List of railway electrification systems

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This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Trams electrification systems are listed here.

Key to the tables below[edit]

Systems using standard voltages[edit]

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163[1] and IEC 60850.[2]

Overhead systems[edit]

600 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few new ones as well. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification
Australia Australia Adelaide Trams in Adelaide  
Melbourne Melbourne Tramway Network  
Hungary Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro Line M1
Japan Japan Chōshi, Chiba Chōshi Electric Railway  
Kyoto, Kyoto Eizan Electric Railway  
Kanagawa Enoshima Electric Railway  
Matsuyama, Ehime Iyotetsu Takahama Line  
Shizuoka, Shizuoka Shizuoka Railway  
Romania Romania Sibiu county Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway part of the former Sibiu tram line
Spain Spain Madrid Madrid Metro lines 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9. In process to be converted to 1500 V

750 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is used for most modern tram systems.[citation needed]. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification
Australia Australia Sydney Sydney Light Rail  
Canberra Canberra Metro  
Gold Coast G:link  
Austria Austria Upper Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Austria Austria
Switzerland Switzerland
Rhine / Lake Constance Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn Construction railway for the regulation works of the river Rhine near its outfall into Lake Constance, now preserved. The river forms the border between Austria and Switzerland, and the railway operated in both countries.
Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro Metro Lines 1, 2 and 4
São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 1, 2, 3 and 15 (monorail), 17 (future, monorail)
Germany Germany Karlsruhe to Bad Herrenalb with a branch to Ittersbach Albtalbahn railway of the Upper Rhine
Italy Italy Genova Metropolitana di Genova
Japan Japan Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Enshū Railway  
Hakone, Kanagawa Hakone Tozan Railway Line between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Ehime Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line  
Yokkaichi, Mie Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line  
Mie Sangi Railway Hokusei Line  
Mexico Mexico Mexico City STC Line A
Netherlands Netherlands The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities Randstadrail  
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Philippines Philippines Metro Manila Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) between Baclaran to Roosevelt
Metro Manila Manila MRT Line 3 (Manila Metro Rail Transit System) between North Avenue to Taft Avenue
Switzerland Switzerland Canton of Aargau Wynental- und Suhrentalbahn (WSB)  
Taiwan Republic of China (Taiwan) Taipei, New Taipei, Taoyuan, Kaohsiung Taipei Metro, Taoyuan Metro, and Kaohsiung Metro all lines
Turkey Turkey Adana Adana Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Line M1, M2, M6

1,200 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Cuba Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
Estonia Estonia     (Elektriraudtee) 1924–1941 and 1946–1958, converted to 3000 V DC
Germany Germany Lusatian   900 mm (2 ft 11 716 in) gauge mining railways in the lignite district
Spain Spain Barcelona, Catalonia Barcelona Metro uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
PalmaSóller, Majorca Sóller Railway [3]
Switzerland Switzerland Canton of Bern / canton of Solothurn Aare Seeland mobil (ASm) [4][5]
Dietikon, canton of ZürichWohlen, canton of Aargau Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
ZürichEsslingen, canton of Zürich Forchbahn Forchbahn proper only; Forchbahn trains access their Zürich terminus via the Zürich tram network, which is electrified at 600 V DC. The rolling stock is equipped to run off both voltages.
Frauenfeld, canton of ThurgauWil, canton of St. Gallen Frauenfeld-Wil-Bahn
MeiringenInnertkirchen, canton of Bern Meiringen–Innertkirchen Bahn
ZürichUetliberg, canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[6]
 US East Bay, California East Bay Electric Lines 1911–1941

1,500 V DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro Lines A, C, D, E and H
Buenos Aires Tren de la Costa Suburban line
Australia Australia Melbourne Melbourne Suburban Railways  
Sydney Sydney Trains  
Sydney Metro  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 4 and 5
Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Line 3
Canada Canada Ottawa O-Train Confederation Line only; the Trillium Line is diesel LRT.
China China Beijing Beijing Subway Lines 6, 14 and 16
Changchun Changchun Rail Transit Lines 1 and 2
Changsha Changsha Metro
Changzhou Changzhou Metro
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Except lines 17, 18 and 19
Chongqing Chongqing Rail Transit Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and Loop Line
Dalian Dalian Metro
Dongguan Dongguan Rail Transit
Fushun Fushun Electric Railway
Fuzhou Fuzhou Metro
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro except Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21, but overhead wires installed in depots.
Guiyang Guiyang Metro
Hangzhou Hangzhou Metro
Harbin Harbin Metro
Hefei Hefei Metro
Hohhot Hohhot Metro
Jinan Jinan Metro
Lanzhou Lanzhou Metro
Nanchang Nanchang Metro
Nanjing Nanjing Metro
Nanning Nanning Metro
Ningbo Ningbo Metro
Shanghai Shanghai Metro except Lines 16 and 17, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 16.
Shenyang Shenyang Metro
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Except Lines 3 and 6, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 6.
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang Metro
Suzhou Suzhou Metro
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 5, 6 and 9 only
Ürümqi Ürümqi Metro
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Line 6 only
Xi’an Xi'an Metro
Xiamen Xiamen Metro
Xuzhou Xuzhou Metro
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou Metro
Colombia Colombia Medellín Medellín Metro Lines A and B
Czech Republic Czech Republic Tábor-Bechyně Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Tábor-Bechyně line only
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen S-train  
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Metro  
Egypt Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 1[7][8]
France France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (TGV) and in the north
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Corporation East Rail Line, West Rail Line, Ma On Shan Line are 25 kV AC
Hungary Hungary Budapest Budapest Cog-wheel Railway Converted from 550 V DC (city trams nominal voltage at that time) during the 1973 reconstruction.
Indonesia Indonesia Jakarta KRL Jabodetabek

