List of device bit rates

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This is a list of device bit rates, or physical layer information rates, net bit rates, useful bit rates, peak bit rates or digital bandwidth capacity, at which digital interfaces of computer peripheral equipment and network devices can communicate over various kinds of buses and networks. The distinction can be arbitrary between a bus, (which is inside a box and usually relies on many parallel wires), and a communications network cable, (which is external, between boxes and rarely relies on more than four wires). Many device interfaces or protocols (e.g., SATA, USB, SCSI, PCI and a few variants of Ethernet) are used both inside many-device boxes, such as a PC, and one-device-boxes, such as a hard drive enclosure. Accordingly, this page lists both the internal ribbon and external communications cable standards together in one sortable table.

Factors limiting actual performance, criteria for real decisions[edit]

Most of the listed rates are theoretical maximum throughput measures; in practice, the actual effective throughput is almost inevitably lower in proportion to the load from other devices (network/bus contention), interframe gap, and other overhead in data link layer protocols etc. The maximum goodput (for example, the file transfer rate) may be even lower due to higher layer protocol overhead and data packet retransmissions caused by line noise or interference such as crosstalk, or lost packets in congested intermediate network nodes. All protocols lose something, and the more robust ones that deal resiliently with very many failure situations tend to lose more maximum throughput to get higher total long term rates.

Device interfaces where one bus transfers data via another will be limited to the throughput of the slowest interface, at best. For instance, SATA 6G controllers on one PCIe 5G channel will be limited to the 5G rate and have to employ more channels to get around this problem. Early implementations of new protocols very often have this kind of problem. The physical phenomena on which the device relies (such as spinning platters in a hard drive) will also impose limits; for instance, no spinning platter shipping in 2009 saturates SATA II (3 Gbit/s), so moving from this 3 Gbit/s interface to USB3 at 4.8 Gbit/s for one spinning drive will result in no increase in realized transfer rate.

Contention in a wireless or noisy spectrum, where the physical medium is entirely out of the control of those who specify the protocol, requires measures that also use up throughput. Wireless devices, BPL, and modems may produce a higher line rate or gross bit rate, due to error-correcting codes and other physical layer overhead. It is extremely common for throughput to be far less than half of theoretical maximum, though the more recent technologies (notably BPL) employ preemptive spectrum analysis to avoid this and so have much more potential to reach actual gigabit rates in practice than prior modems.

Another factor reducing throughput is deliberate policy decisions made by Internet service providers that are made for contractual, risk management, aggregation saturation, or marketing reasons. Examples are rate limiting, bandwidth throttling, and the assignment of IP addresses to groups. These practices tend to minimize the throughput available to every user, but maximize the number of users that can be supported on one backbone.

Furthermore, chips are often not available in order to implement the fastest rates. AMD, for instance, does not support the 32-bit HyperTransport interface on any CPU it has shipped as of the end of 2009. Additionally, WiMax service providers in the US typically support only up to 4 Mbit/s as of the end of 2009.

Choosing service providers or interfaces based on theoretical maxima is unwise, especially for commercial needs. A good example is large scale data centers, which should be more concerned with price per port to support the interface, wattage and heat considerations, and total cost of the solution. Because some protocols such as SCSI and Ethernet now operate many orders of magnitude faster than when originally deployed, scalability of the interface is one major factor, as it prevents costly shifts to technologies that are not backward compatible. Underscoring this is the fact that these shifts often happen involuntarily or by surprise, especially when a vendor abandons support for a proprietary system.

Conventions[edit]

Prefixes for multiples of
bits (bit) or bytes (B)
Decimal
Value SI
1000 k kilo
10002 M mega
10003 G giga
10004 T tera
10005 P peta
10006 E exa
10007 Z zetta
10008 Y yotta
Binary
Value IEC JEDEC
1024 Ki kibi K kilo
10242 Mi mebi M mega
10243 Gi gibi G giga
10244 Ti tebi
10245 Pi pebi
10246 Ei exbi
10247 Zi zebi
10248 Yi yobi

By convention, bus and network data rates are denoted either in bits per second (bit/s) or bytes per second (B/s). In general, parallel interfaces are quoted in B/s and serial in bit/s. The more commonly used is shown below in bold type.

On devices like modems, bytes may be more than 8 bits long because they may be individually padded out with additional start and stop bits; the figures below will reflect this. Where channels use line codes (such as Ethernet, Serial ATA and PCI Express), quoted rates are for the decoded signal.

The figures below are simplex data rates, which may conflict with the duplex rates vendors sometimes use in promotional materials. Where two values are listed, the first value is the downstream rate and the second value is the upstream rate.

All quoted figures are in metric decimal units. Note that these aren't the traditional binary prefixes for memory size. These decimal prefixes have long been established in data communications. This occurred before 1998 when IEC and other organizations introduced new binary prefixes and attempted to standardize their use across all computing applications.

Bandwidths[edit]

The figures below are grouped by network or bus type, then sorted within each group from lowest to highest bandwidth; gray shading indicates a lack of known implementations.

Time Signal Station to Radio Clock[edit]

Technology Max. rate Year
IRIG and related 1 bit/s ~0.2 characters/s [1][2]

Teletypewriter (TTY) or telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD)[edit]

Technology Max. rate Year
TTY (V.18) 45.4545 bit/s 6 characters/s[3]
TTY (V.18) 50 bit/s 6.6 characters/s
NTSC Line 21 Closed Captioning kbit/s ~100 characters/s

Modems (narrowband and broadband)[edit]

Narrowband (POTS: 3.1 kHz channel)[edit]

Technology Rate Rate ex. overhead Year
Morse code (skilled operator) 0.021 kbit/s[4] Counts per minute (~40 wpm)[5] 1844
Modem 110 baud (Bell 101) 0.11 kbit/s 0.010 kB/s (~10 cps)[6] 1959
Modem 300 (300 baud; Bell 103 or V.21) 0.3 kbit/s 0.03 kB/s (~30 cps)[6] 1962[7]
Modem 1200 (600 baud; Bell 212A or V.22) 1.2 kbit/s 0.12 kB/s (~120 cps)[6] 1976
Modem 1200/75 (600 baud; V.23) 1.2/0.075 kbit/s 0.12/0.0075 kB/s (~120 cps)[6] 1988 [8]
Modem 2400 (600 baud; V.22bis) 2.4 kbit/s 0.3 kB/s[6] 1988 [8]
Modem 4800 (1600 baud; V.27ter) 4.8 kbit/s 0.6 kB/s[6] 1988 [8]
Modem 9600 (2400 baud; V.32) 9.6 kbit/s 1.2 kB/s[6] 1989[7]
Modem 14.4 (2400 baud; V.32bis) 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s[6] 1991[7]
Modem 28.8 (3200 baud; V.34-1994) 28.8 kbit/s 3.6 kB/s[6] 1994
Modem 33.6 (3429 baud; V.34-1996/98) 33.6 kbit/s 4.2 kB/s[6] 1996[8]
Modem 56k (8000/3429 baud; V.90) 56.0/33.6 kbit/s[9] 7/4.2 kB/s 1998
Modem 56k (8000/8000 baud; V.92) 56.0/48.0 kbit/s[9] 7/6 kB/s 2001
Modem data compression (variable; V.92/V.44) 56.0–320.0 kbit/s[9] 7–40 kB/s 2000[8]
ISP-side text/image compression (variable) 56.0–1000.0 kbit/s 7–125 kB/s 1998[8]
ISDN Basic Rate Interface (single/dual channel) 64/128 kbit/s[10] 8/16 kB/s 1986[11]
IDSL (dual ISDN + 16 kbit/s data channels) 144 kbit/s 18 kB/s 2000[12]

