List of current monarchies

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  Semi-constitutional monarchy
  Commonwealth realms (constitutional monarchies in personal union)
  Subnational monarchies (traditional)
  Potential monarchies (Monarchism present among the people)

This is a list of current monarchies. As of 2019, there are some 45+ sovereign states in the world with a monarch as Head of state.

Types of monarchy[edit]

These are roughly the categories which modern monarchies fall into:

  • Other European constitutional monarchies.
  • European mixed monarchies. Liechtenstein and Monaco are constitutional monarchies in which the Prince retains many powers of an absolute monarch. For example, the 2003 Constitution referendum gives the Prince of Liechtenstein the power to veto any law that the Landtag (parliament) proposes and vice versa. The Prince can hire or dismiss any elective member or government employee from his or her post. However, unlike an absolute monarch, the people can call for a referendum to end the Prince's reign. The Prince of Monaco has simpler powers: he cannot hire or dismiss any elective member or government employee from his or her post, but he can select the minister of state, government council and judges.
  • Muslim monarchies. These Muslim monarchs of the Kingdom of Bahrain; the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace; the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan; the State of Kuwait; the Kingdom of Morocco; the Sultanate of Oman; the State of Qatar; the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; and the United Arab Emirates generally retain far more powers than their European or Commonwealth counterparts. The same goes for Malaysia, where Islam is the official religion.[1] Absolute monarchs remain in the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace; the Sultanate of Oman; the State of Qatar; and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, while the Kingdom of Bahrain, the State of Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates are classified as mixed, meaning there are representative bodies of some kind, but the monarch retains most of his powers. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Malaysia, and the Kingdom of Morocco are constitutional monarchies, but their monarchs still retain more substantial powers than in European equivalents.
  • East and Southeast Asian constitutional monarchies. The Kingdom of Bhutan; the Kingdom of Cambodia; Empire of Japan; and the Kingdom of Thailand have constitutional monarchies where the monarch has a limited or ceremonial role. Japan and Thailand changed from traditional absolute monarchies into constitutional ones during the twentieth century, while the Kingdom of Bhutan changed in 2008. The Kingdom of Cambodia had its own monarchy after independence from the French Colonial Empire, which was deposed after the Khmer Rouge came into power. The monarchy was subsequently restored in the peace agreement of 1993.
  • Other monarchies. Five monarchies do not fit into one of the above groups by virtue of geography or class of monarchy: the Kingdom of Tonga in Polynesia; Kingdom of Eswatini (Swaziland) and the Kingdom of Lesotho in Africa; and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Vatican City State in Europe. Of these, the Kingdom of Lesotho and the Kingdom of Tonga are constitutional monarchies, while the Kingdom of Eswatini and the Vatican City State are absolute monarchies. The Kingdom of Eswatini is increasingly being considered a diarchy. The King, or Ngwenyama, rules alongside his mother, the Ndlovukati, as dual heads of state originally designed to be checks on political power. The Ngwenyama, however, is considered the administrative head of state, while the Ndlovukati is considered the spiritual and national head of state, a position which has become largely symbolic in recent years. The Pope is the absolute monarch of the Vatican by virtue of his position as head of the Roman Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome; he is an elected rather than hereditary ruler. The Pope need not be a citizen of the territory prior to his election by the cardinals. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is not officially a monarchy, but as of 2013 its constitution requires a member of the Kim family to rule the country, and so some consider it to be a de facto absolute monarchy.

Lines of succession[edit]

Some of the extant sovereign monarchies have lines of succession that go back to the medieval period or antiquity:

Current monarchies[edit]

Monarchy Official local name Title of Head of State Title of Head of Government Type of Monarchy Succession
 Principality of Andorra [3] In Catalan; Principat d'Andorra Co-Princes Prime Minister Constitutional Ex officio 1993
 Antigua and Barbuda[4] In English; Antigua and Barbuda Queen Hereditary 1981
 Commonwealth of Australia[5] In English; Commonwealth of Australia Queen Hereditary 1901
 Commonwealth of the Bahamas[6] In English; Commonwealth of the Bahamas Queen Hereditary 1973
 Barbados[7] In English; Barbados Queen Hereditary 1966
 Kingdom of Bahrain[8] In Arabic; Mamlakat al- Baḥrayn King Mixed Hereditary 2002
 Kingdom of Belgium[9] In Dutch; Koninkrijk België

In French; Royaume de Belgique In German; Königreich Belgien

King Constitutional Hereditary 1 1831
 Belize[10] In English; Belize Queen 1981
 Kingdom of Bhutan[11] In Dzongkha; Druk Gyal Khap King 2007
 Kingdom of Cambodia In Khmer; Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa King Hereditary and elective 1993
 Brunei Darussalam[12] In Malay; Negara Brunei Darussalam Absolute Hereditary 1959
 Canada In English and French; Canada Queen Prime Minister Constitutional 1867
Denmark Kingdom of Denmark[13] In Danish; Kongeriget Danmark 1849
 Kingdom of Eswatini[14] In Swazi; Umbuso weSwatini
In English; Kingdom of Eswatini
King Absolute Hereditary and elective 1968
 Grenada[15] In English; Grenada Queen Constitutional Hereditary 1974
 Jamaica[16] In English; Jamaica 1962
 Japan[17] In Japanese; 日本国 (Nippon-koku/Nihon-koku) Emperor 1947
 State of Kuwait[18] In Arabic; Dawlat al-Kuwait Emir Hereditary and elective 1962
 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan[19] In Arabic; al-Mamlakah al-Urdunīyah al-Hāshimīyah King 1952
 Kingdom of Lesotho[20] In Sotho; Muso oa Lesotho