Jakarta MRT

Republic of Ireland Ireland Dublin Dublin Area Rapid Transit  
Italy Italy Roma Metropolitana di Roma Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
Japan Japan   Japan Railways (JR) lines most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
  Most private railway lines  
  Most subway lines  
Mexico Mexico Mexico City STC Line 12
Monterrey Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metrorrey
Netherlands Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen - Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines and new freight line Betuweroute
New Zealand New Zealand Wellington Wellington suburban except Wairarapa Line beyond Upper Hutt. Since 2011, the nominal voltage was 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock. Since May 2016 the operating voltage was increased to 1700 V DC following the full introduction of the Matangi EMUs.
Philippines Philippines Metro Manila Manila MRT Line 2 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) between Santolan to Recto
Portugal Portugal Lisbon, Oeiras and Cascais Linha de Cascais  
Portugal Portugal Oeiras Ramal do Estádio Nacional Closed
Singapore Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
Slovakia Slovakia   Tatra Electric Railway  
South Korea South Korea Seoul National Capital Area Seoul Subway except Korail Subway Line (except Line 3)
(see 25 kV 60 Hz below)
Busan Busan Subway  
Daegu Daegu Subway  
Daejeon Daejeon Subway  
Gwangju Gwangju Subway  
Incheon Incheon Subway  
Spain Spain Cataluña Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya  
Madrid ADIF only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Mallorca Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca  
Asturias-León-Cantabria-País Vasco FEVE  
País Vasco Euskotren  
Comunidad Valenciana Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana  
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Roslagsbanan  
Switzerland Switzerland AigleLeysin, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Leysin (AL)  
Aigle, VaudChampéry, canton of Valais Chemin de fer Aigle–Ollon–Monthey–Champéry (AOMC)  
AigleLes Diablerets, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Sépey–Diablerets (ASD)  
InterlakenLauterbrunnen / Grindelwald, canton of Bern Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB)  
Canton of Jura Chemins de fer du Jura (CJ) metre gauge lines only; standard gauge lines are electrified at 15 kV 16 2/3 Hz
LausanneBercher, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Lausanne–Échallens–Bercher (LEB)
NyonLa Cure, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) converted in the 1980s from 2200 V DC
Vitznau / GoldauRigi Rigi Bahnen (VRB/ARB)
WilderswilSchynige Platte, canton of Bern Schynige Platte Bahn (SPB)  
LiestalWaldenburg, canton of Basel-Country Waldenburgerbahn (WB)  
LauterbrunnenGrindelwald, canton of Bern Wengernalpbahn (WAB)  
Turkey Turkey Bursa Bursa Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Except lines M1, M2 and M6
United Kingdom United Kingdom Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside Tyne and Wear Metro  
London (Liverpool Street) to Shenfield (then Chelmsford) Great Eastern Main Line Opened in 1949.
Converted to 6.25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1960 and later to 25 kV 50 Hz AC[9][10]
Manchester Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway Opened in 1931.
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC in 1971
Converted again to 750 V DC in 1991 (Metrolink).[11][12]
Manchester to Sheffield Manchester-Sheffield-Wath Operated 1949–1984. Abandoned east of Hadfield in 1981; suburban services in Manchester converted to 25 kV, 50 Hz AC as far as Hadfield and Glossop in 1984.[13]
Shildon to Newport County Durham industrial line; operated 1915–1935[14]
United States United States Chicago Metra Electric District  
Maryland Maryland Transit Administration Purple Line (under construction)
Northern Indiana & Chicago South Shore Line  
Seattle Central Link light rail

3 kV DC[edit]