Broadband (hundreds of kHz wide)[edit]

Technology Rate Rate ex. overhead Year
HDSL ITU G.991.1 aka DS1 1544 kbit/s 193 kB/s 1998[13]
MSDSL 2000 kbit/s 250 kB/s  ?
SDSL 2320 kbit/s 290 kB/s  ?
SHDSL ITU G.991.2 5690 kbit/s 711 kB/s 2001
ADSL (G.lite) 1536/512 kbit/s 192/64 kB/s 1998
ADSL (G.dmt) ITU G.992.1 8192/1024 kbit/s 1024/128 kB/s 1999
ADSL2 ITU G.992.3 12288/1440 kbit/s 1536/180 kB/s 2002
ADSL2+ ITU G.992.5 24576/3584 kbit/s 3072/448 kB/s 2003
DOCSIS v1.0[14] (cable modem) 38/9 Mbit/s 4750/1125 kB/s 1997
DOCSIS v2.0[15] (cable modem) 38/27 Mbit/s 4750/3375 kB/s 2001
VDSL ITU G.993.1 52 Mbit/s 7000 kB/s 2001
VDSL2 ITU G.993.2 100 Mbit/s 12500 kB/s 2006
DOCSIS v3.0[16] (cable modem) 160/120 Mbit/s 20000/15000 kB/s (~200,000,000 wpm) 2006
Uni-DSL 200 Mbit/s 25000 kB/s 2006
BPON (G.983) fiber optic service 622/155 Mbit/s 77700/19300 kB/s 2005[17]
EPON (802.3ah) fiber optic service 1000/1000 Mbit/s 125000/125000 kB/s 2008
DOCSIS v3.1[18] (cable modem) 10000/150 Mbit/s 1250000/18750 kB/s 2015
GPON (G.984) fiber optic service 2488/1244 Mbit/s 311000/155500 kB/s (~3 billion+ wpm) 2008[19]
10G-PON (G.987) fiber optic service 10000/2500 Mbit/s 1250000/312500 kB/s (~12 billion+ wpm) 2012[20]

Mobile telephone interfaces[edit]

Technology Download rate Upload rate Year
GSM CSD (2G) 14.4 kbit/s[21] 1.8 kB/s 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s
HSCSD 57.6 kbit/s 5.4 kB/s 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s
GPRS (2.5G) 57.6 kbit/s 7.2 kB/s 28.8 kbit/s 3.6 kB/s
WiDEN 100 kbit/s 12.5 kB/s 100 kbit/s 12.5 kB/s
CDMA2000 1×RTT 153 kbit/s 18 kB/s 153 kbit/s 18 kB/s
EDGE (2.75G) (type 1 MS) 236.8 kbit/s 29.6 kB/s 236.8 kbit/s 29.6 kB/s
UMTS 3G 384 kbit/s 48 kB/s 384 kbit/s 48 kB/s
EDGE (type 2 MS) 473.6 kbit/s 59.2 kB/s 473.6 kbit/s 59.2 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 1 MS) 1184 kbit/s 148 kB/s 474 kbit/s 59 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 2 MS) 1894 kbit/s 237 kB/s 947 kbit/s 118 kB/s
1×EV-DO rev. 0 2457 kbit/s 307.2 kB/s 153 kbit/s 19 kB/s
1×EV-DO rev. A 3.1 Mbit/s 397 kB/s 1.8 Mbit/s 230 kB/s
1×EV-DO rev. B 14.7 Mbit/s 1837 kB/s 5.4 Mbit/s 675 kB/s
HSPA (3.5G) 13.98 Mbit/s 1706 kB/s 5.760 Mbit/s 720 kB/s
4×EV-DO Enhancements (2×2 MIMO) 34.4 Mbit/s 4.3 MB/s 12.4 Mbit/s 1.55 MB/s
HSPA+ (2×2 MIMO) 42 Mbit/s 5.25 MB/s 11.5 Mbit/s 1.437 MB/s
15×EV-DO rev. B 73.5 Mbit/s 9.2 MB/s 27 Mbit/s 3.375 MB/s
UMB (2×2 MIMO) 140 Mbit/s 17.5 MB/s 34 Mbit/s 4.250 MB/s
LTE (2×2 MIMO) 173 Mbit/s 21.625 MB/s 58 Mbit/s 7.25 MB/s
UMB (4×4 MIMO) 280 Mbit/s 35 MB/s 68 Mbit/s 8.5 MB/s
EV-DO rev. C 280 Mbit/s 35 MB/s 75 Mbit/s MB/s
LTE (4×4 MIMO) 326 Mbit/s 40.750 MB/s 86 Mbit/s 10.750 MB/s

Wide area networks[edit]

Technology Rate Year
DS0 0.064 Mbit/s 0.008 MB/s
G.lite (aka ADSL Lite) 1.536/0.512 Mbit/s 0.192/0.064 MB/s
DS1 / T1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface) 1.544 Mbit/s 0.192 MB/s
E1 (and ISDN Primary Rate Interface) 2.048 Mbit/s 0.256 MB/s
G.SHDSL 2.304 Mbit/s 0.288 MB/s
LR-VDSL2 (4 to 5 km [long-]range) (symmetry optional) 4 Mbit/s 0.512 MB/s
SDSL[22] 2.32 Mbit/s 0.29 MB/s
T2 6.312 Mbit/s 0.789 MB/s
ADSL[23] 8.0/1.024 Mbit/s 1.0/0.128 MB/s
E2 8.448 Mbit/s 1.056 MB/s
ADSL2 12/3.5 Mbit/s 1.5/0.448 MB/s
Satellite Internet[24] 16/1 Mbit/s 2.0/0.128 MB/s
ADSL2+ 24/3.5 Mbit/s 3.0/0.448 MB/s
E3 34.368 Mbit/s 4.296 MB/s
DOCSIS v1.0 (cable modem)[14] 38/9 Mbit/s 4.75/1.125 MB/s
DOCSIS v2.0 (cable modem)[15] 38/27 Mbit/s 4.75/3.37 MB/s
DS3 / T3 ('45 Meg') 44.736 Mbit/s 5.5925 MB/s
STS-1 / OC-1 / STM-0 51.84 Mbit/s 6.48 MB/s
VDSL (symmetry optional) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
OC-3 / STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s 19.44 MB/s
DOCSIS v3.0 (cable modem)[16] 222.48/171.52 Mbit/s 27.81/21.44 MB/s
VDSL2 (symmetry optional) 250 Mbit/s 31.25 MB/s
T4 274.176 Mbit/s 34.272 MB/s
T5 400.352 Mbit/s 50.044 MB/s
OC-9 466.56 Mbit/s 58.32 MB/s
OC-12 / STM-4 622.08 Mbit/s 77.76 MB/s
OC-18 933.12 Mbit/s 116.64 MB/s
OC-24 1.244 Gbit/s 155.5 MB/s
OC-36 1.900 Gbit/s 237.5 MB/s
OC-48 / STM-16 2.488 Gbit/s 311.04 MB/s
OC-96 4.976 Gbit/s 622.08 MB/s
OC-192 / STM-64 9.953 Gbit/s 1.244125 GB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet WAN PHY 9.953 Gbit/s 1.244125 GB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN PHY 10.000 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
OC-256 13.271 Gbit/s 1.659 GB/s
OC-768 / STM-256 39.813 Gbit/s 4.976 GB/s
OC-1536 / STM-512 79.626 Gbit/s 9.953 GB/s
OC-3072 / STM-1024 159.252 Gbit/s 19.907 GB/s

Local area networks[edit]

