List of diasporas
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History provides us with many examples of notable diasporas.
Note: the list below is not definitive, and includes groups that have not been given significant historical attention. Whether the migration of some of the groups listed fulfills the conditions required to be considered a diaspora may be open for debate.
- Afghan people - fled their country throughout the 20th century and the long civil wars, especially to nearby Pakistan, India and Iran. Since 1980, over half a million Afghans migrated to Europe (many to Great Britain and Germany), while a quarter a million went to North America (the U.S. and Canada), and less than 50,000 settled in Australia. There are around 25,000 people of Afghan descent living in Hamburg alone.As with the Durand line issue, some deny Afghan as being considered an ethnicity and consider only Pashtuns from Pakistan and Afghanistan to be Afghans as opposed to non-Pashtuns in Afghanistan. In the old definition of Afghan, it refers to just Pashtun people, and can especially imply Muslim communities in the Indian subcontinent,(and those that migrated into the Caribbean region) most of which have forgot Pashto and replaced with the language of their host region. These assimilated communities were endogamous at the time keeping the members ancestrially homogenous, however the partition of India caused miscegenation to be high in many of such communities. Patrilineal descent is the typical indication of such ancestry.
- African diaspora - Black African diasporans. See Afro-Brazilian for blacks in Brazil, as well as African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Afro-Europeans, Afro-Latin Americans and Black Canadians.
- Albanians - 3.5 million live in Albania, with an estimated 8.5 million world total (the largest populations being in Italy, Greece, Turkey, the United States, Canada and Australia). The largest concentration of Albanians outside the country is in neighbouring Kosovo. Other Albanian enclaves are in coastal Croatia, southern Serbia, Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Another population of ethnic Albanians, known as the Arbereshe, has lived in southern Italy, especially in regions of Abruzzo, Calabria, Campania, Naples, Apulia and Sicily for over eight centuries. In the 19th and 20th centuries, repeated large waves of Albanian emigration took place as Albanians moved to northern and Western Europe (i.e. France, Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the U.K.), the former Soviet Union, North America (the U.S. - see Albanian American and Canada with smaller numbers in Mexico), Australia and across Asia (the former Ottoman Empire in the Middle East).
- Arab diaspora - around 30 million Arabs have left the Arab World escaping hotspots, and conflicts areas, those who have migrated from the Arab World, now reside in Western Europe, the Americas (e.g. Detroit has the largest Arab-American community), Australia and elsewhere. (See especially Lebanese, Syrians and Palestinians).
- Argentine diaspora - People from Argentina known as Argentines whom live overseas in communities across western Europe (esp. Spain, Italy, Germany, France and the U.K.), North America (the U.S., Canada and Mexico) and elsewhere (i.e. Australia), mainly are political refugees from the military junta in the late 1970s and 1980s, (see also Argentine Americans).
- Armenian diaspora - Armenians living in their ancient homeland, which had been controlled by the Ottoman Empire for centuries, fled persecution, massacres and genocide during several periods of forced emigration, from the 1880s to the 1920s. Many Armenians settled in the United States a majority of whom live in the state of California (see Armenian Americans), France, Canada, Greece, Cyprus, Iran, Lebanon, Russia and Syria.
- Assyrian diaspora - a Semitic Christian population of the Middle East (originally they lived in Syria, Iran, Iraq and Turkey). In the 20th century, millions of Assyrians left the Middle East due to ongoing ethnic, political and religious persecution. Assyrian communities flourish in the United States, Canada, Australia and throughout Western Europe.
- Australian diaspora - About 750,000 Australian expatriates live outside of Australia, mostly business executives and retired people seeking a new place to live. There are large Australian communities in New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and North America; and smaller groups in Europe, Africa (especially South Africa), the Middle East (particularly the United Arab Emirates), east and south Asia (including Thailand and Papua New Guinea), and Latin America (especially Brazil, Chile, and Argentina).
- Azerbaijani diaspora - About 10 million people, the communities of Azerbaijanis living outside of places of their ethnic origin: Azerbaijan Republic and Iranian Azerbaijan. The term Azerbaijani diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Azeris.
- Basque diaspora - Basques who left the Basque Country in northern Spain and southwest France, usually to the Americas (esp. the western U.S., Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Venezuela) for economic or political reasons. There are also Basque Catholic missionaries across the world, as well Basque fishermen in Canada (Newfoundland), Northern Europe, East Asia, Australia and Oceania.
- Bengali Hindu diaspora - the worldwide population of the Bengali Hindus of Indian and Bangladeshi origin.
- Bosnian diaspora - grew substantially during the Bosnian war. It mainly consists of Bosniaks but also out of Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs. Many Bosnians live in the US, mostly in large cities like Chicago, New York, Washington, D.C., Boston, Massachusetts, and Los Angeles, California; and many live in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Italy, Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey.
- British diaspora - During the last four hundred years millions of English, Scots, and Welsh have migrated all over the world, for a great variety of reasons, especially to the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa, but many other places besides (e.g. Zimbabwe, Spain, Kenya, Chile and Argentina).
- Bulgarian diaspora - an estimated three million ethnic Bulgarians are dispersed around the world, the majority in Europe such as in neighboring nations of Romania, Greece, Serbia, Turkey and the Republic of Macedonia. About 200,000 in the U.S., with 50,000 others in Canada, 40,000 in Argentina, 20,000 in Australia, 20,000 in Brazil and 20,000 in Mexico. Other large Bulgarian diaspora communities are in France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Russia and the United Kingdom.
- The Cape Verdean diaspora refers to historical emigration from Cape Verde. Today, more Cape Verdeans live abroad than in Cape Verde itself. Diaspora communities include those in the United States, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Spain and Canada.
- The Cham people's diaspora begins with the conclusion of the Cham-Vietnamese War of 1471 as Vietnamese forces attack and sack the capital Vijaya and defeat the Cham army decisively. As a result of the conflict, the Champa kingdom was forced to cede its remaining territory to Vietnam. Sizable communities of descendants exist in Cambodia's eastern territories, such as Kampong Cham Province, on Hainan Island in China and the Vietnamese archipelago of the South China Sea.
- Chechens - fled Chechnya during the 1990s insurrection against Russia. The majority of displaced Chechens fled to Azerbaijan, Armenia and the Republic of Georgia, but tens of thousands of Chechen refugees migrated to Europe, North America and across the Middle East. Previous waves of migration took Chechens to Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey and Saudi Arabia in 1820 or 1890.
- Cherokees - a Native American tribe indigenous to the Southeastern United States, whose official tribal organization is Cherokee Nation based in Oklahoma, United States, which has 800,000 members as of 2005. However, anthropological and genetic experts in Native American studies have argued that there could be over one million more Cherokee descendants scattered across North America (the largest number in California). The beginnings of the Cherokee diaspora was from their forced removal in the Trail of Tears. Later, thousands of "Americanized" Cherokee farmers were forced to settle across the Americas (i.e. Canada, Mexico, Cuba and South America) as the result of the Dawes Act. In the 20th century, many Cherokees served in the U.S. Army during World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. These soldiers left some descendants by intermarriage with "war brides" in Europe and east Asia. Some Cherokees and other American Indians might have emigrated to Europe and elsewhere through the British and Spanish empires.
- Chilean diaspora - A small but widespread community, mostly of political refugees who fled the Augusto Pinochet regime after the 1973 coup. Overseas Chilean communities are in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Great Britain, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela and the U.S. (see Chilean Americans), but smaller communities are found in Belgium, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, and the Netherlands. During the Pinochet era, many refugees moved to East Germany when it was a communist country before reunification with Germany in 1990.
- Chinese diaspora - number over 50 million worldwide. The largest overseas Chinese communities are in Asia. Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Vietnam and Myanmar (in descending order of ethnic Chinese population size) have at least 1 million ethnic Chinese each. Two countries outside Asia, namely the United States (esp. States of California, Hawaii, New York and Washington State) and Canada (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver) have populations over 1 million in size. Other sizable communities may be found in Japan, Cambodia, Brazil, Mexico, Panama, Russia, France, the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, each with over 100,000 ethnic Chinese.
- Circassians - fled Circassia, Kabardey, Cherkes, Adigey Republics and Shapsug Area in 1864. 90% of Circassians were forced by Russian Colonialists to Ottoman Empire or imperial Turkey. The Circassian Diaspora is over four million worldwide, with large Circassian communities in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Romania, Syria, Russia as well the former USSR, over 100,000 Circassians in North America (the United States and Canada), and over 10,000 Circassians in Australia.
- Colombian diaspora - over five million Colombians, either displaced by war, left for economic opportunity, and placed in exile to avoid political persecution. The Colombian diaspora lives across the Americas (i.e. Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, and South American nations, especially Venezuela), and across Europe (i.e. Spain, France, Italy, Germany and the United Kingdom). The largest overseas Colombian population is the U.S. where they are over 2 million Colombian Americans, one of the largest Latino nationalities in the country.