Country Location Name of system Note
Belgium Belgium Nationwide Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south area.
Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro suburban network; SuperVia Trens Urbanos;  
Canada Canada Montreal Deux-Montagnes Line built by CNoR in 1918, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by AMT
Chile Chile    
Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín - Praha - Ostrava route). The system change stations are Kadaň-Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice. The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Estonia Estonia Tallinn Elron commuter rail only
Georgia (country) Georgia Georgian Railway LLC In fact 3,300 V
Italy Italy RFI - Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines
North Korea North Korea   Korean State Railway national standard
Latvia Latvia Latvian Railways (LDz) commuter rail only, to be converted to 25 kV AC which to be intended to connect with Russia, Belarus and Lithuania.
Morocco Morocco   ONCF (Office National des Chemins de Fer) national standard
Poland Poland Polish State Railways (PKP) planned new high-speed lines will use 25 kV AC[15]
Warszawa and suburbs Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa (WKD) 600 V DC until 27 May 2016
Russia Russian Federation Russian Railways (RZD) new electrification use only 25 kV AC, except Moscow Central Circle and other interconnection lines in Moscow, and 2 interconnection lines (Veymarn line and Kamennogorsk line) in St. Petersberg. For Sverdlovsk railway and West Siberian railway to be converted to 25 kV AC.
Slovakia Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned, and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz.
Slovenia Slovenia Slovenian Railways (SŽ) national standard
South Africa South Africa Transnet Freight Rail (TFR); Metrorail national standard; also 25 kV AC and 50 kV AC used
Spain Spain ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias) 25 kV AC used on high speed lines
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways in east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[16]
United States United States New Jersey, lines towards New York City Morris & Essex Lines By Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad in 1930.[17] Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz by NJT in 1984

15 kV AC, ​16 23 Hz / 16.7 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Austria Austria Austrian Federal Railways national standard
Germany Germany German National Railways national standard
Norway Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration national standard
Sweden Sweden Swedish Transport Administration national standard
Switzerland Switzerland Canton of Bern BLS  
Central Switzerland and Bernese Highlands Zentralbahn  
Canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Bière-Apples-Morges (BAM)  
Canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Sihltal line only; shares track with the 1200 V DC electrified Uetliberg line that uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow such sharing
Throughout the country Swiss Federal Railways  

25 kV AC, 50 Hz[edit]

Country Location Name of system Notes
Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Roca Line Constitución - Ezeiza
Constitución - Alejandro Korn
Constitución - Bosques
Constitución - La Plata
Australia Australia Queensland: Brisbane, North Coast Line, Coalfields Queensland Rail
Western Australia: Perth Transperth
South Australia: Adelaide Adelaide Metro to be electrified (system still under electrification)
Belarus Belarus     national standard
Belgium Belgium High-speed lines and some other lines Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) the rest of the network is 3 kV DC — see rail transport in Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina   Rail transport in Bosnia and Herzegovina  
Botswana Botswana     proposed line to Namibia
Bulgaria Bulgaria   Bulgarian State Railways BDZ  
China China Nationwide China Railway Corporation national standard
Beijing Beijing Subway Daxing Airport Line only
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Lines 17, 18 and 19 only
Wenzhou Wenzhou Rail Transit
Republic of the Congo Congo      
Croatia Croatia Nationwide Croatian Railways (HŽ) national standard
Czech Republic Czech Republic Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary - Cheb - Plzeň - České Budějovice - Tábor - Jihlava - Brno - Břeclav - Slovakia) Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC)  
Denmark Denmark nationwide Banedanmark See rail transport in Denmark
Djibouti Djibouti Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
Ethiopia Ethiopia Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
Finland Finland Nationwide Finnish Railway network National standard
France France north and new lines French National Railways (SNCF)  
Germany Germany Harz Rübelandbahn
Greece Greece Nationwide Hellenic Railways Organisation (OSE) National standard. See Railways of Greece for details of progress.
Hong Kong Hong Kong Kowloon, New Territories Mass Transit Railway Corporation (East Rail Line) (West Rail Line) and (Ma On Shan Line)  
Hungary Hungary   Hungarian State Railways (MÁV) and Raaberbahn (GYSEV)  
India India Nationwide Indian Railways (IR) Entire IR network uses the current system since 2015.
Mumbai Mumbai Suburban Railway Conversion from 1.5 kV DC to the current system was completed in 2012 (for Western Line[18]) and 2016 (for Central Line[19][20][21]) respectively
Mumbai Mumbai Metro (Line 1)
Chennai (Madras) Chennai Metro  
Delhi Delhi Metro  
Iran Iran     Planned
Israel Israel   Israel Railways Construction contract awarded in December 2015.[22] Initial test runs began December 2017.
Italy Italy     new high-speed lines only
Japan Japan Kantō (northeast of Tokyo), Tōhoku, and Hokkaido regions JR East Tohoku Shinkansen, Joetsu Shinkansen, and Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between Tokyo - Karuizawa, and between Jōetsumyōkō - Itoigawa)
JR Hokkaido Hokkaido Shinkansen
60 Hz in some areas, see 60 Hz overhead below.
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan      
Latvia Latvia   Latvian Railways (LDz) Eastern lines only (planned)
Lithuania Lithuania Kena — Kaunas and Lentvaris — Trakai Lithuanian Railways (LG) Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena —

Gudogai (BCh) route for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) services is established on 2017. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda corridor electrification will follow project.

