List of dinosaur genera

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the AMNH

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch. Birds were therefore the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can be divided into avian dinosaurs (birds) and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. Birds are feathered theropod dinosaurs and constitute the only known living dinosaurs.

This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been considered to be non-avian dinosaurs, but also includes some dinosaurs of disputed status (avian? or non-avian?, where "avian" refers to the clade Avialae), as well as purely vernacular terms.

The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms and genera that are no longer considered dinosaurs. Many listed names have been reclassified as everything from true birds to crocodilians to petrified wood. The list contains 1764 names, of which approximately 1328 are considered either valid dinosaur genera or nomina dubia.

Scope and terminology[edit]

There is no official, canonical list of all non-avian dinosaur genera. The closest is the Dinosaur Genera List, compiled by biological nomenclature expert George Olshevsky, which was first published online in 1995 and was regularly updated until June 2021.[1][2] The most authoritative general source in the field is the second (2004) edition of The Dinosauria. The vast majority of names listed below are sourced to Olshevsky's list, and all subjective determinations (such as junior synonymy or non-dinosaurian status) are based on The Dinosauria, except where they conflict with primary literature. These exceptions are noted.

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:[1]

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN (see Tyrannosaurus), but junior synonyms cannot be used again for a different genus, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
  • Nomen manuscriptum (Latin for "manuscript name"): A name that appears in manuscript of a formal publication that has no scientific backing.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. Preoccupied names are not valid generic names.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation (see Hadrosaurus), no genera should be marked as such on this list.

A[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Replica of an Allosaurus skeleton.
Artist's reconstruction of Amargasaurus.
Artist's reconstruction of Anzu.
Artist's restoration of Archaeoceratops.
Artist's restoration of Austroraptor.

B[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Reconstructed skeletal mount of Baryonyx at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo.
Artist's restoration of Borealopelta.

C[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Centrosaurus skull.
Artist's restoration of Ceratosaurus.
Coelophysis mounted skeleton at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.

D[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Deinocheirus.
Artist's restoration of Diamantinasaurus.
A Dysalotosaurus skeleton.

E[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Replica of an Eoraptor skeleton.
Life restoration of Euoplocephalus.

F[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Fruitadens.

G[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Giganotosaurus.
Artist's reconstruction of Giraffatitan.

H[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Huaxiagnathus fossil displayed in Hong Kong Science Museum
Skeleton of Hypsilophodon.

I[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Iguanodon.

J[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Jinfengopteryx.

K[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Kentrosaurus skeleton.

L[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Lambeosaurus.
Artist's restoration of Limusaurus.
Life reconstruction of two individuals of Linhenykus in their arid Campanian-aged living environment.

M[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Massospondylus.
Artist's reconstruction of Microraptor with colouration based on fossilised melanosomes.
Cast of a Muttaburrasaurus skeleton.

N[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Neimongosaurus.
Restored head of Nemegtomaia.

O[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Omeisaurus.

P[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Pachycephalosaurus.
Artist's restoration of Plateosaurus.
Prosaurolophus skull.

Q[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Qiupalong.

R[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Ruyangosaurus skeleton.

S[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Scelidosaurus.
Sinosaurus skeleton, Museo delle Scienze of Trento, Italy.
Skorpiovenator skull.
Artist's restoration of Stegosaurus.

T[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Thecodontosaurus.
Thescelosaurus fossil.
Skeleton of Triceratops at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

U[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Restoration of Udanoceratops.

V[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Velociraptor.

W[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Wiehenvenator.

X[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Xiongguanlong.

Y[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Yangchuanosaurus.

