List of diasporas

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History provides many examples of notable diasporas. The map (the European Union) Peoples of the World includes some diasporas and underrepresented/stateless ethnic groups.[1]

Note: the list below is not definitive and includes groups that have not been given significant historical attention. Whether the migration of some of the groups listed fulfils the conditions required to be considered a diaspora may be open for debate.







"Speak French, Be Clean" written across the wall of a Southern French school, a byproduct of the French Government policy to eradicate Occitan and all regional languages in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.





  • Jassic (or Yassic) people, a small ethnic group of peoples that resided in enclaves in Hungary, Romania, throughout Russia and Ukraine. The Jassic are ethnologically related to the Ossetians of the Northern Caucasus range, along with other Iranian peoples in their linguistic similarities between the Iranian language. Their ancestral origin may have been of North Caucasian origins, perhaps mixed with peoples from Persia or Iran, and more precisely, the steppes of Central Asia about 3,000 years ago when migratory patterns of speakers of Indo-European and later Uralic languages arrived in Eastern Europe. The Jassic people are minuscule in number, dwindled down by each generation, and they were assimilated into the Hungarian population and Slavic majorities they lived among with. Yassic people are thought to forefathered Georgians and ancient peoples of the Middle East such as the Kassites whom later became Sumerians, Akkadians or Babylonians in ancient Mesopotamia of present-day Iraq.[citation needed]
  • Jaffnese/Ceylonese Diaspora - refers to the diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamils, especially those post-1983 due to the civil conflict in Sri Lanka. This has created huge Tamil communities in countries such as Canada, the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. In many ways, the Jaffnese Diaspora is compared to the Jewish Diaspora, both historically, socially and economically. It is a subset of the greater Tamil Diaspora.
  • Jamaican diaspora - An estimated 3 million Jamaicans live outside the island country of Jamaica, an English-speaking majority African descendant country in the Caribbean. The main destinations for Jamaican immigration in the 20th century are the U.S., Great Britain and Canada. But, Jamaican immigration across the Caribbean, to Latin America, Australia and New Zealand, and even Africa are well noted. Jamaicans living aboard, such as Bob Marley introduced the music form of reggae to the international music market in the 1970s.[citation needed]
  • Japanese diaspora - Brazil (see Japanese Brazilian), the United States (see Japanese Americans), Canada (See Japanese Canadian) and the Philippines (see Japanese Filipinos), as well sizable communities in Peru (see Japanese Peruvian), Argentina (see Asian Argentine), Chile and Ecuador, and smaller numbers of Japanese in Australia, New Zealand, Cuba, Venezuela and Mexico are the countries with the highest numbers of Japanese people outside Japan. The largest community of ethnic Japanese is in Hawaii where they make up a quarter of the state's population. However, there are smaller Japanese communities around the world that developed in the late 20th century such as throughout western Europe (esp. the Japanese expatriate colony in Düsseldorf, Germany), eastern Russia and South Africa. The Japanese population used to have nicknames to indicate generational levels: "Issei"-foreign born parents, next is "Nisei"-1st generation born outside Japan or children, and "Sansei"-2nd generation born outside Japan or grandchildren.
  • Jerez diaspora - People from the Spanish town of Jerez who live elsewhere. There is a committee that grants an honorary membership each year to the most relevant "jerezano"that lives outside Jerez and brings the name to the world. The president of the Diaspora de Jerez is Miguel Primo de Rivera. The committee has 6 members and votes are in two rounds.
  • Jewish diaspora - in its historical use, refers to the period between the Roman occupation and subsequent deportation of Jews from Judea from 70 CE to the Middle Ages, to the re-establishment of Israel in 1948. In modern use, the 'Diaspora' refers to ethnic Jews who continue to live outside of Israel.
    • Ashkenazi Jews - large numbers of Jews were exiled or taken as slaves to Rome following the failed Jewish revolts against the Roman occupation. It is postulated by most scholars and geneticists that these Jews eventually migrated northward in the 8th century, settling alone the Rhine river, and were later joined by Jewish merchants and exiles from Israel in the 7th-8th centuries CE. Increased persecution pushed them into Eastern Europe, where they largely remained until the Zionist movement and/or WWII. Currently, North America (the US has the world's second largest Jewish community) and western Europe are home to the vast majority of diaspora Jews.
    • Sephardi Jews - Unlike the Ashkenazim, who moved to the north, Sephardim moved westward and settled in what is now Spain and Portugal. In 1492, Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain expelled all Jews and Moors from their territory. The Sephardi Jews, as they were known, resettled across Southern Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East, whereas others went to Germany, Poland, and the Netherlands (where they merged with their Ashkenazi co-ethnics). Likewise, some went to Britain, North and South America, and other colonies of the British and Spanish empires by the late 16th century.
    • Mizrahi Jews: Nazi incitement in Arabia and Arab colonized lands throughout the rest of the MENA region, compounded by the re-establishment of Israel in 1948 resulted in an Arab axis aggression against both the newly reborn Jewish state and the Jewish communities in their midst. After the resulting 1948 Arab–Israeli War, about 700,000 Jews residing in other parts of the Middle East were expelled or fled from their countries of residence, and were subsequently dispossessed of nearly all of their property. The majority of these Jewish refugees made aliyah to Israel, or immigrated to France and the United States. By the Yom Kippur War of 1973, most of the Jewish communities throughout the Arab World, as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan, were practically non-existent. A total of 800,000–1,000,000 diaspora Jews left or fled from their homes in the Arab world, or were driven out in the Jewish exodus (1948-1972). As of today, less than 4,500 Jews live in the Arab world.[19][20][21][22][23]
    • American Jews - currently the United States has the world's largest Jewish population outside Israel itself. Between 5.5 and 7.5 million observant Jews, and 1–2.5 million more of Jewish descent in the USA. New York City has 1.5-2 million out of 8-8.5 million people who are Jewish, while other demographers place Jews 10-15% of the NYC population. See Jews in New York City.[24]
    • Haredi or Ultra-Orthodox Jews are a small percentage community of practicing in Judaism, the largest known Haredi/Hasidim community is in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York City of the Satmar and Lubavitch groups who originated in Hungary or Romania arrived in the US after WW2 when they experienced the Holocaust.


