List of the deadliest tropical cyclones

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Satellite image of the 1970 Bhola cyclone, the deadliest tropical cyclone on record

This is a list of the deadliest tropical cyclones, including all known storms that caused at least 1,000 direct deaths. There were at least 74 tropical cyclones in the 20th century with a death toll of 1,000 or more, including the deadliest tropical cyclone in recorded history. In October 1970, the Bhola cyclone struck what is now Bangladesh and killed at least 300,000 people. There have been 13 tropical cyclones in the 21st century so far with a death toll of at least 1,000, of which the deadliest was Cyclone Nargis, with at least 138,373 deaths when it struck Myanmar. In recent years, the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was Hurricane Mitch of 1998, with at least 11,374 deaths attributed to it, while the deadliest Atlantic hurricane was the Great Hurricane of 1780, which resulted in at least 22,000 fatalities. The most recent tropical cyclone with at least 1,000 fatalities was Cyclone Idai in 2019, which killed 1,303 people.

19th century and earlier[edit]

Name Dates active Basin Areas affected Deaths Refs
Unnamed 957 Western Pacific China 10,000 [1]
Unnamed 1245 Western Pacific China 10,000 [1]
Unnamed 1601 North Atlantic Veracruz, Mexico 1,000 [2]
Unnamed 1605 North Atlantic Nicaragua 1,300 [2]
Unnamed October 10, 1617 Western Pacific Philippines 1,000 [3]
Unnamed September 5, 1622 North Atlantic Straits of Florida 1,090 [2]
Unnamed October 1644 North Atlantic Cuba, Florida 1,500 [2]
Unnamed August 14–15, 1666 North Atlantic Martinique and Guadeloupe 2,000 [2]
Unnamed September 27, 1694 North Atlantic Offshore Barbados 1,000+ [2]
Unnamed July 31, 1715 North Atlantic Bahamas, Florida Treasure Coast 1,000–2,500 [2]
Unnamed August 5–7, 1767 North Atlantic Martinique 1,600 [2]
Unnamed October 15, 1768 North Atlantic Cuba 43–1,000 [2]
Newfoundland August 29 – September 9, 1775 North Atlantic North Carolina, Virginia, Newfoundland 4,000 – 4,163 [2]
Pointe-à-Pitre Bay September 5–12, 1776 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles, Louisiana 6,000+ [2]
St. Lucia Hurricane of 1780 June 13, 1780 North Atlantic Puerto Rico St. Lucia 4,000–5,000
Unnamed July 1780 Western Pacific China 100,000 [3]
Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane of 1780 October 1–5, 1780 North Atlantic 1,115 [2]
Great Hurricane of 1780 October 9–20, 1780 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Bermuda 22,000–27,501 [2]
Solano's Hurricane October 18–21, 1780 North Atlantic Gulf of Mexico 2,000 [2]
Unnamed 1781 North Atlantic Offshore Florida 2,000+ [2]
1782 Central Atlantic hurricane September 16, 1782 North Atlantic destroyed Admiral Thomas Graves fleet 3,000+ [2]
Great Cuba Hurricane of 1791 June 21–22, 1791 North Atlantic Cuba 3,000 [2]
Martinique and Dominica August 25, 1813 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles 3,000+ [2]
Unnamed May 1822 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 40,000 [4]
1825 Santa Ana hurricane July 26–27, 1825 North Atlantic Caribbean and Puerto Rico 1,300 [2]
Great Caribbean-Louisiana Hurricane of 1831 August 10–17, 1831 North Atlantic Barbados, St. Vincent, Haiti, Cuba Louisiana 2,500 [2]
Unnamed 1862 Western Pacific China 80,000 [1]
Angela September 20–26, 1867 Western Pacific Philippines 1,800 [3]
San Marcos October 5–14, 1870 North Atlantic Cuba, Florida, Bahamas 800–2,000 [5]
Unnamed September 22–23, 1874 Western Pacific China 10,000 [1]
Unnamed October 29 – November 1, 1876 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 200,000 [6]
Unnamed September 27 – October 8, 1881 Western Pacific Ocean Philippines, Vietnam 3,000 [7]
Unnamed April 20–25, 1892 South-West Indian Ocean Mauritius 1,200 [8]
Sea Islands August 15 – September 2, 1893 North Atlantic Georgia, South Carolina 1,000–2,000 [2]
Chenier Caminada September 27 – October 5, 1893 North Atlantic Yucatán Peninsula, Louisiana, Mississippi 1,800–2,000 [2]
Unnamed September 15, 1894 Western Pacific Philippines, China 2,000 [3]
Unnamed 1897 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 175,000 [9]
Unnamed October 7, 1897 Western Pacific Philippines 1,500 [3]
San Ciriaco August 3 – September 4, 1899 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Eastern United States 3,855 [2]