- Congolese diaspora found across the continent of Africa, their home countries divided by the Kongo River are the Republic of Congo to the north and the Democratic Republic of Congo formerly Zaire to the south. Smaller Congolese communities developed in South Africa, Nigeria and Western Europe.
- Cornish people migrated from Cornwall to other parts of England and countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Mexico and Brazil. The diaspora was caused by a number of factors, but due mainly to economic reasons and the lack of jobs in the 18th and 19th centuries when many Cornish people, or “Cousin Jacks” as they were known, migrated to various parts of the world in search of a better life. (see also Cornish emigration).
- Crimean Tatar diaspora - formed after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate by Russia, in 1783.
- Croatian diaspora - Largest number of Croatians living outside Europe are in the U.S., Chile, Canada, Australia, Peru, Brazil and Argentina.
- Cuban diaspora - the exodus of over one million Cubans (the largest community is in Miami and its metropolitan area in the United States) following the Cuban Revolution of 1959. (See also Cuban Americans).
- Danish people a.k.a. Danes who originate in the small Nordic country of Denmark. They have historically migrated all over Europe, and about a million Danish emigrants in the last two centuries to all the world's six continents. An example of Danish culture overseas is in Solvang, California in the US.
- Dutch diaspora - the Dutch originally came from the Low Countries and northern France. Millions of Dutch descendants have traditionally lived in the United States (Dutch American), Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Africa (Afrikaners), the Caribbean (Aruba and Netherlands Antilles), and Suriname.
- Flemings, a subgroup of Dutch/Low German speaking people of the country of Belgium, about 50-55% of the country's population speaks Flemish, one of Belgium's two major and three official languages. Flemings migrated to all the six continents of the world, sometimes in droves to nearby countries of France and the Netherlands, other European nations of the UK, Germany and Sweden, and they founded new settlements. The Azores, a Portuguese territory was once called the Islas de las Flamandes (the Fleming Islands) in the 16th century. The West Flemish population in the Nord département of France struggle to preserve their endangered language.
- Frisians, an ethnic group related to the Dutch live in the Frieslands on the northern half of the Netherlands, along with northwestern Germany and southernmost Denmark. The Frisians have their own language, history and customs. Frisians are thought to date back 5,000 years, migrated to the Rhine delta by the North Sea and were successful in draining out the marshes to make it inhabitable to establish cities and farmland. Frisians also migrated worldwide, a number of them were employed in the oceanic fishing markets.
- Dominican people from the Dominican Republic formed a Dominican diaspora. Today, over a million Dominicans live in the US (see Dominican American), followed by Canada, Venezuela, Argentine (see Dominican Argentine), Spain and elsewhere. Dominicans lived outside the country in over a century (since 1900) but especially since the 1960s, Dominicans leave the country in search of available work and employment opportunities. Dominican immigration to Puerto Rico beginning in 1990 became very high in numbers per ratio to Puerto Rico's population, including illegal entries on dangerous rafts through the Mona Passage between the two islands (see Hispaniola).
- Ecuadorian diaspora - People from Ecuador who reside in countries across the Americas (i.e. the U.S., see Ecuadorian Americans, also in Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Venezuela and Brazil), Europe (esp. Spain and Italy, with some in France and elsewhere), and smaller numbers in Japan and Australia.
- Egyptian Copts, members of the Coptic Christian Church based in Egypt for about 2,000 years. Copts are thought to be connected with cultures and peoples of Ancient Egypt, then the religion was displaced by the arrival of Islam 1,400 yrs. ago. About 3 million Coptic Christians live around the world, the largest numbers are in North America and Australia; and Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Italy, Norway and Sweden in Europe.
- Eritrea - Around half a million of the total five million Eritreans fled the country during the thirty-year Eritrean War of Independence. They have formed communities all over the western world (i.e. US in Washington D.C., and Los Angeles; and Europe: Sweden, Germany and Italy). There are more than half a million Eritreans in refugee camps (most in Sudan).
- Estonians - When Estonia was invaded by the Soviet Army in 1944, large numbers of Estonians fled their homeland on ships or smaller boats over the Baltic Sea. Many refugees who survived the risky sea voyage to Sweden and/or Germany later moved from there to Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and/or Australia. Also, with the June deportation of 1941 and March deportation of 1949, the Soviet Union forcibly transferred tens of thousands of Estonians to Siberia. Some of these refugees and their descendants returned to Estonia after the nation regained its independence in 1991. The Russian Empire displaced a fairly high number of Estonians into exile, maybe the number of descendants (the 3.5 million outside Estonia) to have assimilated into Russian society. The Estonian people are generally small in size (0.9 million within Estonia), but doesn't it include Estonian sub-groups: the Chudes, Livonians, Setos and Voros in neighboring lands of Russia, Latvia and Lithuania. There is no way to know the corrected number of Estonians, unless to count 100,000 dual nationals in the former USSR or the number of expatriates in the EU countries (esp. Finland).
- Fiji Indian diaspora - people of Indian origin left Fiji following the racially inspired coups of 1987 and 2000 to settle primarily in Australia, New Zealand, United States and Canada. Smaller numbers have settled in England and other Pacific islands.
- Filipino diaspora - one of the largest diasporas that came from Asia (amounting approximately 20 million) made up of a variety of ethnic, linguistic and regional groups that are originally from the Philippines and live around the world, often for Southeast Asia, USA, East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Guam and the Northern Marianas, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. Majority of them are migrant workers. Overseas Filipino Workers have their own political party in the Philippine Congress.
- French diaspora - Over 100 million French-speaking and ethnic French people in the world, about 55 million in Metropolitan France in Europe, 3 million in Belgium known as the Walloons, 3 million in western cantons of Switzerland and 2 million others in adjacent areas of Luxembourg, the kingdoms of Andorra and Monaco, and parts of western Italy, southwest Germany and northern Spain. This includes the remnants of Pied-Noirs in formerly French territories of North Africa the independent nations of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and in Southeast Asia (formerly French Indochina) now independent nations of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, and millions of those of French ancestry in North America (i.e. a major contributor of settlement in the U.S. and 8 million French-Canadians in Canada) and Oceania (i.e. New Caledonia and French Polynesia).
- French Canadian diaspora - includes hundreds of thousands of people who left Quebec for the United States (most went to New England states of Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont), as well as Ontario and Western Canada, between about 1840 and 1930. In addition, since the 1970s Florida and other portions of the Southeastern United States have had sizable French-Canadian communities, consisting chiefly of retired senior citizens.
- The Acadian diaspora - the Great Expulsion (Grand Dérangement) occurred when the British expelled about 10,000 Acadians (over three-fourths of the Acadian population of Nova Scotia) between 1755 and 1764. The British split the Acadians between different colonies to impose assimilation. Most of the French-speaking Acadians resettled in the then French colony of Louisiana, now a state of the US where the "Cajuns" influenced the ethnological background of Louisiana and its cultural center of New Orleans, along with high admixture with Anglo-American, African, Spanish and other ethnicities introducing Jazz music and Creole cooking.
- Walloons, a sub-group of French-speaking peoples in the southern half of Belgium and Luxembourg. In Belgium, due to Walloon culture, the French language was historically official, then the Flemish language and German in the easternmost parts are given co-official status. Many Walloon miners, factory workers and farmers migrated to France, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden and the UK; and other French and Dutch/Belgian colonial lands (i.e. Zaire).
- Occitans are persons from Southern France, some are known to speak the Occitan language or Langue D'Oc for thousands of years, but in general decline from pressures by the French Republican government since the early 19th century. Occitans were often felt denied the right of their cultural heritage and some relocated out of France in quiet protest to other countries, esp. French-speaking Canada and other parts of La Francophonie (French Empire and French-speaking areas of Europe). Also there have been Occitan-speaking settlers in Pigüé, Argentina; sporadically Mexico and Chile; and even into the US in Valdese, North Carolina. Occitania is a regional-cultural movement that developed since the 1970s throughout the southern half of France with adjacent parts of Switzerland, Italy and Spain.
- See Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico and Corsican American.
- Galicians - left their country for mainly economic reasons to other areas of Spain, and to the Americas (esp. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the United States and Venezuela) and later, Western Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Portugal, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) in the 1950s and 1960s. Galicians also went to Africa, Australia, New Zealand and east Asia: China, Japan and the Philippines which was a former Spanish colony from 1540 to 1898.
- German diaspora - an estimated 150 million ethnic Germans originally from the historic German-speaking homeland of Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol and Liechtenstein, and includes parts of Belgium (see the German-speaking Community of Belgium), Croatia, Denmark, France (esp. the region of Alsace), Gottschee County of Slovenia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and the Ukraine. In World War II, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia expelled over 10 million ethnic Germans from the Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic) and former German provinces which were annexed by Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and the former USSR (Belarus) with Soviet and Allied support. In the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, millions of Germans left German lands especially to the Americas (i.e. the United States-see German American, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela). Large numbers also migrated to Australia, where they now form the fourth largest ethnic group, with nearly 750,000 people claiming German descent. Other smaller German communities in Africa or the Middle East (i.e. Egypt, Israel, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, South Africa and Tanzania), east Asia/Oceania (i.e. China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore and New Zealand), and across the former Soviet Union (i.e. Kazakhstan).
