List of current monarchies

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  Semi-constitutional monarchy
  Commonwealth realms (constitutional monarchies in personal union)
  Subnational monarchies (traditional)

This is a list of current monarchies. As of 2021, there are 44 sovereign states in the world with a monarch as Head of state. There are 13 in Asia, 12 in Europe, 10 in North America, 6 in Oceania and 3 in Africa.

Types of monarchy[edit]

These are the approximate categories which present monarchies fall into:

Absolute monarchs remain in the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace; the Sultanate of Oman; the State of Qatar; and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom of Bahrain, and the State of Kuwait are classified as mixed, meaning there are representative bodies of some kind, but the monarch retains most of his powers. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Malaysia, the Kingdom of Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates are constitutional monarchies, but their monarchs still retain more substantial powers than in European equivalents.

  • East and Southeast Asian constitutional monarchies. The Kingdom of Bhutan; the Kingdom of Cambodia; Japan; and the Kingdom of Thailand have constitutional monarchies where the monarch has a limited or ceremonial role. Thailand changed from traditional absolute monarchy into a constitutional one in 1932, while the Kingdom of Bhutan changed in 2008. The Kingdom of Cambodia had its own monarchy after independence from the French Colonial Empire, which was deposed after the Khmer Rouge came into power. The monarchy was subsequently restored in the peace agreement of 1993.
  • Other monarchies. Five monarchies do not fit into one of the above groups by virtue of geography or class of monarchy: the Kingdom of Tonga in Polynesia; the Kingdom of Eswatini and the Kingdom of Lesotho in Southern Africa; and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (S.M.O.M.), and the Vatican City State in Europe. Of these, the Kingdom of Lesotho and the Kingdom of Tonga are constitutional monarchies, while the Kingdom of Eswatini and the Vatican City State are absolute monarchies. The Kingdom of Eswatini is increasingly being considered a diarchy. The King, or Ngwenyama, rules alongside his mother, the Ndlovukati, as dual heads of state originally designed to be checks on political power. The Ngwenyama, however, is considered the administrative head of state, while the Ndlovukati is considered the spiritual and national head of state, a position which has become largely symbolic in recent years. S.M.O.M. is governed by an elected Prince and Grand Master. The Pope is the absolute monarch of the Vatican by virtue of his position as head of the Roman Catholic Church and Bishop of Rome; he is an elected rather than hereditary ruler. The Pope need not be a citizen of the territory prior to his election by the cardinals.

Lines of succession[edit]

Some of the extant sovereign monarchies have lines of succession that go back to the medieval period or antiquity:

Current monarchies[edit]

Monarchy Official local name(s) Title of Head of State Monarch Title of Head of Government Type of monarchy Succession
Current
constitution
 Principality of Andorra[1] In Catalan: Principat d'Andorra Co-Princes Prime Minister Constitutional Ex officio 1993
 Antigua and Barbuda[2] In English: Antigua and Barbuda Queen Elizabeth II Hereditary 1981
 Commonwealth of Australia[3] In English: Commonwealth of Australia Queen Elizabeth II 1901
 Commonwealth of the Bahamas[4] In English: Commonwealth of the Bahamas Queen Elizabeth II 1973
 Kingdom of Bahrain[5] In Arabic: Mamlakat al- Baḥrayn King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa Mixed 2002
 Barbados[6][7] In English: Barbados Queen Elizabeth II Constitutional 1966
 Kingdom of Belgium[8] In Dutch: Koninkrijk België
In French: Royaume de Belgique
In German: Königreich Belgien
King 1 Philippe Hereditary 1 1831
 Belize[9] In English: Belize Queen Elizabeth II Hereditary 1981
 Kingdom of Bhutan[10] In Dzongkha: Druk Gyal Khap King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck 2007
 Brunei Darussalam[11] In Malay: Negara Brunei Darussalam Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Sultan Absolute 1959
 Kingdom of Cambodia In Khmer: Preăh Réachéanachâk Kâmpŭchéa King Norodom Sihamoni Prime Minister Constitutional Hereditary and elective 1993
 Canada In English and French: Canada Queen Elizabeth II Hereditary 1867
Denmark Kingdom of Denmark[12] In Danish: Kongeriget Danmark
In Faroese: Kongsríki Danmark
In Greenlandic: Kunngeqarfik Danmarki
Queen Margrethe II 1953
 Kingdom of Eswatini[13] In Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini
In English: Kingdom of Eswatini
King Mswati III Absolute Hereditary and elective 1968
 Grenada[14] In English: Grenada Queen Elizabeth II Constitutional Hereditary 1974
 Jamaica[15] In English: Jamaica Queen Elizabeth II 1962
 Japan[16] In Japanese: 日本国 (Nippon-koku/Nihon-koku) Emperor Naruhito 1947
 State of Kuwait[17] In Arabic: Dawlat al-Kuwait Emir Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah Mixed Hereditary and elective 1962
 Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan[18] In Arabic: al-Mamlakah al-Urdunīyah al-Hāshimīyah King Abdullah II 1952
 Kingdom of Lesotho[19] In Sotho: Muso oa Lesotho
In English: Kingdom of Lesotho
King Letsie III Constitutional 1993
 Principality of Liechtenstein[20] In German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein Sovereign Prince Hans-Adam II Mixed Hereditary 1862
 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg[21] In French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
In German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg
In Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg
Grand Duke Henri Constitutional 1868
 Malaysia[22] In Malay: Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong Abdullah Constitutional & Federal Elective 1957
 Principality of Monaco[23] In French: Principauté de Monaco
In Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu
Sovereign Prince Albert II Minister of State Mixed Hereditary 1911
 Kingdom of Morocco[24] In Arabic: al-Mamlaka al-Maghribiyya
In Berber: Tageldit n Lmaɣrib
King Mohammed VI Prime Minister 1631
 Kingdom of the Netherlands[25] In Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
In West Frisian: Keninkryk fan de Nederlannen
King Willem-Alexander Constitutional 1815
 New Zealand[26] In English: New Zealand
In Māori: Aotearoa
Queen Elizabeth II 1907
 Kingdom of Norway[27] In Bokmål: Kongeriket Norge
In Nynorsk: Kongeriket Noreg
King Harald V 1814
 Sultanate of Oman[28] In Arabic: Salṭanat ‘Umān Sultan Haitham bin Tarik Sultan Absolute 1996
 Independent State of Papua New Guinea[29] In English: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
In Tok Pisin: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
In Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini
Queen Elizabeth II Prime Minister Constitutional 1975
 State of Qatar[30] In Arabic: Dawlat Qaṭar Emir Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani Absolute 2004
 Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis[31] In English: Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis Queen Elizabeth II Constitutional 1983
 Saint Lucia[32] In English: Saint Lucia Queen Elizabeth II 1979
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[33] In English: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Queen Elizabeth II 1979
 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia[34] In Arabic: Al-Mamlakah al-Arabiyah as-Sa'ūdiyah King Salman Prime Minister Absolute Hereditary and elective 19922
 Solomon Islands In English: Solomon Islands Queen Elizabeth II Prime Minister Constitutional Hereditary 1978
 Kingdom of Spain In Spanish: Reino de España King Felipe VI President of the Government 1978
 Kingdom of Sweden[35] In Swedish: Konungariket Sverige King Carl XVI Gustaf Prime Minister 1974
 Kingdom of Thailand[36] In Thai: Ratcha Anachak Thai King Rama X 2017
 Kingdom of Tonga[37] In Tonga: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga
In English: Kingdom of Tonga
King Tupou VI 1970
 Tuvalu[38] In English: Tuvalu Queen Elizabeth II 1986
 United Arab Emirates[39] In Arabic: Dawlat al-ʾImārāt al-ʿArabiyyah al-Muttaḥidah President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Federal Hereditary and elective 1971
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland[40] In English: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
In Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
In Irish: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Thuaisceart Éireann
In Scots Gaelic: Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn agus Èirinn a Tuath
Queen Elizabeth II Constitutional Hereditary No codified constitution
  Vatican City State[41] In Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanae
In Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano
Pope Pope Francis President of the Pontifical Commission Absolute Elective 2001