20th century[edit]

Name Dates active Basin Areas affected Deaths Refs
Galveston August 27 – September 15, 1900 North Atlantic The Caribbean, Texas 6,000–12,000 [2]
Unnamed September 23–30, 1900 Western Pacific Philippines, Vietnam 1,600 [10]
Unnamed September 1902 Western Pacific Japan 1,300 [11]
Unnamed September 7–18, 1906 Western Pacific China 15,000 [1]
Monterrey August 20–28, 1909 North Atlantic Greater Antilles, Mexico 4,000
Unnamed April 1911 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 120,000 [4]
Unnamed August 1912 Western Pacific China 50,000 [12]
Unnamed September 1912 Western Pacific Japan 1,000 [13]
Unnamed May 1917 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 70,000 [4]
Unnamed September 1919 Western Pacific Japan 4,000 [13]
Unnamed September 1919 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 40,000 [4]
Swatow July 27 - August 3, 1922 Western Pacific China 60,000 [12]
Unnamed September 1923 Western Pacific Japan 3,000 [13]
Unnamed July 20–27, 1927 Western Pacific China 10,000 [14]
Unnamed August 19–30, 1927 Western Pacific China 5,000 [15]
Unnamed September 26, 1927 Western Pacific China 5,000 [16]
Okeechobee September 6–20, 1928 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Florida 4,075
San Zenon August 29 – September 17, 1930 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles, Hispaniola 2,000–8,000 [2]
1931 August 14–28, 1931 Western Pacific China 300,000 [17][18][19]
Belize September 6–13, 1931 North Atlantic Belize 1,500–2,500 [2]
Cuba October 30 – November 13, 1932 North Atlantic Netherlands Antilles, Cuba, Bahamas 3,142 [20][21]
Central America June 4–18, 1934 North Atlantic Central America, Eastern United States 2,000–3,000
Muroto September 13–21, 1934 Western Pacific Japan 3,066 [22]
Jérémie October 18–27, 1935 North Atlantic Greater Antilles, Central America 2,150
Unnamed August 28, 1936 Western Pacific South Korea 1,104 [23]
Unnamed August 28 - September 4, 1937 Western Pacific China 13,000 [1]
Unnamed May 21–27, 1941 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 7,000 [4]
Ida September 10–20, 1945 Western Pacific Japan 2,473 [24]
Kathleen September 10–17, 1947 Western Pacific Japan 1,077 [25]
Trix 1952 Western Pacific Philippines, Vietnam 1,400 [26][27]
Marie September 19–28, 1954 Western Pacific Japan 1,761 [28]
Janet September 21–30, 1955 North Atlantic Barbados, Windward Islands, British Honduras, Yucatán Peninsula, Mainland Mexico 1,023
Wanda July 25 - August 5, 1956 Western Pacific Taiwan, China 4,935 [29]
Ida September 20–27, 1958 Western Pacific Japan 1,269 [28]
Unnamed October 21–24, 1958 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 12,000 [4]
Sarah September 11–19, 1959 Western Pacific Japan, South Korea 2,000 [30]
Vera September 20–27, 1959 Western Pacific Japan 5,000 [31]
Mexico October 22–28, 1959 Eastern Pacific Southwest Mexico 1,800 [32]
Mary June 2–12, 1960 Western Pacific China 1600 [33]
Unnamed October 5–12, 1960 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 6,000 [4]
Unnamed October 27 - November 1, 1960 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 8,149 [4]
Unnamed May 5–9, 1961 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 11,468 [4]
Harriet October 19–31, 1962 Western Pacific and North Indian Ocean Bangladesh, Thailand 50,935 [34][4]
Unnamed May 25–29, 1963 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 11,520 [4]
Flora September 26 – October 12, 1963 North Atlantic The Caribbean, Florida 7,193 [35]
Rameswaram December 18–24, 1964 North Indian Ocean Sri Lanka, India 1,800 [36]
Unnamed May 5–12, 1965 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 19,270 [4]
Unnamed May 26 – June 1, 1965 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 12,000 [4]
Unnamed December 15, 1965 North Indian Ocean Pakistan 10,000 [37]
Unnamed May 7–10, 1968 North Indian Ocean Myanmar 1,037 [38]
Bhola November 3–13, 1970 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh, India ≥300,000 [39][9]
Unnamed October 27–31, 1971 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh, India 11,000 [4]
Flores April 26–30, 1972 Australian Indonesia 1,653 [40]
Fifi-Orlene September 14–24, 1974 North Atlantic Jamaica, Central America, Mexico 8,210 [41][2]
Nina July 30 – August 8, 1975 Western Pacific Ocean China 26,000 [39]
Liza September 25 - October 2, 1976 Eastern Pacific Mexico, Southwestern United States 1,263
Unnamed November 14–21, 1977 North Indian Ocean India (especially Andhra Pradesh) 10,000 [42]
Unnamed November 17–29, 1978 North Indian Ocean Sri Lanka, India 1,000 [43]
David August 25 – September 8, 1979 North Atlantic The Caribbean, United States East coast 2,068 [44][45]
Paul September 18–30, 1982 Eastern Pacific Central America, Mexico 1,800
Ike August 26 - September 6, 1984 Western Pacific Philippines, China 1,474 [46][47][48]
Agnes October 30 - November 9, 1984 Western Pacific Philippines, Vietnam 1,029 [49][50]
Unnamed May 22–25, 1985 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 11,069 [4]
Unnamed November 21–30, 1988 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh, India 6,240 [51][52]
Unnamed April 24–30, 1991 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 138,000 [53]
Thelma November 1–8, 1991 Western Pacific Philippines 5,081 [54]
Fred August 14–22, 1994 Western Pacific Japan, Taiwan, China 1,248 [55]
Gordon November 8–21, 1994 North Atlantic Central America, Greater Antilles, Florida 1,152
Unnamed November 4–7, 1996 North Indian Ocean India 1,077 [56]
Linda October 31 - November 9, 1997 Western Pacific and North Indian Ocean Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand 3,275 [57][58][59]
Unnamed June 4–10, 1998 North Indian Ocean India 4,000 [60]
Mitch October 22 – November 5, 1998 North Atlantic Central America, Yucatán Peninsula, South Florida 11,374 [61][62][63]
Unnamed May 16–22, 1999 North Indian Ocean Pakistan 6,200 [64]
Unnamed October 25 - November 4, 1999 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh, India (especially Odisha), Myanmar 9,899 [65][66][67]

