List of dinosaur genera

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the AMNH

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch. Birds were therefore the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can be divided into avian dinosaurs (birds) and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. Birds are feathered theropod dinosaurs and constitute the only known living dinosaurs.

This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been considered to be non-avian dinosaurs, but also includes some dinosaurs of disputed status (avian? or non-avian?, where "avian" refers to the clade Avialae), as well as purely vernacular terms.

The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms and genera that are no longer considered dinosaurs. Many listed names have been reclassified as everything from true birds to crocodilians to petrified wood. The list contains 1764 names, of which approximately 1328 are considered either valid dinosaur genera or nomina dubia.

Scope and terminology[edit]

There is no official, canonical list of all non-avian dinosaur genera. The closest is the Dinosaur Genera List, compiled by biological nomenclature expert George Olshevsky, which was first published online in 1995 and was regularly updated until June 2021.[1][2] The most authoritative general source in the field is the second (2004) edition of The Dinosauria. The vast majority of names listed below are sourced to Olshevsky's list, and all subjective determinations (such as junior synonymy or non-dinosaurian status) are based on The Dinosauria, except where they conflict with primary literature. These exceptions are noted.

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:[1]

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN (see Tyrannosaurus), but junior synonyms cannot be used again for a different genus, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
  • Nomen manuscriptum (Latin for "manuscript name"): A name that appears in manuscript of a formal publication that has no scientific backing.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. Preoccupied names are not valid generic names.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation (see Hadrosaurus), no genera should be marked as such on this list.


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Replica of an Allosaurus skeleton.
Artist's reconstruction of Amargasaurus.
Artist's reconstruction of Anzu.
Artist's restoration of Archaeoceratops.
Artist's restoration of Austroraptor.


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Reconstructed skeletal mount of Baryonyx at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo.
Artist's restoration of Borealopelta.


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Centrosaurus skull.
Artist's restoration of Ceratosaurus.
Coelophysis mounted skeleton at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History.


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Artist's restoration of Deinocheirus.
Artist's restoration of Diamantinasaurus.
A Dysalotosaurus skeleton.


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Replica of an Eoraptor skeleton.
Life restoration of Euoplocephalus.


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Life restoration of Fruitadens.


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Artist's restoration of Giganotosaurus.
Artist's reconstruction of Giraffatitan.


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Huaxiagnathus fossil displayed in Hong Kong Science Museum
Skeleton of Hypsilophodon.


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Artist's reconstruction of Iguanodon.


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Life restoration of Jinfengopteryx.


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Kentrosaurus skeleton.


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Artist's restoration of Lambeosaurus.
Artist's restoration of Limusaurus.
Life reconstruction of two individuals of Linhenykus in their arid Campanian-aged living environment.


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Artist's reconstruction of Massospondylus.
Artist's reconstruction of Microraptor with colouration based on fossilised melanosomes.
Cast of a Muttaburrasaurus skeleton.


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Life restoration of Neimongosaurus.
Restored head of Nemegtomaia.


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Artist's reconstruction of Omeisaurus.


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Life restoration of Pachycephalosaurus.
Artist's restoration of Plateosaurus.
Prosaurolophus skull.


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Artist's reconstruction of Qiupalong.


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Ruyangosaurus skeleton.


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Artist's restoration of Scelidosaurus.
Sinosaurus skeleton, Museo delle Scienze of Trento, Italy.
Skorpiovenator skull.
Artist's restoration of Stegosaurus.


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Artist's restoration of Thecodontosaurus.
Thescelosaurus fossil.
Skeleton of Triceratops at the Houston Museum of Natural Science.


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Restoration of Udanoceratops.


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Life restoration of Velociraptor.


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Artist's restoration of Wiehenvenator.


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Artist's reconstruction of Xiongguanlong.


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Artist's restoration of Yangchuanosaurus.


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Life restoration of Zby.

See also[edit]