Luxembourg Luxembourg nationwide Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard, but the Luxembourg – Arlon line is electrified under 3 kV DC
Malaysia Malaysia Padang Besar - KL Sentral - Gemas KTM ETS (run through West Coast railway line), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Under Construction: Hat Yai (in Thailand) - Padang Besar (to be opened by 2020) and Gemas - Johor Bahru (to be opened by 2022)
Bukit Mertajam - Padang Regas and Butterworth - Padang Besar KTM Komuter Northern Sector, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad  
Batu Caves - Pulau Sebang/Tampin, Tanjung Malim - Port Klang and KL Sentral - Terminal Skypark KTM Komuter Central Sector (Seremban Line, Port Klang Line and Skypark Link), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad  
KL Sentral - KLIA2 Express Rail Link (KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit)  
Montenegro Montenegro Belgrade–Bar railway and Nikšić–Podgorica railway Railways of Montenegro  
Morocco Morocco Kenitra–Tangier high-speed rail line ONCF Casablanca–Kenitra section of high-speed rail remains at 3 kV DC[23]
Namibia Namibia Proposed line to Botswana    
Netherlands Netherlands Used on new High Speed Lines and Freight Lines Dutch Railways (NS) 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network
New Zealand New Zealand Auckland Auckland suburban 77 km between Swanson and Papakura; first service 28 April 2014
  North Island Main Trunk Railway Central North Island section, 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
North Macedonia North Macedonia   Makedonski Železnici  
Portugal Portugal   Portuguese Railways (CP) except the Linha de Cascais (1500 V DC)
Romania Romania   Romanian Railways (CFR)  
Russia Russian Federation   Russian Railways (RZD) National standard
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Haramain high-speed railway Saudi Railways Organization Renfe Operadora and Adif will operate the trains and manage the line until 2030
Serbia Serbia nationwide Serbian Railways  
Slovakia Slovakia   Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the entire network (except narrow gauge lines) to follow
Spain Spain   ADIF Alta Velocidad High-speed lines only
South Africa South Africa   Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), Gautrain  
Thailand Thailand Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Link  
Tunisia Tunisia      [24]
Turkey Turkey nationwide Turkish State Railways (TCDD) National standard
United Kingdom United Kingdom Nationwide Network Rail except Southern region and Merseyside
Ukraine Ukraine   Ukrainian Railways national standard, in most of the west; also 3000 V DC in the east
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan      
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Gweru-Harare National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) de-energised in 2008

25 kV AC, 60 Hz[edit]

While 25 kV 60 Hz is not standardized by BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850; it is the logical equivalent of 25 kV 50 Hz in countries where 60 Hz is the normal grid power frequency.

Country Location Name of system Notes
Canada Canada Montreal Deux-Montagnes Line built by CNoR in 1918 as 3000 V DC, converted to 25 kV AC/60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM
Japan Japan Kantō (west of Tokyo), Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Kyushu regions Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between Karuizawa - Jōetsumyōkō, and between Itoigawa - Kanazawa)
Kyushu Shinkansen
50 Hz in eastern Japan; see 25 kV AC 50 Hz overhead above
South Korea South Korea South Korea Korail all Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 (see 1500 V DC overhead above)
Seoul Shinbundang line
Incheon, Seoul A'REX  
Mexico Mexico Mexico City Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México  [25]
Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan Railways Administration
Western Taiwan Taiwan High Speed Rail
United States United States New Jersey Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit former 3,000 V DC system
Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
New York, NY to Boston Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak electrified in 2000; see Amtrak's 60 Hz traction power system
Denver Denver RTD opened in 2016; separate 750 V DC system for light rail
San Francisco Peninsula Caltrain under construction, expected by 2022; see Electrification of Caltrain
New Mexico Navajo Mine Railroad
Texas Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake see E25B and Internet reference[26]

Conductor rail systems[edit]

600 V DC conductor[edit]

All third rail unless stated otherwise.
Used by most older US subways.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
Top contact Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Urquiza Line Federico Lacroze-General Lemos
Top contact Canada Canada Toronto Toronto Subway and Rapid Transit only on subway lines
Top contact Greece Greece Athens EIS/ISAP used between 1904 and 1985
Top contact Italy Italy Turin Superga Rack Railway  
Top contact Japan Japan Tokyo Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line  
  Nagoya, Aichi Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line  
Top contact Sweden Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro 650 V, Green and Red Lines
Top contact United Kingdom United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow Subway  
Top contact United States United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport Station
Top contact Chicago Chicago "L" elevated and subway lines
Top contact New York City New York City Subway  
Top contact Staten Island Railway  
Top contact New York City metro area PATH  
Top contact Philadelphia Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
Bay Lake, Florida Walt Disney World Monorail System