21st century[edit]

Name Dates active Basin Areas affected Deaths Refs
Jeanne September 13–28, 2004 North Atlantic The Caribbean, Eastern United States 3,037 [44][68][69][70]
Winnie November 29–30, 2004 Western Pacific Philippines 1,593 [71]
Katrina August 23–30, 2005 North Atlantic Bahamas, United States Gulf Coast 1,836 [72]
Stan October 1–5, 2005 North Atlantic Mexico, Central America 1,668 [44][73]
Durian November 25 – December 6, 2006 Western Pacific Philippines, Vietnam 1,500
Sidr November 11–16, 2007 North Indian Ocean Bangladesh 3,447 [74]
Nargis April 27 – May 3, 2008 North Indian Ocean Myanmar 138,373 [75]
Fengshen June 17–27, 2008 Western Pacific Philippines, China 1,371 [26]
Washi December 13–19, 2011 Western Pacific Philippines 2,546
Bopha November 25 - December 9, 2012 Western Pacific Philippines 1,601 [26]
Haiyan November 3–11, 2013 Western Pacific Philippines 6,352 [76][77][78][79][80]
Maria September 16 – October 2, 2017 North Atlantic Lesser Antilles (particularly Dominica), Puerto Rico 3,059 [81]
Idai March 4–21, 2019 South-West Indian Ocean Mozambique, Malawi, Madagascar, Zimbabwe 1,303 [82][83][84][85][86]
[nb 1]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Reference for dates for Atlantic hurricanes.[87]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]