Technology Rate Year
LocalTalk 230 kbit/s 28.8 kB/s
Econet 800 kbit/s 100 kB/s 1981
Omninet 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s
IBM PC Network 2 Mbit/s 250 kB/s 1985
ARCNET (Standard) 2.5 Mbit/s 312.5 kB/s 1977
Chaosnet (Original) 4 Mbit/s 3.0 Mbit/s 1971
Token Ring (Original) 4 Mbit/s 500 kB/s 1985
Ethernet (10BASE-X) 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s 1980 (1985 IEEE Standard)
Token Ring (Later) 16 Mbit/s MB/s 1989
ARCnet Plus 20 Mbit/s 2.5 MB/s 1992
TNCS 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1993?
100VG 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1995
Token Ring IEEE 802.5t 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Fast Ethernet (100BASE-X) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s 1995
FDDI 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
MoCA 1.0[25] 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
MoCA 1.1[25] 175 Mbit/s 21.875 MB/s
HomePlug AV 200 Mbit/s 25 MB/s 2005
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400[26][27] 400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s 1995
HIPPI 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
IEEE 1901 1000 Mbit/s 125 MB/s 2010
Token Ring IEEE 802.5v 1 Gbit/s 125 MB/s 2001
Gigabit Ethernet (1000BASE-X) 1 Gbit/s 125 MB/s 1998
Reflective memory or RFM2 (1.25 µs latency) 2 Gbit/s 235 MB/s 1970
Myrinet 2000 2 Gbit/s 250 MB/s
Infiniband SDR 1×[28] 2 Gbit/s 250 MB/s 2001
RapidIO Gen1 1× 2.5 Gbit/s 312.5 MB/s 2000
Quadrics QsNetI 3.6 Gbit/s 450 MB/s
Infiniband DDR 1×[28] 4 Gbit/s 500 MB/s 2005
RapidIO Gen2 1× 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s 2008
Infiniband QDR 1×[28] 8 Gbit/s GB/s 2007
Infiniband SDR 4×[28] 8 Gbit/s GB/s
Quadrics QsNetII 8 Gbit/s GB/s
RapidIO Gen1 4x 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 2x 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s 2008
10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-X) 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s 2002-2006
Myri 10G 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
Infiniband FDR-10 1×[29] 10.31 Gbit/s 1.29 GB/s
Infiniband FDR 1×[29] 13.64 Gbit/s 1.7 GB/s 2011
Infiniband DDR 4×[28] 16 Gbit/s GB/s 2005
RapidIO Gen2 4x 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s 2008
Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) Dual Channel SCI, x8 PCIe 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s
Infiniband SDR 12×[28] 24 Gbit/s GB/s
RapidIO Gen4 1× 24.63 Gbit/s 3.079 GB/s 2016
Infiniband EDR 1×[29] 25 Gbit/s 3.125 GB/s 2014
Infiniband QDR 4×[28] 32 Gbit/s GB/s 2007
RapidIO Gen2 8x 40 Gbit/s GB/s 2008
40 Gigabit Ethernet (40GBASE-X) 40 Gbit/s GB/s 2010
Infiniband FDR-10 4×[29] 41.25 Gbit/s 5.16 GB/s
Infiniband DDR 12×[28] 48 Gbit/s GB/s 2005
NUMAlink 6 53.6 Gbit/s 6.7 GB/s 2012
Infiniband FDR 4×[29] 54.54 Gbit/s 6.82 GB/s 2011
RapidIO Gen2 16x 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s 2008
Infiniband QDR 12×[28] 96 Gbit/s 12 GB/s 2007
Infiniband EDR 4×[29] 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2014
100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GBASE-X) 100 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2010
Infiniband FDR-10 12×[29] 123.75 Gbit/s 15.47 GB/s
NUMAlink 7 159.52 Gbit/s 19.94 GB/s 2014
Infiniband FDR 12×[29] 163.64 Gbit/s 20.45 GB/s 2011
Infiniband EDR 12×[29] 300 Gbit/s 37.5 GB/s 2014

Wireless networks[edit]

802.11 networks in infrastructure mode are half-duplex; all stations share the medium. In infrastructure or access point mode, all traffic has to pass through an Access Point (AP). Thus, two stations on the same access point that are communicating with each other must have each and every frame transmitted twice: from the sender to the access point, then from the access point to the receiver. This approximately halves the effective bandwidth.

802.11 networks in ad hoc mode are still half-duplex, but devices communicate directly rather than through an access point. In this mode all devices must be able to "see" each other, instead of only having to be able to "see" the access point.

Standard Rate Year
Classic WaveLAN Mbit/s 250 kB/s 1988
IEEE 802.11 2 Mbit/s 250 kB/s 1997
RONJA (full duplex) 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s 2001
IEEE 802.11a 54 Mbit/s 6.75 MB/s 1999
IEEE 802.11b 11 Mbit/s 1.375 MB/s 1999
IEEE 802.11g 54 Mbit/s 6.75 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) 70 Mbit/s 8.75 MB/s 2004
IEEE 802.11g with Super G by Atheros 108 Mbit/s 13.5 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.11g with 125 High Speed Mode by Broadcom 125 Mbit/s 15.625 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.11g with Nitro by Conexant 140 Mbit/s 17.5 MB/s 2003
IEEE 802.11n 600 Mbit/s 75 MB/s 2009
IEEE 802.11ac (maximum theoretical speed) 6.8–6.93 Gbit/s 850–866.25 MB/s 2012
IEEE 802.11ad (maximum theoretical speed) 7.14–7.2 Gbit/s 892.5–900 MB/s 2011

Wireless personal area networks[edit]

Technology Rate Year
ANT 20 kbit/s 2.5 kB/s
IrDA-Control 72 kbit/s kB/s
IrDA-SIR 115.2 kbit/s 14 kB/s
802.15.4 (2.4 GHz) 250 kbit/s 31.25 kB/s
Bluetooth 1.1 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s 2002
Bluetooth 2.0+EDR 3 Mbit/s 375 kB/s 2004
IrDA-FIR 4 Mbit/s 500 kB/s
IrDA-VFIR 16 Mbit/s MB/s
Bluetooth 3.0 24 Mbit/s MB/s 2009
Bluetooth 4.0 24 Mbit/s MB/s 2010
IrDA-UFIR 96 Mbit/s 12 MB/s
WUSB-UWB 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s
IrDA-Giga-IR 1024 Mbit/s 128 MB/s

Computer buses[edit]

Main buses[edit]