- "Ossi(e)s" - a term for former East Germans of the former East Germany or the German Democratic Republic in contrast to the "Wessies" or West Germans. The two countries reunified in 1990, but there is a level of Ostalgie (means East-Nostalagia) for the past and cultural aspects of East Germany. When the Berlin Wall fell and the East-West German border was demolished, hundreds of thousands of Eastern Germans moved to the west side not only for freedom, but for the additional quality of life and economic opportunities available in the west, but after reunification a good percentage returned to what is now the same country. The 5 states of the former East (see New states of Germany) remained culturally distinct, mainly the older generation whom grew up in the GDR era. In 1989, there was an influx of East Germans into opened countries of the Soviet Bloc: Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland with some western embassies, esp. East Germans went to obtain passports from the Federal Republic of (West) Germany; and others went to neutral nations like Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Scandinavia and Switzerland for political reasons as some were still sympathetic to communist ideals. Some smaller numbers of East Germans chose to move in various countries of Western Europe and the Americas as well the former Soviet Union, but most returned home in the course of the 1990s. Germany may be reunified, but some "Ossie" cultural identity remains.
- Mennonites - Christians rooted in the 16th and 17th century Anabaptist movement of the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe. Various groups of Mennonites migrated to the North America (i.e. US, Canada mainly in Saskatchewan and northern Mexico), eastern Europe and Asia (including Israel and Egypt in Africa). There are Mennonite settlements in Central and South America (esp. in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay) and over a million Mennonite adherents worldwide.
- Pennsylvania Dutch a corrupted term of "Pennsedeutsch" in Pennsylvania, US, where a large (in demographic terms) German American cultural presence exists to this day. The Pennsylvania German language is decreasing in use, but has a history in the state going back 350 years.
- Barossa German spoken by a colony of German-Australians in the Barossa valley, South Australia, Australia.
- Gerashi diasporas - The people of Gerashi origin (of Iran) who have migrated to the Arab States of the southern Persian Gulf in search of necessities and basic human rights. It has continued since the early 20th century bombing of the city by Reza Shah and the federal forces.
- Greek diaspora - refers to any ethnic Greek populations living outside the borders of Greece and Cyprus as a result of modern or ancient migrations. There is a Department of Diaspora Affairs in the Greek government. An estimated three million Greeks live in North America (the United States and Canada), Africa, Australia (especially Melbourne, the third largest 'Greek' city), across Europe - the largest groups being established in Germany, Sweden and Belgium - and the Middle East. Ancient Greek communities in what is now Turkey were destroyed due to the fallout from World War I and persecution. A Greek community remains in Istanbul according to the terms of the Lausanne treaty, but persecution in the 1950s and 1960s led most to flee. Only a small community (Pontic Greeks) remain in Turkey. A similarly ancient community of Greeks in Alexandria and Cairo was ordered to leave Egypt in the 1960s under Nasser's nationalisation programme. In addition, many Greek-speaking Cypriots migrated to Britain in the 20th century.
- Haitian diaspora - many white and mixed race Haitians migrated to Cuba and then New Orleans, Louisiana after the Haitian Revolution. More recently, many black Haitians have migrated to the United States and Canada. Others live in the Bahamas, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and French Guiana. There are also smaller numbers in Belgium, France, Spain, and Venezuela. Increasingly, Haitians are searching for employment in Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Brazil.
- Hapa - The modern term for mixed-race persons of Asian-Americans of white/Caucasian and Native Hawaiian ancestry. (see also Multiracial American) They tend to live across the US and western Canada, due to historic migration of Hawaiians into North America.
- Hispanics or Latinos in the US are sometimes referred to as a newly developed "diaspora" or dispersions of immigrant peoples from Latin America into the United States, and ethnic groups continued their cultural distinction, such as Mexican-Americans, Puerto Rican people, Cuban-Americans, etc.
- Hongkonger diaspora - lives in communities in cities such as London, UK; Toronto, Canada; California, US; and Sydney, Australia. See Hongcouver the largest Hongkonger community in Vancouver, British Columbia and yacht people.
- Hungarian diaspora - lives in numerous communities across Europe, former USSR, North America and Australia. Historic Hungary extended into parts of Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. For over 300 years, either they migrated west for economic opportunities or as political refugees, such as the failed Hungarian revolution of 1956 against the Communist government, when over 200,000 Hungarians fled the country for asylum in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Brazil.
- Icelandic diaspora: at an estimated number of 150,000, half of which are in Canada. See Icelanders.
- Inuit people, their homeland spans across 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of northern most reaches of North America along the Arctic Ocean. About 800,000 Inuit (a.k.a. "Eskimos") live in four countries: The U.S. (Alaska), Canada (Nunavut is a territorial government established in 1999), Greenland (the "Greenlandic" people, the majority are of Inuit and Danish-European ancestry), self-ruling territory of Denmark, and about 3,000 in the Chukchi Peninsula, Russia facing the Bering Strait.
- Indian Diaspora: They are broadly divided into two groups i.e. NRIs (Indian citizens not residing in India) and PIOs (Persons of Indian Origin who have acquired the citizenship of some other country). Major populations exist in Mauritius (where they form the majority), Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, Suriname, Fiji, Malaysia, South Africa, Nepal and Réunion, primarily from 19th century indentured workers. Recent immigration to Canada, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and the United States
- Indochinese diaspora - includes the refugees from the numerous wars that took place in Southeast Asia, such as World War II and the Vietnam War.
- The Vietnamese diaspora - fled communist rule in Vietnam following their victory in the Vietnam War (see South Vietnam) went to the United States (see Vietnamese Americans), the migration peaked in the 1980s and 1990s (esp. the largest Vietnamese-American community is in Orange County, California). The Vietnamese also went to Canada, France (and overseas territories), Germany (also the Vietnamese guest workers in the former Communist East Germany), Italy, the Middle East, Australia, and other Asian countries (most went to Hong Kong, when it was a British colony, before the handover to the People's Republic of China in 1997, and Macau, which was under Portuguese rule until the handover to the People's Republic of China in 1999).
- The wave of Hmong tribes from Laos, Laotians, Cambodians and Thai refugees and economic immigrants (Vietnamese who arrived since 1990) arrived in North America (i.e. the US and Canada), Europe (esp. France), across Asia (most went to Thailand), Oceania (Australia) and South America (concentrated in French Guiana).
- Some millions of Indochinese were of ethnic Chinese descent, the majority of Chinese/Sino-Vietnamese from Vietnam, Chinese-Cambodians of Cambodia and Thai-Chinese of Thailand had emigrated in the late 20th century.
- Indonesian diaspora - refers to any ethnic in Indonesia living outside of their homeland, the majority of Indonesian expatriates live in Malaysia, the U.S., Japan, the U.A.E., Australia, and the Netherlands, esp. South Moluccans, a predominantly Christian ethnic group found asylum and religious freedom by the thousands in the Netherlands since the 1950s.
- Minangkabau diaspora - two of three Minangkabau people live in diaspora. Matrilineal system indirectly caused the diaspora in Minangkabau community. Nowadays, over a million Minangkabau people living outside of Indonesia, mainly in Malaysia and Singapore, but they recently joined the Indonesian emigration to Australia, China, Europe, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and the Philippines.
- Javanese diaspora - occurred in the Dutch colonial era. Vast numbers of Javanese send to other of Dutch colony as coulies. Most of them were sent to Suriname, New Caledonia, and East Sumatra, as well in the late 20th century the Javanese were introduced to the island of New Guinea by Indonesian government endorsed settlement programs in the West Papua province. But others live in Malaysia, Europe, North America, the Middle East, South Africa and Australia.
- Indo diaspora - During and after the Indonesian National Revolution, which followed the World War II, (1945–1965) around 300.000 people, pre-dominantly Indos, left Indonesia to go to the Netherlands. This migration was called repatriation. The majority of this group had never set foot in the Netherlands before.
- Iranian diaspora
- Iraqi diaspora - Refugees from Iraq have increased in number since the US-led invasion into Iraq in March 2003. As of November 4, 2006, the UNHCR estimated that 1.8 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month. There are over 200,000 Iraqi refugees said to resided in Egypt and 100,000 more in the Persian Gulf states.The main destinations for Iraqi immigration in the 2000s (decade) are the UK, Sweden, Germany, Canada, Australia and South America (i.e. Brazil).