  • Kaszubian diaspora - the Kaszubians are a Slavic, Roman Catholic people who have lived and maintained their language and unique traditions for centuries despite living on the boundary between the Germanic and Polish cultures. Between 1850 and 1900, many Kaszubians moved to North America, to Brazil, and to Australia and New Zealand.
  • Khmer people - The main ethnic group of Cambodia have historically emigrated in the 18th, 19th and esp. 20th centuries. The largest Cambodian communities are in the US, Canada, France, Thailand, Vietnam, China (with Hong Kong), Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Arabia (i.e. the U.A.E).[citation needed]
  • Korean diaspora - a people from the Korean peninsula located between China and Japan. The first wave of Korean diaspora was during the Japanese colonial occupation (1910–1945), the peace treaty division of the Korean peninsula into two republics, the Korean War (1950–53) produced a wave of millions of war refugees who fled to the United States, Canada, China, Japan, the Philippines, South Vietnam until 1975, and the USSR, now Russia. Today, Korea remains a politically divided geographic unit. South Korea was under military rule 1953–1987, now a civilian democracy, but economic problems and a sense for adventure made over 500,000 South Koreans emigrate to the United States and Canada, and 100,000 more to Europe, Australia and South America (i.e. Brazil and Argentina). North Korea remains under an isolationist military state under Communism since 1948, while millions of political refugees fled to nearby China for freedom in the late 20th century. See also Jilin or "Kirin", a Chinese province with millions of native Koreans. And Koryo-Saram for ethnic Koreans in Russia, the majority live along the Amur River which is the Chinese-Russian border.
  • Kosovan diaspora - Ethnic Albanian peoples from Kosovo in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia in the 1990s.
  • Kurdish diaspora - Kurdish diaspora is the Kurdish populations found in regions outside their ancestral homeland Kurdistan. The United Nations declared the Kurds the largest ethnic nationality (over 40 million) without a country in the world.[citation needed]


