List of defunct retailers of the United States

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For defunct restaurants and department (and variety) stores that were formerly a part of this list, please see List of defunct restaurants of the United States and List of defunct department stores of the United States respectively.

Across the United States, a large number of local stores and store chains that started between the 1920s and 1950s have become defunct since the late 1960s, when many chains were either consolidated or liquidated. Some have been lost due to mergers.

U.S. retailers were initially an important part of the local community—such as the corner drugstore or the tool store. As stores expanded into large chains, they became integrated with the regional and national experience as well. In some cases, the local stores expanded into large corporations as the F.W. Woolworth Company did. In other cases, new entities were created that supplanted the small, local retailers—such as what happened with Borders Books and Music. Those new retailers also became strongly assimilated into the American culture.

The book chain retailers and especially Blockbuster Video were often part of a household ritual, where children grew up with memories strongly associated with those brands. Some large brands were iconic to large metropolitan areas, as Macy's found out when they dissolved the Marshall Field's name. Even less-emotional experiences, like grocery shopping, were highly associated with a defunct retailer's brand.

Some of the largest brands may not have had as much emotional impact on our culture, but employed so many people that a significant number of families were affected by those brands. For example, Circuit City had tens of thousands of employees across the U.S. when they dissolved.

Retailers spend a considerable amount of their marketing budget establishing their brand names, which are often trademarked and aggressively protected. Emotional and economic ties to defunct retailers remain strong long after the brand disappears from the marketplace.

Below is a list of defunct retailers of the United States.

Automotive[edit]

Camping, sports or athletic stores[edit]

Catalog showrooms[edit]

Clothing, shoe and specialty stores[edit]

