List of railway electrification systems

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This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Tram electrification systems are listed here.

Key to the tables below[edit]

  • Volts: voltage or volt
  • Current:
  • Conductors:
    • overhead line or
    • conductor rail, usually a third rail to one side of the running rails. Conductor rail can be:
      • top contact: oldest, least safe, most affected by ice, snow, rain and leaves. Protection boards are being installed on most top contact systems, which increases safety and reduces these affections.
      • side contact: newer, safer, less affected by ice, snow, rain and leaves
      • bottom contact: newest, safest, least affected by ice, snow, rain and leaves

Systems using standard voltages[edit]

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163[1] and IEC 60850.[2]

Overhead systems[edit]

600 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few modern ones as well. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification.
 Germany Trossingen Trossingen Railway
 Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro Line M1
 Japan Chōshi, Chiba Chōshi Electric Railway
Kyoto, Kyoto Eizan Electric Railway
Kanagawa Enoshima Electric Railway
Matsuyama, Ehime Iyotetsu Takahama Line
Shizuoka, Shizuoka Shizuoka Railway
 Romania Sibiu county Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway Part of the former Sibiu tram line
 Spain Madrid Madrid Metro lines 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9. In process to be converted to 1500 V
 United Kingdom Crich, England National Tramway Museum
 United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Green and Mattapan Lines, the at-grade section of Blue Line northeast of Airport station
Cleveland RTA Rapid Transit Red line heavy rail

750 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is used for most modern tram and light rail systems. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification
 Austria Upper Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl Also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Rhine / Lake Constance Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn Construction railway for the regulation works of the river Rhine near its outfall into Lake Constance, now preserved. The river forms the border between Austria and Switzerland, and the railway operated in both countries.
 Germany Karlsruhe to Bad Herrenalb with a branch to Ittersbach Albtalbahn Railway of the Upper Rhine
 Italy Genoa Genoa Metro
 Japan Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Enshū Railway
Hakone, Kanagawa Hakone Tozan Railway Line Between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Ehime Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line
Yokkaichi, Mie Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line
Mie Sangi Railway Hokusei Line
 Mexico Mexico City STC Line A
 Netherlands The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities Randstadrail
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
 Philippines Metro Manila Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) Between Baclaran and Roosevelt
Manila MRT Line 3 (Manila Metro Rail Transit System) Between North Avenue and Taft Avenue
 Switzerland Canton of Aargau Menziken–Aarau–Schöftland railway line
 Republic of China (Taiwan) New Taipei New Taipei Metro: all Light Rail lines
 Turkey Adana Adana Metro
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Line M1

1200 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba Originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
 Germany Lusatia 900 mm (2 ft 11+716 in) gauge mining railways in the lignite district
 Spain Barcelona, Catalonia Barcelona Metro Uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
PalmaSóller, Majorca Sóller Railway [3]
 Switzerland Canton of Bern / canton of Solothurn Aare Seeland mobil (ASm) [4][5]
Dietikon, canton of ZürichWohlen, canton of Aargau Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
ZürichEsslingen, canton of Zürich Forchbahn Forchbahn proper only; Forchbahn trains access their Zürich terminus via the Zürich tram network, which is electrified at 600 V DC. The rolling stock is equipped to run off both voltages.
Frauenfeld, canton of ThurgauWil, canton of St. Gallen Frauenfeld-Wil-Bahn
MeiringenInnertkirchen, canton of Bern Meiringen–Innertkirchen Bahn
ZürichUetliberg, canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[6]
 United States Los AngelesInland Empire, California Pacific Electric Upland–San Bernardino 600 V in city limits

1500 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro Lines A, C, D, E and H
Tren de la Costa Suburban line
 Australia Melbourne Melbourne Suburban Railways
Sydney Sydney Trains
Sydney Metro Except Western Sydney Airport line, which will use 25 kV 50 Hz AC[7]
 Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 4 and 5
 Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Line 3 Gorna Banya – Hadzhi Dimitar
 Canada Montreal Réseau express métropolitain Incl. Deux-Montagnes line that was built by CNoR in 1918 as 2400 V DC, converted to 3000 V DC in the 1980s, converted to 25 kV 60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM, being converted to light-metro standard and 1500 V DC
Ottawa O-Train Confederation Line only; the Trillium Line is diesel LRT.
 China Beijing Beijing Subway Lines 6, 14 and 16
Changchun Changchun Rail Transit Lines 1 and 2
Changsha Changsha Metro
Changzhou Changzhou Metro
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Except lines 17, 18 and 19
Chongqing Chongqing Rail Transit Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and Loop Line
Dalian Dalian Metro
Dongguan Dongguan Rail Transit
Fushun Fushun Electric Railway
Fuzhou Fuzhou Metro
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro Except Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21, but overhead wires installed in depots.
Guiyang Guiyang Metro
Hangzhou Hangzhou Metro
Harbin Harbin Metro
Hefei Hefei Metro
Hohhot Hohhot Metro
Jinan Jinan Metro
Lanzhou Lanzhou Metro
Nanchang Nanchang Metro
Nanjing Nanjing Metro
Nanning Nanning Metro
Ningbo Ningbo Rail Transit Line 4 uses third rail for returning current
Shanghai Shanghai Metro Except Lines 16 and 17, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 16.
Shenyang Shenyang Metro
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Except Lines 3 and 6, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 6.
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang Metro
Suzhou Suzhou Metro
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 5, 6 and 9 only
Ürümqi Ürümqi Metro
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Line 6 only
Xi’an Xi'an Metro
Xiamen Xiamen Metro
Xuzhou Xuzhou Metro
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou Metro
 Colombia Medellín Medellín Metro Lines A and B
 Czech Republic TáborBechyně Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Tábor – Bechyně line only (24 km, built in 1903)
 Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Metro
 Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 1[8][9]
 France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (TGV) and in the north (see below)
 Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Except East Rail line and Tuen Ma line which use 25 kV 50 Hz AC (see below) and the light rail which uses 750 V DC
 Hungary Budapest Budapest Cog-wheel Railway Converted from 550 V DC (city trams nominal voltage at that time) during the 1973 reconstruction.
 Indonesia Jakarta KRL Jabodetabek