- Irish diaspora - consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States (see Irish Americans), the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Argentina, South Africa, and nations of the Caribbean and continental Europe, where small but vibrant Irish communities continue to exist. The diaspora contains over 80 million people and it is the result of mass migration from Ireland, due to past famines (especially the Irish Potato Famine), poverty, and political oppression. The term first came widely into use in Ireland in the 1990s when the then-President of Ireland, Mary Robinson began using it to describe all those of Irish descent. Notable people of the global Irish diaspora are United States presidents John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, Barack Obama and Chilean liberator Bernardo O'Higgins.
- Italian diaspora - occurred mainly between the 1880s and 1930s due to the economic crises and poverty on the peninsula, with emigrant numbers reaching into the tens of million. Vast numbers of mostly Southern Italians immigrated to the United States (see Italian Americans and Sicilian Americans) and Canada (see Italian Canadians, Italian Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area, Italians in Montreal) during this period, though immigration to North America (especially Canada) also picked up after World War II, most notably from the 1950s to 1970s.
- Italian immigrants to North America, the majority of which came from Southern Italy, settled mainly in the Northeastern United States and various industrial cities in the Midwestern United States, such as Chicago, though significant but smaller communities evolved in cities such as New Orleans, San Diego, and San Francisco (with most Italians on the West Coast coming from Northern Italy.) In many of these American cities, Italian immigrants and their offspring established Italian ethnic communities known as "Little Italies." In most cases, these Italian communities generally began as impoverished neighborhoods, or effectively "ghettos" for Italian immigrants. (See Little Italy, List of Italian-American neighborhoods, Template:Italian Americans by location). In the United States and Canada, both historically Protestant countries with majority populations of people of Northwestern European descent, Italian immigrants experienced fierce and often violent anti-Italianism and discrimination, especially prior to the 1960s.
- Italians also immigrated in vast numbers to South America, mainly to Brazil (see Italian Brazilian), Argentina (an estimated one-third to half of Argentinians are of Italian descent, with some higher estimates putting Italian Argentines at 60% of the population. See also Italian Argentine), Uruguay (Italian Uruguayans constitute an estimated 40% of the population of Uruguay. See Italian Uruguayans), Chile (see Italian Chilean), and Paraguay (30% of the population of Paraguay, see Italians in Paraguay), although Italians also arrived in notable numbers elsewhere in the Americas (i.e. Mexico (Italian-Mexicans), Panama, Puerto Rico, Cuba (Italian Cubans), Peru (Italian Peruvians), Guatemala (Italian Guatemalans), and Venezuela (Italo-Venezuelans). In contrast to the Italian immigrants to North America, the majority of Italian immigrants to South America were Northern Italians from Veneto and other depressed Northern Italian areas, though Southern Italians from areas such as Sicily, Campania, and Calabria still constituted a significant percentage of Italian immigrants to South America, and later Italian immigration to South America from WWII to the 2000s has consisted mostly of Southern Italians.
- Though Italians began immigrating to Australia in small but significant numbers since the early 20th Century, the biggest wave of Italian immigration to Australia occurred after World War II and in the later part of the 20th century, with most Italian immigrants to Australia being Southern Italians (see Italian Australians and Italian community of Melbourne).
- Many Italians also immigrated north to other European countries offering better economic prospects. Italian immigration to France began in large numbers after World War I at a time when France needed a large workforce to compensate for the war losses and its very low birthrate. Initially, Italian immigration to modern France (late 18th to the early 20th century) came predominantly from northern Italy (Piedmont, Veneto), then from central Italy (Marche, Umbria), mostly to the bordering southeastern region of Provence. It wasn't until after World War II that large numbers of immigrants from southern Italy immigrated to France, usually settling in industrialized areas of France, such as Lorraine, Paris and Lyon. (See Italians in France). Italian immigration to the United Kingdom became notable around the time of WWI and picked up in intensity for a period after WWII before slowing in the 1960s. (See: Italians in the United Kingdom, Italian Scots, Italian Welsh). With Germany's post-World War II economic boom, a large wave of immigrants from Italy settled in Germany. Since the establishment of freedom of movement for workers between the two countries in 1961, more than 580,000 Italians also migrated to Germany for work, mainly from southern and northeastern Italy. (See Italians in Germany). Italians also notably immigrated in large numbers in search of economic opportunities in Switzerland after World War II. In 1970, there were around a million immigrants in Switzerland, 54% of whom were Italians. Rising friction with the indigenous majority even led to the creation of an "anti-Italian party" in 1963, with anti-Italian sentiment leading to the 1971 murder of Italian migrant worker Alfredo Zardini by an anti-Italian xenophobe in Switzerland. (See Italian immigration to Switzerland). Italians also immigrated in significant numbers to Malta, the Netherlands, and Sweden (See Swedish Italians), while smaller numbers of Italians went to South Africa (see Italian South African) and Israel (Italian Jews). Italians have also established historical communities in Lebanon (see Italian Lebanese).
- Small Italian expatriate communities once thrived until the mid-20th century in Africa and the Middle East (Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey).
- Istrian exodus- Another diaspora came after the end of World War II, with 350,000 Italians leaving their homeland on the eastern front after the capture of Istria and Dalmatia by the Yugoslavs. Most of them were relocated in Italy itself; a lower percentage flew overseas (the racer Mario Andretti for example).
- See also: Template:Italian diaspora, Calabrian diaspora, Sicily, Sicilians, Sicilian American
- Related: Maltese people, Maltese Americans, Maltese Australians, Maltese people in the United Kingdom, Maltese in Belgium; Gibraltarians in the United Kingdom; Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico, Corsican immigration to Venezuela, and Corsican American (Corsicans, Maltese people, and, to a much lesser extent, Gibraltarians share an ethnic, linguistic, cultural, and historical connection to Italy and immigrated abroad in large numbers at a similar time as the Southern Italians in early 20th century.)
- Jassic (or Yassic) people, a small ethnic group of peoples that resided in enclaves in Hungary, Romania, throughout Russia and the Ukraine. The Jassic are ethnologically related to the Ossetians of the Northern Caucasus range, along with distant Iranian and Turkic peoples in their linguistic similarities between the Iranian language and somewhat the Turkish language. Their ancestral origin may have been of North Caucasian origins, perhaps mixed with peoples from Persia or Iran, and more precisely, the steppes of Central Asia about 3,000 years ago when migratory patterns of Indo-European and later Uralic peoples arrived in Eastern Europe. The Jassic people are minuscule in number, dwindled down by each generation, and they were assimilated into the Hungarian population and Slavic majorities they lived among with. Yassic people are thought to forefathered Georgians and ancient peoples of the Middle East such as the Kassites whom later became Sumerians, Akkadians or Babylonians in ancient Mesopotamia of present-day Iraq.
- Jaffnese/Ceylonese Diaspora - refers to the diaspora of Sri Lankan Tamils, especially those post-1983 due to the civil conflict in Sri Lanka. This has created huge Tamil communities in countries such as Canada, the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. In many ways, the Jaffnese Diaspora is compared to the Jewish Diaspora, both historically, socially and economically. It is a subset of the greater Tamil Diaspora.
- Jamaican diaspora - An estimated 3 million Jamaicans live outside the island country of Jamaica, an English-speaking majority African descendant country in the Caribbean. The main destinations for Jamaican immigration in the 20th century are the U.S., Great Britain and Canada. But, Jamaican immigration across the Caribbean, to Latin America, Australia and New Zealand, and even Africa are well noted. Jamaicans living aboard, such as Bob Marley introduced the music form of reggae to the international music market in the 1970s.
- Japanese diaspora - Brazil (see Japanese Brazilian), the United States (see Japanese Americans), Canada (See Japanese Canadian) and the Philippines (see Japanese Filipinos), as well sizable communities in Peru (see Japanese Peruvian), Argentina (see Asian Argentine), Chile and Ecuador, and smaller numbers of Japanese in Australia, New Zealand, Cuba and Mexico are the countries with the highest numbers of Japanese people outside Japan. The largest community of ethnic Japanese is in Hawaii where they make up a quarter of the state's population. However, there are smaller Japanese communities around the world that developed in the late 20th century such as throughout western Europe (esp. the Japanese expatriate colony in Düsseldorf, Germany), eastern Russia and South Africa. The Japanese population used to have nicknames to indicate generational levels: "Issei"-foreign born parents, next is "Nisei"-1st generation born outside Japan or children, and "Sansei"-2nd generation born outside Japan or grandchildren.
- Okinawans - An Asian people closely related to the Japanese in terms of culture and language, from the island of Okinawa, politically part of Japan since 1878. After WWII, the U.S. briefly ruled Okinawa from 1945 to its return to Japanese rule in 1972. Since then, tens of thousands of Okinawans settled in the U.S. and in the 1960s, massive settlement programs of Okinawan farmers into Latin America, the majority in Brazil and Peru, and some Okinawan transplants in Ecuador, Bolivia (the Santa Cruz, Bolivia province area) and Paraguay (i.e. the Gran Chaco) to develop their countries' agricultural farmlands.