  • Latvian diaspora - the majority of Latvians whom left Latvia in WWII reside in North America (the US and Canada), across Europe mainly in Eastern countries and the former USSR with just as many in Western Europe and Scandinavian nations, and the rest in former Latvian lands in the Baltic states (Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Belarus). The most Russified of the three Baltic states, Latvia struggles with the issue of national identity after one million ethnic Russians and other Russian speaking people settled there since 1940. Currently in 2018, only 1/4 of Latvia's population (joined the European Union in 2004) are ethnic Russians.
    • Latgalians, a predominantly Catholic people in eastern Latvia in the region of Latgale and have a close history with Lithuania, due to differences in church denomination between them and Latvians who are a majority Lutheran along with Estonians not ethnically related to Latvians and Lithuanians.
  • Lebanese diaspora - An estimated 15-16 million Lebanese live worldwide. Over half of the country's population are of Muslim faith and the rest are Christians, but in the world Christians Lebanese outnumber Muslims by 3:1. Lebanese are found in over 150 countries, the largest known Lebanese community is in Brazil, the U.S. followed by Canada; and Australia, where Lebanese immigration has occurred in large numbers since the 1975-1990 civil war. Although there are millions of Lebanese descendants in Europe, and the Middle East, the Lebanese are also present in much of the continental span of Africa and Latin America.[citation needed]
  • Lithuanian diaspora - the majority of post-WWII Lithuanians live in North America (Canada and the United States) and across Europe (France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, Netherlands and England), but are scattered across Russia and the former USSR, and smaller numbers in Mexico and Brazil. The Lithuanians and their ethnological kin, the Latvians may be the oldest Indo-European speaking peoples known and may resided in the Baltic states for 5,000 years. Between 1880 and 1910, over 40,000 Lithuanian Jews immigrated to South Africa to avoid persecution. To date around 80% of the 75,000 Jews in South Africa (around 60,000) are of Lithuanian descent.[25]
  • Lusatian Sorbs, Sorbians or just Sorbs, their native homeland is in the Cottbus region of the state of Saxony of Germany, they also live in nearby Poland and the Czech Republic. They are the only surviving native Slavic people in Germany, once they covered the entire eastern half of the country until total German settlement and cultural absorption of them to be Germanized by the early 19th century. They have cultural links with Serbs via Serbia who settled parts of Austria and Hungary (The Rust area facing a lake), see also Czechs in Austria, Carinthian Slovenes, Burgenland Croats, Bosnian Austrians and White Croats in Poland.


