List of destroyed heritage
Cultural heritage can be subdivided into two types – tangible and intangible heritage. The former includes built heritage such as religious buildings, museums, monuments, and archaeological sites, as well as movable heritage such as works of art and manuscripts. Intangible cultural heritage includes customs, music, fashion and other traditions within a particular culture. This article mainly deals with the destruction of built heritage; the destruction of movable heritage is dealt with in Art destruction.
- 1 Afghanistan
- 2 Argentina
- 3 Azerbaijan
- 4 Bahrain
- 5 Belgium
- 6 Belize
- 7 Bosnia and Herzegovina
- 8 Central America
- 9 China
- 10 Croatia
- 11 Denmark
- 12 Egypt
- 13 France
- 14 Greece
- 15 Guatemala
- 16 Haiti
- 17 India
- 18 Iraq
- 19 Ireland
- 20 Italy
- 21 Kosovo
- 22 Libya
- 23 Maldives
- 24 Mali
- 25 Malta
- 26 Nepal
- 27 Norway
- 28 Pakistan
- 29 Israel
- 30 Palestine
- 31 Philippines
- 32 Poland
- 33 Romania
- 34 Russia
- 35 Saudi Arabia
- 36 Serbia
- 37 Singapore
- 38 Slovenia
- 39 Spain
- 40 Sri Lanka
- 41 Syria
- 42 Turkey
- 43 Turkmenistan
- 44 Ukraine
- 45 United Kingdom
- 46 United States
- 47 See also
- 48 References
- 49 Sources
- 50 Further reading
- 51 External links
- A pair of 6th century monumental statues known as the Buddhas of Bamiyan were dynamited by the Taliban in 2001, who had declared them heretical idols.
Excavators at the Buddhist site of Mes Aynak have been denounced as "promoting Buddhism" and threatened by the Taliban and many of the Afghan excavators who are working for purely financial reasons don't feel any connection to the Buddhist artifacts.
- The 1773 Marquez Bridge over the Reconquista River was renewed in 1964 and declared a National Historic Monument of Argentina. In 1997, the Autopistas del Oeste demolished it.
- Most of the mosques, houses, factories, schools, farms, museums and mainly Shusha fortress was destroyed by Armenian aggressors in Qarabagh. (1991-1993)
- At least 43 Shia mosques, including the ornate 400-year-old Amir Mohammed Braighi mosque, and many other religious structures were destroyed by the Bahraini government during the Bahraini uprising of 2011.
- The Palace of Coudenberg in Brussels burned down in 1731 and its ruins were demolished half a century later.
- Many churches and abbeys were demolished during the French occupation, amongst them the St. Lambert's Cathedral in Liège, the St. Donatian's Cathedral and Eekhout Abbey in Bruges, Florennes Abbey in Florennes, and St. Michael's Abbey in Antwerp.
- The Herkenrode Abbey in Hasselt survived the French Revolution, but subsequently fell into disrepair. In 1826 a fire destroyed much of the church, and the remaining ruins were demolished in 1844.
- On 25 August 1914, The university library of Leuven was destroyed by the Germans. 230,000 volumes were lost, including medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and more than 1,000 incunabula. After the war, a new library was built. During World War II, the new building was again set on fire and nearly a million books were lost.
- During World War I, the city of Ypres was completely destroyed, including its Town Hall and Cloth Hall. These monuments were later rebuilt.
- The Maison du Peuple in Brussels, one of the largest works of architect Victor Horta, was demolished in 1965 to make way for an office building. The surviving buildings designed by Horta were declared UNESCO World Heritage in 2000.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Parts of the old city of Mostar, including the Stari Most, were destroyed during the Bosnian War. The Stari Most has been rebuilt.
- Much of the Old Summer Palace was destroyed by British and French forces.
- Around 1921 Buddhist murals at the Mogao Caves were damaged and vandalized by White Russian exiles.
- Buddhist murals at the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves were damaged by local Muslim population whose religion proscribed figurative images of sentient beings, the eyes and mouths in particular were often gouged out. Pieces of murals were also broken off for use as fertilizer by the locals.