  • A&N Stores - A regional chain of Army-Navy surplus stores that later sold sportswear and footwear, A&N ceased operations in 2008.[102][103]
  • Anchor Blue - Youth-oriented mall chain, founded in 1972 as Miller's Outpost. The brand had 150 stores at its peak, predominantly on the West Coast. Anchor Blue declared bankruptcy in 2009 and shuttered more than 50 stores, and gradually shrank to include stores solely in California. It went bankrupt once more in 2011, with the remaining stores closed before Easter of that year.[104]
  • Anderson-Little - men's specialty retailer originally associated with a large Massachusetts-based men's clothing manufacturer; also known as Anderson Little-Richman Brothers; owned for many years by F. W. Woolworth Company. Ceased operations in 1997.[105][106][107][108][109]
  • Arden B. - A juniors store focused on trendy dresses and clubwear, launched by Wet Seal in 1998. Store count dwindled in the late 2000s, the brand went entirely out of business in 2014.[110]
  • Contempo Casuals/Petite Sophisticate - A duo of juniors brand established by Neiman Marcus that grew to more than 230 mall locations. Competitor Wet Seal purchased the brands in 1996 and gradually converted them to Wet Seal locations.
  • Body Central - A juniors store focusing on fast-fashion. Body Central experienced rapid expansion in the 2000s after an IPO, only to default on $18 million in debt and go bankrupt in 2014.[111]
  • County Seat - Founded in 1973, the denim-focused mall retailer expanded in the 1980s to nearly 500 stores. It filed for bankruptcy in 1996 and shuttered stores, and another bankruptcy in 1999 put the company out of business.[112]
  • Delia's - founded in 1993 as a juniors' clothing catalog, Delia's (stylized as dEliA*s) expanded to more than 100 physical locations before cheaper competitors sent it to bankruptcy in 2014.[113]
  • El Bee Shoes - a shoe store spinoff of the Elder-Beerman department store chain. The brand was liquidated in 1996.[114][115][116][117]
  • Fashion Bug- Plus-size women's clothing retailer that once spanned more than 1000 stores. Parent company Charming Shoppes, which owned other plus-size retailers including Lane Bryant, shuttered the brand in early 2013.
  • Gadzooks - Founded in 1983 as a T-shirt store, Gadzooks grew to a 250-store mall fashion retailer before making an ill-advised decision to discontinue menswear. The company was purchased by competitor Forever 21 out of bankruptcy, with its stores either closed or converted to F21 formats.
  • Gottschalks - Founded in 1904, this middle-market regional department store was once the largest independently-owned publicly-traded department store in the United States. Bankruptcy claimed the brand in 2009.[118]
  • Harold's – Founded in 1948 in Norman, Oklahoma, and liquidated through bankruptcy in 2008.[119]
  • Harry Levinson's – Indianapolis-based men's clothing chain that went bankrupt in 1995.[120][121][122]
  • J. Brannam – a unit of the F. W. Woolworth Company established in 1979 that operated primarily in the southern U.S.;[123] closed in 1985[124]
  • Jay Jacobs – Seattle-based clothier founded in 1941 and closed in 1999
  • Judy's – Women's clothing retail chain founded in 1946[125] and sold in 1989 to Laws International Holdings Ltd.; entered Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection from 1992 to early 1993. Larry Hansel/Westridge Partners purchased the 50 remaining stores in 1993 but the chain, including Hansel's Rampage Clothing went bankrupt by 1997.[126][127]
  • Kids "R" Us - A division of Toys "R" Us, created in 1983 to sell children's and preteen clothing; it folded in 2003.
  • Kinney Shoes – manufacturer and retailer established in 1894 and purchased by F.W. Woolworth in 1963
  • Kleinhans – a men's clothier in Buffalo, New York that operated from 1893 until 1992
  • Klopfenstein's – a men's clothier in the Seattle-Tacoma area founded in 1918 and in operation until 1992[128]
  • Martin + Osa - Established in 2006 as the more mature counterpart to American Eagle Outfitters, the chain grew to 28 stores before millions in losses forced its parent company to discontinue it. The brand's stores and e-commerce site disappeared in 2010.
  • Merry-Go-Round - The precursor to today's "Fast-Fashion" brands, Merry-Go-Round had more than 500 locations during its heyday in the 1980s. It went bankrupt in 1995.[129]
  • Mervyn's - A California-based regional department store founded in 1949. Mervyn's ill-fated expansion out of West Coast markets in the months before a recession sent the company into bankruptcy in 2008.[130][131]
  • Paul Harris - Women's retailer based in Indianapolis-Started in 1952. Filed for bankruptcy protection in 1991 and again in 2000 only to close all stores in Spring of 2001.[132]
  • Raleigh's – also known as Raleigh Haberdasher, was a men's and women's clothing store in Washington, D.C. from 1911 to 1992
  • Richman Brothers – men's specialty store and manufacturer based in Cleveland, Ohio; in 1969, it became a division of F. W. Woolworth Company along with its Anderson Little stores, and operated until the division became unprofitable and was closed in 1992.[133][134]
  • Robert Hall
  • Rogers Peet – New York City, New York, and branches
  • Roos/Atkins - a San Francisco menswear retailer formed in 1957 and expanded throughout the Bay Area in the 60s. The brand went into decline in the 1980s and ceased operations by 1995.
  • Ruehl No.925 – concept brand launched by Abercrombie & Fitch in 2004; poor sales and operating losses led to A&F ceasing operations of Ruehl in early 2010.
  • Sagebrush – sold casual wear
  • The Sample – Buffalo, New York
  • Sibley's Shoes
  • Sycamore Shops – a boutique founded by L.S. Ayres in 1968;[135] later sold to managers when parent company divested; filed for bankruptcy in 1996.[136]
  • Thom McAn[137]
  • Today's Man - A men's suiting store that began in the 1970s and expanded rapidly in the 1980s and 90s. Overexpansion brought the brand to bankruptcy in 1996.[138]
  • Yellow Front Stores - Founded in the 1950s as an army surplus store, Yellow Front transitioned to become a camping gear retailer before going bankrupt in 1990.
  • Warner Brothers Studio Store - Meant to be the WB answer to the rapidly growing Disney Store, the Warner Bros. Studio Stores sold collectibles and apparel based around WB properties including Looney Tunes and DC Comics. The Studio Stores were a victim of the AOL-Time Warner merger, and shuttered operations in 2001.[139]

Department and discount stores[edit]

Drug stores[edit]

A–M[edit]

N–Z[edit]

Electronics stores[edit]

Five-and-dime; variety stores[edit]

Furniture stores[edit]

Grocery stores and supermarkets[edit]

A–M[edit]

N–Z[edit]

Home decor and craft stores[edit]

Home improvement[edit]

Music, booksellers, and video stores (records, tapes, books, CDs, DVDs, etc.)[edit]

A–M[edit]

N–Z[edit]

Office-supply stores[edit]

Toy stores[edit]