Jakarta MRT

Yogyakarta-Solo KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta–Solo
 Ireland Dublin Dublin Area Rapid Transit
 Italy Rome Rome Metro Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
 Japan Japan Railways (JR) lines Most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
Most private railway lines See Railway electrification in Japan for more details including excpetions
Most subway lines
 South Korea Seoul National Capital Area Seoul Subway Except Korail Subway Line (except Line 3)
(see below)
Busan Busan Subway
Daegu Daegu Subway
Daejeon Daejeon Subway
Gwangju Gwangju Subway
Incheon Incheon Subway Line 1
 Mexico Mexico City STC Line 12
Monterrey Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metrorrey
 Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen – Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and freight line Betuweroute (see below); The existing 1500V DC lines will be converted to 3kV DC.
 New Zealand Wellington Wellington suburban Except Wairarapa Line beyond Upper Hutt. Since 2011, the nominal voltage was 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock. Since May 2016 the operating voltage was increased to 1700 V DC following the full introduction of the Matangi EMUs.
 Philippines Metro Manila Manila MRT Makati Intra-city Subway (Line 5) and Metro Manila Subway (Line 9) only. Line 7 uses 750 V DC third rail.
Metro Manila
Manila LRT Line 2 only. Line 1 uses 750 V DC.
Metro Manila
Central Luzon
Philippine National Railways North–South Commuter Railway
 Portugal Lisbon, Oeiras and Cascais Linha de Cascais To be converted to 25kV AC.[10]
 Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
 Slovakia Tatra Mountains in the area of Poprad Tatra Electric Railway
 Spain Catalonia Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Madrid ADIF Only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Mallorca Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca
North coast (Asturias-Leon-Cantabria-Basque Country) FEVE
Basque Country Euskotren Trena
Valencian Community Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana
 Sweden Stockholm Roslagsbanan
 Switzerland AigleLeysin, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Leysin (AL)
Aigle, VaudChampéry, canton of Valais Chemin de fer Aigle–Ollon–Monthey–Champéry (AOMC)
AigleLes Diablerets, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Sépey–Diablerets (ASD)
InterlakenLauterbrunnen / Grindelwald, canton of Bern Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB)
Canton of Jura Chemins de fer du Jura (CJ) Metre gauge lines only
LausanneBercher, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Lausanne–Échallens–Bercher (LEB)
NyonLa Cure, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) Converted in the 1980s from 2200 V DC
Vitznau / GoldauRigi Rigi Bahnen (VRB/ARB)
WilderswilSchynige Platte, canton of Bern Schynige Platte Bahn (SPB)
LiestalWaldenburg, canton of Basel-Country Waldenburgerbahn (WB)
LauterbrunnenGrindelwald, canton of Bern Wengernalpbahn (WAB)
 Turkey Bursa Bursaray
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Except lines M1, M2 and M6
 United Kingdom Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside Tyne & Wear Metro Light rail
 United States Chicago Metra Electric District
Maryland Purple Line Light rail under construction
Northern Indiana & Chicago South Shore Line
Seattle Central Link Light rail