Z[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Zby.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Most uncited genus names are taken from Olshevsky's "Dinosaur Genera List".[1] Non-dinosaur dinosauromorphs and non-avebrevicaudan avialans are also listed by Olshevsky, but are omitted from this list as they are not considered "non-avian dinosaurs" in most published sources.
  1. ^ a b c Olshevsky, G. (1995–2021). Dinosaur Genera List Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  2. ^ Montague, Jeremy R. (2006). "Estimates of Body Size and Geological Time of Origin for 612 Dinosaur Genera (Saurischia, Ornithischia)". Florida Scientist: 243–257.
  3. ^ Vila, Bernat; Sellés, Albert; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Razzolini, Novella L.; Gil-Delgado, Alejandro; Canudo, José Ignacio; Galobart, Àngel (2022-02-07). "A titanosaurian sauropod with Gondwanan affinities in the latest Cretaceous of Europe". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 6 (3): 288–296. doi:10.1038/s41559-021-01651-5. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 35132183. S2CID 246650381.
  4. ^ Müller, R. T.; Garcia, M. S. (2023). "A new silesaurid from Carnian beds of Brazil fills a gap in the radiation of avian line archosaurs". Scientific Reports. 13 (1). 4981. Bibcode:2023NatSR..13.4981M. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-32057-x. PMC 10090097. PMID 37041170.
  5. ^ Tykoski, Ronald S.; Contreras, Dori L.; Noto, Christopher (2023-10-13). "The first small-bodied ornithopod dinosaur from the Lewisville Formation (middle Cenomanian) of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. doi:10.1080/02724634.2023.2257238. ISSN 0272-4634.
  6. ^ Dai, H.; Li, N.; Maidment, S. C. R.; Wei, G.; Zhou, Y. X.; Hu, X. F.; Ma, Q. Y.; Wang, X. Q.; Hu, H. Q.; Peng, G. Z. (2022). "New Stegosaurs from the Middle Jurassic Lower Member of the Shaximiao Formation of Chongqing, China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (5): e1995737. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.1995737. S2CID 247267743.
  7. ^ de Souza GA, Soares MB, Weinschütz LC, Wilner E, Lopes RT, de Araújo OM, Kellner AW (2021). "The first edentulous ceratosaur from South America". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): Article number 22281. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1122281D. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-01312-4. PMC 8602317. PMID 34795306.
  8. ^ Dalman SG, Jasinski SE, Lucas SG (2022). "A new chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Farmington Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 90: 127–153.
  9. ^ Lockwood, Jeremy A. F.; Martill, David M.; Maidment, Susannah C. R. (2021-11-10). "A new hadrosauriform dinosaur from the Wessex Formation, Wealden Group (Early Cretaceous), of the Isle of Wight, southern England". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 19 (12): 847–888. doi:10.1080/14772019.2021.1978005. ISSN 1477-2019. S2CID 244067410.
  10. ^ Simón, M. E.; Salgado, L. (2023). "A new gigantic titanosaurian sauropod from the early Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Neuquén Province, Argentina)". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.01086.2023.
  11. ^ Silva Junior JC, Martinelli AG, Marinho TS, da Silva JI, Langer MC (2022). "New specimens of Baurutitan britoi and a taxonomic reassessment of the titanosaur dinosaur fauna (Sauropoda) from the Serra da Galga Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Brazil". PeerJ. 10. e14333. doi:10.7717/peerj.14333. PMC 9673870. PMID 36405026.
  12. ^ Prieto-Márquez, A.; Sellés, A. (2023). "Evolutionary convergence in a small cursorial styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur from western Europe". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 42 (5). e2210632. doi:10.1080/02724634.2023.2210632. S2CID 259335419.
  13. ^ a b Barker, C.T.; Hone, D.; Naish, D.; Cau, A.; Lockwood, J.; Foster, B.; Clarkin, C.; Schneider, P.; Gostling, N. (2021). "New spinosaurids from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous, UK) and the European origins of Spinosauridae". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 19340. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1119340B. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-97870-8. PMC 8481559. PMID 34588472.
  14. ^ Nogueira, Rodrigo Alvarez; Rozadilla, Sebastián; Agnolín, Federico L.; Garcia Marsà, Jordi A.; Motta, Matias J.; Novas, Fernando E. (2024-03-11). "A new ornithopod from the Upper Cretaceous (Huincul Formation) of Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Implications on elasmarian postcranial anatomy". Cretaceous Research (In press): 105874. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2024.105874.
  15. ^ Agnolin, Federico L.; Gonzalez Riga, Bernardo J.; Aranciaga Rolando, Alexis M.; Rozadilla, Sebastián; Motta, Matías J.; Chimento, Nicolás R.; Novas, Fernando E. (2023-02-02). "A new giant titanosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina". Cretaceous Research. 146: 105487. Bibcode:2023CrRes.14605487A. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105487. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 256559829.