- Jewish diaspora - in its historical use, refers to the period between the Roman invasion and subsequent occupation of Judea beginning CE 70, to the establishment of Israel in 1948. In modern use, the 'Diaspora' refers to ethnic Jews who continue to live outside of Israel. A minor faction of Jews, particularly assimilationist Reform-Jews and recent reform-converts, do not regard themselves as part of a diaspora community.
- Jewish groups and histories greatly vary from one another in each country, notably large communities represented in the global Jewish diaspora. Currently, North America and Europe are home to the vast majority of diaspora Jews.
- Sephardic-Jewish Diaspora - in 1492 Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain expelled all persons who were not members of the Roman church specifically Jews and Christians of Jewish origin. The Sephardi Jews, as they were known, resettled across Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, but others went to Germany and the Netherlands (where they merged with the local Ashkenazi), and some went to Britain, North and South America, and other colonies of the British and Spanish empires by the late 16th century.
- Jewish Diaspora in the Arab Middle East after 1948: The recognition of the founding of the State of Israel by the international community resulted in an Arab axis aggression against the new born State of Israel. After the resulting 1948 Arab–Israeli War c. 700.000 Jews residing in the Arab Middle East were expelled or fled from their (Arab) countries and were dispossessed of nearly their entire property. The majority of these Jewish refugees migrated to Israel, France, and the United States. By the Yom Kippur War of 1973, most of the Jewish communities throughout the Arab World, as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan, were practically non-existent. A total of 800,000–1,000,000 diaspora Jews left or fled from their homes in Arab countries, or were driven out from the Arab Middle East in the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries (1948-1972). As of today <4,500 Jews live in Arab countries.
- Kaszubian diaspora - the Kaszubians are a Slavic, Roman Catholic people who have lived and maintained their language and unique traditions for centuries despite living on the boundary between the Germanic and Polish cultures. Between 1850 and 1900, many Kaszubians moved to North America, to Brazil, and to Australia and New Zealand.
- Khmer people - The main ethnic group of Cambodia have historically emigrated in the 18th, 19th and esp. 20th centuries. The largest Cambodian communities are in the US, Canada, France, Thailand, Vietnam, China (with Hong Kong), Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Arabia (i.e. the U.A.E).
- Korean diaspora - a people from the Korean peninsula located between China and Japan. The first wave of Korean diaspora was during the Japanese colonial occupation (1910–1945), the peace treaty division of the Korean peninsula into two republics, the Korean War (1950–53) produced a wave of millions of war refugees who fled to the United States, Canada, China, Japan, the Philippines, South Vietnam until 1975, and the USSR, now Russia. Today, Korea remains a politically divided geographic unit. South Korea was under military rule 1953-1987, now a civilian democracy, but economic problems and a sense for adventure made over 500,000 South Koreans emigrate to the United States and Canada, and 100,000 more to Europe, Australia and South America (i.e. Brazil and Argentina). North Korea remains under an isolationist military state under Communism since 1948, while millions of political refugees fled to nearby China for freedom in the late 20th century.
- Kosovan diaspora - Ethnic Albanian peoples from Kosovo in the former Yugoslavia and Serbia in the 1990s.
- Kurdish diaspora - Kurdish diaspora is the Kurdish populations found in regions outside their ancestral homeland Kurdistan. The United Nations declared the Kurds the largest ethnic nationality (over 40 million) without a country in the world.
- Lebanese diaspora - An estimated 15-16 million Lebanese live worldwide. Over half of the country's population are of Muslim faith and the rest are Christians, but in the world Christians Lebanese outnumber Muslims by 3:1. Lebanese are found in over 150 countries, the largest known Lebanese community is in Brazil, the U.S. followed by Canada; and Australia, where Lebanese immigration has occurred in large numbers since the 1975-1990 civil war. Although there are millions of Lebanese descendants in Europe, the Middle East, South Asia and Latin America, the Lebanese are also present in much of the continental span of Africa.
- Lithuanian diaspora - the majority of post-WWII Lithuanians live in North America (Canada and the United States) and across Europe (France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Sweden, Netherlands and England), but are scattered across Russia and the former USSR, and smaller numbers in Mexico and Brazil. The Lithuanians and their ethnological kin, the Latvians may be the oldest Indo-European speaking peoples known and may resided in the Baltic states for 5,000 years. Between 1880 and 1910, over 40,000 Lithuanian Jews immigrated to South Africa to avoid persecution. To date around 80% of the 75,000 Jews in South Africa (around 60,000) are of Lithuanian descent.
- Latvian diaspora - the majority of Latvians whom left Latvia in WWII reside in North America (the US and Canada), across Europe mainly in Eastern countries and the former USSR with just as many in Western Europe and Scandinavian nations, and the rest in former Latvian lands in the Baltic states (Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Belarus). The most Russified of the three Baltic states, Latvia struggles with the issue of national identity after one million ethnic Russians and other Russian speaking people settled there since 1940.
- Macedonian diaspora - formed from Macedonian refugees and economic migrants from Macedonia, to the United States, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sweden, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina, Italy, Greece, and many other European Union states. There are approximately 2,500,000 Macedonians worldwide, with more than a third living outside the Republic of Macedonia.
- Maghrebi diaspora - consists of people from the North African countries, notably Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The largest Maghrebi community outside of North Africa is in France, where it is estimated that North Africans make up the majority of the country's Muslim population. 
- Algerian-French residents make up an estimated 5 to 8 percent of the ethnic makeup of France's population, despite the French government does not keep data records on race and ethnicity. Algerians resided in France for over 150 years as a result of the French colonial period in Algeria from 1830 to 1962, when the seven-year Algerian War brought independence. The largest North African French communities are in (and surrounding) Marseille, Paris, Lille, Nice and Lyon. A growing community in Canada and UK came to light during the 90s and the Algerian Civil War.
- Moroccans are found throughout the world, mainly in the Maghreb nations of North Africa, Egypt and the Middle East (a large Jewish colony in Israel) and expatriate communities in Europe (i.e. the largest being in France, followed by Belgium, Spain, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Portugal, Great Britain and Ireland) developed by Moroccan immigration since the 1950s.
- Tunisians in Europe, the largest number of Tunisian expats live in France and Italy (former colonial rulers), Egypt, Israel, Turkey and throughout the European Union.
- Maltese diaspora: established mainly in the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and the U.S. as well throughout Europe and the Americas. Large communities existed in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt but were mostly dispersed by the mid-20th century when these countries acquired independence. Since Malta's membership of the EU in 2004, new communities were established such as the one in Belgium.
- Mexican Americans (Mexican diaspora)- over 20 million people of Mexican ancestry live in the United States, ranging from recent immigrants since the 1970s to long-established Americans of Spanish or Mexican descent. The majority of Mexican Americans live especially in the American Southwest, which borders with Mexico, an area that belonged to Mexico from 1821-1848. They were fundamental to development in the states of California, Texas, Arizona and New Mexico in the 20th century. Los Angeles is said to be the second largest Mexican city (home to one to two million alone), while the populace of San Antonio is over half of Mexican descent. Also known by other ethnic self-titles, like Chicanos, La Raza, Tejanos, Hispanos and Californios, however are officially called Hispanics and Latinos in terms of ethnic/cultural origins, but Mexican Americans had a large mestizo or mixed European/Native American heritage.
- Moldovan diaspora - A Romanian province was divided many times in its history, they are of ethnically Romanian origin. A diaspora indicating most of the Moldovans who have moved out of Moldova. Most found their homes in the Soviet Union and the Baltics. There is also a diaspora in Western European countries such as Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and the Netherlands.
- Moluccan diaspora - Begins in the 1950s as the result of the end of its occupation over Dutch Indies, the Netherlands government decided to transport around 12,000 Moluccan KNIL (The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army) the remaining men and their families to Europe. They were discharged on arrival and 'temporarily' housed in camps until it was possible for them to return to the Moluccan islands. Although The South Moluccan Republic has been declared on 25 April 1950, this movement was defeated by Indonesian government and the rest of RMS (Republik Maluku Selatan) followers leave their homeland and formatting a Government in Exile in the Netherlands since 1966. Nowadays, at least 200,000 Moluccan living side by side with Dutch people and becoming the biggest ethnic groups outside native Dutch in The Netherlands. The second wave happened during the civil war in Maluku 1999 to 2003, causing over 800,000 left the country. Most of the refugees moved to United States (mainly concentrated in Maryland, Florida, California and New York), Netherlands, France, Israel (mostly by Moluccan Jewish), Italy, Denmark, United Kingdom, Russia (mainly in St. Petersburg), Australia, Brazil, Portugal and Austria. After prosecuted, scattered, and finally settle down among the nations, latest statistics reporting the number of Moluccan in diaspora including their descendants (make up to 1.4 million) is a bit smaller than those who are staying in Indonesia (nearly 2.5 million).
