List of diasporas

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History provides many examples of notable diasporas. The Eurominority.eu map (the European Union) Peoples of the World includes some diasporas and underrepresented/stateless ethnic groups.[1]

Note: the list below is not definitive and includes groups that have not been given significant historical attention. Whether the migration of some of the groups listed fulfils the conditions required to be considered a diaspora may be open for debate.

A[edit]

B[edit]

C[edit]

D[edit]

  • Danish people a.k.a. Danes who originate in the Nordic country of Denmark. They have historically migrated all over Europe, and about a million Danish emigrants in the last two centuries to all the world's six inhabited continents. An example of Danish culture overseas is in Solvang, California in the US.[citation needed] And returning Danish-Americans in 1909 founded a town in Denmark near Aalborg.[citation needed]
  • Delaware Tribe of Indians (Oklahoma US) and Leni-Lenape people in Northeastern US, they are scattered throughout the US, extending to Mexico and Canada. See also Shawnee; Chickasaw and Choctaw; and Seminole peoples resettled in Indian Territory, 1838-1907.[7]
  • Dominican people from the Dominican Republic formed a Dominican diaspora. Today, over a million Dominicans live in the US (see Dominican American), followed by Canada, Venezuela, Argentine (see Dominican Argentine), Spain and elsewhere. Dominicans lived outside the country in over a century (since 1900) but especially since the 1960s, Dominicans leave the country in search of available work and employment opportunities. Dominican immigration to Puerto Rico beginning in 1990 became very high in numbers per ratio to Puerto Rico's population, including illegal entries on dangerous rafts through the Mona Passage between the two islands (see Hispaniola). Dominicans now form 10% of New York City's population and 1/8 of Manhattan or New York County's, they became the city's largest Latino group.
  • Dutch diaspora - the Dutch originally came from the Low Countries and northern France. Millions of Dutch descendants have traditionally lived in the United States (Dutch American), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Africa (Afrikaners), the Caribbean (Aruba and Netherlands Antilles), and Suriname, and some Dutch immigrants to South America.[8]
    • Flemings, a subgroup of Dutch/Low German speaking people of the country of Belgium, about 50-55% of the country's population speaks Dutch - also called Flemish, one of Belgium's two major and three official languages. Flemings migrated to all the six continents of the world, sometimes in droves to nearby countries of France and the Netherlands, other European nations of the UK, Germany and Sweden, and they founded new settlements. The Azores, a Portuguese territory was once called the Islas de las Flamandes (the Fleming Islands) in the 16th century. The West Flemish population in the Nord département of France struggle to preserve their endangered language.
    • Frisians, an ethnic group related to the Dutch live in the Frieslands on the northern half of the Netherlands, along with northwestern Germany and southernmost Denmark. The Frisians have their own language, history and customs. Frisians are thought to date back 5,000 years, migrated to the Rhine delta by the North Sea and were successful in draining out the marshes to make it inhabitable to establish cities and farmland. Frisians also migrated worldwide, a number of them were employed in the oceanic fishing markets.

E[edit]

F[edit]

"Speak French, Be Clean" written across the wall of a Southern French school, a byproduct of the French Government policy to eradicate Occitan and all regional languages in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

G[edit]