  • Most uncited genus names are taken from Olshevsky's "Dinosaur Genera List".[1] Non-dinosaur dinosauromorphs and non-avebrevicaudan avialans are also listed by Olshevsky, but are omitted from this list as they are not considered "non-avian dinosaurs" in most published sources.
  1. ^ a b c Olshevsky, G. (1995–2021). Dinosaur Genera List Archived 2011-07-15 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  2. ^ Montague, Jeremy R. (2006). "Estimates of Body Size and Geological Time of Origin for 612 Dinosaur Genera (Saurischia, Ornithischia)". Florida Scientist: 243–257.
  3. ^ Vila, Bernat; Sellés, Albert; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Razzolini, Novella L.; Gil-Delgado, Alejandro; Canudo, José Ignacio; Galobart, Àngel (2022-02-07). "A titanosaurian sauropod with Gondwanan affinities in the latest Cretaceous of Europe". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 6 (3): 288–296. doi:10.1038/s41559-021-01651-5. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 35132183. S2CID 246650381.
  4. ^ Müller, R. T.; Garcia, M. S. (2023). "A new silesaurid from Carnian beds of Brazil fills a gap in the radiation of avian line archosaurs". Scientific Reports. 13 (1). 4981. Bibcode:2023NatSR..13.4981M. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-32057-x. PMC 10090097. PMID 37041170.
  5. ^ Tykoski, Ronald S.; Contreras, Dori L.; Noto, Christopher (2023-10-13). "The first small-bodied ornithopod dinosaur from the Lewisville Formation (middle Cenomanian) of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. doi:10.1080/02724634.2023.2257238. ISSN 0272-4634.
  6. ^ Dai, H.; Li, N.; Maidment, S. C. R.; Wei, G.; Zhou, Y. X.; Hu, X. F.; Ma, Q. Y.; Wang, X. Q.; Hu, H. Q.; Peng, G. Z. (2022). "New Stegosaurs from the Middle Jurassic Lower Member of the Shaximiao Formation of Chongqing, China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (5): e1995737. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.1995737. S2CID 247267743.
  7. ^ de Souza GA, Soares MB, Weinschütz LC, Wilner E, Lopes RT, de Araújo OM, Kellner AW (2021). "The first edentulous ceratosaur from South America". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): Article number 22281. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1122281D. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-01312-4. PMC 8602317. PMID 34795306.
  8. ^ Dalman SG, Jasinski SE, Lucas SG (2022). "A new chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Farmington Member of the Kirtland Formation, New Mexico". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 90: 127–153.
  9. ^ Lockwood, Jeremy A. F.; Martill, David M.; Maidment, Susannah C. R. (2021-11-10). "A new hadrosauriform dinosaur from the Wessex Formation, Wealden Group (Early Cretaceous), of the Isle of Wight, southern England". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 19 (12): 847–888. doi:10.1080/14772019.2021.1978005. ISSN 1477-2019. S2CID 244067410.
  10. ^ Simón, M. E.; Salgado, L. (2023). "A new gigantic titanosaurian sauropod from the early Late Cretaceous of Patagonia (Neuquén Province, Argentina)". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.01086.2023.
  11. ^ Silva Junior JC, Martinelli AG, Marinho TS, da Silva JI, Langer MC (2022). "New specimens of Baurutitan britoi and a taxonomic reassessment of the titanosaur dinosaur fauna (Sauropoda) from the Serra da Galga Formation (Late Cretaceous) of Brazil". PeerJ. 10. e14333. doi:10.7717/peerj.14333. PMC 9673870. PMID 36405026.
  12. ^ Prieto-Márquez, A.; Sellés, A. (2023). "Evolutionary convergence in a small cursorial styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur from western Europe". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 42 (5). e2210632. doi:10.1080/02724634.2023.2210632. S2CID 259335419.
  13. ^ a b Barker, C.T.; Hone, D.; Naish, D.; Cau, A.; Lockwood, J.; Foster, B.; Clarkin, C.; Schneider, P.; Gostling, N. (2021). "New spinosaurids from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous, UK) and the European origins of Spinosauridae". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 19340. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1119340B. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-97870-8. PMC 8481559. PMID 34588472.
  14. ^ Nogueira, Rodrigo Alvarez; Rozadilla, Sebastián; Agnolín, Federico L.; Garcia Marsà, Jordi A.; Motta, Matias J.; Novas, Fernando E. (2024-03-11). "A new ornithopod from the Upper Cretaceous (Huincul Formation) of Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Implications on elasmarian postcranial anatomy". Cretaceous Research (In press): 105874. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2024.105874.
  15. ^ Agnolin, Federico L.; Gonzalez Riga, Bernardo J.; Aranciaga Rolando, Alexis M.; Rozadilla, Sebastián; Motta, Matías J.; Chimento, Nicolás R.; Novas, Fernando E. (2023-02-02). "A new giant titanosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Northwestern Patagonia, Argentina". Cretaceous Research. 146: 105487. Bibcode:2023CrRes.14605487A. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105487. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 256559829.
  16. ^ Xing, Lida; Niu, Kecheng; Mallon, Jordan; Miyashita, Tetsuto (2023). "A new armored dinosaur with double cheek horns from the early Late Cretaceous of southeastern China". Vertebrate Anatomy Morphology Palaeontology. 11. doi:10.18435/vamp29396. ISSN 2292-1389.
  17. ^ Wang, Xuri; Cau, Andrea; Guo, Bin; Ma, Feimin; Qing, Gele; Liu, Yichuan (2022-11-19). "Intestinal preservation in a birdlike dinosaur supports conservatism in digestive canal evolution among theropods". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 19965. Bibcode:2022NatSR..1219965W. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-24602-x. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 9675785. PMID 36402874. S2CID 253672525.