- Muslims gouged the eyes of Buddhist murals along Silk Road caves and Kashgari recorded in his Turkic dictionary an anti-Buddhist poem/folk song. It referred to the conquest of the Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan by Turkic Muslims during the Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang.
- During the Kumul Rebellion in Xinjiang in the 1930s, Buddhist murals were deliberately vandalized by Muslims.
- During the Cultural Revolution, many artifacts, monuments, and buildings belonging to the Four Olds were attacked and destroyed.
- World War II
450 churches and monasteries of the Serbian Orthodox Church were destroyed or damaged during the World War II by the Croatian Ustaše, specially in the regions of Dalmatia, Lika, Kordun, Banija and Slavonia.
- Croatian War
War damage of the Croatian War (1991–95) has been assessed on 2271 protected cultural monuments, with the damage cost being estimated at 407 million DM. The largest numbers – 683 damaged cultural monuments – are located in the area of Dubrovnik and Neretva County. Most are situated in Dubrovnik itself. The entire buildings and possessions of 481 Roman Catholic churches, several synagogues and several Serbian Orthodox churches were badly damaged or completely destroyed. Valuable inventories were looted from over 100 churches. The most drastic example of destruction of cultural monuments, art objects and artefacts took place in Vukovar. After the occupation of the devastated city by the Yugoslav Army and Serbian paramilitary forces, portable cultural property were removed from their shelters and museums in Vukovar to the museums and archives in Serbia.
- Church of St. Nicholas, Karlovac, destroyed between 1991 and 1993. Renovated in 2007.
- Dragović monastery, Vrlika, destroyed in 1995. Reestablished in 2004.
- Christiansborg Palace, main residence of the Danish Kings, destroyed by fire in 1794.
- Hirschholm Palace, summer residence of the Danish Kings, demolished in 1809-13 after it stood empty after its role in the affair between Johann Friedrich Struensee and Queen Caroline Matilda of Great Britain in the 1770s.
- Copenhagen Fire of 1728, where a great part of medieval Copenhagen vanished.
- In the late 12th century, Sultan Al-Aziz Uthman demolished part of the Pyramid of Menkaure.
- The Lighthouse of Alexandria, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was damaged by earthquakes in the 10th and 14th centuries, before being demolished in 1480 to make way for the Citadel of Qaitbay. Some stones from the lighthouse were used in the construction of the citadel, and some other remains have survived underwater.
- Villa Aghion.
- Objects stolen from the Taghribirdi Mosque and Al-Rifai Mosque.
- During the Siege of Strasbourg that took place at the height of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the total destruction by shelling and fire of the municipal library and the municipal art and archaeology collections resulted in the loss of 400,000 books among which 3,446 Medieval manuscripts and thousands of incunables as well as of hundreds of paintings, stained glass windows and archaeological artefacts. The most famous lost object was the original manuscript of the Hortus deliciarum.
- The Parthenon was extensively damaged in 1687, during the Great Turkish War (1683-1699). The Ottoman Turks fortified the Acropolis of Athens and used the Parthenon as a gunpowder magazine and a shelter for members of the local Turkish community. On 26 September a Venetian mortar round blew up the magazine, and the explosion blew out the building's central portion. About three hundred people were killed in the explosion, which caused fires that burned until the following day and consumed many homes.
- The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was destroyed in the 226 BC Rhodes earthquake, and its remains were destroyed in the 7th century AD while Rhodes was under Arab rule. In December 2015, a group of European architects announced plans to build a modern Colossus where the original once stood.
- The Statue of Zeus at Olympia, also a Wonder of the Ancient World, was destroyed in around the 5th century AD, although it is not known exactly when or how.
- Tikal Temple 33 was destroyed in the 1960s by archaeologists to uncover earlier phases of construction of the pyramid.
- Much of Haiti's heritage was damaged or destroyed in the devastating earthquake in 2010, including the National Palace and the Port-au-Prince Cathedral.
- In 1024, during the reign of Bhima I, the prominent Afghan ruler Mahmud of Ghazni raided Gujarat, plundered and destroyed the Somnath temple and broke its jyotirlinga.  In 1299, Alauddin Khalji's army under the leadership of Ulugh Khan defeated Karandev II of the Vaghela dynasty, and sacked the (rebuilt) Somnath temple. By 1665, the rebuilt temple was once again ordered destroyed by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. In 1702, he ordered that if Hindus had revived worship there, it should be demolished completely.
