailand changed from traditional absolute monarchy into a constitutional one in 1932, while Bhutan changed in 2008. Cambodia had its own monarchy after independence from the French Colonial Empire, which was deposed after the Khmer Rouge came into power. The monarchy was subsequently restored in the peace agreement of 1993.
  • Other sovereign monarchies. Five monarchies do not fit into one of the above groups by virtue of geography or class of monarchy: Tonga in Polynesia; Eswatini and Lesotho in Southern Africa; and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), and Vatican City in Europe. Of these, Lesotho and Tonga are constitutional monarchies, while Eswatini and Vatican City are absolute monarchies.
    • Eswatini is increasingly being considered a diarchy. The King, or Ngwenyama, rules alongside his mother, the Ndlovukati, as dual heads of state originally designed to be checks on political power. The Ngwenyama, however, is considered the administrative head of state, while the Ndlovukati is considered the spiritual and national head of state, a position which has become largely symbolic in recent years.
    • SMOM is governed by an elected Prince and Grand Master.
    • The Pope is the absolute monarch of Vatican City by virtue of his position as head of the Roman Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome; he is an elected rather than hereditary ruler. The Pope need not be a citizen of the territory prior to his election by the cardinals.
  • Non-sovereign monarchies. A non-sovereign monarchy or subnational monarchy is one in which the head of the monarchical polity (whether a geographic territory or an ethnic group), and the polity itself, are subject to a sovereign state. The non-sovereign monarchies of Malaysia, emirates of the United Arab Emirates and kingdoms of Uganda are examples of these.[2]

Lines of succession[edit]

Some of the extant sovereign monarchies have lines of succession that go back to the medieval period or antiquity:

Current monarchies[edit]

Monarchy Official local name(s) Title of Head of State Monarch Title of Head of Government Type of monarchy Succession Current constitution
 Andorra[4] In Catalan: Principat d'Andorra Co-Princes Joan-Enric Vives
Emmanuel Macron
Prime Minister Parliamentary Ex officio 1993
 Antigua and Barbuda[5] In English: Antigua and Barbuda King Charles III Hereditary 1981
 Australia[6] In English: Commonwealth of Australia King Charles III 1901
 The Bahamas[7] In English: Commonwealth of the Bahamas King Charles III 1973
 Bahrain[8] In Arabic: Mamlakat al- Baḥrayn King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Semi-constitutional 2002
 Belgium[9] In Dutch: Koninkrijk België
In French: Royaume de Belgique
In German: Königreich Belgien
King [b] Philippe Parliamentary Hereditary [b] 1831
 Belize[10] In English: Belize King Charles III Hereditary 1981
 Bhutan[11] In Dzongkha: Druk Gyal Khap King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck Semi-constitutional 2007
 Brunei[12] In Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Sultan Absolute 1959
 Cambodia In Khmer: Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa King Norodom Sihamoni Prime Minister Parliamentary Hereditary and elective 1993
 Canada[13] In English and French: Canada King Charles III Hereditary 1982
 Denmark[14] In Danish: Kongeriget Danmark
In Faroese: Kongsríki Danmark
In Greenlandic: Kunngeqarfik Danmarki
Queen Margrethe II 1849
 Eswatini[15] In Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini
In English: Kingdom of Eswatini
King Mswati III Absolute Hereditary and elective 1968
 Grenada[16] In English: Grenada King Charles III Parliamentary Hereditary 1974
 Jamaica[17] In English: Jamaica King Charles III 1962
 Japan[18] In Japanese: 日本国 (Nippon-koku/Nihon-koku) Emperor Naruhito 1947
 Jordan[19] In Arabic: al-Mamlakah al-Urdunīyah al-Hāshimīyah King Abdullah II Semi-constitutional Hereditary and elective 1952
 Kuwait[20] In Arabic: Dawlat al-Kuwait Emir Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah 1962
 Lesotho[21] In Sotho: Muso oa Lesotho
In English: Kingdom of Lesotho
King Letsie III Parliamentary 1993
 Liechtenstein[22] In German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein Sovereign Prince Hans-Adam II Semi-constitutional Hereditary 1862
 Luxembourg[23] In French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
In German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg
In Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg
Grand Duke Henri Parliamentary 1868
 Malaysia[24] In Malay: Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah Parliamentary & Federal Elective 1957
 Monaco[25] In French: Principauté de Monaco
In Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu
Sovereign Prince Albert II Minister of State Semi-constitutional Hereditary 1911
 Morocco[26] In Arabic: al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya
In Berber: Tageldit n Lmaɣrib
King Mohammed VI Prime Minister 1631
 Kingdom of the Netherlands[27] In Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
In West Frisian: Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen
King Willem-Alexander Parliamentary 1815
 New Zealand[28] In English: New Zealand
In Māori: Aotearoa
King Charles III 1907
 Norway[29] In Bokmål: Kongeriket Norge
In Nynorsk: Kongeriket Noreg
In Northern Sami: Norgga gonagasriika
King Harald V 1814
 Oman[30] In Arabic: Salṭanat ‘Umān Sultan Haitham bin Tarik Sultan Absolute 1996
 Papua New Guinea[31] In English: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
In Tok Pisin: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
In Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini
King Charles III Prime Minister Parliamentary 1975
 Qatar[32] In Arabic: Dawlat Qaṭar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Semi-constitutional 2004
 Saint Kitts and Nevis[33] In English: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis King Charles III Parliamentary 1983
 Saint Lucia[34] In English: Saint Lucia King Charles III 1979
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[35] In English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines King Charles III 1979
 Saudi Arabia[36] In Arabic: Al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyah as-Sa'ūdiyah King Salman Prime Minister Absolute Hereditary and elective 1992[c]
 Solomon Islands In English: Solomon Islands King Charles III Prime Minister Parliamentary Hereditary 1978
 Spain In Spanish: Reino de España King Felipe VI President of the Government 1978
 Sweden[40] In Swedish: Konungariket Sverige King Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister 1974
 Thailand[41] In Thai: Ratcha Anachak Thai King Rama X 2017
 Tonga[42] In Tonga: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga
In English: Kingdom of Tonga
King Tupou VI Semi-constitutional 1970
 Tuvalu[43] In English: Tuvalu King Charles III Parliamentary 1986
 United Arab Emirates[44] In Arabic: Dawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah President Mohamed bin Zayed Al Nahyan Semi-constitutional & Federal Hereditary and elective 1971
 United Kingdom[45] In English: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
In Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
In Scots Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn agus Èirinn a Tuath
King Charles III Parliamentary Hereditary No codified constitution
  Vatican City[46] In Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae
In Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano
Pope Francis President of the Pontifical Commission Absolute Elective 2001