3 kV DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Note
 Belgium Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south (see below).
 Brazil Rio de Janeiro SuperVia Trens Urbanos
 Brazil São Paulo Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos
 Chile Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado
 Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín – Praha – Ostrava route). The system change stations are Kadaň-Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice. The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz (see below).
The 3 kV system is to be phased out in favour of 25 kV AC.[11]
 Estonia Tallinn Elron Commuter rail only
 Georgia Georgian Railways In fact 3,300 V
 Italy Rete Ferroviaria Italiana 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (see below)
 North Korea Korean State Railway National standard
 Latvia Latvian Railways Commuter rail only, to be converted to 25 kV AC, in order to connecting to Russia, Belarus and Lithuania
 Morocco ONCF National standard
 Netherlands ProRail Planned
 Poland Polish State Railways National standard. Broad-gauge lines will use 25 kV AC[12]
Warsaw and suburbs Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa 600 V DC until 27 May 2016
 Russia Russian Railways New electrification use only 25 kV AC (see below), except Moscow Central Circle and other interconnection lines in Moscow, and 2 interconnection lines (Veymarn line and Kamennogorsk line) in St. Petersburg. Sverdlovsk railway and West Siberian railway to be converted to 25 kV AC.
 Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned,[11] and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz (see below).
 Slovenia Slovenian Railways National standard
 South Africa Transnet Freight Rail; Metrorail National standard; also 25 kV AC (see below) and 50 kV AC used
 Spain Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias 25 kV AC used on high speed lines (AVE) (see below)
 Ukraine Ukrainian Railways In east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[13] (see below)

15 kV AC, 16+23 Hz / 16.7 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Austria ÖBB National standard. Planned new high speed lines will near the border use 25 kV AC: Innsbruck-Italy and broad gauge to Ukraine
 Germany Deutsche Bahn - German National Railways (DB) National standard
 Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration
 Sweden Swedish Transport Administration
 Switzerland Canton of Bern BLS
Central Switzerland and Bernese Highlands Zentralbahn
Canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Bière-Apples-Morges (BAM)
Canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Sihltal line only; shares track with the 1200 V DC electrified Uetliberg line that uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow such sharing
Swiss Federal Railways

25 kV AC, 50 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Argentina Buenos Aires Roca Line ConstituciónEzeiza
Constitución – Alejandro Korn
Constitución – Bosques
Constitución – La Plata
 Australia Brisbane, North Coast line, Blackwater and Goonyella coal railways Queensland Rail
Perth Transperth
Adelaide Adelaide Metro Seaford/Flinders and Gawler lines electrified
Sydney Sydney Metro Western Sydney Airport line only[7]
 Belarus National standard
 Belgium Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) High-speed lines and some other lines. The rest of the network is 3 kV DC (see above)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Botswana Proposed line to Namibia
 Bulgaria Bulgarian State Railways
 China China Railway National standard
Beijing Beijing Subway Daxing Airport Line only
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Lines 17, 18 and 19 only
Wenzhou Wenzhou Rail Transit
 Croatia Croatian Railways Lines Zagreb-Rijeka and Rijeka-Šapjane formerly used 3kv DC traction
 Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary – Cheb – Plzeň – České Budějovice – Tábor – Jihlava – Brno – Břeclav – Slovakia), northern lines use 3 kV DC (see above)
 Denmark Banedanmark National standard, excluding Copenhagen S-train
 Djibouti Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
 Ethiopia Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
 Finland National standard
 France North and new lines SNCF A number of lines also electrified with 1.5 kV (see above)
 Germany Harz Rübelandbahn
 Greece Hellenic Railways Organisation National standard
 Hong Kong Kowloon, New Territories Mass Transit Railway East Rail and Tuen Ma lines All other lines except the light rail use 1,500 V DC (see above)
 Hungary Hungarian State Railways and Raaberbahn
 India Indian Railways Entire IR network uses the current system since 2016.
Mumbai Mumbai Suburban Railway Conversion from 1.5 kV DC to the current system was completed in 2012 (for Western line[14]) and 2016 (for Central line[15][16][17]) respectively
Mumbai Mumbai Metro (Line 1)
Chennai (Madras) Chennai Metro
Delhi Delhi Metro
Hyderabad Hyderabad Metro
Pune Pune Metro
Nagpur Nagpur Metro
Jaipur Jaipur Metro
Lucknow Lucknow Metro
 Iran Planned
 Israel Israel Railways Construction contract awarded in December 2015.[18] Initial test runs began December 2017.
 Italy Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) New high-speed lines only, other lines use 3 kV DC (see above)
 Japan Kantō (northeast of Tokyo), Tōhoku, and Hokkaido regions JR East Tohoku Shinkansen, Joetsu Shinkansen, and Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between TokyoKaruizawa, and between JōetsumyōkōItoigawa)
JR Hokkaido Hokkaido Shinkansen
25 kV AC 60 Hz in some areas (see below).
 Laos Boten–Vientiane railway
 Latvia Latvian Railways Eastern lines only (planned)
 Lithuania Kena — Kaunas and Lentvaris — Trakai Lithuanian Railways (LG) Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena —

Gudogai (BCh) route for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) services is established on 2017. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda and Kaunas – Kybartai corridors electrification will follow projects.