  16. ^ Xing, Lida; Niu, Kecheng; Mallon, Jordan; Miyashita, Tetsuto (2023). "A new armored dinosaur with double cheek horns from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern China". Vertebrate Anatomy Morphology Palaeontology. 11. doi:10.18435/vamp29396. ISSN 2292-1389.
  17. ^ Wang, Xuri; Cau, Andrea; Guo, Bin; Ma, Feimin; Qing, Gele; Liu, Yichuan (2022-11-19). "Intestinal preservation in a birdlike dinosaur supports conservatism in digestive canal evolution among theropods". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 19965. Bibcode:2022NatSR..1219965W. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-24602-x. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9675785. PMID 36402874. S2CID 253672525.
  18. ^ Averianov AO, Sues HD (2022). "New material and diagnosis of a new taxon of alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (5): e2036174. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.2036174. S2CID 247391327.
  19. ^ Baiano MA, Pol D, Bellardini F, Windholz GJ, Cerda IA, Garrido AC, Coria RA (2022). "Elemgasem nubilus: a new brachyrostran abelisaurid (Theropoda, Ceratosauria) from the Portezuelo Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Patagonia, Argentina". Papers in Palaeontology. 8 (5): e1462. doi:10.1002/spp2.1462. S2CID 252097368.
  20. ^ Atkins-Weltman, K. L.; Simon, D. J.; Woodward, H. N.; Funston, G. F.; Snively, E. (2024). "A new oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the end-Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation of North America". PLOS ONE. 19 (1). e0294901. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0294901. PMC 10807829.
  21. ^ Xu, Liming; Wang, Min; Chen, Runsheng; Dong, Liping; Lin, Min; Xu, Xing; Tang, Jianrong; You, Hailu; Zhou, Guowu; Wang, Linchang; He, Wenxing; Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Zhonghe (2023-09-06). "A new avialan theropod from an emerging Jurassic terrestrial fauna". Nature. 621 (7978): 336–343. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06513-7. ISSN 1476-4687.
  22. ^ Ishikawa, H.; Tsuihiji, T.; Manabe, M. (2023). "Furcatoceratops elucidans, a new centrosaurine (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae) from the upper Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana, USA". Cretaceous Research. 151. 105660. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105660. S2CID 260046917.
  23. ^ Prieto-Marquez, Albert; Carrera Farias, Miguel (2021). "A new late-surviving early diverging Ibero-Armorican duck-billed dinosaur and the role of the Late Cretaceous European Archipelago in hadrosauroid biogeography". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 66. doi:10.4202/app.00821.2020. ISSN 0567-7920.
  24. ^ Pretto, Flávio Augusto; Müller, Rodrigo Temp; Moro, Debora; Garcia, Maurício Silva; Paes Neto, Voltaire Dutra; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock (2022-09-28). "The oldest South American silesaurid: New remains from the Middle Triassic (Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone) increase the time range of silesaurid fossil record in southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 120: 104039. Bibcode:2022JSAES.12004039P. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2022.104039. ISSN 0895-9811. S2CID 252609210.
  25. ^ Han, F.; Yang, L.; Lou, F.; Sullivan, C.; Xu, X.; Qiu, W.; Liu, H.; Yu, J.; Wu, R.; Ke, Y.; Xu, M.; Hu, J.; Lu, P. (2024). "A new titanosaurian sauropod, Gandititan cavocaudatus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous of southern China". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 22 (1). 2293038. doi:10.1080/14772019.2023.2293038.
  26. ^ Mocho, Pedro; Escaso, Fernando; Gasulla, José M; Galobart, Àngel; Poza, Begoña; Santos-Cubedo, Andrés; Sanz, José L; Ortega, Francisco (2023-09-28). "New sauropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Morella (Spain) provides new insights on the evolutionary history of Iberian somphospondylan titanosauriforms". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad124. ISSN 0024-4082.
  27. ^ Alarcón-Muñoz, Jhonatan; Vargas, Alexander O.; Püschel, Hans P.; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Manríquez, Leslie; Leppe, Marcelo; Kaluza, Jonatan; Milla, Verónica; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Palma-Liberona, José; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Frey, Eberhard; Pino, Juan Pablo; Bajor, Dániel; Núñez, Elaine; Ortiz, Héctor; Rubilar-Rogers, David; Cruzado-Caballero, Penélope (2023-06-16). "Relict duck-billed dinosaurs survived into the last age of the dinosaurs in subantarctic Chile". Science Advances. 9 (24): eadg2456. Bibcode:2023SciA....9G2456A. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adg2456. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 10275600. PMID 37327335.