- Moravian Church - has a nickname "the Moravian Diaspora" named from a religious, not ethnic' identity, having been founded in the province of Moravia, now in the Czech Republic. During the 16th and 17th centuries, religious persecution drove the majority of church members to other countries, and by the late 18th and 19th centuries, the church had managed to grow, thrive and survive. There are hundreds of thousands of Moravian church members in small communities in Europe (the Netherlands), the Americas (the United States), Africa (South Africa), east Asia (South Korea), the Indian subcontinent (India), and Oceania (Australia). However, the vast majority of these would consider themselves natives of the country where they live - the nickname (presumably) being of only historic interest.
- Mormons, a Christian religious group whose official name is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah, as well smaller other churches based on Mormonism. Just under 50 percent of all Mormons live in the United States, while about three-fourths of the population of Utah are Mormon and form large minorities in 8 to 10 other Western U.S. states; and California is said to have the most LDS church members by population. Mormonism began as a small following of Christians who followed the teachings of Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement in the early 19th century. The following were often forced to migrate and lived in the states of New York, Ohio, Illinois and Missouri by 1840. The Mormons were expelled by mob violence (Joseph Smith was killed) and persecution by neighbors in the 1840s and their new leader Brigham Young took the Mormons throughout the Great Plains and Rockies to settle the Salt Lake Valley, then a part of Mexico but soon to become part of the U.S., in 1847. Mormons play a fundamental role in the development of Utah and most other Western states, with Utah becoming a state in 1896. Today, an estimated 13 million Mormons are found around the world, after missionary activity and conversion programs extended the L.D.S. and other Mormon-based churches worldwide, the largest concentrations of Mormons other than the U.S. are Mexico, Canada, South America, the South Pacific (esp. in Fiji, Samoa and Tonga), Scandinavia, Britain and East Asia, but the fastest growth in Mormonism in the late 20th century was in Africa, India and Eastern Europe.
- Montenegrins, a diaspora of South Slavs in the country of Montenegro who had a 650-year tradition of independence and autonomy. They were a former republic of pre-1991 Yugoslavia and later a co-republic with Serbia until Montenegro declared independence in 2006. Over 1.3 million Montenegrins live in the Balkans, while half a million more are in Western Europe, 600,000 live in the US and another 1 million around the world (i.e. Canada, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa and Australia).
- Muscogee (Creek)#Muscogee diaspora .281814.29 Muscogee Diaspora, part of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma, US (see Urban Indians).
- The Navajo Nation or Na-Dene, is said to cover not only the four-corner states of the Southwest US (Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Colorado), but the "Na-Dene Diaspora" stretches from Fort Sumner (New Mexico) to Fort Sumter (So. Carolina), to Bosque Rodendo (N.M.) to Redondo Beach (California), Tuba City in Arizona or Yuba City Cal. and as far north as Fort Yukon, Alaska to Yukon near Oklahoma City and Kansas City (Kansas), and as far south as Mexico City. The dispersal of several hundred Native American tribes in the 18th and 19th centuries, also by BIA relocation programs into urban areas in the mid-20th century has indeed produced more Navajo/Dene people to indicate the Long Walk in the 1860s when 20,000 Navajo was forcibly removed then returned to their homeland (the Navajo Indian Reservation) was the beginning of the Na-Dene diaspora. An estimated 160,000 Navajo/Dene people live in the Southwest and about 250,000 more live across the U.S. with Navajo communities developed in Albuquerque; Chicago; Dallas, Texas; Denver; Kansas City, Missouri; Las Vegas, Nevada; Los Angeles; Minneapolis/St.Paul, Minnesota; Omaha, Nebraska; Phoenix, Arizona; and the San Francisco Bay Area.
- New Caledonia Kanaks - a Melanesian people native to the overseas French territory brought to Australia and New Zealand, and across Polynesia (The French territory of Tahiti) as agricultural workers in newly founded plantations during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Most Kanak laborers in Australia were deported back to New Caledonia in the 1910s due to racial fears of Kanaks live among the country's white European-descent majority. Today, an estimated 30,000 Australian descendants of Kanaks live in the state of Queensland, where the main concentration of Australian plantation agriculture took place.
- Newfie, a colloquial name for people from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, originally for inhabitants of the Island of Newfoundland. The Newfie diaspora frequently emigrated to other provinces of Canada foir employment opportunities in the tens of thousands since the 1920s, while some Newfoundlanders went to the US and the UK in a lesser extent. Newfoundland became Canada's 10th province in 1949, after 350 years of British rule.
- Nigerian diaspora, people from the country of Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa. Over 3 million Nigerians live outside the country, as immigrants are known to live in the US, the UK and South Africa, among other nations.
- Norwegian people, the country of origin is Norway. Many Norwegians emigrated outward from there, while it was under Danish (until 1814) and later Swedish rule (until independence came in 1905). The largest group of Norwegians settled in North America (i.e. the US and Canada mainly in Manitoba) in the late 19th century, esp. in the states of Illinois, Minnesota, North Dakota and Wisconsin; and in the Pacific Northwest (Alaska, Oregon and Washington state). See Norwegian Americans and Norwegian Canadians.
- Okies from the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The state has a long history of settlement, emigration and mass dispersal of a subculture across the US and elsewhere in the world, due to economic conditions and conflicts with the U.S. government. Many happen to be Native Americans yet most of the population is White American and a sizable minority are African American. Oklahoma was formerly reserved for Native Americans dislocated by white Euro-American settlement and the Indian Wars in the 19th century, mostly in the Great Plains of the United States and Western United States regions. See also Texans of Texas, Crackers of Florida and Southeastern United States where the main origin of Oklahomans came from.
- Oromo and other Ethnic Groups of Ethiopia, an estimated 30-50 million who have gone by different ethnological names like "Abyssinians", "Erthyreneans" and "Amharics". Ethiopia's population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak a Semitic or Cushitic language. The Oromo, Amhara, and Tigreans make up more than 3/4s of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members. They live across the continent of Africa, while a mass movement of Ethiopian immigrants during the 20th century into the Middle East (one major area of choice is Israel), Europe, South Asia, East Asia, Australia, North America (esp. the U.S. and Canada), and Latin America has created a global Ethiopian diaspora.
- Pakistani Diaspora - People who are originally from Pakistan and have settled abroad. Are mainly economic migrants and settled mainly in the Middle East and Britain. The total population is approximately 7 million.
- Pashtun diaspora - People who can trace their paternal lineage to East Iranic speaking tribes that stem from a legendary figure named Qais Abdur Rashid. Pashtuns are defined by their tribal genealogies, Pakhto dialects and the practice of Pashtunwali. Many South Asian Muslim communities are Pashtuns that have assimilated into south Asian culture and will carry Pashtun lineage or ancestry. Pakhtun homeland is southern Afghanistan, historically called Arachosia by ancient Macedonians.Historically Afghan was an exonym for Pashtun people however this is an ongoing controversy.
- Persian Diaspora - (See Iranian diaspora) a.k.a. Iranians are a major community in Los Angeles, and California in the US, as the major number of Persians in Los Angeles are located in the community of Westwood, Los Angeles a.k.a. Little Persia, and even the mayor of the nearby city of Beverly Hills is Persian (see Iranian Americans). Other large Iranian communities exist throughout the U.S., Canada, Europe, the Middle East, east Asia and Australia, make up a total of 10 million belonged to the Persian/Iranian diaspora, the majority are political refugees who fled the overthrow of the Mohammad Reza Pahlavi regime in 1978 and Islamic Revolution of 1979. Persians can also refer to Tajiks of Afghanistan and Tajikistan that are defined by speaking the archaic "dari" Persian dialect. Many have Pashtun and other east-iranic admixture, as well as the Aimaq and Hazara communities of mixed Mongolic and Turkic ancestry that speak Persian.
- Peruvian diaspora - People who originally came from Peru. The largest Peruvian communities are in the United States (see Peruvian Americans), Canada, Argentine, Chile, Venezuela, Europe (i.e. Spain, Italy and France), Japan and Australia.
- "Polonia" - the diaspora of the Poles started with the emigrations after the partitions of Poland, January Uprising and the November Uprising, enlarged by the Nazi policies, and later by the establishment of the Curzon line. Historic Poland extended into nearby countries: Belarus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine. For over 600 years, large waves of Polish Émigrés, refugees and guest workers moved across Europe, established themselves in Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. 19th- and 20th-century Polish immigration extended into the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Israel and Australia, as well across the former USSR. After Poland joined the E.U. in 2004, about a million Poles went to find work in the E.U. member states, the largest destinations were the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Spain and Portugal. See also Polish Americans for the 9 million of Polish descent in the US, as well as Polish Brazilian for the 3.5 million Brazilians of Polish descent.
- The Portuguese diaspora - main countries were the Portuguese live are in Europe: Portugal, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Andorra and the UK. Former Portuguese African and Asian colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, India, Macau, Mozambique, Sao Tome and Principe, Sri Lanka and Timor-Leste). Portuguese settled the country of Brazil in South America, but Portuguese colonies and communities in the western hemisphere: Argentina, Canada, the Caribbean islands, Chile, Guyana, Hawaii, Mexico, Panama, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela are well noted. See also Portuguese Americans for the diaspora in the United States.