Warehouse clubs and membership department stores[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  360. ^ "Dish Network Acquires Blockbuster For $228 Million In Cash". Huffington Post. April 4, 2011. 
  361. ^ Lewis, Al (November 10, 2013). "Not All Blockbuster Stores Are Closing: Al Lewis Says the Chain Didn't Reinvent Itself and Neglected Its Stores". Wall Street Journal. 
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  363. ^ "Trans World to buy CD World". The Business Review. September 18, 2003. 
  364. ^ Johnson, Greg (September 19, 2003). "Trans World to buy bankrupt CD World". Daily Deal. 
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  366. ^ a b Fitzpatrick, Eileen (July 5, 1997). "Trans World at 25". Billboard 109 (27). pp. 68, 70, and 74–76.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  367. ^ Wasserman, Todd (March 1, 2001). "Trans World Renames Mall Stores Fye". Adweek. 
  368. ^ Ingram, Sarah Sue (March 24, 2001). "Fyi: Music Stores Will Be Changing Name To 'Fye'". Newport News Daily Press. 
  369. ^ "Retailing". Los Angeles Times. February 13, 2001. 
  370. ^ Madigan, Sean (March 13, 2001). "Hilco to oversee Crown liquidation". Washington Business Journal. 
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  374. ^ Engle, Erika (February 15, 2002). "Little interest in music retailers’ locations: Parent company's troubles silence local House of Music". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 
  375. ^ Buck, Genevieve (June 17, 1995). "Kroch's Files For Bankruptcy". Chicago Tribune. 
  376. ^ Gellene, Denise (April 23, 1986). "Licorice Pizza Chain Will Be Sold to American Can Unit". Los Angeles Times. 
  377. ^ Goodman, Fred (October 5, 1985). "Licorice Pizza Enjoys Smooth Transition: Record Bar Takeover Seen Posing Few Problems". Billboard 98 (40). p. 18.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  378. ^ Groves, Martha (February 3, 1988). "Suitors Looking Into Musicland Chain". Los Angeles Times. 
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  382. ^ Groves, Martha (April 8, 1988). "Shamrock Holdings Agrees to Buy 54-Store Music Plus Chain". Los Angeles Times. 
  383. ^ Lippman, John (October 20, 1992). "Blockbuster Buys 236 Retail Record Stores: Acquisitions: The Music Plus and Sound Warehouse chains give the video 'superstore' giant a foothold in the music business". Los Angeles Times. 
  384. ^ a b Shapiro, Eben (October 20, 1992). "Blockbuster Agrees to Buy Music Store Chain". New York Times. 
  385. ^ Barmash, Isadore (June 13, 1988). "At 85, Sam Goody Longs For a New Business". New York Times. p. D2.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  386. ^ "Musicland stores being renamed Sam Goody as part of turnaround". Augusta Chronicle. August 1, 1997. 
  387. ^ "Musicland to rename stores". Minneapolis St. Paul Business Journal. August 1, 1997. 
  388. ^ Arnold, Thomas K. & Prange, Stephanie (December 8, 2000). "Best Buy Agrees to Buy Musicland Stores". Los Angeles Times. 
  389. ^ Lindeman, Teresa F. (January 25, 2002). "The day the music dies: NRM workers bemoan loss of a company they loved and couldn't leave". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  390. ^ "National Record Mart Inc.". Wall Street Journal. November 16, 1993. p. B4. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
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  394. ^ Sippel, John (November 17, 1979). "Odyssey Chain In Reorganization Plea". Billboard 91 (46). p. 1.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  395. ^ Sippel, John (September 6, 1980). "Mystery Buyer Acquires Odyssey Inventory". Billboard 92 (36). p. 1.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  396. ^ Tellijohn, Andrew (May 12, 2002). "On Cue brand will become Sam Goody". Minneapolis St. Paul Business Journal. 
  397. ^ Heller, Laura (April 22, 2002). "Best Buy converts On Cue stores to Sam Goody name". DSN Retailing Today 41 (8). pp. 5, 27.  Link via ProQuest.