  28. ^ Ryan, M.J.; Micucci, L.; Rizo, H.; Sullivan, C.; Lee, Y.-N.; Evans, D.C. (2023). "New Late Cretaceous leptoceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada". In Lee, Y.-N. (ed.). Windows into Sauropsid and Synapsid Evolution: Essays in Honor of Prof. Louis L. Jacobs. Seoul: Dinosaur Science Center Press. pp. 151–165. ISBN 978-89-5708-358-1.
  29. ^ Agnolín FL, Cerroni MA, Scanferla A, Goswami A, Paulina-Carabajal A, Halliday T, Cuff AR, Reuil S (2022). "First definitive abelisaurid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Northwestern Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (4): e2002348. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.2002348. S2CID 246766133.
  30. ^ a b Wang X, Bandeira KL, Qiu R, Jiang S, Cheng X, Ma Y, Kellner AW (2021). "The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): Article number 14962. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1114962W. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7. PMC 8361124. PMID 34385481.
  31. ^ Rotatori, F. M.; Ferrari, L.; Sequero, C.; Camilo, B.; Mateus, O.; Moreno-Azanza, M. (2024). "An unexpected early-diverging iguanodontian dinosaur (Ornithischia, Ornithopoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. e2310066. doi:10.1080/02724634.2024.2310066.
  32. ^ a b Rozadilla, Sebastián; Brissón-Egli, Federico; Lisandro Agnolín, Federico; Aranciaga-Rolando, Alexis Mauro; Novas, Fernando Emilio (2022). "A new hadrosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia and the radiation of South American hadrosaurids". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 19 (17): 1207–1235. doi:10.1080/14772019.2021.2020917. S2CID 247122005.
  33. ^ Zanno, Lindsay E.; Gates, Terry A.; Ayrahami, Haviv M.; Tucker, Ryan T.; Makovicky, Peter J. (2023). "An early-diverging iguanodontian (Dinosauria: Rhabdodontomorpha) from the Late Cretaceous of North America". PLOS ONE. 18 (6). e0286042. Bibcode:2023PLoSO..1886042Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0286042. PMC 10246810. PMID 37285376.
  34. ^ Mateus, Octávio; Estraviz-López, Darío (2022-02-16). "A new theropod dinosaur from the early cretaceous (Barremian) of Cabo Espichel, Portugal: Implications for spinosaurid evolution". PLOS ONE. 17 (2): e0262614. Bibcode:2022PLoSO..1762614M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0262614. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8849621. PMID 35171930.
  35. ^ Navarro, Bruno A.; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Aureliano, Tito; Díaz, Verónica Díez; Bandeira, Kamila L. N.; Cattaruzzi, André G. S.; Iori, Fabiano V.; Martine, Ariel M.; Carvalho, Alberto B.; Anelli, Luiz E.; Fernandes, Marcelo A.; Zaher, Hussam (2022-09-15). "A New Nanoid Titanosaur (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Brazil". Ameghiniana. 59 (5): 317–354. doi:10.5710/AMGH.25.08.2022.3477. ISSN 1851-8044. S2CID 251875979.
  36. ^ Gorscak, E.; Lamanna, M. C.; Schwarz, D.; Díez Díaz, V.; Salem, B. S.; Sallam, H. M.; Wiechmann, M. F. (2023). "A new titanosaurian (Dinosauria: Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Quseir Formation of the Kharga Oasis, Egypt". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. e2199810. doi:10.1080/02724634.2023.2199810. S2CID 260046761.
  37. ^ Filippi, Leonardo S.; Juárez Valieri, Rubén D.; Gallina, Pablo A.; Méndez, Ariel H.; Gianechini, Federico A.; Garrido, Alberto C. (2023). "A rebbachisaurid-mimicking titanosaur and evidence of a Late Cretaceous faunal disturbance event in South-West Gondwana". Cretaceous Research. 154. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105754. ISSN 0195-6671.
  38. ^ Beccari, V.; Mateus, O.; Wings, O.; Milàn, J.; Clemmensen, L. B. (2021). "Issi saaneq gen. et sp. nov.—A New Sauropodomorph Dinosaur from the Late Triassic (Norian) of Jameson Land, Central East Greenland". Diversity. 13 (11): 561. doi:10.3390/d13110561. hdl:10362/128951.
  39. ^ Forster CA, de Klerk WJ, Poole KE, Chinsamy-Turan A, Roberts EM, Ross CF (2022). "Iyuku raathi, a new iguanodontian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Kirkwood Formation, South Africa". The Anatomical Record. 306 (7): 1762–1803. doi:10.1002/ar.25038. PMID 35860957. S2CID 250730794.
  40. ^ Kubo, Kohta; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav (2023-11-15). "A new alvarezsaurid dinosaur (Theropoda, Alvarezsauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Baruungoyot Formation of Mongolia provides insights for bird-like sleeping behavior in non-avian dinosaurs". PLOS ONE. 18 (11): e0293801. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0293801. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 10651048.
  41. ^ Riguetti FJ, Apesteguía S, Pereda-Suberbiola X (2022). "A new Cretaceous thyreophoran from Patagonia supports a South American lineage of armoured dinosaurs". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): Article number 11621. Bibcode:2022NatSR..1211621R. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-15535-6. PMC 9372066. PMID 35953515.