- Puerto Rican diaspora - a mass migration of Puerto Ricans from the island territory of Puerto Rico to the United States mainland began during the first half of the 20th century and has become a subject often studied in colleges, because of Puerto Ricans who achieved success in the United States. The largest Puerto Rican communities in the mainland U.S. are in New York City (about 1 to 2 million in the New York City metro area), New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Florida, but other Puerto Ricans live in all 50 states including Hawaii, and also a smaller community each in Canada and Spain in Europe. Some Puerto Ricans from New York call themselves Nuyoricans. Puerto Ricans everywhere commonly refer to themselves as Boricuas, referring to Borinquen, or Puerto Rico's Native American name before the arrival of the Spanish.
- Quebec diaspora or Québécois diaspora; the French name for French-speaking Canadians residing in the province of Quebec. See also French-Canadian diaspora. Quebec is the only non-English speaking majority region of Anglo-America.
- Rhodesian diaspora. Southern Rhodesia had the distinction amongst Britain's African colonies of being a self-governing Crown Colony. As a result, most Southern Rhodesians did not regard Great Britain as home but instead regarded Southern Rhodesia as home, though they did recognise cultural ties to Great Britain. During and following the Bush War (1966–1979, during which period the former Southern Rhodesia was known as Rhodesia) more than half of Rhodesia's population of European descent emigrated mainly to Australia, New Zealand and Canada. For many South Africa was the first destination, where some have settled, but most of these migrants where transient and later reached further destinations. Others recognising their cultural ties to Great Britain emigrated there. This trend continued after Rhodesia became Zimbabwe-Rhodesia in June 1979 and increased when Zimbabwe-Rhodesia became Zimbabwe in March 1980 (following a brief 85-day period during which the land's name formally reverted to "Southern Rhodesia" for reasons of political expediency); it is estimated that the population of European descent decreased from a peak 275,000 in 1970, to 120,000 in 1999. British citizens resident in the region joined in this migration and did not in all cases return to Great Britain, or in some cases did so only temporarily before moving on. Northern Rhodesians of European descent also emigrated to these same destinations, though their migration began earlier when Northern Rhodesia became Zambia in 1964 and was not the result of war but economic pressure. People of European descent also emigrated from Nyasaland after 1964 and followed the same routes as Northern Rhodesians, for the same reason. See: Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
- The Russian diaspora - The earliest significant wave of ethnic Russian emigration took place in the wake of the Old Believer schism in the 17th century. A sizable "wave" of ethnic Russians emigrated during a short time period in the wake of the October Revolution and Russian Civil War, known collectively as the White emigres. A smaller group of Russians (often referred to by Russians as the second emigration or second wave) had also left during World War II, many were refugees or eastern workers. During the Soviet period, ethnic Russians migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, and after the collapse of the Soviet Union found themselves living outside Russia.
- White Russian diaspora - named for the Russians and Belarusians who left Russia (the USSR 1918-91) in the wake of the 1917 October Revolution and Russian Civil War, seeking to preserve pre-Soviet Russian culture, the Orthodox Christian faith, and includes exiled former Communist party members, such as Leon Trotsky found exile in Mexico but was assassinated in 1940. The millions of Russian émigré and refugees found live in North America (the U.S. and Canada), Latin America with a sect of Pryguny settled in Guadalupe Valley, Baja California in Mexico, even more went to Europe (The UK, Austria, Belgium, former Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Scandinavia, Switzerland and former Yugoslavia), some to east Asia (China and Japan), south Asia (India and Iran) and the Middle East (Egypt and Turkey).
- Romani Diaspora - originating in the Punjab region of India, the Romani people began a mass migration to Europe c. 1000. Romani also live in other continents around the world, including the United States.
- Romanians - who emigrated for the first time in larger figures between 1910 and 1925, and left in mass after the fall of communist regime in Romania in 1989, and comprise the Romanian diaspora, are found today in large numbers in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Russia, Turkey, the Netherlands, the U.K., China, Japan, Australia, the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina. Today there are over 12 mil. people of Romanian descent outside the country.
- Scottish diaspora - includes the Auld Alliance and the Scottish Wars of Independence which led countless Scots to emigrate to mainland Europe to escape persecution and hardship. The Highland clearances which depopulated large parts of the Scottish Highlands and had lasting effects on Scottish Gaelic culture; the Lowland Clearances which resulted in significant migration of Lowland Scots to Canada and the United States after 1776; the Ulster-Scots, descended primarily from Lowland Scots who settled Ulster during the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century and subsequently fled to the Americas in mass numbers throughout the 18th century due to religious and cultural persecution as well as other socio-economic factors. Other Scots and Ulster Scots went to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and a smaller but important community in Argentina. (See also British diaspora, above).
- Serbian diaspora - from Serbia, former Yugoslavia. Over 12 million of Serbian descent live around the world, historically based in Serbia, nearby Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Albania, Republic of Macedonia and Romania. The largest overseas Serbian communities are in the U.S.A (See Serbian American) and Germany, as well as Austria, Australia, Canada, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Slovenia, the Netherlands, Brazil and South Africa.
- Somali diaspora - includes ethnic Somalis who live in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Yemen, Kenya, as well other parts of Africa. It also includes about 2.5 million people of Somali origin who live in the Middle East, Europe, Oceania, and North America, either as recent immigrants or as naturalized citizens.
- South African diaspora - mainly consists of white South African emigrants of Afrikaner origin. Remnants of a significant British diaspora have returned to Great Britain for similar reasons, including South Africa's escalating crime rate and an expanding affirmative action campaign. South Africans have largely settled in Britain, Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Canada, the Netherlands, Argentina and Brazil.
- South Asian diaspora - includes millions of people from India, Bangladesh, Sindh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, whose descendants live in Suriname, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Mauritius, Fiji, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Tanzania, Uganda, and other countries who left British India in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and millions more who have moved to Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom and the United Arab Emirates in recent decades (see Desi, British Asian, South Asian American, Indo-Canadian and Parsees).
- Indian diaspora - estimated at over 30 million, refers to people originating from India living in other parts of the world.
- Bengali Hindu diaspora - the worldwide population of the Bengali Hindus of Indian and Bangladeshi origin.
- Tamil diaspora - denotes people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan Tamil origin who have settled in many parts of rest of India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Reunion, South Africa, Mauritius, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, French Caribbean islands, Europe, Australia and North America (US and Canada).
- Sikh diaspora - from the Punjab region Sikhs have emigrated to all over the world. Now there are more than a million Sikhs outside of India. The biggest community is the British Sikh community which in the last census was recorded as 336,179 people. There are also major Sikh communities in Canada with 278,000, Malaysia (100,000), East Africa (100,000), America (87,000), and 150,000 living in Europe, and 32,000 in Australia and New Zealand.
- Chitpavan Diaspora - Hindu converts of mixed Indian and East European (primarily Jewish) descent who migrated to India centuries ago.
- Punjabi diaspora - main regions Punjabis have migrated to include: EU (chiefly UK), Canada, US, Malaysia and Australia, which took place in the 20th century.
- Sindhi diaspora - main regions Sindh, Sindhis have migrated to include: EU (chiefly UK), Canada, US, Malaysia and Australia, which took place in the 20th century or before.
- The Romani (English terms: Gypsy, Gypsies) - a traditionally 'dispersed' people in Europe, with origins in South Asia (or perhaps, northern India and Sindh) for 800-some years, are even more 'dispersed' today, following the Holocaust of Nazi Germany. (See Some names for the Roma) Over 10 million Romani live across Europe, the majority in Spain and Eastern countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Albania, Greece, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Macedonia), and estimates of 250,000 Romani are known to live in North America (the US and Canada).
- Spanish diaspora - Refers to the migration of millions Spanish people over the last 500 years all over the world, for a great variety of reasons, especially to America, Africa (Spanish Guinea, Spanish Morocco, and the Canary Islands), and other Spanish territories in Europe. This has resulted in the diffusion of the Spanish language and the large number of Spanish names in the places mentioned. During the 20th century, the Spanish diaspora was increased due to the political and economic emigrants who left Spain during the Francoist dictatorship (1930s but his death in 1975 brought democratic reform back to Spain). Notable communities were established in Argentina, Cuba, France, Italy, Mexico, Russia, the United Kingdom and across Latin America.
- Sudanese from the African nation of Sudan and the new independent country of South Sudan inhabited by the mostly Christian Dinka and Nuer peoples. Many Sudanese of both countries immigrated into Europe, esp. the UK and scattered across the Middle East. There has been substantial growth of Sudanese in the US and Canada, esp. in the Midwest and Central States (see Sudanese American), and were areas of resettlement of tens of thousands of (many Southern) Sudanese refugee children known the Lost Boys of Sudan in the 1990s and 2000s (decade).