  • Galicians - left their region for mainly economic reasons to other areas of Spain and nearby Portugal; and to the Americas (esp. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the United States and Venezuela); and later, Western Europe (Austria, Germany, Switzerland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) in the 1950s and 1960s. Galicians also went to Africa, Australia, New Zealand and east Asia: China, Japan and the Philippines which was a former Spanish colony from 1540 to 1898.
  • German diaspora - an estimated 150 million[9][10][11] ethnic Germans originally from the historic German-speaking homeland of Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol and Liechtenstein, and includes parts of Belgium (see the German-speaking Community of Belgium), Croatia, Denmark, France (esp. the region of Alsace), Gottschee County of Slovenia, Italy (formerly ruled by Austria-Hungary), Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Pannonia (Bosnia-Herzegovina), Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and the Ukraine. In World War II, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia expelled over 10 million ethnic Germans from the Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic) and former German provinces which were annexed by Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and the former USSR (Belarus) with Soviet and Allied support. In the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, millions of Germans left German lands especially to the Americas (i.e. the United States-see German American, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela). Large numbers also migrated to Australia, where they now form the fourth largest ethnic group, with nearly 750,000 people claiming German descent. Other smaller German communities in Africa or the Middle East (i.e. Egypt, Israel, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania and Turkey), east Asia/Oceania (i.e. China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and New Zealand), and across the former Soviet Union (i.e. Kazakhstan).
    • German Russians - Russians of German descent who settled in the Russian Empire in the 1600s and 1700s. The highest concentration are in the Volga region (Volga Germans). The majority of the German-Russian population left in the 1800s and 1900s, esp. after WWII to Germany, the US and all over the world.[12]
    • "Ossi(e)s" - a term for former East Germans of the former East Germany or the German Democratic Republic in contrast to the "Wessies" or West Germans. The two countries reunified in 1990, but there is a level of Ostalgie (means East-Nostalagia) for the past and cultural aspects of East Germany. When the Berlin Wall fell and the East-West German border was demolished, hundreds of thousands of Eastern Germans moved to the west side not only for freedom, but for the additional quality of life and economic opportunities available in the west, but after reunification a good percentage returned to what is now the same country. The 5 states of the former East (see New states of Germany) remained culturally distinct, mainly the older generation whom grew up in the GDR era. In 1989, there was an influx of East Germans into opened countries of the Soviet Bloc: Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland with some western embassies, esp. East Germans went to obtain passports from the Federal Republic of (West) Germany; and others went to neutral nations like Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Scandinavia and Switzerland for political reasons as some were still sympathetic to communist ideals. Some smaller numbers of East Germans chose to move in various countries of Western Europe and the Americas as well the former Soviet Union, but most returned home in the course of the 1990s. Germany may be reunified, but some "Ossie" cultural identity remains.[citation needed]
    • Danube Swabians - Ethnic German (Austrian) communities in Hungary.
    • Mennonites - Christians rooted in the 16th and 17th century Anabaptist movement of the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe. Various groups of Mennonites migrated to the US, other parts of North America (i.e. Belize, Canada mainly in Saskatchewan and northern Mexico), eastern Europe and Asia (including Israel and Egypt in Africa). There are Mennonite settlements in Central and South America (esp. in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay) and over a million Mennonite adherents worldwide.
    • Pennsylvania Dutch a corrupted term of "Pennsedeutsch" in Pennsylvania, US, where a large (in demographic terms) German American cultural presence exists to this day. The Pennsylvania German language is decreasing in use, but has a history in the state going back 350 years (since 1660).[citation needed]
    • Barossa German spoken by a colony of German-Australians in the Barossa valley, South Australia, Australia.
  • Gerashi diasporas - The people of Gerashi origin (of Iran) who have migrated to the Arab States of the southern Persian Gulf in search of necessities and basic human rights. It has continued since the early 20th century bombing of the city by Reza Shah and the federal forces.
  • Ghanaian diaspora - Are people from the nation of Ghana living abroad. Significant populations can be found in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States of America.[13]
  • Greek diaspora - refers to any ethnic Greek populations living outside the borders of Greece and Cyprus as a result of modern or ancient migrations. There is a Department of Diaspora Affairs in the Greek government. An estimated three million Greeks live in North America (the United States and Canada), Africa, Australia (especially Melbourne, the third largest 'Greek' city), across Europe - the largest groups being established in Germany, Sweden and Belgium - and the Middle East. Ancient Greek communities in what is now Turkey were destroyed due to the fallout from World War I and persecution. A Greek community remains in Istanbul according to the terms of the Lausanne treaty, but persecution in the 1950s and 1960s led most to flee. Only a small community (Pontic Greeks) remain in Turkey. A similarly ancient community of Greeks in Alexandria and Cairo was ordered to leave Egypt in the 1960s under Nasser's nationalisation programme. In addition, many Greek-speaking Cypriots migrated to Britain in the 20th century.

H[edit]

I[edit]

J[edit]