  42. ^ Mo, Jin-You; Fu, Qiong-Yao; Yu, Yi-Lun; Xu, Xing (2023-09-21). "A New Titanosaurian Sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous of Jiangxi Province, Southern China". Historical Biology: 1–15. doi:10.1080/08912963.2023.2259413. ISSN 0891-2963.
  43. ^ Ren, X.-X.; Wang, X.-R.; Ji, Y.-N.; Guo, Z.; Ji, Q. (2024). "The first mamenchisaurid from the Upper Jurassic Dongxing Formation of Guangxi, southernmost China". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. doi:10.1080/08912963.2024.2309287.
  44. ^ Averianov, A. O.; Lopatin, A. V. (2021). "A New Theropod Dinosaur (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Tajikistan". Doklady Earth Sciences. 499 (1): 570–574. Bibcode:2021DokES.499..570A. doi:10.1134/S1028334X21070047. S2CID 239088573.
  45. ^ Averianov AO, Lopatin AV (2022). "The second taxon of alvarezsaurid theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Khulsan locality in Gobi Desert, Mongolia". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. 34 (11): 2125–2136. doi:10.1080/08912963.2021.2000976. S2CID 244421277.
  46. ^ Napoli, J. G.; Ruebenstahl, A. A.; Bhullar, B.-A. S.; Turner, A. H.; Norell, M. A. (2021). "A New Dromaeosaurid (Dinosauria: Coelurosauria) from Khulsan, Central Mongolia" (PDF). American Museum Novitates (3982): 1–47. doi:10.1206/3982.1. hdl:2246/7286. ISSN 0003-0082. S2CID 243849373.
  47. ^ Iori, F.V.; de Araújo-Júnior, H.I.; Simionato Tavares, S.A.; da Silva Marinho, T.; Martinelli, A.G. (2021). "New theropod dinosaur from the late Cretaceous of Brazil improves abelisaurid diversity". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 112: 103551. Bibcode:2021JSAES.11203551I. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103551. ISSN 0895-9811. S2CID 239682640.
  48. ^ Gianechini FA, Méndez AH, Filippi LS, Paulina-Carabajal A, Juárez-Valieri RD, Garrido AC (2021). "A New Furileusaurian Abelisaurid from La Invernada (Upper Cretaceous, Santonian, Bajo De La Carpa Formation), Northern Patagonia, Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 40 (6): e1877151. doi:10.1080/02724634.2020.1877151.
  49. ^ Rolando, Alexis M. A.; Motta, Matias J.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Manabe, Makoto; Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Novas, Fernando E. (2021-12-22). "A large Megaraptoridae (Theropoda: Coelurosauria) from Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Scientific Reports. 12 (1): Article number 6318. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09272-z. PMC 9042913. PMID 35474310.
  50. ^ Prieto-Márquez A, Wagner JR (2022). "A new 'duck-billed' dinosaur (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae) from the upper Campanian of Texas points to a greater diversity of early hadrosaurid offshoots". Cretaceous Research. 143. 105416. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105416. S2CID 253470207.
  51. ^ Griffin, Christopher T.; Wynd, Brenen M.; Munyikwa, Darlington; Broderick, Tim J.; Zondo, Michel; Tolan, Stephen; Langer, Max C.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Taruvinga, Hazel R. (2022-08-31). "Africa's oldest dinosaurs reveal early suppression of dinosaur distribution". Nature. 609 (7926): 313–319. Bibcode:2022Natur.609..313G. doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05133-x. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 36045297. S2CID 251977824.
  52. ^ Rolando MA, Garcia Marsà JA, Agnolín FL, Motta MJ, Rodazilla S, Novas FE (2022). "The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina". Cretaceous Research. 129: 105029. Bibcode:2022CrRes.12905029R. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 240577726.
  53. ^ Canale JI, Apesteguia S, Gallina PA, Mitchell J, Smith ND, Cullen TM, Shinya A, Haluza A, Gianechini FA, Makovicky PJ (2022). "New giant carnivorous dinosaur reveals convergent evolutionary trends in theropod arm reduction". Current Biology. 32 (14): 3195–3202.e5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2022.05.057. PMID 35803271.
  54. ^ Wang, Xuri; Cau, Andrea; Wang, Zhengdong; Yu, Kaifeng; Wu, Wenhao; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yichuan (2023-06-05). "A new theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Longjiang Formation of Inner Mongolia (China)". Cretaceous Research. 151: 105605. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105605. ISSN 0195-6671.
  55. ^ Manitkoon, Sita; Deesri, Uthumporn; Khalloufi, Bouziane; Nonsrirach, Thanit; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Chanthasit, Phornphen; Boonla, Wansiri; Buffetaut, Eric (2023). "A New Basal Neornithischian Dinosaur from the Phu Kradung Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Northeastern Thailand". Diversity. 15 (7): 851. doi:10.3390/d15070851.
  56. ^ Longrich, N. R.; Pereda-Suberbiola, X.; Bardet, N.; Jalil, N.-E. (2024). "A new small duckbilled dinosaur (Hadrosauridae: Lambeosaurinae) from Morocco and dinosaur diversity in the late Maastrichtian of North Africa". Scientific Reports. 14. 3665. doi:10.1038/s41598-024-53447-9. PMC 10864364.