In English; Kingdom of Lesotho

 Principality of Liechtenstein[21] In German; Fürstentum Liechtenstein Sovereign Prince Hereditary 1862
 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[22] In French; Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

In German; Großherzogtum Luxemburg

In Luxembourgish; Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg

Grand Duke 1868
 Malaysia[23] In Malay; Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Elective 1957
 Principality of Monaco[24] In French; Principauté de Monaco

In Monégasque; Principatu de Múnegu

Sovereign Prince Minister of State Hereditary 1911
 Kingdom of Morocco[25] In Arabic; al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya

In Berber; Tageldit n Lmaɣrib

King Prime Minister Constitutional 1631
 Kingdom of the Netherlands[26] In Dutch; Koninkrijk der Nederlanden 1815
 New Zealand [27] In English; New Zealand

In Maori; Aotearoa

Queen 1907
 Kingdom of Norway[28] In Bokmål; Kongeriket Norge

In Nynorsk; Kongeriket Noreg

King 1814
 Sultanate of Oman[29] In Arabic; Salṭanat ‘Umān Absolute 1996
 Independent State of Papua New Guinea[30] In English; Independent State of Papua New Guinea

In Tok Pisin; Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini

In Hiri Motu Papua Niu Gini

Queen Prime Minister Constitutional 1975
 Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis[31] In English; Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis 1983
 Saint Lucia[32] In English; Saint Lucia 1979
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[33] In English; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979
 Solomon Islands In English; Solomon Islands 1978
 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[34] In Arabic; Al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyah as-Sa'ūdiyah Absolute Hereditary and elective 19922
 Kingdom of Spain In Spanish; Reino de España King Prime Minister Constitutional Hereditary 1978
 Kingdom of Sweden[35] In Swedish; Konungariket Sverige 1974
 State of Qatar[36] In Arabic; Dawlat Qaṭar Emir Mixed 2004
 Kingdom of Thailand[37] In Thai; Ratcha Anachak Thai King Constitutional 2017
 Kingdom of Tonga[38] In Tonga; Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga
In English; Kingdom of Tonga
 Tuvalu[39] In English; Tuvalu Queen 1978
 United Arab Emirates[40] In Arabic; Dawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah President Absolute Hereditary and elective 1971
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[41] In English: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
In Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
In Scots Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn agus Èirinn a Tuath
Queen Constitutional Hereditary 1701
  Vatican City State[42] In Latin; Status Civitatis Vaticanae
In Italian; Stato della Città del Vaticano
Pope President of the Pontifical Commission Absolute Elective 1920

See also[edit]


^1 Belgium is the only existing popular monarchy – a system in which the monarch's title is linked to the people rather than a state. The title of Belgian kings is not King of Belgium, but instead King of the Belgians. Another unique feature of the Belgian system is that the new monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath.

^2 Basic Law of Saudi Arabia[43][44][45]


  1. ^
  2. ^ D.M. (2 June 2017). "Why is the Japanese monarchy under threat?". The Economist. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
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  6. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: The Bahamas". CIA The World Factbook.
  7. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Barbados". CIA The World Factbook.
  8. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Bahrain". CIA The World Factbook.
  9. ^ "Europe :: Belgium". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 2016-07-10.
  10. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Belize". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 2013-05-13.
  11. ^ "Asia ::Bhutan". CIA The World Factbook.
  12. ^ "Asia ::Brunei Darussalam". CIA The World Factbook.
  13. ^ "Europe::Denmark". CIA The World Factbook.
  14. ^ "Africa:: Eswatini". CIA The World Factbook.
  15. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Grenada". CIA The World Factbook.
  16. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Jamaica". CIA The World Factbook.
  17. ^ "Asia :: Japan". CIA The World Factbook.
  18. ^ "Asia :: Kuwait". CIA The World Factbook.
  19. ^ "Asia :: Jordan". CIA The World Factbook.
  20. ^ "Africa :: Lesotho". CIA The World Factbook.
  21. ^ "Europe:: Liechtenstein". CIA The World Factbook.
  22. ^ "Europe:: Luxembourg". CIA The World Factbook.
  23. ^ "Asia:: Malaysia". CIA The World Factbook.
  24. ^ "Europe:: Monaco". CIA The World Factbook.
  25. ^ "Africa:: Morocco". CIA The World Factbook.
  26. ^ "Europe:: Netherlands". CIA The World Factbook.
  27. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: New Zealand". CIA The World Factbook.
  28. ^ "Europe :: Norway". CIA The World Factbook.
  29. ^ "Asia:: Oman". CIA The World Factbook.
  30. ^ "Asia :: Papua New Guinea". CIA The World Factbook.
  31. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Kitts and Nevis". CIA The World Factbook.
  32. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Lucia". CIA The World Factbook.
  33. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". CIA The World Factbook.
  34. ^ "Asia :: Saudi Arabia". CIA The World Factbook.
  35. ^ "Europe:: Sweden". CIA The World Factbook.
  36. ^ "Asia:: Qatar". CIA The World Factbook.
  37. ^ "Europe:: Thailand". CIA The World Factbook.
  38. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tonga". CIA The World Factbook.
  39. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tuvalu". CIA The World Factbook.
  40. ^ "Asia:: United Arab Emirates". CIA The World Factbook.
  41. ^ "Europe:: United Kingdom". CIA The World Factbook.
  42. ^ "Europe :: Holy See". CIA The World Factbook.
  43. ^ Saudi Arabia - ConstitutionArchived 2007-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  44. ^ Empty Reforms: Saudi Arabia's New Basic Laws May 1992
  45. ^ The Basic Law - Saudi Arabia Information