  • Macedonian diaspora - formed from Macedonian refugees and economic migrants from Macedonia, to the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sweden, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Italy, Greece, and many other European Union states. There are approximately 2,500,000 Macedonians worldwide, with more than a third living outside North Macedonia.
  • Maghrebi diaspora - consists of people from the North African countries, notably Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The largest Maghrebi community outside of North Africa is in France, where it is estimated that North Africans make up the majority of the country's Muslim population. [1]
    • Algerian-French residents make up an estimated 5 to 8 percent of the ethnic makeup of France's population, despite the French government does not keep data records on race and ethnicity. Algerians resided in France for over 150 years as a result of the French colonial period in Algeria from 1830 to 1962, when the seven-year Algerian War brought independence. The largest North African French communities are in (and surrounding) Marseille, Paris, Lille, Nice and Lyon. A growing community in Canada and the UK came to light during the 1990s and the Algerian Civil War.
    • Non-Arab North Africans like Berbers (Amazighs) and Kabyles live in diaspora in Western Europe, esp. France.
    • Moroccans are found throughout the world, mainly in Europe (i.e. the largest being in France, followed by Spain, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Luxembourg) developed by Moroccan immigration since the 1950s, especially Western Europe and the Arab World (a large Jewish colony in Israel). Of the estimated 5.6 million Moroccans living abroad, 5.1 million live in Europe; the remainder are distributed throughout the Americas (including North America - mainly in Montreal, Quebec, Canada; and Latin America), Australia, Africa (in particular West Africa), and the countries of the Arab World. Some cities with a big Moroccan community are Paris, Lille, Roubaix, Marseille and Nice (every French city has a Moroccan community); Madrid, Barcelona and Malaga in Spain; Brussels, Antwerp and Liege in Belgium; Amsterdam and Rotterdam in the Netherlands; and Luxembourg. Half of the Moroccans living in Belgium (630,000), reside in its capital Brussels and a quarter in Antwerp, see Moroccans in Belgium.
    • Tunisians in Europe, the largest number of Tunisian expats live in France and Italy (former colonial rulers), Egypt, Israel, Turkey and throughout the European Union.
  • Maltese diaspora: established mainly in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada (Maltese Canadian) and the U.S. (Maltese American), as well throughout Europe and the Americas. Large communities existed in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt but were mostly dispersed by the mid-20th century when these countries acquired independence. Since Malta's membership of the EU in 2004, new communities were established such as the one in Belgium.
  • Mexican Americans (Mexican diaspora)- over 20 million people of Mexican ancestry live in the United States, ranging from recent immigrants since the 1970s to long-established Americans of Spanish or Mexican descent. The majority of Mexican Americans live especially in the American Southwest, which borders with Mexico, an area that belonged to Mexico from 1821 to 1848. They were fundamental to development in the states of California, Texas, Arizona and New Mexico in the 20th century. Los Angeles is said to be the second largest Mexican city (home to 1 to 2 million alone- 31% of the city and 20% of the L.A. county population in 2015), while the populace of San Antonio is over half of Mexican descent. Also known by other ethnic self-titles, like Californios, Chicanos, Hispanos, La Raza, Nortenos in Northern California, Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos, however are officially called Hispanics and Latinos in terms of ethnic/cultural origins, but Mexican Americans had a large mestizo or mixed European/Native American heritage.
  • Moldovan diaspora - A Romanian province was divided many times in its history, they are of ethnically Romanian origin. A diaspora indicating most of the Moldovans who have moved out of Moldova. Most found their homes in the Soviet Union and the Baltics. There is also a diaspora in Western European countries such as Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and the Netherlands.
  • Moluccan diaspora - Begins in the 1950s as the result of the end of its occupation over Dutch Indies, the Netherlands government decided to transport around 12,000 Moluccan KNIL (The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army) the remaining men and their families to Europe. They were discharged on arrival and 'temporarily' housed in camps until it was possible for them to return to the Moluccan islands. Although The South Moluccan Republic has been declared on 25 April 1950, this movement was defeated by Indonesian government and the rest of RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan) followers leave their homeland and formatting a Government in Exile in the Netherlands since 1966. Nowadays, at least 200,000 Moluccan living side by side with Dutch people and becoming the biggest ethnic groups outside native Dutch in The Netherlands. The second wave happened during the civil war in Maluku 1999 to 2003, causing over 800,000 left the country. Most of the refugees moved to United States (mainly concentrated in Maryland, Florida, California and New York), Netherlands, France, Israel (mostly by Moluccan Jewish), Italy, Denmark, United Kingdom, Russia (mainly in St. Petersburg), Australia, Brazil, Portugal and Austria. After prosecuted, scattered, and finally settle down among the nations, latest statistics reporting the number of Moluccan in diaspora including their descendants (make up to 1.4 million) is a bit smaller than those who are staying in Indonesia (nearly 2.5 million).
  • Moravian Church - has a nickname "the Moravian Diaspora"[citation needed] named from a religious, not ethnic' identity, having been founded in the province of Moravia, now in the Czech Republic. During the 16th and 17th centuries, religious persecution drove the majority of church members to other countries, and by the late 18th and 19th centuries, the church had managed to grow, thrive and survive. There are hundreds of thousands of Moravian church members in small communities in Europe (the Netherlands), the Americas (the United States), Africa (South Africa), east Asia (South Korea), the Indian subcontinent (India), and Oceania (Australia). However, the vast majority of these would consider themselves natives of the country where they live - the nickname (presumably) being of only historic interest.
  • Mormons, a Christian religious group whose official name is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well smaller other churches based on Mormonism. Just under 50 percent of all Mormons live in the United States, while about three-fourths of the population of Utah are Mormon and form large minorities in 8 to 10 other Western U.S. states; and California is said to have the most LDS church members by population.[citation needed] Mormonism began as a small following of Christians who followed the teachings of Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement in the early 19th century. The following were often forced to migrate and lived in the states of New York, Ohio, Illinois and Missouri by 1840. The Mormons were expelled by mob violence (Joseph Smith was killed) and persecution by neighbors in the 1840s and their new leader Brigham Young took the Mormons throughout the Great Plains and Rockies to settle the Salt Lake Valley, then a part of Mexico but soon to become part of the U.S., in 1847. Mormons play a fundamental role in the development of Utah and most other Western states, with Utah becoming a state in 1896. Today, an estimated 13 million Mormons are found around the world, after missionary activity and conversion programs extended the L.D.S. and other Mormon-based churches worldwide, the largest concentrations of Mormons other than the U.S. are Mexico, Canada, South America, the South Pacific (esp. in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga), Scandinavia, Britain and East Asia, but the fastest growth in Mormonism in the late 20th century was in Africa, India and Eastern Europe. In Chile, between 550 and 750,000 people out of the nation's 18.5 million are Mormon, and form a large community similar to Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses due to US American churches missionary work in Latin America.
  • Montenegrins, a diaspora of South Slavs in the country of Montenegro who had a 650-year tradition of independence and autonomy. They were a former republic of pre-1991 Yugoslavia and later a co-republic with Serbia until Montenegro declared independence in 2006. Over 1.3 million Montenegrins live in the Balkans, while half a million more are in Western Europe, 600,000 live in the US and another 1 million around the world (i.e. Canada, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa and Australia).
  • Muscogee (Creek)#Muscogee diaspora (1814), Muscogee#Muscogee Diaspora (today) Muscogee Diaspora, part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma, US (see Urban Indians). The largest communities are Detroit; Los Angeles; Nashville, Tennessee; Oakland, California; and Tulsa.