  57. ^ Ji S, Zhang P (2022). "First new genus and species of basal iguanodontian dinosaur (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) from southern China". Acta Geoscientica Sinica. 43 (1): 1–10. doi:10.3975/cagsb.2021.090701.
  58. ^ Lee, Sungjin; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Currie, Philip J.; Sissons, Robin; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Su-Hwan; Barsbold, Rinchen; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav (2022-12-01). "A non-avian dinosaur with a streamlined body exhibits potential adaptations for swimming". Communications Biology. 5 (1): 1185. doi:10.1038/s42003-022-04119-9. ISSN 2399-3642. PMC 9715538. PMID 36456823.
  59. ^ Bonde, Joshua W.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Krumenacker, L. J.; Varricchio, David J. (2022). "Nevadadromeus schmitti (gen. et sp. nov.), a New Basal Neornithischian with Affinities to the Thescelosaurinae, from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Willow Tank Formation of Southern Nevada". Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 50 (1): 1–8. doi:10.2181/036.050.0101. ISSN 0193-8509. S2CID 252931645.
  60. ^ Sánchez-Fenollosa, Sergio; Verdú, Francisco; Cobos, Alberto (2023). "The largest ornithopod (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Upper Jurassic of Europe sheds light on the evolutionary history of basal ankylopollexians". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 199 (4): 1013–1033. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad076.
  61. ^ Averianov, Alexander O.; Lopatin, Alexey V. (2022-02-19). "A new alvarezsaurid theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Gobi Desert, Mongolia". Cretaceous Research. 135: 105168. Bibcode:2022CrRes.13505168A. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105168. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 247000540.
  62. ^ Pei, R.; Qin, Yuying; Wen, Aishu; Zhao, Q.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Guo, W.; Liu, P.; Ye, W.; Wang, L.; Yin, Z.; Dai, R.; Xu, X. (2022). "A New Troodontid from the Upper Cretaceous Gobi Basin of Inner Mongolia, China". Cretaceous Research. 130: Article 105052. Bibcode:2022CrRes.13005052P. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105052. S2CID 244186762.
  63. ^ Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Takasaki, Ryuji; Fiorillo, Anthony R.; Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar; Hikida, Yoshinori (2022-05-03). "New therizinosaurid dinosaur from the marine Osoushinai Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Japan) provides insight for function and evolution of therizinosaur claws". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 7207. Bibcode:2022NatSR..12.7207K. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-11063-5. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9065154. PMID 35504901.
  64. ^ Riguetti, Facundo; Pereda-Suberbiola, Xabier; Ponce, Denis; Salgado, Leonardo; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Rozadilla, Sebastián; Arbour, Victoria (2022-12-31). "A new small-bodied ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of North Patagonia (Río Negro Province, Argentina)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 20 (1): 2137441. doi:10.1080/14772019.2022.2137441. ISSN 1477-2019. S2CID 254212751.
  65. ^ Spiekman SN, Ezcurra MD, Butler RJ, Fraser NC, Maidment SC (2021). "Pendraig milnerae, a new small-sized coelophysoid theropod from the Late Triassic of Wales". Royal Society Open Science. 8 (10): Article ID 210915. Bibcode:2021RSOS....810915S. doi:10.1098/rsos.210915. PMC 8493203. PMID 34754500.
  66. ^ Rincón AF, Raad Pájaro DA, Jiménez Velandia HF, Ezcurra MD, Wilson Mantilla JA (2022). "A sauropod from the Lower Jurassic La Quinta Formation (Dept. Cesar, Colombia) and the initial diversification of eusauropods at low latitudes". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 42 (1): e2077112. Bibcode:2022JVPal..42E7112R. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.2077112. S2CID 251501541.
  67. ^ Horner, J. R.; Goodwin, M. B.; Evans, D. C. (2023). "A new pachycephalosaurid from the Hell Creek Formation, Garfield County, Montana, U.S.A.". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 42 (4). e2190369. doi:10.1080/02724634.2023.2190369. S2CID 258154892.
  68. ^ Santos-Cubedo, Andrés; de Santisteban, Carlos; Poza, Begoña; Meseguer, Sergi (2021-07-07). "A new styracosternan hadrosauroid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Early Cretaceous of Portell, Spain". PLOS ONE. 16 (7): e0253599. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1653599S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253599. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8262792. PMID 34232957.