Technology Rate Year
I²C 3.4 Mbit/s 425 kB/s 1992 (standardized)
Apple II series (incl. Apple IIGS) 8-bit/1 MHz 8 Mbit/s MB/s[30][31]
SS-50 Bus 8-bit/1(?) MHz 8 Mbit/s MB/s
STD-80 8-bit/8 MHz 16 Mbit/s MB/s
ISA 8-Bit/4.77 MHz 19.1 Mbit/s 2.39 MB/s 1981 (created)
STD-80 16-bit/8 MHz 32 Mbit/s MB/s
Zorro II 16-bit/7.14 MHz[32] 42.4 Mbit/s 5.3 MB/s 1986
ISA 16-Bit/8.33 MHz 66.7 Mbit/s 8.33 MB/s 1984 (created)
Europe Card Bus 8-Bit/10 MHz 66.7 Mbit/s 8.33 MB/s 1977 (created)
S-100 bus 8-bit/10 MHz 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s 1976 (published)
Serial Peripheral Interface Bus (Up to 100 MHz) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Low Pin Count 125 Mbit/s 15.63 MB/s [x]
STEbus 8-Bit/16 MHz 128 Mbit/s 16 MB/s 1987 (standardized)
C-Bus 16-bit/10 MHz 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s[33]
HP Precision Bus 184 Mbit/s 23 MB/s
STD-32 32-bit/8 MHz 256 Mbit/s 32 MB/s[34]
NESA 32-bit/8 MHz 256 Mbit/s 32 MB/s[35]
EISA 8-16-32bit/8.33 MHz 266.56 Mbit/s 33.32 MB/s 1988
VME64 32-64bit 400 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
NuBus 10 MHz 400 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/12.5 MHz 400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s
MCA 16-32bit/10 MHz 660 Mbit/s 66 MB/s 1987
NuBus90 20 MHz 800 Mbit/s 80 MB/s
APbus 32-bit/25(?) MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s[36]
Sbus 32-bit/25 MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s 1989
DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/25 MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
Local Bus 98 32-bit/33 MHz 1056 Mbit/s 132 MB/s[37]
VESA Local Bus (VLB) 32-bit/33 MHz 1067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s 1992
PCI 32-bit/33 MHz 1067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s 1993
HP GSC-1X 1136 Mbit/s 142 MB/s
Zorro III 32-bit/async (eq. 37.5 MHz)[38][39] 1200 Mbit/s 150 MB/s[40] 1990
VESA Local Bus (VLB) 32-bit/40 MHz 1280 Mbit/s 160 MB/s 1992
Sbus 64-bit/25 MHz 1.6 Gbit/s 200 MB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×1 link)[41] 2.5 Gbit/s 250 MB/s [z] 2004
HP GSC-2X 2.048 Gbit/s 256 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/33 MHz 2.133 Gbit/s 266.7 MB/s 1993
PCI 32-bit/66 MHz 2.133 Gbit/s 266.7 MB/s 1995
AGP 2.133 Gbit/s 266.7 MB/s 1997
RapidIO Gen1 1× 2.5 Gbit/s 312.5 MB/s
HIO bus 2.560 Gbit/s 320 MB/s
GIO64 64-bit/40 MHz 2.560 Gbit/s 320 MB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×2 link)[41] 5 Gbit/s 500 MB/s [z] 2011
PCI Express 2.0 (×1 link)[42] 5 Gbit/s 500 MB/s [z] 2007
AGP 2× 4.266 Gbit/s 533.3 MB/s 1997
PCI 64-bit/66 MHz 4.266 Gbit/s 533.3 MB/s
PCI-X DDR 16-bit 4.266 Gbit/s 533.3 MB/s
RapidIO Gen2 1× 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/100 MHz 6.4 Gbit/s 800 MB/s
PCI Express 3.0 (×1 link)[43] 8 Gbit/s 984.6 MB/s [y] 2011
Unified Media Interface (UMI) (×4 link) 10 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2011
Direct Media Interface (DMI) (×4 link) 10 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2004
Enterprise Southbridge Interface (ESI) 8 Gbit/s GB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×4 link)[41] 10 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2004
AGP 4× 8.533 Gbit/s 1.067 GB/s 1998
PCI-X 133 8.533 Gbit/s 1.067 GB/s
PCI-X QDR 16-bit 8.533 Gbit/s 1.067 GB/s
InfiniBand single 4×[28] 8 Gbit/s GB/s
RapidIO Gen1 4× 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 2× 10 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
UPA 15.360 Gbit/s 1.920 GB/s
Unified Media Interface 2.0 (UMI 2.0; ×4 link) 20 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2012
Direct Media Interface 2.0 (DMI 2.0; ×4 link) 20 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2011
PCI Express 1.0 (×8 link)[41] 20 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2004
PCI Express 2.0 (×4 link)[42] 20 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2007
AGP 8× 17.066 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s 2002
PCI-X DDR 17.066 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 4× 20 Gbit/s 2.5 GB/s
Sun JBus (200 MHz) 20.48 Gbit/s 2.56 GB/s 2003
HyperTransport (800 MHz, 16-pair) 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s 2001
PCI Express 3.0 (×4 link)[43] 32 Gbit/s 3.938 GB/s [y] 2011
HyperTransport (1 GHz, 16-pair) 32 Gbit/s GB/s
PCI Express 1.0 (×16 link)[41] 40 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2004
PCI Express 2.0 (×8 link)[42] 40 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2007
PCI-X QDR 34.133 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
AGP 8× 64-bit 34.133 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
RapidIO Gen2 8x 40 Gbit/s GB/s
Direct Media Interface 3.0 (DMI 3.0; ×4 link) 40 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2015
PCI Express 3.0 (×8 link)[43] 64 Gbit/s 7.877 GB/s [y] 2011
PCI Express 1.0 (×32 link)[41] 80 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2001
PCI Express 2.0 (×16 link)[42] 80 Gbit/s GB/s [z] 2007
RapidIO Gen2 16x 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s
PCI Express 3.0 (×16 link)[43] 128 Gbit/s 15.75 GB/s [y] 2011
PCI Express 2.0 (×32 link)[42] 160 Gbit/s 16 GB/s [z] 2007
QPI (4.80GT/s, 2.40 GHz) 153.6 Gbit/s 19.2 GB/s
HyperTransport 2.0 (1.4 GHz, 32-pair) 179.2 Gbit/s 22.4 GB/s 2004
QPI (5.86GT/s, 2.93 GHz) 187.52 Gbit/s 23.44 GB/s
QPI (6.40GT/s, 3.20 GHz) 204.8 Gbit/s 25.6 GB/s
QPI (7.2GT/s, 3.6 GHz) 230.4 Gbit/s 28.8 GB/s 2012
PCI Express 3.0 (×32 link)[43] 256 Gbit/s 31.51 GB/s [y] 2011
QPI (8.0GT/s, 4.0 GHz) 256.0 Gbit/s 32.0 GB/s 2012
QPI (9.6GT/s, 4.8 GHz) 307.2 Gbit/s 38.4 GB/s 2014
HyperTransport 3.0 (2.6 GHz, 32-pair) 332.8 Gbit/s 41.6 GB/s 2006
HyperTransport 3.1 (3.2 GHz, 32-pair) 409.6 Gbit/s 51.2 GB/s 2008

x LPC protocol includes high overhead. While the gross data rate equals 33.3 million 4-bit-transfers per second (or 16.67 MB/s), the fastest transfer, firmware read, results in 15.63 MB/s. The next fastest bus cycle, 32-bit ISA-style DMA write, yields only 6.67 MB/s. Other transfers may be as low as MB/s.[44]

y Uses 128b/130b encoding, meaning that about 1.54% of each transfer is used by the interface instead of carrying data between the hardware components at each end of the interface. For example, a single link PCIe 3.0 interface has an 8 Gbit/s transfer rate, yet its usable bandwidth is only about 7.88 Gbit/s.

z Uses 8b/10b encoding, meaning that 20% of each transfer is used by the interface instead of carrying data from between the hardware components at each end of the interface. For example, a single link PCIe 1.0 has a 2.5 Gbit/s transfer rate, yet its usable bandwidth is only 2 Gbit/s (250 MB/s).