  • Jassic (or Yassic) people, a small ethnic group of peoples that resided in enclaves in Hungary, Romania, throughout Russia and the Ukraine. The Jassic are ethnologically related to the Ossetians of the Northern Caucasus range, along with distant Iranian and Turkic peoples in their linguistic similarities between the Iranian language and somewhat the Turkish language. Their ancestral origin may have been of North Caucasian origins, perhaps mixed with peoples from Persia or Iran, and more precisely, the steppes of Central Asia about 3,000 years ago when migratory patterns of speakers of Indo-European and later Uralic languages arrived in Eastern Europe. The Jassic people are minuscule in number, dwindled down by each generation, and they were assimilated into the Hungarian population and Slavic majorities they lived among with. Yassic people are thought to forefathered Georgians and ancient peoples of the Middle East such as the Kassites whom later became Sumerians, Akkadians or Babylonians in ancient Mesopotamia of present-day Iraq.[citation needed]
  • Jaffnese/Ceylonese Diaspora - refers to the diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamils, especially those post-1983 due to the civil conflict in Sri Lanka. This has created huge Tamil communities in countries such as Canada, the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. In many ways, the Jaffnese Diaspora is compared to the Jewish Diaspora, both historically, socially and economically. It is a subset of the greater Tamil Diaspora.
  • Jamaican diaspora - An estimated 3 million Jamaicans live outside the island country of Jamaica, an English-speaking majority African descendant country in the Caribbean. The main destinations for Jamaican immigration in the 20th century are the U.S., Great Britain and Canada. But, Jamaican immigration across the Caribbean, to Latin America, Australia and New Zealand, and even Africa are well noted. Jamaicans living aboard, such as Bob Marley introduced the music form of reggae to the international music market in the 1970s.[citation needed]
  • Japanese diaspora - Brazil (see Japanese Brazilian), the United States (see Japanese Americans), Canada (See Japanese Canadian) and the Philippines (see Japanese Filipinos), as well sizable communities in Peru (see Japanese Peruvian), Argentina (see Asian Argentine), Chile and Ecuador, and smaller numbers of Japanese in Australia, New Zealand, Cuba, Venezuela and Mexico are the countries with the highest numbers of Japanese people outside Japan. The largest community of ethnic Japanese is in Hawaii where they make up a quarter of the state's population. However, there are smaller Japanese communities around the world that developed in the late 20th century such as throughout western Europe (esp. the Japanese expatriate colony in Düsseldorf, Germany), eastern Russia and South Africa. The Japanese population used to have nicknames to indicate generational levels: "Issei"-foreign born parents, next is "Nisei"-1st generation born outside Japan or children, and "Sansei"-2nd generation born outside Japan or grandchildren.
  • Jerez diaspora - People from the Spanish town of Jerez who live elsewhere. There is a committee that grants an honorary membership each year to the most relevant "jerezano"that lives outside Jerez and brings the name to the world. The president of the Diaspora de Jerez is Miguel Primo de Rivera. The committee has 6 members and votes are in two rounds.
  • Jewish diaspora - in its historical use, refers to the period between the Roman occupation and subsequent deportation of Jews from Judea from 70 CE to the Middle Ages, to the re-establishment of Israel in 1948. In modern use, the 'Diaspora' refers to ethnic Jews who continue to live outside of Israel.
    • Ashkenazi Jews - large numbers of Jews were exiled or taken as slaves to Rome following the failed Jewish revolts against the Roman occupation. It is postulated by most scholars and geneticists that these Jews eventually migrated northward in the 8th century, settling alone the Rhine river, and were later joined by Jewish merchants and exiles from Israel in the 7th-8th centuries CE. Increased persecution pushed them into Eastern Europe, where they largely remained until the Zionist movement and/or WWII. Currently, North America (the US has the world's second largest Jewish community) and western Europe are home to the vast majority of diaspora Jews.
    • Sephardi Jews - Unlike the Ashkenazim, who moved to the north, Sephardim moved westward and settled in what is now Spain and Portugal. In 1492, Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain expelled all Jews and Moors from their territory. The Sephardi Jews, as they were known, resettled across Southern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, whereas others went to Germany, Poland, and the Netherlands (where they merged with their Ashkenazi co-ethnics). Likewise, some went to Britain, North and South America, and other colonies of the British and Spanish empires by the late 16th century.
    • Mizrahi Jews: Nazi incitement in Arabia and Arab colonized lands throughout the rest of the MENA region, compounded by the re-establishment of Israel in 1948 resulted in an Arab axis aggression against both the newly reborn Jewish state and the Jewish communities in their midst. After the resulting 1948 Arab–Israeli War, about 700,000 Jews residing in other parts of the Middle East were expelled or fled from their countries of residence, and were subsequently dispossessed of nearly all of their property. The majority of these Jewish refugees made aliyah to Israel, or immigrated to France and the United States. By the Yom Kippur War of 1973, most of the Jewish communities throughout the Arab World, as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan, were practically non-existent. A total of 800,000–1,000,000 diaspora Jews left or fled from their homes in the Arab world, or were driven out in the Jewish exodus (1948-1972). As of today, less than 4,500 Jews live in the Arab world.[18][19][20][21][22]
    • American Jews - currently the United States has the world's largest Jewish population outside Israel itself. Between 5.5-7.5 million observant Jews, and 1-2.5 million more of Jewish descent in the USA. New York City has 1.5-2 million out of 8-8.5 million people who are Jewish, while other demographers place Jews 10-15% of the NYC population. See Jews in New York City.[23]
    • Haredi or Ultra-Orthodox Jews are a small percentage community of practicing in Judaism, the largest known Haredi/Hasidim community is in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York City of the Satmar and Lubavitch groups who originated in Hungary or Romania arrived in the US after WW2 when they experienced the Holocaust.