In Wallis and Futuna, an overseas territory of France in the South Pacific, there are three kingdoms, Uvea, Alo and Sigave, whose monarchs are chosen by local noble families.[47]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In addition, Samoa is sometimes considered a de facto monarchy. The O le Ao o le Malo (head of state) of Samoa is similar to a constitutional monarch, but is now elected by the fono (legislature) for five years.[1] Until the death of Malietoa Tanumafili II in 2007, the office was held for life. All office holders have been chosen from the matai (chiefs).
  2. ^ a b Belgium is the only existing popular monarchy – a system in which the monarch's title is linked to the people rather than a state. The title of Belgian kings is not King of Belgium, but instead King of the Belgians. Another unique feature of the Belgian system is that the new monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath.
  3. ^ Basic Law of Saudi Arabia[37][38][39]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Samoa: Government at Commonwealth of Nations website. 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  2. ^ Robert Aldrich and Cindy McCreery. Crowns and Colonies: European Monarchies and Overseas Empires. Manchester University Press, 2016. p. 44. ISBN 9781526100894
  3. ^ "5 Things to know about Japan's emperor and imperial family". 8 August 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  4. ^ "Europe :: Andorra". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  5. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  6. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Australia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  7. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: The Bahamas". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  8. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Bahrain". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  9. ^ "Europe :: Belgium". CIA The World Factbook.
  10. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Belize". CIA The World Factbook.
  11. ^ "Asia ::Bhutan". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  12. ^ "Asia ::Brunei Darussalam". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  13. ^ Adam Dodek (2016). The Canadian Constitution. Dundurn - University of Ottawa Faculty of Law. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4597-3505-7.
  14. ^ "Europe::Denmark". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  15. ^ "Africa:: Eswatini". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  16. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Grenada". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  17. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Jamaica". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  18. ^ "Asia :: Japan". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  19. ^ "Asia :: Jordan". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  20. ^ "Asia :: Kuwait". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  21. ^ "Africa :: Lesotho". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  22. ^ "Europe:: Liechtenstein". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  23. ^ "Europe:: Luxembourg". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  24. ^ "Asia:: Malaysia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  25. ^ "Europe:: Monaco". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  26. ^ "Africa:: Morocco". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  27. ^ "Europe:: Netherlands". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  28. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: New Zealand". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  29. ^ "Europe :: Norway". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  30. ^ "Asia:: Oman". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  31. ^ "Asia :: Papua New Guinea". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  32. ^ "Asia:: Qatar". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  33. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Kitts and Nevis". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  34. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Lucia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  35. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  36. ^ "Asia :: Saudi Arabia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  37. ^ Saudi Arabia - ConstitutionArchived 2007-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "Empty Reforms: Saudi Arabia's New Basic Laws May 1992". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  39. ^ http://saudinf.com/main/c541.htm Archived 2000-10-04 at the Wayback Machine The Basic Law - Saudi Arabia Information
  40. ^ "Europe:: Sweden". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  41. ^ "Europe:: Thailand". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  42. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tonga". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  43. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tuvalu". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  44. ^ "Asia:: United Arab Emirates". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  45. ^ "Europe:: United Kingdom". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  46. ^ "Europe :: Holy See". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 2010-07-11. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  47. ^ "Wallis and Futuna: Royal dispute sees palace occupied in French territory". BBC News. 14 April 2016.