Portable[edit]

Technology Rate Year
PC Card 16-bit 255 ns byte mode 31.36 Mbit/s 3.92 MB/s
PC Card 16-bit 255 ns word mode 62.72 Mbit/s 7.84 MB/s
PC Card 16-bit 100 ns byte mode 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s
PC Card 16-bit 100 ns word mode 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) byte mode 267 Mbit/s 33.33 MB/s
ExpressCard 1.2 USB 2.0 mode 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s
PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) word mode 533 Mbit/s 66.66 MB/s
PC Card 32-bit (CardBus) doubleword mode 1067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s
ExpressCard 1.2 PCI Express mode 2500 Mbit/s 250 MB/s
ExpressCard 2.0 USB 3.0 mode 4800 Mbit/s 600 MB/s
ExpressCard 2.0 PCI Express mode 5000 Mbit/s 625 MB/s

Storage[edit]

Technology Rate Year
Teletype Model 33 paper tape (70 bit/s, 10 ASCII characters per second) 0.000070 Mbit/s 0.000010 MB/s 1963
TRS-80 Model 1 Level 1 BASIC cassette tape interface (250 bit/s ) 0.00025 Mbit/s 0.000032 MB/s 1977
Apple 2 cassette tape interface (1500 bit/s) 0.0015 Mbit/s 0.0002 MB/s 1977
Single Density 8-inch FM Floppy Disk Controller (160 KB) 0.250 Mbit/s 0.031 MB/s 1973
Double Density 5.25-inch MFM Floppy Disk Controller (360 KB) 0.500 Mbit/s 0.062 MB/s 1978
High Density MFM Floppy Disk Controller (1.2 MB/1.44 MB) 1.0 Mbit/s 0.124 MB/s 1984
CD Controller (1×) 1.171 Mbit/s 0.146 MB/s
MFM hard disk 5 Mbit/s 0.625 MB/s 1980
RLL hard disk 7.5 Mbit/s 0.937 MB/s
DVD Controller (1×) 11.1 Mbit/s 1.32 MB/s
ESDI 24 Mbit/s MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 0 26.4 Mbit/s 3.3 MB/s 1986
HD DVD Controller (1×) 36 Mbit/s 4.5 MB/s
Blu-ray Controller (1×) 36 Mbit/s 4.5 MB/s
SCSI (Narrow SCSI) (5 MHz)[45] 40 Mbit/s MB/s 1986
ATA PIO Mode 1 41.6 Mbit/s 5.2 MB/s 1994
ATA PIO Mode 2 66.4 Mbit/s 8.3 MB/s 1994
Fast SCSI (8 bits/10 MHz) 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 3 88.8 Mbit/s 11.1 MB/s 1996
AoE over Fast Ethernet[46] 100 Mbit/s 11.9 MB/s 2009
iSCSI over Fast Ethernet[47] 100 Mbit/s 11.9 MB/s 2004
ATA PIO Mode 4 133.3 Mbit/s 16.7 MB/s 1996
Fast Wide SCSI (16 bits/10 MHz) 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
Ultra SCSI (Fast-20 SCSI) (8 bits/20 MHz) 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 33 264 Mbit/s 33 MB/s 1998
Ultra Wide SCSI (16 bits/20 MHz) 320 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
Ultra-2 SCSI 40 (Fast-40 SCSI) (8 bits/40 MHz) 320 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 66 533.6 Mbit/s 66.7 MB/s 2000
Blu-ray Controller (16×) 576 Mbit/s 72 MB/s
Ultra-2 wide SCSI (16 bits/40 MHz) 640 Mbit/s 80 MB/s
Serial Storage Architecture SSA 640 Mbit/s 80 MB/s 1990
Ultra DMA ATA 100 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s 2002
Fibre Channel 1GFC (1.0625 GHz)[48] 850 Mbit/s 103.23 MB/s 1997
AoE over gigabit Ethernet, jumbo frames[49] 1000 Mbit/s 124.2 MB/s 2009
iSCSI over gigabit Ethernet, jumbo frames[50] 1000 Mbit/s 123.9 MB/s 2004
Ultra DMA ATA 133 1064 Mbit/s 133 MB/s 2005
Ultra-3 SCSI (Ultra 160 SCSI; Fast-80 Wide SCSI) (16 bits/40 MHz DDR) 1280 Mbit/s 160 MB/s
SATA revision 1.0[51] 1500 Mbit/s 150 MB/s [a] 2003
Fibre Channel 2GFC (2.125 GHz)[48] 1700 Mbit/s 206.5 MB/s 2001
Ultra-320 SCSI (Ultra4 SCSI) (16 bits/80 MHz DDR) 2560 Mbit/s 320 MB/s
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)[51] 3000 Mbit/s 300 MB/s [a] 2004
SATA Revision 2.0[51] 3000 Mbit/s 300 MB/s [a] 2004
Fibre Channel 4GFC (4.25 GHz)[48] 3400 Mbit/s 413 MB/s 2004
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 2[51] 6000 Mbit/s 600 MB/s [a] 2009
SATA Revision 3.0[51] 6000 Mbit/s 600 MB/s [a] 2008
Fibre Channel 8GFC (8.50 GHz)[48] 6800 Mbit/s 826 MB/s 2005
Fibre Channel 16GFC (14.025 GHz)[48] 13600 Mbit/s 1652 MB/s [b] 2011
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 3[51] 12000 Mbit/s 1200 MB/s 2013
AoE over 10GbE[49] 10000 Mbit/s 1242 MB/s 2009
iSCSI over 10GbE[50] 10000 Mbit/s 1239 MB/s 2004
FCoE over 10GbE[52] 10000 Mbit/s 1206 MB/s 2009
SATA revision 3.2 - SATA Express 16000 Mbit/s 2000 MB/s 2013
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) 4 (preliminary specification)[53] 22500 Mbit/s 2400 MB/s tba
NVMe over M.2 or U.2 (using PCI Express 3.0 ×4 link)[43] 32000 Mbit/s 3938 MB/s 2013
iSCSI over InfiniBand 32000 Mbit/s 4000 MB/s 2007
iSCSI over 100G Ethernet[50] 100000 Mbit/s 12392 MB/s 2010
FCoE over 100G Ethernet[52] 100000 Mbit/s 12064 MB/s 2010

a Uses 8b/10b encoding b Uses 64b/66b encoding

Peripheral[edit]

Technology Rate Year
Apple Desktop Bus 10.0 kbit/s 1.25 kB/s 1986
Serial MIDI 31.25 kbit/s 3.9 kB/s 1983
CBM Bus max[54][55] 41.6 kbit/s 5.1 kB/s 1981
Serial RS-232 max 230.4 kbit/s 28.8 kB/s 1962
Serial DMX512A 250.0 kbit/s 31.25 kB/s 1998
Parallel (Centronics) 1 Mbit/s 125 kB/s 1970 (standardised 1994)
Serial 16550 UART max 1.5 Mbit/s 187.5 kB/s
USB 1.0 low speed 1.536 Mbit/s 192 kB/s 1996
Serial UART max 2.7648 Mbit/s 345.6 kB/s
GPIB/HPIB (IEEE-488.1) IEEE-488 max. 8 Mbit/s MB/s Late 1960s (standardised 1976)
Serial EIA-422 max. 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
USB 1.0 full speed 12 Mbit/s 1.5 MB/s 1996
Parallel (Centronics) EPP 2 MHz 16 Mbit/s MB/s 1992
Serial EIA-485 max. 35 Mbit/s 4.375 MB/s
GPIB/HPIB (IEEE-488.1-2003) IEEE-488 max. 64 Mbit/s MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 100 98.304 Mbit/s 12.288 MB/s 1995
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 200 196.608 Mbit/s 24.576 MB/s 1995
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400 393.216 Mbit/s 49.152 MB/s 1995
USB 2.0 high speed 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s 2000
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 800[56] 786.432 Mbit/s 98.304 MB/s 2002
Fibre Channel 1 Gb SCSI 1062.5 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 1600[56] 1.573 Gbit/s 196.6 MB/s 2007
Fibre Channel 2 Gb SCSI 2125 Mbit/s 200 MB/s
eSATA (SATA 300) 3 Gbit/s 375 MB/s 2004
CoaXPress Base (up and down bidirectional link) 3.125 Gbit/s + 20.833 Mbit/s 390 MB/s 2009
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 3200[56] 3145.7 Mbit/s 393.216 MB/s 2007
External PCI Express 2.0 ×1 4 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
Fibre Channel 4 Gb SCSI 4.25 Gbit/s 531.25 MB/s
USB 3.0 SuperSpeed 5 Gbit/s 625 MB/s 2010
eSATA (SATA 600) 6 Gbit/s 750 MB/s 2011
CoaXPress full (up and down bidirectional link) 6.25 Gbit/s + 20.833 Mbit/s 781 MB/s 2009
External PCI Express 2.0 ×2 8 Gbit/s 1000 MB/s
USB 3.1 SuperSpeed+ 10 Gbit/s 1250 MB/s 2013
Thunderbolt 2 × 10 Gbit/s 2 × 1250 MB/s 2011
External PCI Express 2.0 ×4 16 Gbit/s 2000 MB/s
Thunderbolt 2 20 Gbit/s 2500 MB/s 2013
External PCI Express 2.0 ×8 32 Gbit/s 4000 MB/s
Thunderbolt 3 40 Gbit/s 5000 MB/s 2015
External PCI Express 2.0 ×16 64 Gbit/s 8000 MB/s