K[edit]

  • Kaszubian diaspora - the Kaszubians are a Slavic, Roman Catholic people who have lived and maintained their language and unique traditions for centuries despite living on the boundary between the Germanic and Polish cultures. Between 1850 and 1900, many Kaszubians moved to North America, to Brazil, and to Australia and New Zealand.
  • Khmer people - The main ethnic group of Cambodia have historically emigrated in the 18th, 19th and esp. 20th centuries. The largest Cambodian communities are in the US, Canada, France, Thailand, Vietnam, China (with Hong Kong), Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Arabia (i.e. the U.A.E).[citation needed]
  • Korean diaspora - a people from the Korean peninsula located between China and Japan. The first wave of Korean diaspora was during the Japanese colonial occupation (1910–1945), the peace treaty division of the Korean peninsula into two republics, the Korean War (1950–53) produced a wave of millions of war refugees who fled to the United States, Canada, China, Japan, the Philippines, South Vietnam until 1975, and the USSR, now Russia. Today, Korea remains a politically divided geographic unit. South Korea was under military rule 1953-1987, now a civilian democracy, but economic problems and a sense for adventure made over 500,000 South Koreans emigrate to the United States and Canada, and 100,000 more to Europe, Australia and South America (i.e. Brazil and Argentina). North Korea remains under an isolationist military state under Communism since 1948, while millions of political refugees fled to nearby China for freedom in the late 20th century.
  • Kosovan diaspora - Ethnic Albanian peoples from Kosovo in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia in the 1990s.
  • Kurdish diaspora - Kurdish diaspora is the Kurdish populations found in regions outside their ancestral homeland Kurdistan. The United Nations declared the Kurds the largest ethnic nationality (over 40 million) without a country in the world.[citation needed]

L[edit]

  • Latvian diaspora - the majority of Latvians whom left Latvia in WWII reside in North America (the US and Canada), across Europe mainly in Eastern countries and the former USSR with just as many in Western Europe and Scandinavian nations, and the rest in former Latvian lands in the Baltic states (Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Belarus). The most Russified of the three Baltic states, Latvia struggles with the issue of national identity after one million ethnic Russians and other Russian speaking people settled there since 1940. Currently in 2018, only 1/4 of Latvia's population (joined the European Union in 2004) are ethnic Russians.
    • Latgalians, a predominantly Catholic people in eastern Latvia in the region of Latgale and have a close history with Lithuania, due to differences in church denomination between them and Latvians who are a majority Lutheran along with Estonians not ethnically related to Latvians and Lithuanians.
  • Lebanese diaspora - An estimated 15-16 million Lebanese live worldwide. Over half of the country's population are of Muslim faith and the rest are Christians, but in the world Christians Lebanese outnumber Muslims by 3:1. Lebanese are found in over 150 countries, the largest known Lebanese community is in Brazil, the U.S. followed by Canada; and Australia, where Lebanese immigration has occurred in large numbers since the 1975-1990 civil war. Although there are millions of Lebanese descendants in Europe, and the Middle East, the Lebanese are also present in much of the continental span of Africa and Latin America.[citation needed]
  • Lithuanian diaspora - the majority of post-WWII Lithuanians live in North America (Canada and the United States) and across Europe (France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, Netherlands and England), but are scattered across Russia and the former USSR, and smaller numbers in Mexico and Brazil. The Lithuanians and their ethnological kin, the Latvians may be the oldest Indo-European speaking peoples known and may resided in the Baltic states for 5,000 years. Between 1880 and 1910, over 40,000 Lithuanian Jews immigrated to South Africa to avoid persecution. To date around 80% of the 75,000 Jews in South Africa (around 60,000) are of Lithuanian descent.[24]

M[edit]

