List of deadly fungus species

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Although many people have a fear of mushroom poisoning by "toadstools", only a small number of the many macroscopic fruiting bodies commonly known as mushrooms and toadstools have proven fatal to humans.

This list is not exhaustive and does not contain many fungi that, although not deadly, are still harmful. For a less detailed list on fungi that include non-deadly poisonous species, see List of poisonous fungi.

Deadly Fungi
Fungi with significant risk of death if consumed
Scientific name Common name Active Agent Toxicity Habitat Similar edible species Picture
Amanita arocheae
Tulloss, Ovrebo & Halling
Latin American death cap amatoxins liver Woodland (oak)
Mexico
Amanita arocheae 353827.jpg
Amanita bisporigera
G. F. Atk.
Eastern destroying angel amatoxins liver Woodland (pine and oak)
Eastern North America
Agaricus silvicola, Volvariella volvacea Amanita bisporigera 17932.jpg
Amanita exitialis
Zhu L. Yang & T.H. Li
Guangzhou destroying angel amatoxins[1][2] liver Deciduous woodland
Guangdong province,
China; India
Amanita fuliginea
Hongo
East Asian brown death cap amatoxins liver Woodland
China
Amanita magnivelaris
Peck
Great felt skirt destroying angel α-Amanitin[3] liver North America, Guatemala Amanita magnivelaris 95937.jpg
Amanita ocreata
Peck
Western destroying angel α-Amanitin liver Woodland (oak)
Pacific Northwest
North America
Amanita ocreata 79782.jpg
Amanita phalloides
(Vaill. ex Fr.) Link
death cap α-Amanitin (causes liver failure), Phalloidin (causes extreme GI upset) liver + upper GI Woodland (various)
Europe, North Africa, North America, Australia (SE), New Zealand
Volvariella volvacea,
Russula virescens
Amanita lanei
Tricholoma equestre, Agaricus campestris
Amanita phalloides 1.JPG
Amanita smithiana
Bas
smith's lepidella 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid liver & kidney Woodland
Japan and Pacific Northwest
Amanita smithiana 1403.jpg
Amanita sphaerobulbosa
Hongo
Asian abrupt-bulbed Lepidella 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid liver & kidney Mixed woodlands, eastern Asia
Amanita subpallidorosea
Qing Cai, Zhu L. Yang & Y.Y. Cui
amatoxins liver Woodland
China
Amanita subjunquillea
S. Imai
East Asian death cap amatoxins liver Woodland
East and Southeast Asia, Japan, India
Amanita verna
(Bull.: Fr.) Lam.
Fool's mushroom amatoxins liver Woodland (various)
Europe
Agaricus arvensis
Agaricus campestris
Lycoperdon spp.
Amanita verna-02.jpg
Amanita virosa
(Fr.) Bertillon
European destroying angel amatoxins liver Woodland (various)
Europe
Agaricus arvensis
Agaricus campestris
Lycoperdon spp.
Destroying Angel 02.jpg
Claviceps purpurea Ergot ergotamine multiple grass Claviceps purpurea.JPG
Clitocybe dealbata
(Sowerby) Gillet
ivory funnel muscarine CNS grassland
Europe, North America
Marasmius oreades

Clitopilus prunulus

Clitocybe dealbata.jpg
Clitocybe rivulosa
(Pers.) P. Kumm.
false champignon muscarine CNS grassland
Europe, North America
Marasmius oreades

Clitopilus prunulus

Clitocybe rivulosa 20081116w.JPG
Cortinarius gentilis
(Fr.) Fr.
orellanine kidney Cortinarius gentilis group.jpg
Cortinarius orellanus
Fries
Fool's webcap orellanine kidney Coniferous woodland
Northern Europe
Corellanus.jpg
Cortinarius rubellus
Cooke
deadly webcap orellanine kidney Coniferous woodland
Northern Europe
Cortinarius rubellus 01.jpg
Cortinarius eartoxicus
Gasparini
deadly webcap orellanine kidney Tasman Peninsula, Tasmania
Cortinarius splendens
Rob. Henry
splendid webcap, yellow clubbed foot orellanine kidney 2008-11-26 Cortinarius splendens Rob. Henry 234180.jpg
Galerina marginata
(Batsch) Kühner
autumn skullcap amatoxins liver worldwide Kuehneromyces mutabilis
Galerina marginata.jpg
Galerina sulciceps
(Batsch) Kühner
amatoxins liver Indonesia
Gyromitra (genus)
Fr.
false morel monomethylhydrazine multiple (depletes PLP stores) Coniferous woodland
Northern latitudes
Morchella spp. Frühjahrslorchel.JPG
Inocybe erubescens
A. Blytt
red-staining inocybe
(prev. I. patouillardii)
muscarine CNS Deciduous woodland (beech)
Europe
Calocybe gambosa,
Agaricus spp.,
Cortinarius caperatus[4]
Inocybe-erubescens024.jpg
Lepiota brunneoincarnata
Chodat & C. Martín
deadly dapperling amatoxins liver Coniferous woodland
Europe
Tricholoma terreum, Marasmius oreades Lepiota brunneoincarnata 060823w.jpg
Lepiota brunneolilacea
Bon & Boiffard
star dapperling amatoxins liver Sand dunes
Western Europe
Lepiota castanea
Quél
chestnut dapperling amatoxins liver Coniferous woodland
Europe
Lepiota castanea 70848.jpg
Lepiota helveola
Bres.
amatoxins liver Coniferous woodland
Europe
Lepiota subincarnata
deadly parasol amatoxins liver Coniferous woodland
North America
Lepiota subincarnata 117620.jpg
Pholiotina rugosa
(Peck) Singer
more commonly known as Conocybe filaris
amatoxins liver grassland, lawns, rich soil and compost
North America, Europe and Asia
Psilocybe spp.
Podostroma cornu-damae
(Patouillard) Hongo & Izawa
diacetylsatratoxin-H (ribosome inactivating small molecule) bone marrow, brain and skin Japan Ganoderma antlers Podostroma cornu-damae.jpg
Paxillus involutus
(Batsch ex Fr.) Fr.
brown roll-rim unknown, possibly glycoprotein antigen extreme autoimmune reaction with hemolysis Europe and North America Paxillus involutus 20061015w.jpg
Trogia venenata
Zhu L.Yang, Y.C.Li & L.P.Tang
Little White (2S,4R)‐2‐amino‐4‐hydroxyhex‐5‐ynoic acid [5] Causes cardiac arrhythmia and hypoglycemia (Yunnan Sudden Death Syndrome) Yunnan, China white Pleurotus
Fungi where isolated deaths have been reported
Scientific name Common name Active Agent Toxicity Habitat Similar edible species Picture
Amanita muscaria Fly agaric Muscimol, ibotenic acid CNS Northern hemisphere, coniferous and deciduous woodland Lycoperdon spp.