  398. ^ Garrity, Brian & Benz, Matthew (April 13, 2002). "On Cue Rebranding As Sam Goody". Billboard 114 (15). p. 63.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  399. ^ Penchansky, Alan (March 20, 1982). "Prime Mall Locations Key To JR/Oranges Growth". Billboard 94 (11). pp. 4, 68.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  400. ^ "Peaches Debt Filing". New York Times. June 5, 1981. p. D5.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  401. ^ "Music Records: Peaches Asks Chapt. XI". Variety 303 (6). June 10, 1981. p. 61.  Link via ProQuest.
  402. ^ Ferris, D. X. (March 2, 2005). "Hut No More; One of Ohio's longest-running independent music chains closes for good". Cleveland Scene.  Link via ProQuest.
  403. ^ Smith, Erika D. (May 27, 2004). "Canton-Based Retail Chain Must Close 3 of 5 Music Stores in Northeast Ohio". Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. p. 1.  Link via ProQuest.
  404. ^ Abram, Malcolm X (February 3, 2005). "Swan Song For Quonset Hut - Akron Store Closes After 35 Years. Canton Site To Hold Out-Of-Business Sale Through Feb. 28". Akron Beacon Journal. p. G3. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via NewsBank.
  405. ^ LaCroix, Ryan (April 9, 2013). "Over the Rainbow". Oklahoma Gazette. 
  406. ^ Phillips, Jeff (April 16, 1990). "RTO closes three more stores in reorganization. (Music Promotions Inc. shutters Record and Tape Outlet stores)". Columbus Business First. 
  407. ^ Amatos, Christopher A. (November 4, 1988). "Record Shops' Owner Seeks End To IRS Lien". Columbus Dispatch. p. 01C.  Link via NewsBank.
  408. ^ a b Altaner, David (October 7, 1993). "Blockbuster To Buy 430-store Music, Video Retailer". Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel. 
  409. ^ "After Testing, TSS Retail Web Ups Tape Prices". Billboard 92 (27). July 5, 1980. p. 8.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  410. ^ a b Mayfield, Geoff (October 18, 1986). "Retailing: Upbeat Mood At Record World Meet". Billboard 98 (42). pp. 55, 57.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  411. ^ a b Mayfield, Geoff (October 18, 1986). "Retailing: Personal Touch Pays For Elroy's Imber". Billboard 98 (42). pp. 55, 57.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  412. ^ "Merrill Rosenbloom; ran Rose Records". Chicago Sun-Times. February 15, 1997 – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  413. ^ Veverka, Mark (February 7, 1994). "Broken Records Price-Cutting Rocks Rose, Other Players". Crain's Chicago Business. 
  414. ^ Christman, Ed (March 1, 1997). "Longtime Chicago-Based Retailer Merrill Rose Dies". Billboard 109 (9). pp. 50, 52.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  415. ^ Lazare, Lewis (September 15, 1994). "Rose Regroups/Department of Overdue Accounts; Rose Records is retrenching. According to Jim Rose the chain was caught in the crossfire between Best Buy and Circuit City". Chicago Reader. 
  416. ^ Holton, Lisa (August 3, 1995). "Ending an Era, Tower Buys Rose Records". Chicago Sun-Times – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  417. ^ "Shamrock Holdings Plans To Buy Sound Warehouse". The Oklahoman. January 17, 1989. 
  418. ^ Alvarez, Lizette (January 11, 2013). "Florida Record Store Goes the Way of the 8-Track". New York Times. 
  419. ^ Mayfield, Geoff (October 11, 1986). "Record World Meet: Coming Of Age". Billboard 98 (41). pp. 8, 90.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  420. ^ a b "Video Supplier Has New Chief". New York Times. December 31, 1993. 
  421. ^ a b "Partnership Buys Control Of Strawberries Inc.". New York Times. September 1, 1994. 
  422. ^ a b "Trans World closes on Strawberries deal". The Business Review. October 9, 1997. 
  423. ^ Cuff, Daniel F. (October 25, 1989). "New Strawberries Chief To Expand Music Chain". New York Times. 
  424. ^ Snow, Anita (August 22, 1989). "Video Company Chief, Wife Found Fatally Shot In Mansion Home". Associated Press. 
  425. ^ "RIP Streetside Records Delmar". Playback STL. December 24, 2007. 
  426. ^ Shrubshell, Don (December 6, 2012). "Streetside Records to close next month". Columbia Daily Tribune. 
  427. ^ Semuels, Alana (October 7, 2006). "Tower Records to Sell Off Inventory: Liquidation specialist Great American Group, which bought the bankrupt music retailer for $134.3million, plans to close all 89 stores.". Los Angeles Times. 
  428. ^ a b c Chapman, Francesca (September 23, 1993). "Handwriting On The Wall Wee Three Record Outlet Spinning Into A Bigger Chain". Philadelphia Daily News. 