  • Macedonian diaspora - formed from Macedonian refugees and economic migrants from Macedonia, to the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sweden, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Italy, Greece, and many other European Union states. There are approximately 2,500,000 Macedonians worldwide, with more than a third living outside North Macedonia.
  • Maghrebi diaspora - consists of people from the North African countries, notably Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The largest Maghrebi community outside of North Africa is in France, where it is estimated that North Africans make up the majority of the country's Muslim population. [1]
    • Algerian-French residents make up an estimated 5 to 8 percent of the ethnic makeup of France's population, despite the French government does not keep data records on race and ethnicity. Algerians resided in France for over 150 years as a result of the French colonial period in Algeria from 1830 to 1962, when the seven-year Algerian War brought independence. The largest North African French communities are in (and surrounding) Marseille, Paris, Lille, Nice and Lyon. A growing community in Canada and the UK came to light during the 1990s and the Algerian Civil War.
    • Non-Arab North Africans like Berbers (Amazighs) and Kabyles live in diaspora in Western Europe, esp. France.
    • Moroccans are found throughout the world, mainly in Europe (i.e. the largest being in France, followed by Spain, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Luxembourg) developed by Moroccan immigration since the 1950s, especially Western Europe and the Arab World (a large Jewish colony in Israel). Of the estimated 5.6 million Moroccans living abroad, 5.1 million live in Europe; the remainder are distributed throughout the Americas (including North America - mainly in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and Latin America), Australia, Africa (in particular West Africa), and the countries of the Arab World. Some cities with a big Moroccan community are Paris, Lille, Roubaix, Marseille and Nice (every French city has a Moroccan community); Madrid, Barcelona and Malaga in Spain; Brussels, Antwerp and Liege in Belgium; Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the Netherlands; and Luxembourg. Half of the Moroccans living in Belgium (630,000), reside in its capital Brussels and a quarter in Antwerp, see Moroccans in Belgium.
    • Tunisians in Europe, the largest number of Tunisian expats live in France and Italy (former colonial rulers), Egypt, Israel, Turkey and throughout the European Union.
  • Maltese diaspora: established mainly in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada (Maltese Canadian) and the U.S. (Maltese American), as well throughout Europe and the Americas. Large communities existed in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt but were mostly dispersed by the mid-20th century when these countries acquired independence. Since Malta's membership of the EU in 2004, new communities were established such as the one in Belgium.
  • Mexican Americans (Mexican diaspora)- over 20 million people of Mexican ancestry live in the United States, ranging from recent immigrants since the 1970s to long-established Americans of Spanish or Mexican descent. The majority of Mexican Americans live especially in the American Southwest, which borders with Mexico, an area that belonged to Mexico from 1821-1848. They were fundamental to development in the states of California, Texas, Arizona and New Mexico in the 20th century. Los Angeles is said to be the second largest Mexican city (home to 1 to 2 million alone- 31% of the city and 20% of the L.A. county population in 2015), while the populace of San Antonio is over half of Mexican descent. Also known by other ethnic self-titles, like Californios, Chicanos, Hispanos, La Raza, Nortenos in Northern California, Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos, however are officially called Hispanics and Latinos in terms of ethnic/cultural origins, but Mexican Americans had a large mestizo or mixed European/Native American heritage.
  • Moldovan diaspora - A Romanian province was divided many times in its history, they are of ethnically Romanian origin. A diaspora indicating most of the Moldovans who have moved out of Moldova. Most found their homes in the Soviet Union and the Baltics. There is also a diaspora in Western European countries such as Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and the Netherlands.