In Wallis and Futuna, an overseas territory of France in the South Pacific, there are three kingdoms, Uvea, Alo and Sigave, whose monarchs are chosen by local noble families.[42]

In September 28, 2021, Afghanistan revived the 1963 monarchical constitution on "temporary" basis.[43]

Footnote[edit]

^1 Belgium is the only existing popular monarchy – a system in which the monarch's title is linked to the people rather than a state. The title of Belgian kings is not King of Belgium, but instead King of the Belgians. Another unique feature of the Belgian system is that the new monarch does not automatically assume the throne at the death or abdication of his predecessor; he only becomes monarch upon taking a constitutional oath.

^2 Basic Law of Saudi Arabia[44][45][46]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Europe :: Andorra". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  2. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Antigua and Barbuda". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  3. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Australia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  4. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: The Bahamas". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  5. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Bahrain". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  6. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Barbados". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  7. ^ "Barbados to become a parliamentary republic by November 30". Loop News Barbados. 27 July 2021. Retrieved 30 July 2021. [...] we will make amendments to facilitate that transition to a new president to be sworn in on that day - November 30, 2021.
  8. ^ "Europe :: Belgium". CIA The World Factbook.
  9. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Belize". CIA The World Factbook.
  10. ^ "Asia ::Bhutan". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  11. ^ "Asia ::Brunei Darussalam". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  12. ^ "Europe::Denmark". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  13. ^ "Africa:: Eswatini". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  14. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Grenada". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  15. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Jamaica". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  16. ^ "Asia :: Japan". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  17. ^ "Asia :: Kuwait". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  18. ^ "Asia :: Jordan". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  19. ^ "Africa :: Lesotho". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  20. ^ "Europe:: Liechtenstein". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  21. ^ "Europe:: Luxembourg". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  22. ^ "Asia:: Malaysia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  23. ^ "Europe:: Monaco". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  24. ^ "Africa:: Morocco". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  25. ^ "Europe:: Netherlands". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  26. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: New Zealand". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  27. ^ "Europe :: Norway". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  28. ^ "Asia:: Oman". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  29. ^ "Asia :: Papua New Guinea". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  30. ^ "Asia:: Qatar". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  31. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Kitts and Nevis". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  32. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Lucia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  33. ^ "Central America and Caribbean :: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  34. ^ "Asia :: Saudi Arabia". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  35. ^ "Europe:: Sweden". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  36. ^ "Europe:: Thailand". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  37. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tonga". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  38. ^ "Australia-Oceania :: Tuvalu". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  39. ^ "Asia:: United Arab Emirates". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  40. ^ "Europe:: United Kingdom". CIA The World Factbook. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  41. ^ "Europe :: Holy See". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 2010-07-11. Retrieved 2016-07-11.
  42. ^ "Wallis and Futuna: Royal dispute sees palace occupied in French territory". BBC News. 14 April 2016.
  43. ^ Taliban to ‘temporarily’ adopt 1964 monarchy constitution. Retrieved 2021-09-29.
  44. ^ Saudi Arabia - ConstitutionArchived 2007-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ "Empty Reforms: Saudi Arabia's New Basic Laws May 1992". Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
  46. ^ http://saudinf.com/main/c541.htm Archived 2000-10-04 at the Wayback Machine The Basic Law - Saudi Arabia Information