  • The Navajo Nation or Na-Dene, is said to cover not only the four-corner states of the Southwest US (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado), but the "Na-Dene Diaspora" stretches from Fort Sumner (New Mexico) to Fort Sumter (So. Carolina), to Bosque Rodendo (N.M.) to Redondo Beach (California), Tuba City in Arizona or Yuba City Cal. and as far north as Fort Yukon, Alaska to Yukon near Oklahoma City and Kansas City (Kansas), and as far south as Mexico City. The dispersal of several hundred Native American tribes in the 18th and 19th centuries, also by BIA relocation programs into urban areas in the mid-20th century has indeed produced more Navajo/Dene people to indicate the Long Walk in the 1860s when 20,000 Navajo was forcibly removed then returned to their homeland (the Navajo Indian Reservation) was the beginning of the Na-Dene diaspora. An estimated 160,000 Navajo/Dene people live in the Southwest and about 250,000 more live across the U.S. with Navajo communities developed in Albuquerque; Chicago; Dallas, Texas; Denver; Kansas City, Missouri; Las Vegas, Nevada; Los Angeles; Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota; Omaha, Nebraska; Phoenix, Arizona; and the San Francisco Bay Area.[citation needed]
  • New Caledonia Kanaks - a Melanesian people native to the overseas French territory brought to Australia and New Zealand, and across Polynesia (The French territory of Tahiti) as agricultural workers in newly founded plantations during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most Kanak laborers in Australia were deported back to New Caledonia in the 1910s due to racial fears of Kanaks live among the country's white European-descent majority. Today, an estimated 30,000 Australian descendants of Kanaks live in the state of Queensland, where the main concentration of Australian plantation agriculture took place.
  • Newfie, a colloquial name for people from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, originally for inhabitants of the Island of Newfoundland. The Newfie diaspora frequently emigrated to other provinces of Canada for employment opportunities in the tens of thousands since the 1920s, while some Newfoundlanders went to the US and the UK in a lesser extent. Newfoundland became Canada's 10th province in 1949, after 350 years of British rule.
  • New York City relocatees to other US states like Florida and California number at one million. The world-famous major city, the US' largest (8-9 million people), is known for its local subculture (esp. Brooklyn and the Bronx). Similarly, Bostonians, Michiganians[26] and Californians moved across the US and the world.[citation needed]
  • Nigerian diaspora, people from the country of Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa. Over 5 million Nigerians live outside the country, as immigrants are known to live in the US (Large Nigerian communities in New York City and Houston, Texas), the UK, throughout the EU and South Africa, among other nations. The Nigeria Diaspora is also one of the most organized Diasporas with an umbrella organization, Nigerians in Diaspora Organisation (NIDO America, NIDO Asia, NIDO Africa and NIDO Europe) represented with chapters in most countries and continents of the world. The organisation also have a Worldwide governing body NIDO Worldwide comprising stakeholders from the continental executives.[27]
  • Norwegian people, the country of origin is Norway. Many Norwegians emigrated outward from there, while it was under Danish (until 1814) and later Swedish rule (until independence came in 1905). The largest group of Norwegians settled in North America (i.e. the US and Canada mainly in Manitoba) in the late 19th century, esp. in the states of Illinois, Minnesota, North Dakota and Wisconsin; and in the Pacific Northwest (Alaska, Oregon and Washington state). See Norwegian Americans and Norwegian Canadians.


The Five congressional districts in Oklahoma. The Map shows districts 1 and 2 with parts of 3 4 and 5 are former Indian Territory from 1830 to 1907. The largest American Indian tribal groups live there in the eastern half of the state, most notably the Cherokee, Choctaw and Creek Indian Nations, whose populations mostly live outside of them.
  • Okies from the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The state has a long history of settlement, emigration and mass dispersal of a subculture across the US and elsewhere in the world, due to economic conditions and conflicts with the U.S. government. Many happen to be Native Americans yet most of the population is white and a sizable minority are African American. Oklahoma was formerly reserved for Native Americans dislocated by white Euro-American settlement and the Indian Wars in the 19th century, mostly in the Great Plains of the United States and Western United States regions. See also Texans of Texas, Crackers of Florida and Southeastern United States where the main origin of Oklahomans came from.[citation needed]
  • Osage people - A Native American people who were originally from the Ohio Valley, they migrated into the Central Plains region in the 19th century and finally, Indian Territory (now the U.S. state of Oklahoma) with other Osages living across the United States.