- Around 1200 CE, one of the most prominent seats of learning in ancient India, Nalanda university, was sacked and destroyed by Turkish leader Bakhtiyar Khalji.
- In 1565 CE, after the Battle of Talikota, the magnificent capital city of Vijayanagara, with all its exquisite temples, palaces, mansions and monuments, was sacked and completely destroyed by an invading Muslim army raised by the five Bahamani Sultanates. What remains now are only the ruins of Hampi.
- A large number of Hindu and other (e.g., Jain) temples were destroyed during the Islamic invasions of India.
- On 6 December 1992, the "Babari Mosque", built in 1528, was destroyed by Hindu extremists.
- On 26 April 2016, the National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi and its valuable collection of animal fossils and stuffed animals was destroyed by fire.
- The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, are believed to have been destroyed sometime after the 1st century AD. Their existence is not confirmed by archaeology, and there have been suggestions that the gardens were purely mythical.
- Since the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, various archaeological sites have been looted.
- The Islamic State (IS) has destroyed much of the cultural heritage in the areas it controls in Iraq. At least 28 religious buildings have been looted and destroyed, including Shiite mosques, tombs, shrines and churches. In addition, numerous ancient and medieval sites and artifacts, including the ancient cities of Nimrud and Hatra, parts of the wall of Nineveh, the ruins of Bash Tapia Castle and Dair Mar Elia, and artifacts from the Mosul Museum were also destroyed.
During the Battle of Dublin at the beginning of the Irish Civil War in 1922, munitions were stored at the Four Courts building, which housed 1,000 years of Irish records in the Public Record Office. Under circumstances that are disputed, the munitions were exploded, destroying much of Ireland's historical record.
- Various historic buildings were demolished in the 19th and 20th centuries to make way for railways, industrial areas or other modern buildings. Examples include the Castello di Villagonia and the Real Cittadella in Sicily.
- The monastery of Monte Cassino was destroyed during the Battle of Monte Cassino in World War II, but it was rebuilt after the war.
- Several churches and other heritage sites were damaged or destroyed during earthquakes such as the 1997 Umbria and Marche earthquake, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake and the August 2016 Central Italy earthquake.
Numerous Albanian cultural sites in Kosovo were destroyed during the Kosovo conflict (1998-1999) which constituted a war crime violating the Hague and Geneva Conventions. In all 225 out of 600 mosques in Kosovo were damaged, vandalised, or destroyed alongside other Islamic architecture during the conflict. Additionally 500 Albanian owned kulla dwellings (traditional stone tower houses) and three out of four well preserved Ottoman period urban centres located in Kosovo cities were badly damaged resulting in great loss of traditional architecture. Kosovo's public libraries, in particular 65 out of 183 were completely destroyed with a loss of 900,588 volumes, while Islamic libraries sustained damage or destruction resulting in the loss of rare books, manuscripts and other collections of literature. Archives belonging to the Islamic Community of Kosovo with records spanning 500 years were also destroyed. During the war, Islamic architectural heritage posed for Yugoslav Serb paramilitary and military forces as Albanian patrimony with destruction of non-Serbian architectural heritage being a methodical and planned component of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo.
- During the civil war of 2011, various sites were vandalized, looted or destroyed.
- In March 2015, during the second civil war, the Islamic State destroyed Sufi shrines near Tripoli.
The destruction of the Buddhist artifacts by Islamists took place in the aftermath of the coup in which Mohamed Nasheed was toppled as President. Islamist politicians entered the government which succeeded Nasheed.
The destruction was caught on camera.
7 February 2012 was the date of the anti-Buddhist attack by the Islamists.
- Parts of the World Heritage Site of Timbuktu were destroyed after the Battle of Gao in 2012, despite condemnation by UNESCO, the OIC, Mali, and France.
- A number of buildings of historical or architectural importance which had been included on the Antiquities List were destroyed by aerial bombardment during World War II, including Auberge d'Auvergne, Auberge de France and the Slaves' Prison in Valletta, the Clock Tower, Auberge d'Allemagne and Auberge d'Italie in Birgu, and two out of three megalithic temples at Kordin. Others such as Fort Manoel also suffered severe damage, but were rebuilt after the war.