750 V DC conductor[edit]

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact. All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Bottom contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
Algeria Algeria Algiers Algiers Metro  
Austria Austria Vienna Vienna U-Bahn  
Brazil Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro except Lines 4 and 5
China China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line only
Kunming Kunming Metro
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 2 and 3 only
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
Czech Republic Czech Republic Prague Prague Metro  
Denmark Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Metro  
Egypt Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 2 and Line 3
Finland Finland Helsinki Helsinki Metro  
Germany Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U5 to U9 (large profile). Negative polarity.
Hamburg Hamburg U-Bahn  
Munich Munich U-Bahn  
Nuremberg Nuremberg U-Bahn  
India India Bangalore Namma Metro  
Kochi Kochi Metro  
South Korea South Korea Busan Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit  
Malaysia Malaysia Klang Valley Klang Valley Integrated Transit System LRT & MRT (Ampang, Sri Petaling, Kelana Jaya and Sungai Buloh–Kajang lines), and KL Monorail to be used on Bandar Utama–Klang and Sungai Buloh–Serdang–Putrajaya lines
Netherlands Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Metro including line 51 north of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
Norway Norway Oslo Oslo T-bane  
Poland Poland Warsaw Warsaw Metro  
Romania Romania Bucharest Bucharest Metro  
Singapore Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North South Line, East West Line and Circle Line operated by SMRT Trains

Downtown Line operated by SBS Transit
Thomson-East Coast Line

Taiwan Taiwan Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
Taipei Taipei Metro
TaoyuanTaipei Taoyuan Metro
Turkey Turkey Ankara Ankara Metro  
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Lines M2 and M6 only
Izmir Izmir Metro  
United Kingdom United Kingdom London Docklands Light Railway  
United States United States New York City Metro-North Railroad  
Side contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
Canada Canada Montreal Montreal Metro (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
Chile Chile Santiago Santiago Metro  
France France Paris Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars.
See DC, four-rail below.
Lyon Lyon Métro
Marseille Marseille Métro
Lille Lille Métro
Rennes Rennes Métro
Toulouse Toulouse Métro
Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport
Automated People Mover (APM)
Mitsubishi "Crystal Mover" system using two power rails (positive and negative) with side collection.
Indonesia Indonesia Palembang, South Sumatra Palembang Light Rail Transit
Japan Japan Sapporo, Hokkaido Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line  
Singapore Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit Sengkang LRT Line and Punggol LRT Line operated by SBS Transit
Singapore Sentosa Express Sentosa Express operated by SDC
United States United States Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail  
Top contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
China China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line use button contact
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Line 1 only
France France Paris Paris Métro (Conventional metro)  
Germany Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U1 to U4 (small profile)
Greece Greece Athens Athens Metro Line 1 was 600 V before 1985.
Hungary Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro except line M1, which is 600 V DC with overhead lines.
India India Kolkata Kolkata Metro  
Japan Japan Osaka, Osaka Osaka Metro except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line, which are 1,500 V DC with overhead lines.
Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway  
Higashiosaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
Kintetsu Keihanna Line  
Yokohama, Kanagawa Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line (Line 1 and Line 3) only
North Korea North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
South Korea South Korea Yongin Everline  
Portugal Portugal Lisbon Lisbon Metro  
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico San Juan Tren Urbano  
Sweden Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro Nominal voltage 650 V, subway 3 (blue line) 750 V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750 V.
United Kingdom United Kingdom Liverpool Merseyrail  
London Northern City Line access to City (Moorgate)
London LNWR Suburban Network formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Southern England Southern Region of British Railways and successors 660 V system upgraded and expanded
United States United States Atlanta, Georgia MARTA
Los Angeles, California Los Angeles Metro Rail Red and Purple Lines
Miami, Florida Metrorail
New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
Long Island Rail Road Central, Greenport, and Oyster Bay branches not electrified; Montauk Branch not electrified east of Babylon; Port Jefferson Branch not electrified east of Huntington
Philadelphia, PA PATCO Speedline  
Puerto Rico Tren Urbano
Washington, D.C. Washington Metro  
within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
Amtrak  
within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan New Jersey Transit  
Mixed[edit]
Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
See note China China Tianjin Tianjin Metro Top contact in Line 1, bottom contact in Lines 2 and 3

1200 V DC conductor[edit]

All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise.