 Luxembourg Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard
 Malaysia Padang BesarKL SentralGemas KTM ETS (run through West Coast railway line), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Under construction: Hat Yai (in Thailand) – Padang Besar (to be opened by 2020) and GemasJohor Bahru (to be opened by 2022)
Bukit MertajamPadang Regas and ButterworthPadang Besar KTM Komuter Northern Sector, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad
Batu CavesPulau Sebang/Tampin, Tanjung MalimPort Klang and KL SentralTerminal Skypark KTM Komuter Central Sector (Seremban Line, Port Klang Line and Skypark Link), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad
KL SentralKLIA2 Express Rail Link (KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit)
 Montenegro Belgrade–Bar railway and Nikšić–Podgorica railway Railways of Montenegro
 Morocco Kenitra–Tangier high-speed rail line ONCF Casablanca–Kenitra section of high-speed rail remains at 3 kV DC[19]
 Namibia Proposed line to Botswana
 Netherlands HSL-Zuid high speed line and Betuweroute freight line Nederlandse Spoorwegen 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network (see above)
 New Zealand Auckland Auckland suburban 77 km between Swanson and Papakura; first service 28 April 2014
Central North Island North Island Main Trunk 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
 North Macedonia Makedonski Železnici
 Poland Hrubieszów Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line (LHS) A section from the border to Hrubieszów will be electrified in conjunction with the electrification of the connecting border – Izov – Kovel line in Ukraine.[20] The reminder sections will follow.
 Portugal Portuguese Railways (CP) Except the Linha de Cascais (1500 V DC)
 Romania Caile Ferate Romane
 Russia Russian Railways National standard used for new electrification; some areas still use 3 kV DC (see above)
 Serbia Serbian Railways
 Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the rest of the network (except narrow gauge lines), currently 3 kV DC, to follow (see above)
 South Africa Transnet Freight Rail, Gautrain Also 3 kV DC (see above) and 50 kV 50 Hz used.
 Spain ADIF Alta Velocidad High-speed lines only, other lines use 3 kV DC (see above)
 Thailand Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Link
 Tunisia [21]
 Turkey Turkish State Railways (TCDD) National standard
 United Kingdom Network Rail Except Southern region and Merseyrail and Northern Ireland
 Ukraine Ukrainian Railways National standard, in most of the west; also 3 kV DC in the east (see above)
 Zimbabwe GweruHarare National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) De-energised in 2008. May be renewed in the future.[22]

25 kV AC, 60 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Japan Kantō (west of Tokyo), Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Kyushu regions Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between KaruizawaJōetsumyōkō, and between ItoigawaKanazawa)
Kyushu Shinkansen
25 kV AC 50 Hz in eastern Japan (see above)
 Saudi Arabia Haramain high-speed railway Saudi Railways Organization Renfe and Adif will operate the trains and manage the line until 2030
 South Korea Korail All Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 which is 1.5 kV DC (see above)
Seoul Shinbundang line
Incheon, Seoul A'REX
 Mexico Greater Mexico City Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México [23]
State of Mexico Toluca–Mexico City commuter rail Under construction. Expected end of 2022
Yucatán Peninsula Tren Maya Under construction. About 40% of the route to be electrified [24]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) Taiwan Railways Administration National standard
Western Taiwan Taiwan High Speed Rail
 United States New Jersey Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit Former 3,000 V DC system
Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
New York to Boston Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Electrified in 2000; see Amtrak's 60 Hz traction power system
Denver Denver RTD Opened in 2016; separate 750 V DC system for light rail
San Francisco Peninsula Caltrain Under construction, expected by 2024; see Electrification of Caltrain
New Mexico Navajo Mine Railroad
Texas Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake see E25B and Internet reference[25]

Conductor rail systems[edit]

600 V DC conductor[edit]

All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise. Used by some older metros.

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Argentina Buenos Aires Urquiza Line Federico Lacroze-General Lemos
 Canada Toronto Toronto subway Only on subway lines
 Greece Athens EIS/ISAP used between 1904 and 1985
 Italy Turin Superga Rack Railway
 Japan Tokyo Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line
Nagoya, Aichi Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line
 Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro 650 V, Green and Red Lines
 United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow Subway
 United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport station
Chicago Chicago "L" elevated and subway lines
Staten Island Staten Island Railway
New York City metro area PATH
Philadelphia Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Broad Street Line
Bay Lake, Florida Walt Disney World Monorail System

750 V DC conductor[edit]

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact. Used by most metros outside Asia and the former Eastern bloc.

