List of demonyms for U.S. states and territories

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This is a list of official and notable unofficial terms used to designate the citizens of specific states, federal district, and territories of the United States of America.


federal district
or territory
(recommended by U.S. GPO)[1]
Official, unofficial, or informal alternatives
 Alabama Alabamian Alabaman[2][3]
 Alaska Alaskan
 American Samoa American Samoan
 Arizona Arizonan
 Arkansas Arkansan Arkansawyer,[4] Arkie[5]
 California Californian Californio (archaic)
 Colorado Coloradan Coloradoan (archaic)[6][7]
 Connecticut Connecticuter Connecticotian,[8] Connecticutensian,[8] Nutmeg,[8] Nutmegger[8]
 Delaware Delawarean Blue Hen's Chicken,[9] Muskrat[9]
 District of Columbia Washingtonian (see also nicknames of people of Washington state)
 Florida Floridian Alligator,[10] Cracker,[11] Fly-Up-the-Creek[10]
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia Georgian Buzzard, Cracker, Goober-grabber[12]
 Guam Guamanian
 Hawaii Hawaii resident Islander,[13] Kamaʻāina. The Associated Press Stylebook restricts use of "Hawaiian" to people of Native Hawaiian descent.[14]
 Idaho Idahoan Fortune Seekers[15]
 Illinois Illinoisan Illinoisian, Illinoian, Flatlander,[16] Sucker, Sand-hiller, Egyptian[17]
 Indiana Hoosier Indianan (former GPO demonym replaced by Hoosier in 2016),[1] Indianian (archaic)[18]
 Iowa Iowan Hawkeye[19]
 Kansas Kansan Sunflower, Jayhawker, Grasshopper[20]
 Kentucky Kentuckian Corncracker[21]
 Louisiana Louisianian (French: Louisianais,Spanish: Luisiano)
 Maine Mainer Down Easter or Downeaster,[22] Mainiac[23]
 Maryland Marylander
 Massachusetts Massachusettsan Bay Stater (official term used by state government),[24] Massachusettsian,[25] Massachusite,[26][27] Masshole (derogatory[28] as an exonym; however, it can be affectionate when applied as an endonym[29])
 Michigan Michiganian Michigander,[30] Wolverine,[31][32] Michiganite, Yooper/Troll (for residents of the Upper Peninsula and Lower Peninsula, respectively),[33] Michigoose (used specifically for female residents, as a play on "Michigander")[33]
 Minnesota Minnesotan Gopher
 Mississippi Mississippian
 Missouri Missourian
 Montana Montanan
 Nebraska Nebraskan Bugeaters or Cornhuskers [34]
 Nevada Nevadan
 New Hampshire New Hampshirite New Hampshireman or New Hampshirewoman[35]
 New Jersey New Jerseyan Jerseyite, New Jerseyite
 New Mexico New Mexican Spanish: Neomexicano, Neomejicano[36]
New York (state) New York New Yorker Knickerbocker[37][38]
 North Carolina North Carolinian Tar Heel, Tar Boiler,[39]
  North Dakota North Dakotan
 Northern Mariana Islands Mariana Islander
 Ohio Ohioan Buckeye,[40] Ohian (obsolete)[41]
 Oklahoma Oklahoman Okie,[42] Sooner[43]
 Oregon Oregonian
 Pennsylvania Pennsylvanian Pennamite,[44] Keystoner
 Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Boricua[45]
 Rhode Island Rhode Islander Rhodean, Swamp Yankee[46]
 South Carolina South Carolinian Sandlapper[47]
 South Dakota South Dakotan
 Tennessee Tennessean Volunteer, Big Bender, Butternut[48]
 Texas Texan Texian (Anglo-Texan - historical),[49] Tejano (Hispano-Texan), Texican (archaic)
 Utah Utahn Utahan
 Vermont Vermonter
United States Virgin Islands Virgin Islands Virgin Islander
 Virginia Virginian
Washington (state) Washington Washingtonian
 West Virginia West Virginian
 Wisconsin Wisconsinite Badger,[50] Cheesehead[51][52]
 Wyoming Wyomingite Wyomese[53]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b U.S. Government Publishing Office Style Manual. 2016. §5.23.
  2. ^ Safire, William (June 26, 1994). "On Language: Foam Fell on Alabama". The New York Times. Safire reports that after he used the word "Alabaman" in a column, he received a letter from Vic Gold that said in part, "The natives, I have learned to my sorrow, prefer Alabamian."
  3. ^ "The State of Alabama". Netstate.
  4. ^ Arkansawyer definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-11-15.
  5. ^ "Ar•kie". Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  6. ^ Writers Style Guide. Colorado State University. p. 62,. Retrieved January 2, 2009. The correct name for a person from Colorado is Coloradan (not Coloradoan).CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  7. ^ Quillen, Ed (March 18, 2007). "Coloradan or Coloradoan?". The Denver Post.
  8. ^ a b c d "The State of Connecticut - An Introduction to the Constitution State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  9. ^ a b "The State of Delaware - An Introduction to the First State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  10. ^ a b "The State of Florida". Netstate.
  11. ^ "'Cracker' Means Something Entirely Different In Florida: A Source Of 'Pride'". Mediaite. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  12. ^ "The State of Georgia". Netstate. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  13. ^ "The State of Hawaii - An Introduction to the Aloha State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  14. ^ Christian, Darrel; Jacobsen, Sally A.; Minthorn, David, eds. (2013). The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law. New York, NY: Basic Books. p. 112. ISBN 9780465082995.