  429. ^ "Camelot Music Agrees to Purchase The Wall; Camelot Music and WH Smith PLC Announce Signing of Letter of Intent". PR Newswire (Press release). October 31, 1997 – via The Free Library. 
  430. ^ Kasrel, Deni (December 5, 1997). "Bankrupt buyers woo The Wall. (Camelot Music Inc.)". Philadelphia Business Journal. 
  431. ^ Zollo, Paul (2011). "Wallich's Music City and Capitol Records". Hollywood Remembered: An Oral History of Its Golden Age. pp. 44–45. ISBN 9781589796034. 
  432. ^ a b Wallichs, Glenn E. (August 2, 1952). "Looking Backwards Means Little; Next Ten Years Offer Challenges". Billboard 64 (31). p. 52. 
  433. ^ "Wallichs Maps Plans to Expand Disk Outlets". Billboard 68 (48). December 1, 1956. p. 15. 
  434. ^ "Wallichs Will Open 7th Outlet--Eyes Move Into Southeast". Billboard 81 (16). April 19, 1969. p. 6.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  435. ^ Sippel, John (March 19, 1977). "Wallichs Stores File Bankruptcy: Surprise Move Follow Pioneer Chain's Reorganization". Billboard 89 (11). p. 10.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  436. ^ Schorpp, Doug (July 18, 2011). "All Waldenbooks, Borders stores closing". Quad-City Times. 
  437. ^ Burke, Richard (July 21, 1990). "Wall To Wall Sound Files Petition For Bankruptcy Relief In Phila.". Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  438. ^ Simmons, Sheila (May 16, 1990). "Wall To Wall Stressing Software". Philadelphia Daily News. 
  439. ^ Potts, Mark (November 30, 1989). "Waxie Maxie Chain Sold To Los Angeles Company; $11.7 Million Deal for 33 Record Stores". Washington Post – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  440. ^ Warner, Susan (April 27, 1992). "Record-store Chain Gets A New Spin When Wee Three Records Took Over Wall To Wall, A New British Invasion Was Only Just Beginning". Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  441. ^ Sippel, John (November 6, 1982). "Wee Three: Owners' Accounting Skills Help Philadelphia Chain Grow". Billboard 94 (44). pp. 33, 55.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  442. ^ Leeds, Jeff (January 22, 2003). "Wherehouse Files for Chapter 11". Los Angeles Times. 
  443. ^ "Wherehouse Music stores' parent files for bankruptcy". St. Louis Business Journal. January 21, 2003. 
  444. ^ "Court OKs Purchase of Wherehouse Stores". Los Angeles Times. October 1, 2003. 
  445. ^ Christman, Ed (October 11, 2003). "TransWorld Trumps Sun Capital In Its Bid For Wherehouse". Billboard 115 (41). p. 73. ISSN 0006-2510. 
  446. ^ Chambers, Carson (December 28, 2010). "Vinyl Fever closing after 31 years in business". WFTS ABC Action News. 
  447. ^ Morgan, Philip (December 27, 2010). "Tampa music institution Vinyl Fever to close in February". Tampa Bay Times. 
  448. ^ "All Virgin Megastores in U.S. to close". Hollywood Reporter. March 3, 2009. 
  449. ^ Rengers, Carrie (April 15, 2004). "Yesterday Discs To Play Its Final Tune". Wichita Eagle. 
  450. ^ Hart, Timothy (September 13, 1998). "Yesterday's Discs finds success looking forward -- not back". Wichita Business Journal. 
  451. ^ Foster, John (April 29, 2004). "Yesterday Discs, we hardly knew ye: Store closings mark a shift in a way of enjoying music, life". F5. 
  452. ^ "Ringing off the hook: Ever since news began leaking out...". Chicago Tribune. February 5, 1995. 
  453. ^ Grumman, Cornelia & Hilkevitch, Jon (January 17, 1995). "A Noteworthy End; Much-storied School-supply Store Calls It Quits After A Century Of Rulers, Pencils". Chicago Tribune. 
  454. ^ Hill, Jim (December 25, 1998). "J.K. Gill will end operation". Oregonian. p. D1. (subscription required (help)). 
  455. ^ Boyce, David (June 13, 2001). "McWhorter's to close; Chain a victim of parent's bankruptcy". Palo Alto Weekly. 
  456. ^ Boyce, David (June 13, 2001). "McWhorter's store to close this summer". The Almanac. 
  457. ^ "Office Max Deal". New York Times. March 26, 1992. 
  458. ^ "Fay's Incorporated Announces Agreement To Sell Paper Cutter Stores". PRNewswire (Press release). June 7, 1996 – via The Free Library. 
  459. ^ "Fay's In Agreement To Sell Paper Cutter". The Daily Gazette. June 8, 1996. p. B11. 
  460. ^ Moore, Deborah (May 18, 1998). "Party store's crash leaves vacant buildings behind". Albany Business Review. 