  • Moluccan diaspora - Begins in the 1950s as the result of the end of its occupation over Dutch Indies, the Netherlands government decided to transport around 12,000 Moluccan KNIL (The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army) the remaining men and their families to Europe. They were discharged on arrival and 'temporarily' housed in camps until it was possible for them to return to the Moluccan islands. Although The South Moluccan Republic has been declared on 25 April 1950, this movement was defeated by Indonesian government and the rest of RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan) followers leave their homeland and formatting a Government in Exile in the Netherlands since 1966. Nowadays, at least 200,000 Moluccan living side by side with Dutch people and becoming the biggest ethnic groups outside native Dutch in The Netherlands. The second wave happened during the civil war in Maluku 1999 to 2003, causing over 800,000 left the country. Most of the refugees moved to United States (mainly concentrated in Maryland, Florida, California and New York), Netherlands, France, Israel (mostly by Moluccan Jewish), Italy, Denmark, United Kingdom, Russia (mainly in St. Petersburg), Australia, Brazil, Portugal and Austria. After prosecuted, scattered, and finally settle down among the nations, latest statistics reporting the number of Moluccan in diaspora including their descendants (make up to 1.4 million) is a bit smaller than those who are staying in Indonesia (nearly 2.5 million).
  • Moravian Church - has a nickname "the Moravian Diaspora"[citation needed] named from a religious, not ethnic' identity, having been founded in the province of Moravia, now in the Czech Republic. During the 16th and 17th centuries, religious persecution drove the majority of church members to other countries, and by the late 18th and 19th centuries, the church had managed to grow, thrive and survive. There are hundreds of thousands of Moravian church members in small communities in Europe (the Netherlands), the Americas (the United States), Africa (South Africa), east Asia (South Korea), the Indian subcontinent (India), and Oceania (Australia). However, the vast majority of these would consider themselves natives of the country where they live - the nickname (presumably) being of only historic interest.
  • Mormons, a Christian religious group whose official name is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well smaller other churches based on Mormonism. Just under 50 percent of all Mormons live in the United States, while about three-fourths of the population of Utah are Mormon and form large minorities in 8 to 10 other Western U.S. states; and California is said to have the most LDS church members by population.[citation needed] Mormonism began as a small following of Christians who followed the teachings of Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement in the early 19th century. The following were often forced to migrate and lived in the states of New York, Ohio, Illinois and Missouri by 1840. The Mormons were expelled by mob violence (Joseph Smith was killed) and persecution by neighbors in the 1840s and their new leader Brigham Young took the Mormons throughout the Great Plains and Rockies to settle the Salt Lake Valley, then a part of Mexico but soon to become part of the U.S., in 1847. Mormons play a fundamental role in the development of Utah and most other Western states, with Utah becoming a state in 1896. Today, an estimated 13 million Mormons are found around the world, after missionary activity and conversion programs extended the L.D.S. and other Mormon-based churches worldwide, the largest concentrations of Mormons other than the U.S. are Mexico, Canada, South America, the South Pacific (esp. in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga), Scandinavia, Britain and East Asia, but the fastest growth in Mormonism in the late 20th century was in Africa, India and Eastern Europe. In Chile, between 550-750,000 people out of the nation's 18.5 million are Mormon, and form a large community similar to Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses due to US American churches missionary work in Latin America.
  • Montenegrins, a diaspora of South Slavs in the country of Montenegro who had a 650-year tradition of independence and autonomy. They were a former republic of pre-1991 Yugoslavia and later a co-republic with Serbia until Montenegro declared independence in 2006. Over 1.3 million Montenegrins live in the Balkans, while half a million more are in Western Europe, 600,000 live in the US and another 1 million around the world (i.e. Canada, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa and Australia).
  • Muscogee (Creek)#Muscogee diaspora (1814), Muscogee#Muscogee Diaspora (today) Muscogee Diaspora, part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma, US (see Urban Indians). The largest communities are Detroit; Los Angeles; Nashville, Tennessee; Oakland, California; and Tulsa.