Using this type of electrification
No longer using this type of electrification
Side contact[edit]
Country Location Name of system Notes
Germany Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn 15 kV/16.7 Hz with overhead line in part of network.
United KingdomUnited Kingdom Manchester Manchester-Bury Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)

Systems using non-standard voltages[edit]

Overhead systems[edit]

DC voltage[edit]

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
120 United Kingdom United Kingdom Seaton, Devon Seaton Tramway Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250 United States United States Chicago Chicago Tunnel Company operated 1906–1959
525 Switzerland Switzerland Lauterbrunnen Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren  
550 China China Hong KongHong Kong Hong Kong Tramways  
550 Isle of Man Isle of Man Isle of Man Manx Electric Railway including Snaefell Mountain Railway
India India Kolkata Trams in Kolkata  
650 United States United States Buffalo, New York Buffalo Metro Rail
El Paso, Texas El Paso Streetcar
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Light Rail
Switzerland Switzerland Basel Basel Trams (BVB/BLT)
700 Switzerland Switzerland BexCol de Bretaye, Vaud Chemin de fer Bex-Villars-Bretaye
740 United States USA Oklahoma City Oklahoma City Streetcar
800 Poland Poland Tricity Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Operated 1951-1976. Converted to 3,000 V DC in 1976.
825 United States USA Portland, Oregon MAX, TriMet light rail sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street utilize a 750 V system
850 Switzerland Switzerland CapolagoMonte Generoso, Ticino Ferrovia Monte Generoso (MG)
900 Switzerland Switzerland Fribourg Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat  
Switzerland Switzerland Montreux Montreux-Oberland Bernois  
1,000 Switzerland Switzerland
Italy Italy
St Moritz, canton of GraubündenTirano, Lombardy Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Bernina line only; remainder of system electrified at 11 kV AC, 16 2⁄3 Hz. The Bernina line is an international line linking Switzerland (St. Moritz) with Italy (Tirano)
Hungary Hungary Budapest Budapest Commuter Rail and Rapid Transit (BHÉV) [27]
1,100 Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) only Line A (converted to 1,500 V DC with La Brugeoise trains replaced by new rolling stock in 2013)
1,250 Switzerland Switzerland Canton of Bern Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) All lines except tram line 6 between Bern and Worb, which is electrified at 600 V DC[28]
1,350 Italy Italy Switzerland Switzerland Domodossola, PiedmontLocarno, canton of Ticino Ferrovia Domodossola–Locarno (FART/SSIF) International railway between Italy (Domodossola) and Switzerland (Locarno)
Switzerland Switzerland LuganoPonte Tresa, canton of Ticino Ferrovia Lugano–Ponte Tresa (FLP)
2,400 Germany Germany Lausitzer   work line of the Lausitzer Brown Coal AG company
Poland Poland Konin PAK KWB KONIN[29]
Poland Poland Turek PAK KWB ADAMÓW[29]
France France Grenoble Chemin de fer de La Mure −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[30]
3,000 United States USA Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad 645 miles (1,038 km) on two sections, dismantled 1974
3,500 United Kingdom United Kingdom Manchester Bury – Holcombe Brook operated 1913–1918
6,000 Russia Russia     experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

AC voltage[edit]

Voltage Frequency Country Location Name of system Notes
5,500 16 23 Hz Germany Germany Murnau Ammergau Railway 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,250 50 Hz United Kingdom United Kingdom London, Essex, Herts Great Eastern suburban lines Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
United Kingdom United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow suburban lines Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz Germany Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 25 Hz Austria Austria Sankt Pölten Mariazellerbahn  
6,600 Norway Norway Orkdal Thamshavnbanen  
6,600 50 Hz Germany Germany Cologne Lowland Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants. Owned by RWE.
6,700 25 Hz United Kingdom United Kingdom Morecambe branch line Lancaster to Heysham 1908–1951
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz as a test bed for the future main line electrification system
South London line London Victoria station to London Bridge station 1909–1928
Converted to 660 V (later 750 V) DC third-rail supply
8 kV 25 Hz Germany Germany Karlsruhe Alb Valley Railway 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV Netherlands Netherlands The Hague - Rotterdam Hofpleinlijn from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz Russia Russia industrial railways at quarries Russian Railways operated from 1950s at coal and ore quarries
Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian Railways
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan
11 kV 16 23 Hz Switzerland Switzerland Graubünden Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Except the Bernina line, which is electrified at 1,000 V DC
  Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB) formerly Furka Oberalp Bahn (FO) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
50 Hz France France Saint-Gervais-les-Bains Mont Blanc Tramway  
11 kV 25 Hz United States United States   Pennsylvania Railroad
Etc.,
All lines now 12 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
12 kV 16 23 Hz France France lines in Pyrenees Chemin de fer du Midi most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12 kV 25 Hz United States United States Washington, DC - New York City Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA Keystone Corridor, Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Philadelphia SEPTA Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
12 kV 25 Hz United States United States Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit 1978-2002 (11 kV until 1978). Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz
12.5 kV 60 Hz United States United States Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad, Amtrak 11 kV until 1985
16 kV 50 Hz Hungary Hungary Budapest–Hegyeshalom railway Budapest to Hegyeshalom Kandó system 1931–1972, converted to 25 kV 50 Hz
20 kV 50 Hz Germany Germany Freiburg Höllentalbahn Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15 kV ​16 23 Hz.
France France Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
20 kV 50 Hz Japan Japan most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others  
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others  
50 kV 50 Hz South Africa South Africa Northern Cape, Western Cape Sishen–Saldanha railway line opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz Canada Canada British Columbia Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
60 Hz United States United States Arizona Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This was an isolated coal-hauling short line; no longer in use.
60 Hz United States United States Utah Deseret Power Railroad Formerly Deseret Western Railway. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.