Bottom contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
 Algeria Algiers Algiers Metro
 Austria Vienna Vienna U-Bahn
 Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Except Lines 4 and 5
 China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line only
Kunming Kunming Metro Except Line 4
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 2 and 3 only
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
 Czech Republic Prague Prague Metro
 Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Metro
 Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 2 and Line 3
 Finland Helsinki Helsinki Metro
 Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U5 to U9 (large profile). Negative polarity.
Hamburg Hamburg U-Bahn
Munich Munich U-Bahn
Nuremberg Nuremberg U-Bahn
 India Bangalore Namma Metro
Kochi Kochi Metro
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad Metro
Kanpur Kanpur Metro
Gurgaon Rapid Metro Gurgaon
 South Korea Busan Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
 Malaysia Klang Valley Klang Valley Integrated Transit System LRT & MRT (Ampang, Sri Petaling, Kelana Jaya and Sungai Buloh–Kajang lines), and KL Monorail to be used on Bandar Utama–Klang and Sungai Buloh–Serdang–Putrajaya lines
 Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Metro including line 51 north of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
 Norway Oslo Oslo T-bane
 Poland Warsaw Warsaw Metro
 Romania Bucharest Bucharest Metro
 Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North South line, East West line, Circle line and Thomson-East Coast line operated by SMRT Trains

Downtown line operated by SBS Transit

Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan) Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
Taipei Taipei Metro
TaoyuanTaipei Taoyuan Metro
 Turkey Ankara Ankara Metro
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Lines M2 and M6 only
Izmir Izmir Metro
 United Kingdom London Docklands Light Railway
 United States New York City Metro-North Railroad
Side contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
 Canada Montreal Montreal Metro (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
 China Shanghai Shanghai MetroPujiang line Central guide rail for rubber-tyred Bombardier Innovia APM 300
 Chile Santiago Santiago Metro
 France Paris Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars.
See DC, four-rail below.
Lyon Lyon Métro
Marseille Marseille Métro
Lille Lille Métro
Rennes Rennes Métro
Toulouse Toulouse Métro
 Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport
Automated People Mover (APM)
Mitsubishi "Crystal Mover" system using two power rails (positive and negative) with side collection.
 Indonesia Palembang Palembang Light Rail Transit Palembang Light Rail Transit and Greater Jakarta Light Rail Transit are operated by Kereta Api Indonesia. Jakarta Light Rail Transit is operated by Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro).
Jakarta Jakarta Light Rail Transit
Greater Jakarta Light Rail Transit
 Japan Sapporo, Hokkaido Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line
 Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit Sengkang LRT Line and Punggol LRT Line operated by SBS Transit
Singapore Sentosa Express Sentosa Express operated by SDC
 United States Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail
Top contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
 China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line use bottom contact
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Line 1 only
 France Paris Paris Métro (Conventional metro)
 Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U1 to U4 (small profile)
 Greece Athens Athens Metro Line 1 was 600 V before 1985.
 Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro Except line M1, which is 600 V DC with overhead lines.
 India Kolkata Kolkata Metro
 Japan Osaka, Osaka Osaka Metro Except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line, which are 1,500 V DC with overhead lines.
Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway
Higashiosaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
Kintetsu Keihanna Line
Yokohama, Kanagawa Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line (Line 1 and Line 3) only
 North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
 South Korea Yongin Everline
 Portugal Lisbon Lisbon Metro
 Puerto Rico San Juan Tren Urbano
 Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro Nominal voltage 650 V, subway 3 (blue line) 750 V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750 V.
 United Kingdom Liverpool Merseyrail
London Northern City Line access to City (Moorgate)
London Suburban electrification of the LNWR Suburban Network formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Southern England Southern Region of British Railways and successors 660 V system upgraded and expanded
London, England Waterloo and City line Upgraded by Railtrack to 750V prior to sale to London Underground
 United States Atlanta, Georgia MARTA
Los Angeles, California Los Angeles Metro Rail B and D Lines
Miami, Florida Metrorail
New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
Long Island Rail Road Central, Greenport, and Oyster Bay branches not electrified; Montauk Branch not electrified east of Babylon; Port Jefferson Branch not electrified east of Huntington
Philadelphia, PA PATCO Speedline
Puerto Rico Tren Urbano
Washington, D.C. Washington Metro
within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan New Jersey Transit
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
See note  China Tianjin Tianjin Metro Top contact in Line 1, bottom contact in Lines 2 and 3

1200 V DC conductor[edit]

All systems are third rail and side contact unless stated otherwise.

Country Location Name of system Notes
 Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn 15 kV  16.7 Hz AC with overhead line in part of network.
 United Kingdom Manchester Bury Line Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)

1500 V DC conductor[edit]

All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Type Country Location Name of system Notes
Bottom contact  France Paris Paris Métro Line 18 Currently under construction
Toulouse Toulouse Aerospace Express Currently under construction
Side contact Chambéry – Modane Culoz–Modane railway used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire
Bottom contact  China Beijing Beijing Subway Line 7 only
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21 only. Overhead wires in depots; all trains are equipped with pantographs
Kunming Kunming Metro Line 4 only
Qingdao Qingdao Metro
Shanghai Shanghai Metro Lines 16 and 17 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 16, all trains on Line 16 have pantographs for depot use.
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Lines 3 and 6 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 6, all trains on Line 6 have pantographs for depot use.
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 7, 8, 11 and Yangluo Line only
Wuxi Wuxi Metro

Systems using non-standard voltages[edit]

Overhead systems[edit]

DC voltage[edit]