  69. ^ Santos-Cubedo, A.; de Santisteban, C.; Poza, B.; Meseguer, S. (2023). "A new spinosaurid dinosaur species from the Early Cretaceous of Cinctorres (Spain)". Scientific Reports. 13 (1). 6471. Bibcode:2023NatSR..13.6471S. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-33418-2. PMC 10195869. PMID 37202441.
  70. ^ Han, F.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Zeng, R.; Wang, X.; Cai, H.; Wu, T.; Wen, Y.; Cai, S.; Li, C.; Wu, R.; Zhao, W.; Xu, X. (2023). "Exceptional early Jurassic fossils with leathery eggs shed light on dinosaur reproductive biology". National Science Review. doi:10.1093/nsr/nwad258.
  71. ^ Upchurch P, Mannion PD, Xu X, Barrett PM (2021). "Re-assessment of the Late Jurassic eusauropod dinosaur Hudiesaurus sinojapanorum Dong, 1997, from the Turpan Basin, China, and the evolution of hyper-robust antebrachia in sauropods". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (4): e1994414. Bibcode:2021JVPal..41E4414U. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.1994414. S2CID 245164168.
  72. ^ Isasmendi, E.; Cuesta, E.; Díaz-Martínez, I.; Company, J.; Sáez-Benito, P.; Viera, L. I.; Torices, A.; Pereda-Suberbiola, P. (2024). "Increasing the theropod record of Europe: a new basal spinosaurid from the Enciso Group of the Cameros Basin (La Rioja, Spain). Evolutionary implications and palaeobiodiversity". Zoological Journal of the Linnean. doi:10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad193.
  73. ^ Mo, Jinyou; Ma, Feimin; Yu, Yilun; Xu, Xing (2022-12-09). "A New Titanosauriform Sauropod with An Unusual Tail from the Lower Cretaceous of Northeastern China". Cretaceous Research. 144: 105449. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105449. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 254524890.
  74. ^ Lerzo, Lucas Nicolás; Gallina, Pablo Ariel; Canale, Juan Ignacio; Otero, Alejandro; Carballido, José Luis; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Makovicky, Peter Juraj (2024-01-03). "The last of the oldies: a basal rebbachisaurid (Sauropoda, Diplodocoidea) from the early Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) of Patagonia, Argentina". Historical Biology: 1–26. doi:10.1080/08912963.2023.2297914. ISSN 0891-2963.
  75. ^ Dalman, S.G.; Lucas, S.G.; Jasinski, S.E.; Longrich, N.R. (2022). "Sierraceratops turneri, a new chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the Hall Lake Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of south-central New Mexico". Cretaceous Research. 130: Article 105034. Bibcode:2022CrRes.13005034D. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105034. S2CID 244210664.
  76. ^ Evans, David; Brown, Caleb M.; You, Hailu; Campione, Nicolás E. (2021). "Description and revised diagnosis of Asia's first recorded pachycephalosaurid, Sinocephale bexelli gen. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. e–First (10): 981–992. Bibcode:2021CaJES..58..981E. doi:10.1139/cjes-2020-0190. S2CID 244227050.
  77. ^ Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Strachan, Sarah J.; Ouarhache, Driss; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Brown, Emily E.; Fernandez, Vincent; Johanson, Zerina; Raven, Thomas J.; Barrett, Paul M. (2021-09-23). "Bizarre dermal armour suggests the first African ankylosaur". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 5 (12): 1576–1581. doi:10.1038/s41559-021-01553-6. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 34556830. S2CID 237616095.
  78. ^ Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Vargas, Alexander; Kaluza, Jonatan; Leppe, Marcelo; Botelho, Joao; Palma-Liberona, José; Gutstein, Carolina; Fernández, Roy; Ortiz, Hector; Milla, Verónica; Aravena, Bárbara; Manríquez, Leslie M. E.; Alarcón-Muñoz, Jhonatan; Pino, Juan Pablo; Trevisan, Cristine; Mansilla, Héctor; Hinojosa, Luis Felipe; Muñoz-Walther, Vicente; Rubilar-Rogers, David (2021). "Bizarre tail weaponry in a transitional ankylosaur from subantarctic Chile". Nature. 600 (7888): 259–263. Bibcode:2021Natur.600..259S. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04147-1. PMID 34853468. S2CID 244799975.
  79. ^ Bajpai, S.; Datta, D.; Pandey, P.; Ghosh, T.; Kumar, K.; Bhattacharya, D. (2023). "Fossils of the oldest diplodocoid dinosaur suggest India was a major centre for neosauropod radiation". Scientific Reports. 13 (1). 12680. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-39759-2. PMC 10403599. PMID 37542094.
  80. ^ Zafaty, O.; Oukassou, M.; Riguetti, F.; Company, J.; Bendrioua, S.; Tabuce, R.; Charrière, A.; Pereda-Suberbiola, X. (2024). "A new stegosaurian dinosaur (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) with a remarkable dermal armour from the Middle Jurassic of North Africa". Gondwana Research. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2024.03.009.
  81. ^ Bandeira, Kamila L. N.; Navarro, Bruno A.; Pêgas, Rodrigo V.; Brilhante, Natan S.; Brum, Arthur S.; de Souza, Lucy G.; de Silva, Rafael C.; Gallo, Valéria (2024). "A reassessment of the historical fossil findings from Bahia State (Northeast Brazil) reveals a diversified dinosaur fauna in the Lower Cretaceous of South America". Historical Biology: 1–42. doi:10.1080/08912963.2024.2318406.