N[edit]

  • The Navajo Nation or Na-Dene, is said to cover not only the four-corner states of the Southwest US (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado), but the "Na-Dene Diaspora" stretches from Fort Sumner (New Mexico) to Fort Sumter (So. Carolina), to Bosque Rodendo (N.M.) to Redondo Beach (California), Tuba City in Arizona or Yuba City Cal. and as far north as Fort Yukon, Alaska to Yukon near Oklahoma City and Kansas City (Kansas), and as far south as Mexico City. The dispersal of several hundred Native American tribes in the 18th and 19th centuries, also by BIA relocation programs into urban areas in the mid-20th century has indeed produced more Navajo/Dene people to indicate the Long Walk in the 1860s when 20,000 Navajo was forcibly removed then returned to their homeland (the Navajo Indian Reservation) was the beginning of the Na-Dene diaspora. An estimated 160,000 Navajo/Dene people live in the Southwest and about 250,000 more live across the U.S. with Navajo communities developed in Albuquerque; Chicago; Dallas, Texas; Denver; Kansas City, Missouri; Las Vegas, Nevada; Los Angeles; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Omaha, Nebraska; Phoenix, Arizona; and the San Francisco Bay Area.[citation needed]
  • New Caledonia Kanaks - a Melanesian people native to the overseas French territory brought to Australia and New Zealand, and across Polynesia (The French territory of Tahiti) as agricultural workers in newly founded plantations during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most Kanak laborers in Australia were deported back to New Caledonia in the 1910s due to racial fears of Kanaks live among the country's white European-descent majority. Today, an estimated 30,000 Australian descendants of Kanaks live in the state of Queensland, where the main concentration of Australian plantation agriculture took place.
  • Newfie, a colloquial name for people from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, originally for inhabitants of the Island of Newfoundland. The Newfie diaspora frequently emigrated to other provinces of Canada for employment opportunities in the tens of thousands since the 1920s, while some Newfoundlanders went to the US and the UK in a lesser extent. Newfoundland became Canada's 10th province in 1949, after 350 years of British rule.
  • New York City relocatees to other US states like Florida and California number at one million. The world-famous major city, the US' largest (8-9 million people), is known for its local subculture (esp. Brooklyn and the Bronx). Similarly, Bostonians, Michiganians[25] and Californians moved across the US and the world.[citation needed]
  • Nigerian diaspora, people from the country of Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa. Over 5 million Nigerians live outside the country, as immigrants are known to live in the US (Large Nigerian communities in New York City and Houston, Texas), the UK, throughout the EU and South Africa, among other nations. The Nigeria Diaspora is also one of the most organized Diasporas with an umbrella organization, Nigerians in Diaspora Organisation (NIDO America, NIDO Asia, NIDO Africa and NIDO Europe) represented with chapters in most countries and continents of the world. The organisation also have a Worldwide governing body NIDO Worldwide comprising stakeholders from the continental executives.[26]
  • Norwegian people, the country of origin is Norway. Many Norwegians emigrated outward from there, while it was under Danish (until 1814) and later Swedish rule (until independence came in 1905). The largest group of Norwegians settled in North America (i.e. the US and Canada mainly in Manitoba) in the late 19th century, esp. in the states of Illinois, Minnesota, North Dakota and Wisconsin; and in the Pacific Northwest (Alaska, Oregon and Washington state). See Norwegian Americans and Norwegian Canadians.

O[edit]

The Five congressional districts in Oklahoma. The Map shows districts 1 and 2 with parts of 3 4 and 5 are former Indian Territory from 1830 to 1907. The largest American Indian tribal groups live there in the eastern half of the state, most notably the Cherokee, Choctaw and Creek Indian Nations, whose populations mostly live outside of them.
  • Okies from the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The state has a long history of settlement, emigration and mass dispersal of a subculture across the US and elsewhere in the world, due to economic conditions and conflicts with the U.S. government. Many happen to be Native Americans yet most of the population is white and a sizable minority are African American. Oklahoma was formerly reserved for Native Americans dislocated by white Euro-American settlement and the Indian Wars in the 19th century, mostly in the Great Plains of the United States and Western United States regions. See also Texans of Texas, Crackers of Florida and Southeastern United States where the main origin of Oklahomans came from.[citation needed]
  • Oromo and other ethnic groups of Ethiopia, an estimated 30-50 million who have gone by different ethnological names like "Abyssinians", "Erthyreneans" and "Amharics". Ethiopia's population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak a Semitic or Cushitic language. The Oromo, Amhara, and Tigreans make up more than 3/4s of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members. They live across the continent of Africa, while a mass movement of Ethiopian immigrants during the 20th century into the Middle East (one major area of choice is Israel), Europe, South Asia, East Asia, Australia, North America (esp. the U.S. and Canada), and Latin America has created a global Ethiopian diaspora.

P[edit]

Q[edit]

R[edit]

S[edit]

T[edit]

U[edit]

  • Ukrainian diaspora, represented by Ukrainians who left their homeland in several waves of emigration, settling mainly in the Americas (United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina), but also Australia, east Asia (China) and across Europe. Also includes the tens and millions of Ukrainians who migrated from Ukraine to other parts of the former Soviet Union (mainly Russian Federation) during the Soviet time. Ukrainians in the Middle East should be noted and the large-scale Ukrainian with Russian Jewish emigration to Israel.[citation needed]
    • Ruthenians and Carpathians, self-titles for Slavic peoples from the small region of Ruthenia, encompasses easternmost Slovakia, southeast parts of Poland, northern edges of Hungary and westernmost Ukraine, had preserved a unique ethnocultural identity, but lacked an independent country of their own for almost a millennia. In the late 19th century and again between World Wars I and II, over a million Ruthenians fled their homeland and settled across Western Europe (France, Germany and Austria), North America (the U.S. and Canada) and the USSR (Russia), but lesser numbers settled in East Asia (China), the Middle East (Turkey), South America (Brazil) and Australia in the late 20th century.