- Other buildings which were not included on the Antiquities List but which had significant cultural importance were also destroyed during the war. The most notable of these was the Royal Opera House in Valletta, which is considered as "one of the major architectural and cultural projects undertaken by the British" by the Superintendence of Cultural Heritage.
- The Gourgion Tower in Xewkija, which was included on the Antiquities List, was demolished by American forces in 1943 to make way for an airfield. Many of its inscriptions and decorated stones were retrieved and they are now in storage at Heritage Malta.
- Palazzo Fremaux, a building included on the Antiquities List and which was scheduled as a Grade 2 property, was gradually demolished between 1990 and 2003. The demolition was condemned by local residents, the local government and non-governmental organizations.
- Azure Window , was a 28-metre-tall (92 ft) limestone natural arch on the island of Gozo in Malta. It was located in Dwejra Bay in the limits of San Lawrenz, close to the Inland Sea and the Fungus Rock. It was one of Malta's major tourist attractions. The arch, together with other natural features in the area of Dwejra, is featured in a number of international films and other media representations. The formation was anchored on the east end by the seaside cliff, arching over open water, to be anchored to a free standing pillar in the sea to the west of the cliff. It was created when two limestone sea caves collapsed. Following years of natural erosion causing parts of the arch to fall into the sea, the arch and free standing pillar collapsed completely during a storm on March 2017.
The 7.8 Mw Nepal earthquake in 2015 demolished the heritage Dharahara situated at Kathmandu which was a main tourist attraction in Nepal. It also destroyed centuries old temples in the Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Patan Durbar Squares .
- From 1992 to 1995 members of the Norwegian black metal scene began a wave of arson attacks on old medieval Christian churches. By 1996, there had been at least 50 attacks and destructions on heritages in Norway.
Swat Valley in Pakistan has many Buddhist carvings, stupas and Jehanabad contains a Seated Buddha status. Kushan era Buddhist stupas and status in Swat valley were demolished by the Taliban and after two attempts by the Taliban, the Jehanabad Buddha's face was dynamited. Only the Bamiyan Buddhas were larger than the carved giant Buddha status in Swat near Mangalore which the Taliban attacked. The government did nothing to safeguard the statue after the initial attempt at destroying the Buddha, which did not cause permanent harm, and when the second attack took place on the statue the feet, shoulders, and face were demolished. Islamists, such as the Taliban and looters, destroyed much of Pakistan's Buddhist artifacts left over from the Buddhist Gandhara civilization especially in Swat Valley. The Taliban deliberately targeted Gandhara Buddhist relics for destruction. The Christian Archbishop of Lahore Lawrence John Saldanha wrote a letter to Pakistan's government denouncing the Taliban activities in Swat Valley including their destruction of Buddha statues and their attacks on Christians, Sikhs, and Hindus. Gandhara Buddhist artifacts were illegally looted by smugglers. A rehabilitation attempt on the Buddha was made by Luca Olivieri from Italy. A group of Italians helped repair the Buddha.
- Following the conquest of the Old City of Jerusalem by the Arab Legion in 1948, under the Jordanian annexation, Jewish sites were systematically damaged and destroyed. In particular, all but one of the thirty-five synagogues of the Jewish Quarter were destroyed.
- The walls, dome and roof of the 7th-century Al-Omari Mosque in Gaza City, Palestine, were destroyed by Israeli airstrikes in August 2014, in addition to several other mosques that were completely destroyed in the assault.
World War II
The resulting carnage and the aftermath of the Battle of Manila (followed by the Manila massacre) is responsible for the near total obliteration and evisceration of irreplaceable cultural, and historical heritage & treasures of the "Pearl of the Orient" (an international melting pot and a living monument of the meeting and confluence of Spanish, American and Asian cultures). Countless government buildings, universities and colleges, convents, monasteries and churches, and their accompanying treasures, all dating back to the 16th century and in a variety of style, were wiped out and ruined by both Japanese and inadvertently the American forces battling for the control of the city.