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
120  United Kingdom Seaton, Devon Seaton Tramway Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250  United States Chicago Chicago Tunnel Company operated 1906–1959
525  Switzerland Lauterbrunnen Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren
550  Hong Kong Hong Kong Island Hong Kong Tramways
 Isle of Man Isle of Man Manx Electric Railway including Snaefell Mountain Railway
 India Kolkata Trams in Kolkata
 United States Bakersfield, California Bakersfield and Kern Electric Railway operated 1888–1942
Fresno, California Fresno Traction Company operated 1903–1939
Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix Street Railway operated 1888–1948[26]
650  United States Buffalo, New York Buffalo Metro Rail
El Paso, Texas El Paso Streetcar
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Light Rail
 Switzerland Basel Basel Trams (BVB/BLT)
700  Switzerland BexCol de Bretaye, Vaud Chemin de fer Bex-Villars-Bretaye
730  United States Pennsylvania Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company purchased by Philadelphia and Western Railroad in 1953 and converted to 600 VDC[27]
800  Poland Tricity Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Operated 1951–1976. Converted to 3,000 V DC in 1976.
825  United States Portland, Oregon MAX, TriMet Light rail sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street utilize a 750 V system
850  Switzerland CapolagoMonte Generoso, Ticino Ferrovia Monte Generoso (MG)
900 Fribourg Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat
Montreux Montreux-Oberland Bernois
1,000  Italy
St Moritz, canton of GraubündenTirano, Lombardy Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Bernina line only; remainder of system electrified at 11 kV AC, 16 2⁄3 Hz. The Bernina line is an international line linking Switzerland (St. Moritz) with Italy (Tirano)
 Hungary Budapest Budapest Commuter Rail and Rapid Transit (BHÉV) [28]
1,100  Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Only Line A (converted to 1,500 V DC with La Brugeoise trains replaced by new rolling stock in 2013)
1,250  Switzerland Canton of Bern Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) All lines except tram line 6 between Bern and Worb, which is electrified at 600 V DC[29]
1,350  Italy
Domodossola, PiedmontLocarno, canton of Ticino Domodossola–Locarno railway line (FART / SSIF [de]) International railway between Italy (Domodossola) and Switzerland (Locarno)
 Switzerland LuganoPonte Tresa, canton of Ticino Ferrovia Lugano–Ponte Tresa (FLP)
1,650  Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen S-train Suburban rail network in Copenhagen
 Italy Rome Rome–Giardinetti railway Isolated Italian metre gauge line.
2,400  Germany Lausitzer work line of the Lausitzer Braunkohle coal company
 Poland Konin Konin Coal Mine[30]
Turek PAK KWB ADAMÓW[30] mine closed in February 2021, the railway will be dismantled[31]
 France Grenoble Chemin de fer de La Mure −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[32]
 United States Montana Butte, Anaconda and Pacific Railway electrified 1913–1967, dismantled in favor of diesel power
3,500  United Kingdom Manchester Bury – Holcombe Brook operated 1913–1918
6,000  Russia experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

AC voltage[edit]

Voltage Frequency Country Location Name of system Notes
3,300 15 Hz  United States Tulare County, California Visalia Electric Railroad 1904–1992
25 Hz  United States Napa and Solano Counties, California San Francisco, Napa and Calistoga Railway 1905–1937
5,500 16+23 Hz  Germany Murnau Ammergau Railway 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,250 50 Hz  United Kingdom London, Essex, Herts Great Eastern suburban lines Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
 United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow suburban lines Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz  Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 25 Hz  Austria Sankt Pölten Mariazellerbahn
6,600  Norway Orkdal Thamshavnbanen
6,600 50 Hz  Germany Cologne Lowland Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants. Owned by RWE.
6,700 25 Hz  United Kingdom Morecambe branch line Lancaster to Heysham 1908–1951
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz as a test bed for the future main line electrification system
South London line London Victoria to London Bridge 1909–1928
Converted to 660 V (later 750 V) DC third-rail supply
8 kV 25 Hz  Germany Karlsruhe Alb Valley Railway 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV  Netherlands The HagueRotterdam Hofpleinlijn from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz  Russia industrial railways at quarries Russian Railways operated from 1950s at coal and ore quarries
 Ukraine Ukrainian Railways
 Kazakhstan some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan
11 kV 16+23 Hz  Switzerland Graubünden Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Except the Bernina line, which is electrified at 1,000 V DC
Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB) formerly Furka Oberalp Bahn (FO) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
50 Hz  France Saint-Gervais-les-Bains Mont Blanc Tramway
11 kV 25 Hz  United States Pennsylvania Railroad
All lines now 12 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
 United States Washington Cascade Tunnel Converted from three-phase 6600 V 25 Hz in 1927, dismantled 1956
 United States Colorado Denver and Intermountain Railroad dismantled c. 1953[33]
12 kV 16+23 Hz  France lines in Pyrenees Chemin de fer du Midi most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12 kV 25 Hz  United States Washington, DCNew York City Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA Keystone Corridor, Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Philadelphia SEPTA Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
12 kV 25 Hz  United States Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit 1978–2002 (11 kV until 1978). Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz
12.5 kV 60 Hz  United States Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad, Amtrak 11 kV until 1985
16 kV 50 Hz  Hungary Budapest–Hegyeshalom railway Budapest to Hegyeshalom Kandó system 1931–1972, converted to 25 kV 50 Hz
20 kV  Germany Freiburg Höllentalbahn Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15 kV 16+23 Hz.
 France Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
20 kV 50 Hz  Japan most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others
50 kV 50 Hz  South Africa Northern Cape, Western Cape Sishen–Saldanha railway line opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz  Canada British Columbia Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
 United States Arizona Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This was an isolated coal-hauling short line; no longer in use.
60 Hz  United States Utah Deseret Power Railroad Formerly Deseret Western Railway. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.