  461. ^ Johnson, Greg (April 19, 1994). "Costa Mesa-Based Tam's Files Bankruptcy Plan : Retail: The stationery chain blames a dispute with the creditor that financed its photocopiers. No closures are planned". Los Angeles Times. 
  462. ^ "Tam's Chain Emerges From Bankruptcy". Los Angeles Times. May 31, 1995. 
  463. ^ Granelli, James S. & Haycox, Lori (July 20, 1996). "Tam's Files for Bankruptcy Again; Mission Viejo-based chain is back in court more than year after emerging from Chapter 11". Los Angeles Times. 
  464. ^ Wess, Annemarie (April 9, 1990). "Creditors seek to push Ulbrich's into bankruptcy. (Otto Ulbrich Company Inc. fails to provide reorganization plan, creditors want court plan)". Buffalo Business First. 
  465. ^ Wess, Annemarie (July 23, 1990). "Troubled Ulbrich's pledges to make store work. (Otto Ulbrich Inc. stationery stores plans to keep going)". Buffalo Business First. 
  466. ^ Fink, James (September 24, 1990). "Retailing shakeout leaves the stores that adapt. (Western New York retail stores)". Buffalo Business First. 
  467. ^ Jarvik, Elaine (December 9, 1999). "At All Wound Up toy store, customers play, then pay". Deseret News. 
  468. ^ Goldman, Abigail (April 8, 1999). "Borders to Acquire Kiosk Operator All Wound Up". Los Angeles Times. 
  469. ^ Moore, Rex (January 5, 2001). "Borders Warns, Cuts Loose Toy Division: Borders says its fourth-quarter earnings will fall about 10% below expectations, blaming soft holiday sales and lower margins caused by higher promotional spending. The company has also decided to get rid of its All Wound Up toy stores.". The Motley Fool. 
  470. ^ Bryant, Adam (May 8, 1992). "Child World Files for Bankruptcy". New York Times. 
  471. ^ "Child World Buys Toy Division". Wall Street Journal. April 14, 1975. p. 3. (subscription required (help)). Child World Inc., said it bought for $3.5 million K.B. Marketing Systems Inc.'s toy division, consisting of nine retail stores under the name Children's Palace.  Link via ProQuest.
  472. ^ "Interstate Stores Buys Children's Bargain Town". Wall Street Journal. April 2, 1969. p. 4. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  473. ^ "Interstate Gets Bank Loan for Surviving Toys-R-Us Unit". Los Angeles Times. August 2, 1974. p. D15. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  474. ^ "Credit Line Extended to Toys-R-Us". Washington Post. August 3, 1974. p. C7. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  475. ^ "Melville Agrees to Buy Chain of Toy Stores". Los Angeles Times. July 5, 1990. 
  476. ^ "Melville Acquires Toy Store Chain". New York Times. July 4, 1990. 
  477. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (May 15, 2015). "F. A. O. Schwarz to Close Its Doors on Fifth Avenue". New York Times. 
  478. ^ Schooley, Tim (February 11, 2002). "Family Toy files for Chapter 11". Pittsburgh Business Times. 
  479. ^ Lindeman, Teresa F. (September 26, 2002). "Family Toy closing book on operation". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  480. ^ "The Great Train Store files Chapter 11". Dallas Business Journal. February 29, 2000. 
  481. ^ "Great Train Store Co. files For Chapter 11". Daily Gazette. March 1, 2000. p. B12. 
  482. ^ Chase, Randall (December 18, 2008). "KB Toys gets approval for store liquidations". Washington Post. 
  483. ^ "Lionel Will Liquidate, Closing Kiddie City Toy Chain". New York Times. June 3, 1993. 
  484. ^ Warner, Susan (June 2, 1993). "Lionel Going Out Of Business The Parent Of Kiddie City Stores Had Been In Bankruptcy Two Years. It Faced Tough Competition". Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  485. ^ a b Ramirez, Anthony (June 15, 1991). "Lionel Seeks Chapter 11 Protection". New York Times. 
  486. ^ a b "Lionel's chugs toward Chapter 11 bankruptcy was no fun". Miami News. February 25, 1982. p. 11A. 
  487. ^ Demick, Barbara (June 15, 1991). "The Parent Of Kiddie City Files Chapter 11 Petition". Philadelphia Inquirer. 
  488. ^ a b Wood, Robert E. (November 19, 1969). "Lionel Switches From Trains to Retail Stores". Los Angeles Times. p. B18. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  489. ^ Rempala, Jodi (January 19, 2011). "After running a successful business, Alberta Muirhead spent years giving back to Dearborn". Dearborn Press & Guide. 