The most devastating damage happened at the ancient walled city of Intramuros, as a result of the assault from 23–26 February, until its total liberation on 4 March, Intramuros was a shell of its former glory (except the church of San Agustin, the sole survivor of the carnage). Outside the walls, large areas of the city had been levelled; Warsaw was also a heavily damaged victim of the second World War, but unlike its European counterpart, Manila never recovered its former pre-War glory.
After the Liberation, as part of rebuilding Manila, most of the buildings damaged during the war were either demolished in the name of "Progress", or rebuilt in a manner that bears no resemblance to the original; replacing European architectural styles during the Spanish and early American era with modern American- and imitation-style architecture. Only a few surviving old buildings remain intact, though even those that remain are continuously endangered to deterioration & neglect, political mismanagement brought on by graft and corruption, rapid urbanization & economic redevelopment, low public awareness & ignorance.
2013 Bohol earthquake
- Warsaw Old Town including the Royal Castle, Warsaw, Warsaw New Town, Łazienki Park including the Łazienki Palace, Ujazdowski Castle destroyed by Nazi Germany in 1944. Rebuilt from the 1950s to 1980s.
- The 60 m-high tower of Rotbav fortified church, dating back to 13th century, collapsed on 20 February 2016.
- Many historical buildings were demolished to construct the Centrul Civic in Bucharest.
- Destruction of Chechen manuscripts
- Destruction of Crimean Tatar manuscripts
- With the change in values imposed by communist ideology, the tradition of preservation was broken. Independent preservation societies, even those that defended only secular landmarks such as Moscow-based OIRU were disbanded by the end of the 1920s. A new anti-religious campaign, launched in 1929, coincided with collectivization of peasants; destruction of churches in the cities peaked around 1932. A number of churches were demolished, including the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow and St. Michael's Cathedral in Izhevsk. Both of these were rebuilt in the 1990s and 2000s.
- In 1959 Nikita Khrushchev launched his anti-religious campaign. By 1964 over 10 thousand churches out of 20 thousand were shut down (mostly in rural areas) and many were demolished. Of 58 monasteries and convents operating in 1959, only sixteen remained by 1964; of Moscow's fifty churches operating in 1959, thirty were closed and six demolished.
- In Moscow alone losses of 1917–2006 are estimated at over 640 notable buildings (including 150 to 200 listed buildings, out of a total inventory of 3,500) – some disappeared completely, others were replaced with concrete replicas.
- 'Mephistopheles', figure on a St Petersburg building on Lakhtinksaya Street known as the House with Mephistopheles, smashed by a fundamentalist Orthodox group
- Various mosques and other historic sites, especially those relating to early Islam, have been destroyed in Saudi Arabia. Apart from early Islamic sites, other buildings such as the Ajyad Fortress were also destroyed.
- Destroyed Serbian heritage in Kosovo: During the unrest in Kosovo, 35 churches and monasteries were destroyed or seriously damaged by Kosovo Albanians. In total, 156 Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries have been destroyed since June 1999. Many of the churches and monasteries dated back to the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries.
- Partisan forces or their successors destroyed approximately 100 castles and manors during and after the Second World War. Examples include Ajman Manor, Belnek Castle, Boštanj Castle, Brdo Castle, Čušperk Castle, Dol Mansion, Dolena Castle, Gracar Castle, Haasberg Castle, Klevevž Castle, Kolovec Castle, Križ Castle, Krupa Castle, Mokronog Castle, Pogonik Castle, Radelstein Castle, Soteska Castle, Špitalič Manor, Turn Castle, and Volčji Potok Manor.
- An Allied raid heavily damaged Žužemberk Castle during the Second World War.
- Partisan forces or their successors destroyed many churches during and after the Second World War. Examples include the churches in Ajbelj, Gabrje, Hinje, Koče, Kočevska Reka, Morava, Plešivica, Srobotnik pri Velikih Laščah, Stari Log, Trava, Velika Račna, Zafara, and Žužemberk.
- A German raid during the Second World War destroyed the church in Dragatuš.
- Allied raids destroyed churches during the Second World War. Examples include the church in Dvor and Sts. Peter and Paul Church in Ptuj.