MAC to PHY[edit]

Technology Rate Year
Media Independent Interface (MII; 4 lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Reduced MII (RMII; 2 lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Serial MII (SMII; 1 lane) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Gigabit MII (GMII; 8 lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Reduced gigabit/s MII (RGMII; 4 lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Serial gigabit/s MII (SGMII; 2 lanes) 1.25 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
Reduced serial gigabit/s MII (RSGMII; 2 lanes) 2.5 Gbit/s 250 MB/s
Reduced serial gigabit/s MII plus (RSGMII-PLUS; 2 lanes) 5.0 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
Quad serial gigabit/s MII (QSGMII; 2 lanes) 5.0 Gbit/s 500 MB/s
10 gigabit/s MII (XGMII; 32 lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
XGMII attachment unit interface (XAUI; 4 lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
40 gigabit/s MII (XLGMII) 40.0 Gbit/s GB/s
100 gigabit/s MII (CGMII) 100.0 Gbit/s 12.5 GB/s 2008

PHY to XPDR[edit]

Technology Rate Year
10 gigabit/s 16-bit interface (XSBI; 16 lanes) 0.995 Gbit/s 0.124 GB/s

Dynamic random-access memory[edit]

The table below shows values for PC memory module types. These modules usually combine multiple chips on one circuit board. SIMM modules connect to the computer via an 8 bit or 32 bit wide interface. DIMM modules connect to the computer via a 64 bit wide interface. Some other computer architectures use different modules with a different bus width.

FPM, EDO, SDR, and RDRAM memories were not commonly installed in a dual-channel configuration. DDR and DDR2 memory are usually installed in single or dual-channel configuration. DDR3 memory are installed in single, dual, tri, and quad-channel configurations. Bit rates of multi-channel configuration are slightly increased.

Module type Chip type Memory clock Bus speed Transfer rate
FPM DRAM 45 ns 22 MHz 0.177 GT/s 1.416 Gbit/s 177 MB/s
EDO DRAM 30 ns 33 MHz 0.266 GT/s 2.128 Gbit/s 266 MB/s
PC-66 SDR SDRAM 10/15 ns 66 MHz 0.066 GT/s 4.264 Gbit/s 533 MB/s
PC-100 SDR SDRAM 8 ns 100 MHz 0.100 GT/s 6.4 Gbit/s 800 MB/s
PC-133 SDR SDRAM 7/7.5 ns 133 MHz 0.133 GT/s 8.528 Gbit/s 1.066 GB/s
RIMM-1200 RDRAM PC-600 300 MHz 0.600 GT/s 9.6 Gbit/s 1.2 GB/s
RIMM-1400 RDRAM PC-700 350 MHz 0.700 GT/s 11.2 Gbit/s 1.4 GB/s
RIMM-1600 RDRAM PC-800 400 MHz 0.800 GT/s 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s
PC-1600 DDR SDRAM DDR-200 100 MHz 0.200 GT/s 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s
RIMM-2100 RDRAM PC-1066 533 MHz 1.066 GT/s 17.034 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s
PC-2100 DDR SDRAM DDR-266 133 MHz 0.266 GT/s 17.034 Gbit/s 2.133 GB/s
PC-2700 DDR SDRAM DDR-333 166 MHz 0.333 GT/s 21.336 Gbit/s 2.667 GB/s
PC-3200 DDR SDRAM DDR-400 200 MHz 0.400 GT/s 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC2-3200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-400 100 MHz 0.400 GT/s 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC-3500 DDR SDRAM DDR-433 216 MHz 0.433 GT/s 27.728 Gbit/s 3.466 GB/s
PC-3700 DDR SDRAM DDR-466 233 MHz 0.466 GT/s 29.864 Gbit/s 3.733 GB/s
PC-4000 DDR SDRAM DDR-500 250 MHz 0.500 GT/s 32 Gbit/s GB/s
PC-4200 DDR SDRAM DDR-533 266 MHz 0.533 GT/s 34.128 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
PC2-4200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-533 133 MHz 0.533 GT/s 34.128 Gbit/s 4.266 GB/s
PC-4400 DDR SDRAM DDR-550 275 MHz 0.550 GT/s 35.2 Gbit/s 4.4 GB/s
PC-4800 DDR SDRAM DDR-600 300 MHz 0.600 GT/s 38.4 Gbit/s 4.8 GB/s
PC2-5300 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-667 167 MHz 0.667 GT/s 42.664 Gbit/s 5.333 GB/s
PC2-6000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-750 188 MHz 0.750 GT/s 48 Gbit/s GB/s
PC2-6400 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-800 200 MHz 0.800 GT/s 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC3-6400 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-800 100 MHz 0.800 GT/s 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC2-7200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-900 225 MHz 0.900 GT/s 57.6 Gbit/s 7.2 GB/s
PC2-8000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1000 250 MHz GT/s 64 Gbit/s GB/s
PC2-8500 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1066 267 MHz 1.066 GT/s 68 Gbit/s 8.5 GB/s
PC3-8500 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1066 133 MHz 1.066 GT/s 68 Gbit/s 8.5 GB/s
PC2-8800 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1100 275 MHz 1.1 GT/s 70.4 Gbit/s 8.8 GB/s
PC2-8888 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1100 278 MHz 1.111 GT/s 71.104 Gbit/s 8.888 GB/s
PC2-9136 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1142 286 MHz 1.142 GT/s 73.088 Gbit/s 9.136 GB/s
PC2-9200 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1150 288 MHz 1.15 GT/s 73.6 Gbit/s 9.2 GB/s
PC2-9600 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1200 300 MHz 1.2 GT/s 76.8 Gbit/s 9.6 GB/s
PC2-10000 DDR2 SDRAM DDR2-1250 313 MHz 1.25 GT/s 80 Gbit/s 10 GB/s
PC3-10600 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1333 167 MHz 1.333 GT/s 85.336 Gbit/s 10.667 GB/s
PC3-11000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1375 172 MHz 1.375 GT/s 88 Gbit/s 11 GB/s
PC3-12800 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1600 200 MHz 1.6 GT/s 102.4 Gbit/s 12.8 GB/s
PC3-13000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1625 203 MHz 1.625 GT/s 104 Gbit/s 13 GB/s
PC3-14400 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1800 225 MHz 1.8 GT/s 115.2 Gbit/s 14.4 GB/s
PC3-14900 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1866 233 MHz 1.866 GT/s 119.464 Gbit/s 14.933 GB/s
PC3-15000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-1866 233 MHz 1.866 GT/s 119.464 Gbit/s 14.933 GB/s
PC3-16000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2000 250 MHz GT/s 128 Gbit/s 16 GB/s
PC3-17000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2133 266 MHz 2.133 GT/s 136.528 Gbit/s 17.066 GB/s
PC4-17000 DDR4 SDRAM DDR4-2133 266 MHz 2.133 GT/s 136.5 Gbit/s 17 GB/s[57]
PC3-17600 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2200 275 MHz 2.2 GT/s 140.8 Gbit/s 17.6 GB/s
PC3-19200 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2400 300 MHz 2.4 GT/s 153.6 Gbit/s 19.2 GB/s
PC3-21300 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-2666 333 MHz 2.666 GT/s 170.4 Gbit/s 21.3 GB/s
PC3-24000 DDR3 SDRAM DDR3-3000 375 MHz 3.0 GT/s 192 Gbit/s 24 GB/s
PC4-25600 DDR4 SDRAM DDR4-3200 400 MHz 3.2 GT/s 204.8 Gbit/s 25.6 GB/s