  490. ^ "Chasing Dreams And Nightmares; Zany Brainy Buying Noodle Kidoodle, Rival Toy Chain". New York Times. April 25, 2000. 
  491. ^ Suris, Oscar (February 15, 1990). "Creditors Move To Have Toy Company Liquidated". Orlando Sentinel. 
  492. ^ Pack, Todd (February 3, 2001). "Warner Signs Off On Studio Stores". Orlando Sentinel. 
  493. ^ "FAO Schwarz owner to again enter Chapter 11". Chicago Tribune. December 3, 2003. 
  494. ^ Lazarus, George (July 21, 1987). "Warehouse Club Rivalry Heating Up". Chicago Tribune. 
  495. ^ Bounds, Jeff (July 4, 2010). "The Ross Perot factor". Dallas Business Journal. 
  496. ^ Bounds, Jeff (June 20, 2010). "D-FW entrepreneurs have benefited from H. Ross Perot's support". Dallas Business Journal. 
  497. ^ Chanil, Debra (November 1989). "Wholesale Club Update". Discount Merchandiser 29 (11). p. 76. However, 3 clubs have closed: American Wholesale Club, Net Cost, and Buyer's Club.  Link via ProQuest.
  498. ^ "Club Wholesale on new course; Will stress office products". Bend Bulletin. August 19, 1990. pp. E–11. 
  499. ^ Howard, Tom (August 15, 1990). "Club Wholesale Will Close". Billings Gazette. p. 1. The Club Wholesale store in Billings and three sister stores will close in early September as the Idaho-based company redirects its retail efforts from general merchandise to office supplies.  Link via ProQuest.
  500. ^ Sloane, Leonard (September 10, 1981). "Accountant Named To Head Korvettes". New York Times. The last of the money-losing Korvettes discount stores was closed Dec. 24, 1980. 
  501. ^ "Supermarket, Department Store to 'Wed'". Los Angeles Times. December 29, 1960. p. B10. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  502. ^ Gellene, Denise (October 10, 1986). "Lucky to Close Gemco, Sell Most Stores to Dayton Hudson". Los Angeles Times. 
  503. ^ "New Discount Setup For Government Help Is Opened in Denver". Women's Wear Daily 92 (114). June 12, 1956. p. 16. G.E.M., Government Employees Mutual, Denver's first large discount house, carrying both hard and soft lines opened here at 5200 Smith Road. Shopping at the new firm will be restricted to city, county, State and Federal employees and military personnel.  Link via ProQuest.
  504. ^ Levy, Claudia (January 15, 1974). "7 Stores Of G.E.M. To Close: 1 in Richmond Also Included In Decision". Washington Post. p. D7. (subscription required (help)). The parent Parkview-Gem, Inc., of Kansas City, Mo., is being reorganized under a section of the Bankruptcy Act. The nationwide discount chain has incurred loses for several years, and has closed 35 stores during the past year.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  505. ^ "79,000-Sq.Ft. Unit Projected by GES For Louisville". Women's Wear Daily 100 (126). June 29, 1960. p. 2. Government Employee Store Co. has been formed as a closed-door membership department store with a 79,000-square-foot operation to open by mid-August at 5200 Crittenden Drive in Louisville, Ky. Eligible for membership will be employes of city, county, state and federal govenments; members of the armed forces; employes of public or private schools, universities, or colleges; employes of public or franchised public service agencies; employes of companies which performed substantial work under government contract; and retired or pensioned personnel of the preceding categories.  Link via ProQuest.
  506. ^ a b "Parkview-Gem to Acquire Seven GES-Govco Stores: In 4 Cities". Women's Wear Daily 121 (24). August 4, 1970. p. 42. Parkview-Gem has agreed to buy seven GES-Govco Discount Department Stores from National Industries for an undisclosed amount of cash and notes. The units being acquired include two in Louisville, two in Indianapolis, two in Birmingham, and one in Cincinatti. Parkview-Gems operates 39 discount department stores. Jack H. Segell founded the GES chain in 1960. Three years later it merged with National Industries, which is based in Louisville.  Link via ProQuest.
  507. ^ Latham, Luralene (April 9, 1959). "70,000-Sq. Ft. Unit Is Slated by G.E.X. In Oklahoma City". Women's Wear Daily 98 (69). pp. 1, 39. Government Employee Exchange (G.E.X.), the first store in a projected chain, will open a 70,000--square foot store exclusively for Governmental employees and military personnel. Parent company is National Bellas Hess, mail order and retail form of Kansas City and New York.  Link via ProQuest.