- Because of the Ecclesiastical confiscations of Mendizábal, secularization of church properties in 1835-1836, several hundreds of church buildings, monasteries, etc., or civil buildings owned by the Church were partly or totally demolished. Many of the art works, libraries and archives contained were lost or pillaged in the time the buildings were abandoned and without owners. Among them were important buildings as Santa Caterina convent (the first gothic building in Iberian Peninsula) and Sant Francesc convent (gothic too, one of the richest in the country), both in Barcelona, or San Pedro de Arlanza Roman monastery, near Burgos, now ruined.
- Several monuments demolished in Calatayud: the church of Convent of Dominicos of San Pedro Mártir (1856), Convent of Trinidad (1856), Church of Santiago (1863), Church of San Torcuato and Santa Lucía (1869) and Church of San Miguel (1871).
- In Zaragoza were demolished part of the Palace of La Aljafería (1862) and Torre Nueva (1892).
- Churches, monasteries, convents and libraries were destroyed during the Spanish Civil War.
- A Virxe da Barca sanctuary, located in Muxia, was destroyed by lightning.
- The Palace of King Parakramabahu I of Polonnaruwa was set into fire by the Kalinga Magha lead Indian invaders in the 11th century. The ruins and the effect of the fire is still visible.
- The Library of Jaffna was burned in 1981, which had over 97,000 manuscripts in 1981 as a part of Sri Lankan war.
- Much of Syria's cultural heritage was damaged, destroyed or looted during the Syrian Civil War. Destroyed buildings include the minaret of the Great Mosque of Aleppo and the Al-Madina Souq, while others such as Krak des Chevaliers were damaged.
- Khusruwiyah Mosque (Husrev Mosque)
- The Islamic State destroyed the Lion of Al-lāt, the temples of Bel and Baalshamin, the Arch of Triumph and other sites in Palmyra. The group also destroyed the Monastery of St. Elian, the Armenian Genocide Memorial Church, and several ancient sculptures in the city of Raqqa.
- The Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was later rebuilt, but it was damaged in a raid by Goths in 268 AD. Its stones were subsequently used in other buildings, including in Hagia Sophia and other buildings in Constantinople. A few fragments of the structure still survive in situ.
- The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, another Wonder of the Ancient World, was destroyed by a series of earthquakes between the 12th and 15th centuries. Most of the remaining marble blocks were burnt into lime, but some were used in the construction of Bodrum Castle by the Knights Hospitaller, where they can still be seen today. The only other surviving remains of the mausoleum are some foundations in situ, a few sculptures in the British Museum, and some marble blocks which were used to build a dockyard in Malta's Grand Harbour.
- Great Suburb Synagogue, Lviv
- Several historic structures such as the Euston Arch in London and the Royal Arch in Dundee were demolished in the 1960s to make way for redeveloped infrastructure.
- St Mary's Church in Reculver, an exemplar of Anglo-Saxon architecture and sculpture, was partially demolished in 1809.
- St Michael's Church in Coventry was a 14th-century cathedral that was nearly destroyed during the Coventry Blitz of 14 November 1940 by the German Luftwaffe. Only the tower, spire, the outer wall and the bronze effigy and tomb of its first bishop, Huyshe Yeatman-Biggs, survived. The ruins of this cathedral remain hallowed ground and are listed at Grade I.
- Charles Church in Plymouth was entirely burned out by incendiary bombs dropped by the Luftwaffe, on the nights of 21 and 22 March 1941. However it has since been encircled by a roundabout and turned into "a memorial to those citizens of Plymouth who were killed in air-raids on the city in the 1939–45 war."
- World Trade Center (1973–2001), New York City. The World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It featured landmark twin towers, which opened on 4 April 1973, and were destroyed in the terrorist attacks of 11 September, with 7 World Trade Center collapsing later that day due to the damage it suffered when the twin towers collapsed that morning. The other buildings in the complex were severely damaged by the collapse of the twin towers, and their ruins were eventually demolished.
- Pennsylvania Station (1910–1963), in New York City, was a Beaux-Arts style "architectural jewel" of New York City. Controversially, the above-ground portions of the station were demolished in 1963, making way for the construction of the Madison Square Garden arena. The controversy energized a historic preservation movement in New York City and the United States.
- Since the 1960 start of the National Historic Landmark (NHL) program and the 1966 start of the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), numerous landmarks designated in those programs have been destroyed. In some cases the destruction was mitigated by documentation of the artifact and/or reproduction.