Three-phase AC voltage[edit]

Two wires[edit]
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
725 50 Hz, Switzerland Switzerland ZermattGornergrat, canton of Valais Gornergratbahn
750 40 Hz, 3Ø BurgdorfThun Burgdorf-Thun Bahn Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV ​16 23 Hz in 1933
800 60 Hz, 3Ø Brazil Brazil Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Rack Railway  
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø Switzerland Switzerland Interlaken Jungfraubahn
3600 15 Hz, 3Ø Italy Italy Northern Italy Valtellina Electrification 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø France France Saint-Jean-de-Luz to Larrun Chemin de Fer de la Rhune  
3600 16 Hz, 3Ø Switzerland Switzerland, Italy Italy Simplon Tunnel   1906–1930
3600 16 23 Hz, 3Ø Italy Italy     operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
Porrettana railway FS 1927–1935
3600 16 23 Hz, 3Ø Italy Italy Trento/Trient to Brenner Brenner Railway 1929 - 1965
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø Spain Spain AlmeriaGergal   1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø United States United States Cascade Tunnel Great Northern Railway (U.S.) 1909 - 1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø Italy Italy Roma - Sulmona FS 1929–1944[31]
Three wires[edit]
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
3000 V 50 Hz Germany Germany Kierberg Zahnradbahn Tagebau Gruhlwerk rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
10000 V 50 Hz Berlin-Lichterfelde (de)   test track (1.8 km);
variable voltage and frequency;
trial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz - 48 Hz
(See notes)
Zossen - Marienfelde   test track (23.4 km);
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.

50 Hz Russia Russia Ship elevator of Krasnoyarsk Reservoir   length: 1.5 km, 9000 mm gauge

Conductor rail systems (all DC voltage)[edit]

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact.

Top contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
50 See notes United Kingdom United Kingdom Brighton Volk's Electric Railway Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail Claims to be the world's oldest operational electric railway
160 Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail Beaulieu Monorail at National Motor Museum current fed by 2 contact wires
180 See notes Germany Germany Berlin-Lichterfelde Siemens streetcar Current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail United Kingdom United Kingdom Southend Southend Pier Railway Until 1902[32]
250 Hythe, Hampshire Hythe Pier Railway  
United States USA Chicago, Illinois Chicago Tunnel Company Morgan Rack

1904, revenue service 1906–1908

300 Georgia (country) Georgia New Athos Cave Railway
400 Germany Germany Berchtesgaden Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway
440 United Kingdom United Kingdom London Post Office Railway Disused by post office since 2003[33] Now small section near Mount Pleasant operated as tourist attraction with battery powered stock[34]

150 V was used in station areas to limit train speed

550 Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Only Line B
630 United Kingdom United Kingdom Isle of Wight Island Line  
630 4th rail London London Underground (LUL) Supplied at +420 V and -210 V (630 V total); It is proposed to increase the voltage to 750 V (+500 V and -250 V)[35]
650 See notes London Euston to Watford DC Line Third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail

To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and South West Trains Putney Bridge to Wimbledon.

660 third rail   Southern Railway & LSWR some areas up to 1939, original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
700 United States USA Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore Metro SubwayLink
800 GermanyGermany Berlin Berlin S-Bahn discontinued, today 750 V
825 North KoreaNorth Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
1000 United States USA San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit [36]
1500 France France Chambéry - Modane Culoz–Modane railway used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire

Side contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
850 third rail France France Martigny Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine
1200 third rail United KingdomUnited Kingdom Manchester Manchester-Bury Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)
1200 third rail Germany Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6300 V 25 Hz) until 1955. Also uses German standard 15 kV, 16 2/3 Hz overhead electrification on the section between Neugraben and Stade on line S3, opened in December 2007.