Graphics processing units' RAM[edit]

RAM memory modules are also utilised by graphics processing units; however, memory modules for those differs somewhat, particularly with lower power requirements, and is specialised to serve GPUs: for example, the introduction of GDDR3, which was fundamentally based on DDR2. Every graphics memory chip is directly connected to the GPU (point-to-point). The total GPU memory bus width varies with the number of memory chips and the number of lanes per chip. For example, GDDR5 specifies either 16 or 32 lanes per "device" (chip), while GDDR5X specifies 64 lanes per chip. Over the years, bus widths rose from 64-bit to 512-bit and beyond - e.g. HBM is 1024 bits wide.[58] Because of this variability, graphics memory speeds are sometimes compared per pin. For direct comparison to the values for 64-bit modules shown above, video RAM is compared here in 64-lane lots, corresponding to two chips for those devices with 32-bit widths. In 2012, high-end GPUs use 8 or even 12 chips with 32 lanes each, for a total memory bus width of 256 or 384 bits. Combined with a transfer rate per pin of 5 GT/s or more, such cards can reach 240 GB/s or more.

RAM frequencies used for a given chip technology vary greatly. Where single values are given below, they are examples from high-end cards.[59] Since many cards have more than one pair of chips, the total bandwidth is correspondingly higher. For example, high-end cards often have eight chips each 32-bits wide, so the total bandwidth for such cards is four times the value given below.

Module type Chip type Memory clock Transfers/s Transfer rate
64 lanes DDR 350 MHz 0.7 GT/s 44.8 Gbit/s 5.6 GB/s
64 lanes DDR2 250 MHz GT/s 64 Gbit/s GB/s
64 lanes GDDR3 625 MHz 2.5 GT/s 159 Gbit/s 19.9 GB/s
64 lanes GDDR4 275 MHz 2.2 GT/s 140.8 Gbit/s 17.6 GB/s
64 lanes GDDR5[60] 625–1000 MHz 5–8 GT/s 320–512 Gbit/s 40–64 GB/s
64 lanes GDDR5X[61] 625–875 MHz 10–14 GT/s 640–896 Gbit/s 80–112 GB/s
1024 lanes (8 channels @ 128 lanes ea) HBM 500 MHz GT/s 1024 Gbit/s 128 GB/s
1024 lanes (8 channels @ 128 lanes ea) HBM2 1000 MHz GT/s 2048 Gbit/s 256 GB/s
128 lanes (8 links @ 16 lanes ea) HMC (internal) 10 GT/s 2560 Gbit/s 320 GB/s
64 lanes (4 links @ 16 lanes ea) HMC2 (internal) 30 GT/s 3840 Gbit/s 480 GB/s

Digital audio[edit]

Device Rate
CD Audio (16-bit PCM) 1.411 Mbit/s 176.4 kB/s
I²S 2.250 Mbit/s @ 24bit/48 kHz 0.281 MB/s
AES/EBU 2.625 Mbit/s @ 24-bit/48 kHz 0.328 MB/s
S/PDIF 3.072 Mbit/s 0.384 MB/s
ADAT Lightpipe (Type I) 9.216 Mbit/s 2.304 MB/s
AC'97 12.288 Mbit/s 1.536 MB/s
HDMI 36.864 Mbit/s 4.608 MB/s
DisplayPort 36.864 Mbit/s 4.608 MB/s
Intel High Definition Audio rev. 1.0[62] 48 Mbit/s outbound; 24 Mbit/s inbound MB/s outbound; 3 MB/s inbound
MADI 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s

Digital video interconnects[edit]

Data rates given are from the video source (e.g., video card) to receiving device (e.g., monitor) only. Out of band and reverse signaling channels are not included.

Device Rate Year
HD-SDI (SMPTE 292M) 1.485 Gbit/s 0.186 GB/s
Camera Link Base (single) 24-bit 85 MHz 2.040 Gbit/s 0.255 GB/s
LVDS Display Interface[63] 2.80 Gbit/s 0.35 GB/s
3G-SDI (SMPTE 424M) 2.97 Gbit/s 0.371 GB/s
Single link DVI 4.95 Gbit/s 0.619 GB/s [a]
HDMI 1.0[64] 4.95 Gbit/s 0.619 GB/s [a]
Camera Link full (dual) 64-bit 85 MHz 5.44 Gbit/s 0.680 GB/s
DisplayPort 1.0 (4-lane Reduced Bit Rate)[65] 6.48 Gbit/s 0.810 GB/s [a]
Dual link DVI 9.90 Gbit/s 1.238 GB/s [a]
Thunderbolt 2 × 10 Gbit/s 2 × 1250 MB/s 2011
HDMI 1.3[66] 10.2 Gbit/s 1.275 GB/s [a]
Dual High-Speed LVDS Display Interface 10.5 Gbit/s 1.312 GB/s
DisplayPort 1.0 (4-lane High Bit Rate)[65] 10.8 Gbit/s 1.35 GB/s [a]
HDMI 2.0[67] 18.0 Gbit/s 2.25 GB/s [a]
Thunderbolt 2 20 Gbit/s 2500 MB/s 2013
DisplayPort 1.2 (4-lane High Bit Rate 2)[65] 21.6 Gbit/s 2.7 GB/s [a] 2009
DisplayPort 1.3 (4-lane High Bit Rate 3) 32.4 Gbit/s 4.05 GB/s [a] 2014
DisplayPort 1.4 (4-lane High Bit Rate 3) 32.4 Gbit/s 4.05 GB/s [a] 2016
Thunderbolt 3 40 Gbit/s 5000 MB/s 2015
SuperMHL 159 GBit/s 19.9 GB/s 2016

a Uses 8b/10b encoding for video data—effective data rate is 80% of the symbol rate