V[edit]

  • The Venezuelan diaspora - People from Venezuela who live outside of their territory: Mainly in the United States, Mexico, Spain, Italy, Panama and most of South America. Most of them arrived to escape from the military dictatorship of the 1950s and the political repressions in the 1960s. There is also a growing number of Venezuelans in Canada almost all of them working for the Oil industry after the 2002 strike. See also Venezuelan American. Since the arrival of President Hugo Chávez, a significative growing number of young Venezuelans are fleeing their country in search of better living standards and work opportunities. More recently, since the crisis worsening in 2012, another wave of Venezuelans have emigrated,[34] including people from all age groups and socioeconomic statuses. The complete phenomenon of Venezuelan migration since Chavez came to power in 1998, is collectively known as the Bolivarian Diaspora.

W[edit]

  • Welsh diaspora - The Welsh (or in the Welsh language - Cymry) are a Celtic people from Wales one of the four countries of the United Kingdom who manage to preserve their Celtic heritage after a millennia of English and then British rule. An estimated 5 million people of Welsh ancestry live globally in areas formerly part of the British Empire (Canada, Australia, New Zealand and lesser numbers in Latin America) and about 2 million Americans are of Welsh descent. In the 19th century, over 500,000 Welsh miners migrated out of Wales throughout the British Empire, western Europe, the Americas (the U.S. such as Jackson County, Ohio was nicknamed Little Wales) and South Africa for mining jobs, but others came as shepherds, factory workers and fishermen. The Welsh fought hard to preserve their culture, such as the revived Welsh language and their sense of identity in face of forced assimilation to the Anglo-British fabric. In the late 19th century, a small but solid group of Welsh people settled in Patagonia, creating the Welsh community known as Y Wladfa that survived to this day in the Argentine provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz. Many there are bilingual in Spanish and Welsh.
  • Western Sahara the people on the exile of Mali, France, Spain, Algeria (mainly Tinduf), Mauritania, Niger, Italy and Senegal. And on the Free Zone of the Saharaui Republic.
  • West Philadelphia was a recent scene of the Urban Indian culture, especially of the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware Indian tribe. Their community of University City, Philadelphia is called "Lenapehoking" for the indigenous name for the region. Also the Iroquois Confederacy formed communities there and in Boston, New York City, Washington DC and Cleveland by the BIA relocation program during the mid-20th century. Although minuscule in number, many of them (their moniker the "Mohawks") arrived as skyscraper construction workers.[citation needed]
Sticker from the American Indian activist community of West Philadelphia in Philadelphia PA US.

X[edit]

Y[edit]

  • Yemenis from the country of Yemen in the Arabian peninsula. Historically Yemen was one kingdom until Ottoman Turks and then British colonialism in the late 19th century. The British maintained the former country of South Yemen until its independence (1967–90) and was the only Marxist government in the Middle East before unification with North Yemen. Yemeni immigration in the 20th and early 21st century have dispersed the population throughout the Middle East (esp. Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE), guest workers in Europe (see Yemeni British), Australia and East Asia. Yemenis have been arriving in the US (see Yemeni American) with a large concentration in Lackawanna, New York near Buffalo and also in Detroit, while large numbers of Yemenis also live in adjacent Canada.[citation needed]
  • Yugoslavs (see Bosnians, Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrins, Serbs and Slovenes). From 1918-1990, the country of Yugoslavia in southeastern Europe existed (until 2006, when the nation renamed to Serbia and Montenegro broke apart). Millions of former Yugoslavs moved across Europe (laborers encouraged by the Yugoslavian government in the 1950s-80s to relocate), emigrated to North America (especially the United States) and around the world (Chile may have the largest pre-1990 Yugoslavian communities in ratio of its population).

Z[edit]

Various[edit]

  • Various Native Americans of the United States have diaspora legends, stories and identity, but this applies only after contact with Europeans and removal of entire tribal peoples by post-colonial white European governments from the 16th to 19th centuries.
  • Various ethnic minorities from areas under Russian and Soviet control following the Russian Revolution, continuing through the mass forced resettlements under Joseph Stalin.
  • Various groups fled in large numbers from areas under Axis control during World War II, or after the border changes following the war, and formed their own diasporas. Only a few larger sized ethnic groups and nationalities were able to restore autonomy after the fall of Communism and the disbanding of the Soviet Union (1990–91).

References[edit]

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