  • Ukrainian diaspora, represented by Ukrainians who left their homeland in several waves of emigration, settling mainly in the Americas (United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina), but also Australia, east Asia (China) and across Europe. Also includes the tens and millions of Ukrainians who migrated from Ukraine to other parts of the former Soviet Union (mainly Russia and the Baltics) during the Soviet time. Ukrainians in the Middle East should be noted and the large-scale Ukrainian with Russian Jewish emigration to Israel.[citation needed]
    • Ruthenians and Carpathians, self-titles for Slavic peoples from the small region of Ruthenia, encompasses easternmost Slovakia, southeast parts of Poland, northern edges of Hungary and westernmost Ukraine, had preserved a unique ethnocultural identity, but lacked an independent country of their own for almost a millennia. In the late 19th century and again between World Wars I and II, over a million Ruthenians fled their homeland and settled across Western Europe (France, Germany and Austria), North America (the U.S. and Canada) and the USSR (Russia), but lesser numbers settled in East Asia (China), the Middle East (Turkey), South America (Brazil) and Australia in the late 20th century.
  • Uganda Diaspora refers to about 1.5 million Ugandans (according to the UN Human Development Report of 2009) who left Uganda from the early 1970s—during the dictatorship reign of Idi Amin (to escape persecution and death)--to the current time "in [their] search for better social and economic opportunities."[35] The Ugandans who left are diverse, knowledgeable, talented and have raised families overseas with some now identifying as mixed race. Many have settled in Europe, Asia and North America. Studies show that Ugandans in the diaspora have contributed vast revenue to the Ugandan economy through investments and remittances they send back to their families in Uganda. In 2016, over US$1.2 billion was introduced into the Uganda's economy; in 2017, about US$1.4 billion was introduced into Uganda's coffers, and in 2018—US$1.3 billion was injected into the economy.[36][37]



  • Welsh diaspora - The Welsh (or in the Welsh language - Cymry) are a Celtic people from Wales one of the four countries of the United Kingdom who manage to preserve their Celtic heritage after a millennia of English and then British rule. An estimated 5 million people of Welsh ancestry live globally in areas formerly part of the British Empire (Canada, Australia, New Zealand and lesser numbers in Latin America) and about 2 million Americans are of Welsh descent. In the 19th century, over 500,000 Welsh miners migrated out of Wales throughout the British Empire, western Europe, the Americas (the U.S. such as Jackson County, Ohio was nicknamed Little Wales) and South Africa for mining jobs, but others came as shepherds, factory workers and fishermen. The Welsh fought hard to preserve their culture, such as the revived Welsh language and their sense of identity in face of forced assimilation to the Anglo-British fabric. In the late 19th century, a small but solid group of Welsh people settled in Patagonia, creating the Welsh community known as Y Wladfa that survived to this day in the Argentine provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz. Many there are bilingual in Spanish and Welsh.
  • Western Sahara the people on the exile of Mali, France, Spain, Algeria (mainly Tinduf), Mauritania, Niger, Italy and Senegal. And on the Free Zone of the Saharaui Republic.
  • West Philadelphia was a recent scene of the Urban Indian culture, especially of the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware Indian tribe. Their community of University City, Philadelphia is called "Lenapehoking" for the indigenous name for the region. Also the Iroquois Confederacy formed communities there and in Boston, New York City, Washington DC and Cleveland by the BIA relocation program during the mid-20th century. Although minuscule in number, many of them (their moniker the "Mohawks") arrived as skyscraper construction workers.[citation needed]
Sticker from the American Indian activist community of West Philadelphia in Philadelphia PA US.





  • Various Native Americans of the United States have diaspora legends, stories and identity, but this applies only after contact with Europeans and removal of entire tribal peoples by post-colonial white European governments from the 16th to 19th centuries.
  • Various ethnic minorities from areas under Russian and Soviet control following the Russian Revolution, continuing through the mass forced resettlements under Joseph Stalin.
  • Various groups fled in large numbers from areas under Axis control during World War II, or after the border changes following the war, and formed their own diasporas. Only a few larger sized ethnic groups and nationalities were able to restore autonomy after the fall of Communism and the disbanding of the Soviet Union (1990–91).


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