  15. ^ "The State of Idaho". Netstate.
  16. ^ Jim Fitzgerald (1987-10-06). "A Friend Escapes To Illinois . . . And Now Is A Flatlander!".
  17. ^ "The State of Illinois - An Introduction to the Prairie State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  18. ^ "Indianian". Oxford Dictionaries.
  19. ^ "The State of Iowa".
  20. ^ "The State of Kansas - An Introduction to the Sunflower State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  21. ^ Corncracker - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  22. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. New York: World Almanac Books. 2006. ISBN 978-0-88687-995-2.
  23. ^ "Mainiac". Time. June 20, 1938. (term used in reference to Maine author Kenneth Roberts)
  24. ^ "Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 2, Section 35: Designation of citizens of commonwealth". The Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2008-02-29.: "Bay Staters shall be the official designation of citizens of the commonwealth."
  25. ^
  26. ^ Collections. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society. 1877. p. 435.
  27. ^ Jones, Thomas (1879). DeLancey, Edward Floyd (ed.). History of New York During the Revolutionary War. New York: New York Historical Society. p. 465.
  28. ^ Nagy, Naomi; Irwin, Patricia (July 2010). "Boston (r): Neighbo(r)s nea(r) and fa(r)". Language Variation and Change. 22 (2): 270.
  29. ^ "'Masshole' among newest words added to Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  30. ^ "The State of Michigan - An Introduction to the Great Lakes State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  31. ^ Marckwardt, Albert H. (1952). "Wolverine and Michigander". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review. LVIII: 203–8.
  32. ^ Sperber, Hans (February 1954). "Words and Phrases in American Politics: Michigander". American Speech. 29 (1): 21–7. doi:10.2307/453592.
  33. ^ a b "MDE - Michigan Glossary". 2008-01-30. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  34. ^ "Football Players to Eat Corn, Not Bugs". History Nebraska. Retrieved 2018-10-02.
  35. ^ "The State of New Hampshire - An Introduction to the Granite State from". Netstate.Com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  36. ^ Neomexicano definition by Royal Spanish Academy (Real Academia Española)
  37. ^ Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  38. ^ New York Knicks, What's a Knickerbocker?
  39. ^ Powell, William S. (March 1982). "What's in a Name?: Why We're All Called Tar Heels". Tar Heel. Tar Heel Magazine, Inc. OCLC 005457348. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
  40. ^ "The State of Ohio - An Introduction to the Buckeye State". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  41. ^ "Ohian". Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online.
  42. ^ Stewart, Roy P. (December 20, 1968). "Postal Card Proves Sooners Were 'Okies' Way Back In 1907". The Daily Oklahoman. p. 9, col. 2. Now comes Mrs. Agness Hooks of Thomas with a postal card mailed at Newcastle, Ind. in 1907, address to a Miss Agness Kirkbridge, with the salutation: 'Hello Okie — Will see you next Monday night.' Signed: Myrtle M. Pence. Mrs. Hooks says Agness Kirkbridge was an aunt of hers. The Kirkbridge family came to Oklahoma Territory in 1904 and settled south of Custer City.
  43. ^ "The State of Oklahoma - An Introduction to the Sooner State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  44. ^ "History of". Luzerne County. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  45. ^ "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico". Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  46. ^ "The Providence Journal | Rhode Island breaking news, sports, politics, business, entertainment, weather and traffic - - Providence Journal". 2012-07-17. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  47. ^
  48. ^ "The State of Tennessee - An Introduction to the Volunteer State from". Netstate.Com. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  49. ^ de la Teja, Jesus F. (1997). "The Colonization and Independence of Texas: A Tejano Perspective". In Rodriguez O., Jaime E.; Vincent, Kathryn (eds.). Myths, Misdeeds, and Misunderstandings: The Roots of Conflict in U.S.–Mexican Relations. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc. p. 79. ISBN 0-8420-2662-2.
  50. ^ "Do You Want to Be a Badger?". Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.
  51. ^ Kapler, Joseph, Jr. (Spring 2002). On Wisconsin Icons: When You Say 'Wisconsin', What Do You Say?. Wisconsin Historical Society. pp. 18–31. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  52. ^ Foamation: About Us. Foamation. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  53. ^ "Chicago Daily Tribune". 1903-06-02. Archived from the original on 2017-03-12. Retrieved 2017-03-09.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

External links[edit]