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nist.gov/pml/div688/grp40/upload/NIST-Enhanced-WWVB-Broadcast-Format-sept-2012-Radio-Station-staff.pdf
  2. ^ http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/2422.pdf
  3. ^ TTY uses a Baudot code, not ASCII. This uses 5 bits per character instead of 8, plus one start and approx. 1.5 stop bits (7.5 total bits per character sent).
  4. ^ Morse can transport 26 alphabetic, 10 numeric and one interword gap plaintext symbols. Transmitting 37 different symbols requires 5.21 bits of information (25.21=37). A skilled operator encoding the benchmark "PARIS" plus an interword gap (equal to 31.26 bits) at 40 wpm is operating at an equivalence of 20.84 bit/s.
  5. ^ WPM, or Words Per Minute, is the number of times the word "PARIS" is transferred per minute. Strictly speaking the code is quinary, accounting inter-element, inter-letter, and inter-word gaps, yielding 50 binary elements (bits) per one word. Counting characters, including inter-word gaps, gives six characters per word or 240 characters per minute, and finally four characters per second.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j All modems are wrongly assumed to be in serial operation with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit (2 stop bits for 110-baud modems). Therefore, currently modems are wrongly calculated with transmission of 10 bits per 8-bit byte (11 bits for 110-baud modems). Although the serial port is nearly always used to connect a modem and has equivalent data rates, the protocols, modulations and error correction differ completely.
  7. ^ a b c Modem Types and Timeline, Daxal Communications, 2003-12-16, retrieved 2009-04-16 
  8. ^ a b c d e f |title="ITU.int"ITU.int
  9. ^ a b c 56K modems: V.90 and V.92 have just 5% overhead for the protocol signalling. The maximum capacity can only be achieved when the upstream (service provider) end of the connection is digital, i.e. a DS0 channel.
  10. ^ Note that effective aggregate bandwidth for an ISDN installation is typically higher than the rates shown for a single channel due to the use of multiple channels. A basic rate interface (BRI) provides two "B" channels and one "D" channel. Each B channel provides 64 kBit/s bandwidth and the "D" channel carries signaling (call setup) information. B channels can be bonded to provide a 128 kbit/s data rate. Primary rate interfaces (PRI) vary depending on whether the region uses E1 (Europe, world) or T1 (North America) bearers. In E1 regions, the PRI carries 30 B-channels and one D-channel; in T1 regions the PRI carries 23 B-channels and one D-channel. The D-channel has different bandwidth on the two interfaces.
  11. ^ Massey, David (2006-07-04), "Timeline of Telecommunications", Telephone Tribute, retrieved 2009-04-16 
  12. ^ Adam.com.au
  13. ^ Itu.int
  14. ^ a b DOCSIS 1.0 includes technology which first became available around 1995–1996, and has since become very widely deployed. DOCSIS 1.1 introduces some security improvements and Quality of Service (QoS). Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DOCSIS_10" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  15. ^ a b DOCSIS 2.0 specifications provide increased upstream throughput for symmetric services. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DOCSIS_20" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  16. ^ a b DOCSIS 3.0 includes support for channel bonding and IPv6.
  17. ^ ITU.int
  18. ^ DOCSIS 3.1 is currently in development by the Cablelabs Consortium
  19. ^ ITU.int
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Most operators only support up to 9600bit/s
  22. ^ SDSL is available in various speeds.
  23. ^ ADSL connections will vary in throughput from 64 kbit/s to several Mbit/s depending on configuration. Most are commonly below 2 Mbit/s. Some ADSL and SDSL connections have a higher digital bandwidth than T1 but their rate is not guaranteed, and will drop when the system gets overloaded, whereas the T1 type connections are usually guaranteed and have no contention ratios.
  24. ^ Satellite internet may have a high bandwidth but also has a high latency due to the distance between the modem, satellite and hub. One-way satellite connections exist where all the downstream traffic is handled by satellite and the upstream traffic by land-based connections such as 56K modems and ISDN.
  25. ^ a b "MoCA 1.1 improves throughput" over coaxial cable to 175 Mbits/s versus the 100 Mbits/s provided by the MoCA 1.0 specification.
  26. ^ FireWire natively supports TCP/IP, and is often used at an alternative to Ethernet when connecting 2 nodes. Tweaktown.com
  27. ^ Data rate comparison between FW and Giganet shows that FW's lower overhead has nearly the same throughput as Giganet. Unibrain.com
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j InfiniBand SDR, DDR and QDR use an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i InfiniBand FDR-10, FDR and EDR use a 64b/66b encoding scheme.
  30. ^ Mac History
  31. ^ VAW: Apple IIgs Specs
  32. ^ The Zorro II bus use 4 clocks per 16-Bit of data transferred. See the Zorro III technical specification for more information.
  33. ^ Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in early NEC PC-9800 series and compatible systems
  34. ^ STD 32 Bus Specification and Designer's Guide
  35. ^ Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in later NEC PC-9800 series and compatible systems
  36. ^ Local Area Networks Newsletter by Paul Polishuk, September 1992, Page 7 (APbus used in Sony NeWS and NEC UP4800 workstations and NEC EWS4800 servers after VMEbus and before switch to PCI)
  37. ^ Japan wikipedia article, Bus used in NEC PC-9821 series
  38. ^ Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that the theoretical max of the Zorro III bus can be derived by the timing information given in ‘’chapter 5’’ of the Zorro III technical specification.
  39. ^ Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, states in this posting that Zorro III is an asynchronous bus and therefore does not have a classical MHz rating. A maximum theoretical MHz value may be derived by examining timing constraints detailed in the Zorro III technical specification, which should yield about 37.5 MHz. No existing implementation performs to this level.
  40. ^ Dave Haynie, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that Zorro III has a max burst rate of 150 MB/s.
  41. ^ a b c d e f Note that PCI Express 1.0/2.0 lanes use an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  42. ^ a b c d e PCIe 2.0 effectively doubles the bus standard's bandwidth from 2.5 GT/s to 5 GT/s
  43. ^ a b c d e f PCIe 3.0 increases the bandwidth from 5 GT/s to 8 GT/s and switches to 128b-130b encoding
  44. ^ Intel LPC Interface Specification 1.1
  45. ^ SCSI-1, SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 are signaling protocols and do not explicitly refer to a specific rate. Narrow SCSI exists using SCSI-1 and SCSI-2. Higher rates use SCSI-2 or later.
  46. ^ minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 14 byte AoE per 1024 byte user data
  47. ^ minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 20 byte IP, 20 byte TCP per 1460 byte user data
  48. ^ a b c d e Fibre Channel 1GFC, 2GFC, 4GFC use an 8b/10b encoding scheme. Fibre Channel 10GFC, which uses a 64B/66B encoding scheme, is not compatible with 1GFC, 2GFC and 4GFC, and is used only to interconnect switches.
  49. ^ a b minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 14 byte AoE per 8192 byte user data
  50. ^ a b c minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 20 byte IP, 20 byte TCP per 8960 byte user data
  51. ^ a b c d e f SATA and SAS use an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  52. ^ a b minimum overhead is 38 byte L1/L2, 36 byte FC per 2048 byte user data
  53. ^ Uses 128b/150b encoding
  54. ^ proprietary serial version of IEEE-488 by Commodore International
  55. ^ http://cbmmuseum.kuto.de/floppy.html
  56. ^ a b c FireWire (IEEE 1394b) uses an 8b/10b encoding scheme.
  57. ^ Scott Mueller. Upgrading and Repairing PCs. Que Publishing. Mar 7, 2013. Table 6.11: JEDEC Standard DDR4 Module (284-PIN DIMM) Speeds and Transfer Rate
  58. ^ Comparison of AMD graphics processing units
  59. ^ Comparison of Nvidia graphics processing units
  60. ^ "GRAPHICS DOUBLE DATA RATE (GDDR5) SGRAM STANDARD JESD212C". JEDEC. 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2016-08-10. 
  61. ^ "GRAPHICS DOUBLE DATA RATE (GDDR5X) SGRAM STANDARD JESD232". JEDEC. 2015-11-01. Retrieved 2016-08-10. 
  62. ^ High Definition Audio Specification, Revision 1.0a, 2010
  63. ^ Videsignline.com, Panel display interfaces and bandwidth: From TTL, LVDS, TDMS to DisplayPort
  64. ^ Octavainc.com
  65. ^ a b c Displayport Technical Overview, May 2010
  66. ^ HDMI.org
  67. ^ HDMI.org

External links[edit]