Bottom contact systems[edit]

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
650 third rail Canada Canada Vancouver SkyTrain Expo Line (1985) and Millennium Line (2006)
700 third rail United States United States New York Metro-North Railroad Hudson and Harlem Lines, southern part of New Haven Line. Original New York Central Railroad electrification scheme to Grand Central Terminal.
Philadelphia Market-Frankford Line Originally 600 V, raised to 700 V
825 third rail Bulgaria Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Lines 1 and 2
Russia Russia Moscow Moscow Metro Nominal voltage: 825 V; allowed range: 550 V - 975 V[37]
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg Metro
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Metro
Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Metro
Samara Samara Metro
Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg Metro
Kazan Kazan Metro
Ukraine Ukraine Kiev Kiev Metro FSU underground systems share the same standard[38]
Kharkiv Kharkiv Metro
Dnipro Dnipro Metro
830 third rail Argentina Argentina Buenos Aires Mitre Line Retiro - José León Suárez
Retiro - Bartolomé Mitre
Retiro - Tigre
Once - Moreno Sarmiento Line
850 third rail France France Villefranche Ligne de Cerdagne Often referred to as the "Yellow Train"
Austria Austria Vienna Wiener Lokalbahn  
900 third rail Belgium Belgium Brussels Brussels Metro
1500 third rail China China Beijing Beijing Subway Line 7 only
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21 only. Overhead wires in depots; all trains are equipped with pantographs
Qingdao Qingdao Metro
Shanghai Shanghai Metro Lines 16 and 17 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 16; all trains are equipped with pantographs
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Lines 3 and 6 only
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 7, 8, 11 and Yangluo Line only
Wuxi Wuxi Metro

Special or unusual types[edit]

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below track[edit]

DC, one ground-level conductor[edit]

  • Wolverhampton Corporation Tramways, England (stud contact) (1902–1921)
  • Bordeaux Tramway, France (conductor rail)
  • Sydney Light Rail (tramway)(Under construction)

DC, two-wire[edit]

DC, power from running rails[edit]

DC, four-rail[edit]

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
Top contact London Underground London UK Transport for London[39]
630

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ BS EN 50163 (2007).
  2. ^ IEC 60850 (2007).
  3. ^ Sóller Website
  4. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 11.
  5. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 19.
  6. ^ "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  7. ^ Barrow, Keith (14 March 2014). "Cairo to order new trains for metro Line 1". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  8. ^ "Cairo Metro Tender for New Rolling Stock". MENA RAIL POST. MENA RAIL POST. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  9. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 139.
  10. ^ Swain (1990), p. 19.
  11. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 135.
  12. ^ Dixon (1994), p. 119.
  13. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p.101 & p.142
  14. ^ Boddy et al. (1990), p. 92–93.
  15. ^ Michał Szymajda (17 January 2020). "Szybka linia kolejowa „Y" przez CPK ma być gotowa do 2030 roku" [High-speed 'Y' railway line through CPK should be completed by 2030]. Rynek Lotniczy (in Polish). Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  16. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  17. ^ Electrified D. L. & W. Time magazine archives Retrieved 2007-08-12
  18. ^ "Western Railway sets stage for AC system - Times of India". timesofindia.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  19. ^ "From May 5, faster Central Railway with AC power - Times of India". timesofindia.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  20. ^ "Soon, faster trains on Kalyan-LTT route - Times of India". timesofindia.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Central Railway plans DC/AC switch in May - Times of India". timesofindia.com. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Israel Railways awards USD 500m electrification contract to Spanish SEMI". Think Railways. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  23. ^ "Africa's first high speed line inaugurated". Railway Gazette. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  24. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20160324151013/http://www.railwaysafrica.com/news/new-25kv-electrification-in-tunisia
  25. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60 Hz
  26. ^ "TXU - Monticello Line". Trainweb.org. 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  27. ^ "Railway Technical Info - Hungary". www.chiark.greenend.org.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  28. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 66.
  29. ^ a b http://www.locomotives.com.pl/Electric%20Locomotives/EL2.htm
  30. ^ "ERS - Presentation, La Mure". www.railfaneurope.net. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  31. ^ Cacozza, Marco (August 2016). "Three-Phase Electrification: An Italian Story". Today's Railways Europe #248. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ "Southend Pier Railway".
  33. ^ Karslake, Colin. "Unofficial MailRail Website - Home". www.mailrail.co.uk. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  34. ^ https://www.postalmuseum.org/discover/attractions/mail-rail-ride/
  35. ^ London Underground (October 2014), New Tube for London - Feasibility Report (PDF), p. 26
  36. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  37. ^ "Rules of technical operation of undergrounds of the Russian Federation (Правила технической эксплуатации метрополитенов Российской Федерации)" (PDF) (in Russian). International Metro Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  38. ^ "Structures, devices and rolling stock of underground (Сооружения, устройства и подвижной состав метрополитена)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  39. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-22.

References[edit]

External links[edit]