- Swedish diaspora. Large numbers of Swedes (and Swedish speaking Finns from Finland also under Russian rule) migrated to the US in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is estimated that about eight million Americans have some Swedish ancestry. Swedish Americans constitute 10% of the population of Minnesota and other large numbers settled in Wisconsin, Illinois, New York and Pennsylvania. A large colony of Swedes settled towns in the US like Lindsborg, Kansas and Kingsburg, California in the late 19th century. Large Swedish migration took place in Canada in the same time period along with other ethnic Scandinavians from Norway, Denmark and Iceland. Smaller waves of Swedish expatriates live across Europe, east Asia, Australia and Latin America, usually made up of retirees and businessmen in the late 20th century. It is estimated that between 80,000 and 100,000 Swedes live in Norway (2012), many of whom being young workers.
- Swiss diaspora, some 9% of Swiss citizens live across the globe. Swiss nationals and descendants live in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil and nearby nations of France, Germany, Italy and Austria. In the late 19th century, an immigration settlement program brought tens of thousands of Swiss Germans, ethnic Germans and Austrians alike into southern Chile, and the imprint of Germanic culture remains strong there. Also to note West African nations such as Liberia and Ghana are known for several thousands of Swiss expatriates.
- Syrian diaspora - The largest Arab nationality diaspora in the world.
- Tamil diaspora - a demographic group of Tamil people of Indian or Sri Lankan origin who have settled in other parts of the world.
- Tibetan diaspora - a group of Tibetan people who left Tibet to be with the 14th Dalai Lama after he went into exile in 1959. Most live in India and Nepal, but some live in the United States and Europe. An estimated 20-40,000 Tibetans live in Switzerland alone, and Tibetans live throughout the world. Large Tibetan communities exist in California (US) esp. in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. The Tibetans in exile were influential in the Free Tibet movement which has many American activists, including celebrities and converts to Buddhism.
- Tuaregs, a group of Berbers in Western Sahara after the end of Spanish rule (1975) have fled out of the country along with many Saharauis, due to the Moroccan invasion and occupation of the disputed territory known as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Indigenous to the Sahara and North Africa, there are some Tuareg in Egypt and in Nigeria, as well in traditional homeland of Algeria, Chad, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Tunisia.
- Turkish diaspora - refers to the Turkish people living outside of Turkey (most notably in Germany).
- Ukrainian diaspora, represented by Ukrainians who left their homeland in several waves of emigration, settling mainly in the Americas (United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina), but also Australia, east Asia (China) and across Europe. Also includes the tens and millions of Ukrainians who migrated from Ukraine to other parts of the former Soviet Union (mainly Russian Federation) during the Soviet time. Ukrainians in the Middle East should be noted and the large-scale Ukrainian with Russian Jewish emigration to Israel.
- Ruthenians and Carpathians, self-titles for Slavic peoples from the small region of Ruthenia, encompasses easternmost Slovakia, southeast parts of Poland, northern edges of Hungary and westernmost Ukraine, had preserved a unique ethnocultural identity, but lacked an independent country of their own for almost a millennia. In the late 19th century and again between World Wars I and II, over a million Ruthenians fled their homeland and settled across Western Europe (France, Germany and Austria), North America (the U.S. and Canada) and the USSR (Russia), but lesser numbers settled in East Asia (China), the Middle East (Turkey), South America (Brazil) and Australia in the late 20th century.
- The Venezuelan diaspora - People from Venezuela who live outside of their territory: Mainly in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Spain and Italy. Most of them arrived to escape from the military dictatorship of the 1950s and the political repressions in the 1960s. Recently, there's been a growing number of Venezuelans in Canada almost all of them working for the Oil industry after the 2002 strike. See also Venezuelan American. Since the arrival of President Hugo Chávez, a significative growing number of young Venezuelans are fleeing their country in search of better living standards and work opportunities.
- Welsh diaspora - The Welsh (or in the Welsh language - Cymry) are a Celtic people from Wales one of the four countries of the United Kingdom who manage to preserve their Celtic heritage after a millennia of English and then British rule. An estimated 5 million people of Welsh ancestry live globally in areas formerly part of the British Empire (Canada, Australia, New Zealand and lesser numbers in Latin America) and about 2 million Americans are of Welsh descent. In the 19th century, over 500,000 Welsh miners migrated out of Wales throughout the British Empire, western Europe, the Americas (the U.S. such as Jackson County, Ohio was nicknamed Little Wales) and South Africa for mining jobs, but others came as shepherds, factory workers and fishermen. The Welsh fought hard to preserve their culture, such as the revived Welsh language and their sense of identity in face of forced assimilation to the Anglo-British fabric. In the late 19th century, a small but solid group of Welsh people settled in Patagonia, creating the Welsh community known as Y Wladfa that survived to this day in the Argentinan provinces of Chubut and Santa Cruz. Many there are bilingual in Spanish and Welsh.
- Western Sahara the people on the exile of Mali, France, Spain, Algeria (mainly Tinduf), Mauritania, Niger, Italy and Senegal. And on the Free Zone of the Saharaui Republic.
- West Philadelphia was a recent scene of the Urban Indian culture, especially of the Lenni-Lenape or Delaware Indian tribe. Their community of University City, Philadelphia is called "Lenapehoking" for the indigenous name for the region. Also the Iroquois Confederacy formed communities there and in Boston, New York City, Washington DC and Cleveland by the BIA relocation program during the mid-20th century. Although minuscule in number, many of them (their moniker the "Mohawks") arrived as skyscraper construction workers.
- "Xin (New) Uygurs", a Turkic ethnic group of the Northwestern region of Xinjiang in China. Over 2 million Uygurs migrated outward, to autochthonous Uygur tribal areas in nearby countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and elsewhere in the former USSR (Russia). Other Uygurs long settled across China, but also are in Pakistan, the U.A.E, throughout Europe (the EU) and 200,000 live in the US, the main communities of Uygurs in San Francisco and Los Angeles, California.
- Yemenis from the country of Yemen in the Arabian peninsula. Historically Yemen was one kingdom until Ottoman Turks and then British colonialism in the late 19th century. The British maintained the former country of South Yemen until its independence (1967–90) and was the only Marxist government in the Middle East before unification with North Yemen. Yemeni immigration in the 20th and early 21st century have dispersed the population throughout the Middle East (esp. Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the UAE), guest workers in Europe (see Yemeni British), Australia and East Asia. Yemenis have been arriving in the US (see Yemeni American) with a large concentration in Lackawanna, New York near Buffalo and also in Detroit, while large numbers of Yemenis also live in adjacent Canada.
- Zoroastrian diaspora - two waves; the first took place in the 7th century when the Arabs conquered Persia and those who fled to India became known as the Parsees. In addition, after the Islamic revolution of 1979, several thousand of the remaining Zoroastrians in Iran fled to the United States and the European Union, the largest diaspora being in Great Britain.
- Various Native Americans of the United States have diaspora legends, stories and identity, but this applies only after contact with Europeans and removal of entire tribal peoples by post-colonial white European governments from the 16th to 19th centuries.
- Various ethnic minorities from areas under Russian and Soviet control following the Russian Revolution, continuing through the mass forced resettlements under Joseph Stalin.
- Various groups fled in large numbers from areas under Axis control during World War II, or after the border changes following the war, and formed their own diasporas. Only a few larger sized ethnic groups and nationalities were able to restore autonomy after the fall of Communism and the disbanding of the Soviet Union (1990–91).
- Bengali Hindu diaspora
- "The Cambridge History of China: Volume 8, The Ming Part 2 Parts 1368-1644 By Denis C. Twitchett, Frederick W. Mote". Google Books. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- "The Cham: Descendants of Ancient Rulers of South China Sea Watch Maritime Dispute From Sidelines Written by Adam Bray". IOC-Champa. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.
- "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), page 171.
- "Report on German population". Histclo.com. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- Departamento de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas de la Universidad Nacional de La Matanza (14 November 2011). "Historias de inmigrantes italianos en Argentina" (in Spanish). infouniversidades.siu.edu.ar.
Se estima que en la actualidad, el 90% de la población argentina tiene alguna ascendencia europea y que al menos 25 millones están relacionados con algún inmigrante de Italia.line feed character in
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- (Italian) La lunga storia dell'immigrazione in Svizzera
- SRG SSR Timeline: Fondation d'un «parti anti-Italiens» à Zurich
- Morris, Benny: Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001, Vintage Books, ISBN 978-0-679-74475-7, 2001, chap. VI.
- "How Arabs stole Jewish property". Ynet. Retrieved 2011-07-27.
- Schwartz, Adi (January 4, 2008). "All I Wanted was Justice". Haaretz.
- Malka Hillel Shulewitz, The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands, Continuum 2001, pp. 139 and 155.
- Ada Aharoni "The Forced Migration of Jews from Arab Countries, Historical Society of Jews from Egypt website. Accessed February 1, 2009.