Calvatia spp.

Amanita caesarea

Amanita muscaria 3 vliegenzwammen op rij.jpg
Boletus pulcherrimus
Fr.
muscarine severe gastrointestinal Woodland
Western North America
Boletus edulis
Neoboletus luridiformis
Boletus pulcherrimus 21538 ed.jpg
Entoloma sinuatum
(Bull.) P. Kumm.
Livid agaric unknown severe gastrointestinal Deciduous woodland
North America, Europe
Clitopilus prunulus
Calocybe gambosa
Entoloma abortivum
Entoloma sinuatum group.JPG
Hypholoma fasciculare
(Huds.:Fr.) P. Kumm.
sulfur tuft Fasciculol E severe gastrointestinal Woodland
Western North America
Armillaria mellea
Hypholoma capnoides
Hypholoma fasciculare LC0091.jpg
Lactarius torminosus
(Schaeff.) Gray
woolly milk-cap unknown severe gastrointestinal Woodland
Northern Europe
Lactarius deliciosus
Lactarius torminosus 041031w.jpg
Omphalotus illudens
(Schwein.) Bresinsky & Besl
jack-o'lantern mushroom Illudin and Muscarine severe cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea North America Cantharellus californicus 2007-08-05 Omphalotus illudens (Schwein.) Bresinsky & Besl 1018098506.jpg
Omphalotus japonicus
(Kawam.) Kirchm. & O.K.Mill. (2002)
jack-o'lantern mushroom Illudin and Muscarine acute nausea and vomiting Japan Pleurotus ostreatus
Lentinula edodes
Sarcomixa serotina
Omphalotus guepiniformis Berk Neda 02.jpg
Pleurocybella porrigens Angel Wings Pleurocybellaziridine[6] neurotoxic Woodland (various)
North America, Europe and Asia
Pleurotus pulmonarius Pleurocybella 050919low.jpg
Russula subnigricans
Hongo
cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acid rhabdomyolysis Japan, China and North America Russula nigricans, Russula eccentrica
Tricholoma equestre
(L.) P. Kumm.
yellow knight, man-on-horseback cycloprop-2-ene carboxylic acid rhabdomyolysis worldwide Tricholoma equestre.jpg

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Yang Z, Li T (2001). "Notes on three white Amanitae of section Phalloideae (Amanitaceae) from China". Mycotaxon. 78: 439–48. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  2. ^ Hu J, Chen ZH, Zhang ZG, Zhang P (2003). "Analysis of the main amatoxins and phallotoxins in Amanita exitialis, a new species in China". Weishengwu Xuebao. 43 (5): 642–46. ISSN 0001-6209. 
  3. ^ Logemann H, Argueta J, Guzmán G, Montoya Bello L, Bandala Munoz VM, De Leon Chocooj R (1987). "A deadly poisoning by mushrooms in Guatemala". Revista Mexicana de Micologia (in Spanish). 3: 211–16. ISSN 0187-3180. 
  4. ^ Zeitlmayr L. (1976). Wild Mushrooms:An Illustrated Handbook. Hertfordshire: Garden City Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-584-10324-7. 
  5. ^ Zhou, Z. Y.; Shi, G. Q.; Fontaine, R.; Wei, K.; Feng, T.; Wang, F.; Wang, G. Q.; Qu, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Dong, Z. J.; Zhu, H. J.; Yang, Z. L.; Zeng, G.; Liu, J. K. (2012). "Evidence for the Natural Toxins from the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Death in Yunnan Province, China". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 51 (10): 2368–2370. doi:10.1002/anie.201106502. PMID 22287497. 
  6. ^ Wakimoto T, Asakawa T, Akahoshi S, Suzuki T, Nagai K, Kawagishi H, Kan T (2011). "Proof of the existence of an unstable amino acid: pleurocybellaziridine in Pleurocybella porrigens". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 50 (5): 1168–1170. doi:10.1002/anie.201004646. PMID 21268219.