Three-phase AC voltage[edit]

Two wires[edit]
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
725 50 Hz,  Switzerland ZermattGornergrat, canton of Valais Gornergratbahn
750 40 Hz, 3Ø BurgdorfThun Burgdorf-Thun Bahn Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV 16+23 Hz in 1933
900 60 Hz, 3Ø  Brazil Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Rack Railway
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø  Switzerland Interlaken Jungfraubahn
3600 15 Hz, 3Ø  Italy Northern Italy Valtellina Electrification 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø  France Saint-Jean-de-Luz to Larrun Chemin de Fer de la Rhune
3600 16 Hz, 3Ø  Italy
Simplon Tunnel 1906–1930
3600 16+23 Hz, 3Ø Italy Italy operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
Porrettana railway FS 1927–1935
3600 16+23 Hz, 3Ø  Italy Trento/Trient to Brenner Brenner Railway 1929–1965
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø  Spain AlmeriaGergal 1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø  United States Cascade Tunnel Great Northern Railway (U.S.) 1909–1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø  Italy RomaSulmona FS 1929–1944[34]
Three wires[edit]
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
3000 V 50 Hz  Germany Kierberg Zahnradbahn Tagebau Gruhlwerk rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
10000 V Berlin-Lichterfelde (de) test track (1.8 km);
variable voltage and frequency;
trial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz – 48 Hz
(See notes)
ZossenMarienfelde test track (23.4 km);
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.

50 Hz  Russia Ship elevator of Krasnoyarsk Reservoir length: 1.5 km, 9000 mm gauge

Conductor rail systems (DC voltage)[edit]

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact.

Top contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
50 See notes  United Kingdom Brighton Volk's Electric Railway Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail Claims to be the world's oldest operational electric railway
160 Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail Beaulieu Beaulieu Monorail (National Motor MuseumBeaulieu Palace House) current fed by 2 contact wires
180 See notes  Germany Berlin-Lichterfelde Siemens streetcar Current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail  United Kingdom Southend Southend Pier Railway Until 1902[35]
250 Hythe, Hampshire Hythe Pier Railway
 United States Chicago, Illinois Chicago Tunnel Company Morgan Rack

1904, revenue service 1906–1908

300  Georgia New Athos Cave Railway
400  Germany Berchtesgaden Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway
440  United Kingdom London Post Office Railway Disused by post office since 2003[36] Now small section near Mount Pleasant operated as tourist attraction with battery powered stock[37]

150 V was used in station areas to limit train speed

550  Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Only Line B
625  United States New York City New York City Subway
630 Philadelphia SEPTANorristown High Speed Line
fourth rail  United Kingdom London London Underground Supplied at +420 V and −210 V (630 V total).
650 See notes Euston to Watford DC Line Third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail

To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queen's Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and one the District Line between Putney Bridge and Wimbledon.

660 third rail Southern Railway & London & South Western Railway some areas up to 1939, original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
700  United States Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore Metro SubwayLink
800  Germany Berlin Berlin S-Bahn discontinued, today 750 V
825  North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
1000  United States San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit [38]

Side contact systems[edit]

All third rail unless otherwise stated.

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
850  France Martigny Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine
1200  Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6.3 kV 25 Hz) until 1955. Also uses German standard 15 kV AC 16 2/3 Hz overhead electrification on the section between Neugraben and Stade on line S3, opened in December 2007.

Bottom contact systems[edit]

All third rail unless otherwise stated.