- Losses by flood and wind damage include:
- Losses by fire, arson or otherwise, include:
- Russian-built NHL Fort Ross Chapel, pre-1841, destroyed 1970, subsequently reproduced
- Losses by permitted processes include:
- Ships broken up include:
- Other losses of covered bridges, landmarked or not, include:
- Dooley Station Covered Bridge (1917-1960), arson; replaced by move of 1856-built Portland Mills Covered Bridge
- Bridgeton Covered Bridge (1868-2005), arson, since replaced by replica
- NRHP Jeffries Ford Covered Bridge (1915-2002), arson
- Welle Hess Covered Bridge No. S1 (1871-1981), collapsed, partially reproduced off-site
- Whites Bridge (1869-2013), arson
- Babb's Bridge (1864-1973), arson, replaced by replica
- (more to be added)
- In 2014 a 4,500 year old Coast Miwok Indian burial ground and village was found near Larkspur, California, and destroyed to make way for a multimillion-dollar housing development.
- Grand Coulee Dam, constructed between 1933 and 1942 on the Columbia River disturbed burial grounds and destroyed ancient villages on 18,000 acres (7,300 ha) of the Colville Indian Reservation, home to a dozen tribes at the time.
- Art destruction
- Book burning and List of book-burning incidents
- List of destroyed libraries
- Lost work, Lost artworks and List of lost films
- List of World Heritage in Danger
- World Monuments Fund
- Virtual heritage
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- Stenning, Stephen (21 August 2015). "Destroying cultural heritage: more than just material damage". British Council. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- Porter, Lizzie (23 July 2015). "Destruction of Middle East's heritage is 'cultural genocide'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Sehmer, Alexander (5 October 2015). "Isis guilty of 'cultural cleansing' across Syria and Iraq, Unesco chief Irina Bokova says". The Independent. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Bloch, Hannah (September 2015). "Mega Copper Deal in Afghanistan Fuels Rush to Save Ancient Treasures". National Geographic.
- Piotto, Alba (27 June 1997). "Derriban un puente histórico al construir una autopista". Clarín (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 1 November 2013.
- Jones, Patrick E.; Stevenson, Mark (13 May 2013). "Mayan Nohmul Pyramid In Belize Destroyed By Bulldozer". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- 杨秀清 Xiuqing Yang (2006). 风雨敦煌话沧桑: 历经劫难的莫高窟 Feng yu Dunhuang hua cang sang: li jing jie nan de Mogao ku. 五洲传播出版社. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-7-5085-0916-7.
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- Anna Akasoy; Charles S. F. Burnett; Ronit Yoeli-Tlalim (2011). Islam and Tibet: Interactions Along the Musk Routes. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-0-7546-6956-2.
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- Mileusnić 1997.
- Destruction and Conservation of Cultural Property, ed. Robert Layton, Peter G. Stone & Julian Thomas, One World Archeology, Routledge 2001, London, pg. 162. ISBN 0-203-16509-8
- The destruction by war of the cultural heritage in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina presented by the Committee on Culture and Education, Fact-finding mission of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, Rapporteur: Mr Jacques Baumel, France, RPR, 2 February 1993
- Schwartzstein, Peter (19 April 2014). "Egypt's Population Boom Threatens Cultural Treasures". National Geographic.
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- Haiti Cultural Recovery Project ( Archived 4 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.)
- Yagnik & Sheth 2005, pp. 39-40.
- Thapar 2004, pp. 36-37.
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- Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 47.
- Satish Chandra, Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals, (Har-Anand, 2009), 278.
- Yagnik & Sheth 2005, p. 55.
- Cynthia Talbot. Inscribing the Other,Inscribing the Self:Hindu-Muslim Identities in Pre-Colonial India. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol.37, No.4 (October 1995).
- S.R. Goel, Hindu Temples what happened to them. Voice of India, 1991. ISBN 81-85990-49-2
- Vidhi Doshi (26 April 2016). "Fire guts Delhi's natural history museum". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
- al-Taie, Khalid (13 February 2015). "Iraq churches, mosques under ISIL attack". Mawtani.com. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
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