  82. ^ Pérez-Moreno, A.; Salgado, L.; Carballido, J. L.; Otero, A.; Pol, D. (2024). "A new titanosaur from the La Colonia Formation (Campanian-Maastrichtian), Chubut Province, Argentina". Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. doi:10.1080/08912963.2024.2332997.
  83. ^ Augustin, Felix J.; Bastiaans, Dylan; Dumbravă, Mihai D.; Csiki-Sava, Zoltán (2022-11-23). "A new ornithopod dinosaur, Transylvanosaurus platycephalus gen. et sp. nov. (Dinosauria: Ornithischia), from the Upper Cretaceous of the Haţeg Basin, Romania". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 42 (2): e2133610. Bibcode:2022JVPal..42E3610A. doi:10.1080/02724634.2022.2133610. ISSN 0272-4634. S2CID 253964320.
  84. ^ Regalado Fernández OR, Werneburg I (2022). "A new massopodan sauropodomorph from Trossingen Formation (Germany) hidden as ' Plateosaurus' for 100 years in the historical Tübingen collection". Vertebrate Zoology. 72: 771–822. doi:10.3897/vz.72.e86348.
  85. ^ Hattori, S.; Shibata, M.; Kawabe, S.; Imai, T.; Nishi, H.; Azuma, Y. (2023). "New theropod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Japan provides critical implications for the early evolution of ornithomimosaurs". Scientific Reports. 13. 13842. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-40804-3. PMC 10484975.
  86. ^ Soto, M.; Carballido, J. L.; Langer, M. C.; Silva Junior, J. C. G.; Montenegro, F.; Perea, D. (2024). "Phylogenetic relationships of a new titanosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Uruguay". Cretaceous Research. 105894. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2024.105894.
  87. ^ Tanaka K, Anvarov OU, Zelenitsky DK, Ahmedshaev AS, Kobayashi Y (2021). "A new carcharodontosaurian theropod dinosaur occupies apex predator niche in the early Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan". Royal Society Open Science. 8 (9): Article ID 210923. Bibcode:2021RSOS....810923T. doi:10.1098/rsos.210923. PMC 8424376. PMID 34527277.
  88. ^ Longrich, Nicholas R.; Martill, David M.; Munt, Martin; Green, Mick; Penn, Mark; Smith, Shaun (2023-09-13). "Vectidromeus insularis, a new hypsilophodontid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight, England". Cretaceous Research. 154: 105707. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105707. ISSN 0195-6671.
  89. ^ Pond, Stuart; Strachan, Sarah-Jane; Raven, Thomas J.; Simpson, Martin I.; Morgan, Kirsty; Maidment, Susannah C. R. (2023-01-01). "Vectipelta barretti, a new ankylosaurian dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Wessex Formation of the Isle of Wight, UK". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 21 (1). doi:10.1080/14772019.2023.2210577. ISSN 1477-2019. S2CID 259393929.
  90. ^ Longrich, Nicholas R.; Martill, David M.; Jacobs, Megan L. (2021-12-17). "A new dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Wessex Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Barremian) of the Isle of Wight, and implications for European palaeobiogeography". Cretaceous Research. 134: 105123. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105123. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 245324247.
  91. ^ Jia, Lei; Li, Ning; Dong, Liyang; Shi, Jianru; Kang, Zhishuai; Wang, Suozhu; Xu, Shichao; You, Hailu (2024-01-31). "A new stegosaur from the late Early Cretaceous of Zuoyun, Shanxi Province, China". Historical Biology: 1–10. doi:10.1080/08912963.2024.2308214. ISSN 0891-2963.
  92. ^ Brum, Arthur S.; Pêgas, Rodrigo V.; Bandeira, Kamila L. N.; Souza, Lucy G.; Campos, Diogenes A.; Kellner, Alexander W. A. (November 2021). Benson, Roger (ed.). "A new unenlagiine (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Brazil". Papers in Palaeontology. 7 (4): 2075–2099. doi:10.1002/spp2.1375. ISSN 2056-2799. S2CID 238854675.
  93. ^ Yao, X.; Barrett, P. M.; Lei, Y.; Xu, X.; Bi, S. (2022). "A new early-branching armoured dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of southwestern China". eLife. 11: e75248. doi:10.7554/eLife.75248. PMC 8929930. PMID 35289749. S2CID 247452893.
  94. ^ Dai H, Tan C, Xiong C, Ma Q, Li N, Yu H, Wei Z, Wang P, Yi J, Wei G, You H, Ren X (2022). "New macronarian from the Middle Jurassic of Chongqing, China: phylogenetic and biogeographic implications for neosauropod dinosaur evolution". Royal Society Open Science. 9 (11). 220794. Bibcode:2022RSOS....920794D. doi:10.1098/rsos.220794. PMC 9627447. PMID 36340515.

References[edit]

  • Lambert, D. (1993). "A to Z of Dinosaurs" In: The Ultimate Dinosaur Book. Dorling Kindersley, 192 pp. ISBN 0-7513-0047-0
  • Olshevsky, G. (1995–2021). Dinosaur Genera List Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  • Walters, M. & J. Paker (1995). Dictionary of Prehistoric Life. Claremont Books. ISBN 1-85471-648-4.
  • Weishampel, D.B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds.) (2004). The Dinosauria, Second Edition. University of California Press, 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.