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
650  Canada Vancouver SkyTrain Expo Line (1985) and Millennium Line (2006). Linear induction.
700  United States New York Metro-North Railroad Hudson and Harlem Lines, southern part of New Haven Line. Original New York Central Railroad electrification scheme to Grand Central Terminal.
Philadelphia SEPTAMarket-Frankford Line Originally 600 V, raised to 700 V
825  Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Lines 1 and 2
 Russia Moscow Moscow Metro Nominal voltage: 825 V; allowed range: 550 V – 975 V[39]
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg Metro
Kazan Kazan Metro
Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Metro
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Metro
Samara Samara Metro
Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg Metro
 Ukraine Kyiv Kyiv Metro FSU underground systems share the same standard[40]
Dnipro Dnipro Metro
Kharkiv Kharkiv Metro
830  Argentina Buenos Aires Mitre Line Retiro – José León Suárez
Retiro – Bartolomé Mitre
Retiro – Tigre
OnceMoreno Sarmiento Line
850  France Villefranche Ligne de Cerdagne Often referred to as the "Yellow Train"
 Austria Vienna Wiener Lokalbahn
900  Belgium Brussels Brussels Metro

Conductor rail systems (AC voltage)[edit]

Voltage Current Contact Country Location Name of system Notes
500 50 Hz, 1Ø bottom  Australia Gold Coast, Queensland Sea World Monorail Operated 1986–2021
Oasis Shopping Centre Operated 1989–2017
Sydney, New South Wales Sydney Monorail Operated 1988–2013
600 50 Hz, 3Ø side  China Guangzhou Guangzhou MetroAPM Line
 Singapore LRTBukit Panjang line [41]
 Japan Saitama New Shuttle
Tokyo Nippori-Toneri Liner
60 Hz, 3Ø Kobe, Hyōgo Kobe New Transit
Osaka Osaka MetroNankō Port Town Line
Kansai International AirportWing Shuttle
 Taiwan Taoyuan Taoyuan International AirportSkytrain

Special or unusual types[edit]

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below track[edit]

DC, one ground-level conductor[edit]

DC, two-wire[edit]

DC, power from running rails[edit]

DC, four-rail[edit]

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
Top contact London Underground London United Kingdom Transport for London[42]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ BS EN 50163 (2007).
  2. ^ IEC 60850 (2007).
  3. ^ Sóller Website
  4. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 11.
  5. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 19.
  6. ^ "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  7. ^ a b "Chapter 7: Project description – operation" (PDF). Sydney Metro – Western Sydney Airport. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  8. ^ Barrow, Keith (14 March 2014). "Cairo to order new trains for metro Line 1". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Cairo Metro Tender for New Rolling Stock". MENA RAIL POST. MENA RAIL POST. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  10. ^ 2020-07-23T08:00:00. "AC conversion planned in Cascais line upgrade". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  11. ^ a b Vosman, Quintus (4 January 2017). "Czechs to switch to 25kV ac electrification". International Railway Journal.
  12. ^ Michał Szymajda (17 January 2020). "Szybka linia kolejowa "Y" przez CPK ma być gotowa do 2030 roku" [High-speed 'Y' railway line through CPK should be completed by 2030]. Rynek Lotniczy (in Polish). Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  13. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  14. ^ "Western Railway sets stage for AC system". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  15. ^ "From May 5, faster Central Railway with AC power". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Soon, faster trains on Kalyan-LTT route". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Central Railway plans DC/AC switch in May". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Israel Railways awards USD 500m electrification contract to Spanish SEMI". Think Railways. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Africa's first high speed line inaugurated". Railway Gazette International. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Electrification to increase Ukraine – Poland iron ore export capacity". Railway Gazette International. 8 May 2021. In conjunction with the UZ scheme, Poland has agreed to electrify its 3 km section of the route from the border to Hrubieszów.
  21. ^ New 25kv electrification in Tunisia Railways Africa
  22. ^ Kazunga, Oliver (1 March 2018). "Electrification of NRZ rail network set for 2nd phase". The Chronicle.
  23. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60 Hz
  24. ^ "Proyecto Tren Maya: Electrificación" (in Spanish). Mexico: Fonatur. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  25. ^ "TXU – Monticello Line". 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  26. ^ McGraw Electric Railway List August, 1918. Trade Investigation and Directory Department of the Electric Railway Journal. 1918.
  27. ^ Hilton, George Woodman; Due, John Fitzgerald (2000). The Electric Interurban Railways in America. Stanford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 9780804740142.
  28. ^ "Railway Technical Info – Hungary". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  29. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 66.
  30. ^ a b
  31. ^ "Na odkrywce Adamów wydobyto ostatnią tonę węgla. Kopalnia zakończyła definitywnie działalność" [Last tonne of coal from Adamów pit. Mine definitely closed.]. (in Polish). 19 February 2021.
  32. ^ "ERS – Presentation, La Mure". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  33. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  34. ^ Cacozza, Marco (August 2016). "Three-Phase Electrification: An Italian Story". Today's Railways Europe #248. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  35. ^ "Southend Pier Railway".
  36. ^ Karslake, Colin. "Unofficial MailRail Website – Home". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  37. ^ "Mail Rail".
  38. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  39. ^ "Rules of technical operation of undergrounds of the Russian Federation (Правила технической эксплуатации метрополитенов Российской Федерации)" (PDF) (in Russian). International Metro Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  40. ^ "Structures, devices and rolling stock of underground (Сооружения, устройства и подвижной состав метрополитена)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  41. ^ Japan Railway & Transport 18 (PDF). p. 28. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  42. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Transport for London. Retrieved 2013-04-22.


External links[edit]