  508. ^ "Bellas Hess, unable to produce Chap. XI plan, is ruled bankrupt". Women's Wear Daily 132 (28). February 11, 1976. p. 21. National Bellas Hess, Inc. department store chain was ruled bankrupt by bankruptcy judge John J. Galgay. Subsidiary Bellex Department Stores, Inc., traded as GEX and Bellas Hess.  Link via ProQuest.
  509. ^ "Executive Changes: Govco Plans 5 Units; Cites Insurance". Women's Wear Daily 102 (105). May 31, 1961. p. 14. Govco, founded here in October 1959  Link via ProQuest.
  510. ^ "Discount News & Ideas". Women's Wear Daily 111 (54). September 16, 1965. p. 28. GOVCO closed-membership discount center attracted crowds during a reopening to celebrate an expansion from 60,000 to 100,000 square feet. GOVCO started here in 1959 and was recently acquired by Retail Centers of the Americas, Inc.  Link via ProQuest.
  511. ^ "GOVCO to Open A Second Unit". Women's Wear Daily 116 (50). March 12, 1968. p. 15. The new store, GOVCO-West, on the city's northwest side, will have 127,000 square feet.  Link via ProQuest.
  512. ^ Eskenazi, Stuart (March 6, 2006). "At age 99, parking-lot mogul reminisces". Seattle Times. 
  513. ^ Humphrey, Clark (2006). Vanishing Seattle; Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 9780738548692. 
  514. ^ "The Insider: Books bare secrets of a parking lot magnate, blogging". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. February 12, 2006. 
  515. ^ "Northwestern Gov-Mart Units". Women's Wear Daily 108 (42). February 28, 1964. p. 17. Big C Stores, Inc., Northwestern regional supermarket and discount store chain, has purchased the two Gov-Mart discount department stores in Seattle and Tacoma. Gov-Mart opened the Northwest's first membership store in 1956 in Seattle. In 1959, it opened a second discount operation, in Tacoma. Big C presently operates Baza'r and 15 supermarkets.  Link via ProQuest.
  516. ^ Tennison, Patricia (February 27, 1986). "Wholesale Club Has Deals--for A Price". Chicago Tribune. 
  517. ^ Uzelac, Ellen (February 1, 1985). "Warehouse chain to open 8 PACE outlets in region". Baltimore Sun. p. 9B. PACE opened its first warehouse in Denver in 1983 and added five others in Atlanta, Denver, Charlotte, N.C., and Tampa and St. Petersburg, Fla., last fall.  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  518. ^ "PACE's Growth Strategies". Discount Merchandiser 25 (1). January 1985. p. 72. PACE Membership Warehouse (Denver, Colorado) opened its first warehouse club in the summer of 1983, and by the end of last year, 6 PACE units had opened.  Link via ProQuest.
  519. ^ "K mart to Pay $322 Million for Pace Warehouse Inc.". Los Angeles Times. October 17, 1989. 
  520. ^ Barmash, Isadore (October 17, 1989). "K Mart to Purchase Pace Warehouse Clubs". New York Times. 
  521. ^ "Wal-mart Stores Unit to Buy 91 Pace Warehouse Locations". Deseret News. November 3, 1993. 
  522. ^ Strom, Stephanie (November 3, 1993). "Wal-Mart Stores to Buy PACE Warehouse Clubs". New York Times. 
  523. ^ White, George & Kraul, Chris (June 17, 1993). "Price Co., Costco Warehouse Stores to Merge". Los Angeles Times. 
  524. ^ Bryant, Adam (June 17, 1993). "Costco Set To Merge With Price". New York Times. 
  525. ^ "Price Savers to Undergo Name Change". Deseret News. May 8, 1991. 
  526. ^ "K Mart Buys Price Savers". New York Times. December 14, 1990. 
  527. ^ Turcsik, Richard (December 2, 1991). "Meijer to open membership clubs". Supermarket News – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  528. ^ Anderer, Charles (November 29, 1993). "Meijer to close down its SourceClubs". Supermarket News – via Highbeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  529. ^ "Warehouse Club Files Chapter 11". Supermarket News. February 13, 1995. (subscription required (help)). 
  530. ^ Taylor, Marianne (November 12, 1990). "Clubs Hold The Service, Pass On Savings". Chicago Tribune. 
  531. ^ Taylor, Marianne (November 7, 1990). "Wal-mart Acquiring Club Rival". Chicago Tribune. 
  532. ^ "J. F. Geisse, 71, Who Founded Discount Stores". New York Times. February 27, 1992.