  18. ^ Averianov AO, Sues HD (2022). "New material and diagnosis of a new taxon of alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 41 (5): e2036174. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.2036174. S2CID 247391327.
  19. ^ Baiano MA, Pol D, Bellardini F, Windholz GJ, Cerda IA, Garrido AC, Coria RA (2022). "Elemgasem nubilus: a new brachyrostran abelisaurid (Theropoda, Ceratosauria) from the Portezuelo Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Patagonia, Argentina". Papers in Palaeontology. 8 (5): e1462. doi:10.1002/spp2.1462. S2CID 252097368.
  20. ^ Atkins-Weltman, K. L.; Simon, D. J.; Woodward, H. N.; Funston, G. F.; Snively, E. (2024). "A new oviraptorosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the end-Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation of North America". PLOS ONE. 19 (1). e0294901. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0294901. PMC 10807829.
  21. ^ Xu, Liming; Wang, Min; Chen, Runsheng; Dong, Liping; Lin, Min; Xu, Xing; Tang, Jianrong; You, Hailu; Zhou, Guowu; Wang, Linchang; He, Wenxing; Li, Yujuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Zhonghe (2023-09-06). "A new avialan theropod from an emerging Jurassic terrestrial fauna". Nature. 621 (7978): 336–343. doi:10.1038/s41586-023-06513-7. ISSN 1476-4687.
  22. ^ Ishikawa, H.; Tsuihiji, T.; Manabe, M. (2023). "Furcatoceratops elucidans, a new centrosaurine (Ornithischia: Ceratopsidae) from the upper Campanian Judith River Formation, Montana, USA". Cretaceous Research. 151. 105660. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105660. S2CID 260046917.
  23. ^ Prieto-Marquez, Albert; Carrera Farias, Miguel (2021). "A new late-surviving early diverging Ibero-Armorican duck-billed dinosaur and the role of the Late Cretaceous European Archipelago in hadrosauroid biogeography". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 66. doi:10.4202/app.00821.2020. ISSN 0567-7920.
  24. ^ Pretto, Flávio Augusto; Müller, Rodrigo Temp; Moro, Debora; Garcia, Maurício Silva; Paes Neto, Voltaire Dutra; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock (2022-09-28). "The oldest South American silesaurid: New remains from the Middle Triassic (Pinheiros-Chiniquá Sequence, Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone) increase the time range of silesaurid fossil record in southern Brazil". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 120: 104039. Bibcode:2022JSAES.12004039P. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2022.104039. ISSN 0895-9811. S2CID 252609210.
  25. ^ Han, F.; Yang, L.; Lou, F.; Sullivan, C.; Xu, X.; Qiu, W.; Liu, H.; Yu, J.; Wu, R.; Ke, Y.; Xu, M.; Hu, J.; Lu, P. (2024). "A new titanosaurian sauropod, Gandititan cavocaudatus gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous of southern China". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 22 (1). 2293038. doi:10.1080/14772019.2023.2293038.
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  27. ^ Alarcón-Muñoz, Jhonatan; Vargas, Alexander O.; Püschel, Hans P.; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Manríquez, Leslie; Leppe, Marcelo; Kaluza, Jonatan; Milla, Verónica; Gutstein, Carolina S.; Palma-Liberona, José; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Frey, Eberhard; Pino, Juan Pablo; Bajor, Dániel; Núñez, Elaine; Ortiz, Héctor; Rubilar-Rogers, David; Cruzado-Caballero, Penélope (2023-06-16). "Relict duck-billed dinosaurs survived into the last age of the dinosaurs in subantarctic Chile". Science Advances. 9 (24): eadg2456. Bibcode:2023SciA....9G2456A. doi:10.1126/sciadv.adg2456. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 10275600. PMID 37327335.
  28. ^ Ryan, M.J.; Micucci, L.; Rizo, H.; Sullivan, C.; Lee, Y.-N.; Evans, D.C. (2023). "New Late Cretaceous leptoceratopsid (Dinosauria: Ceratopsia) from the Oldman Formation (Campanian) of Alberta, Canada". In Lee, Y.-N. (ed.). Windows into Sauropsid and Synapsid Evolution: Essays in Honor of Prof. Louis L. Jacobs. Seoul: Dinosaur Science Center Press. pp. 151–165. ISBN 978-89-5708-358-1.
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  31. ^ Rotatori, F. M.; Ferrari, L.; Sequero, C.; Camilo, B.; Mateus, O.; Moreno-Azanza, M. (2024). "An unexpected early-diverging iguanodontian dinosaur (Ornithischia, Ornithopoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. e2310066. doi:10.1080/02724634.2024.2310066.
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  40. ^ Kubo, Kohta; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar; Tsogtbaatar, Khishigjav (2023-11-15). "A new alvarezsaurid dinosaur (Theropoda, Alvarezsauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Baruungoyot Formation of Mongolia provides insights for bird-like sleeping behavior in non-avian dinosaurs". PLOS ONE. 18 (11): e0293801. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0293801. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 10651048.
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  42. ^ Mo, Jin-You; Fu, Qiong-Yao; Yu, Yi-Lun; Xu, Xing (2023-09-21). "A New Titanosaurian Sauropod from the Upper Cretaceous of Jiangxi Province, Southern China". Historical Biology: 1–15. doi:10.1080/08912963.2023.2259413. ISSN 0891-2963.
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  44. ^ Averianov, A. O.; Lopatin, A. V. (2021). "A New Theropod Dinosaur (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Tajikistan". Doklady Earth Sciences. 499 (1): 570–574. Bibcode:2021DokES.499..570A. doi:10.1134/S1028334X21070047. S2CID 239088573.
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