List of dinosaur genera

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Mounted skeletons of Tyrannosaurus (left) and Apatosaurus (right) at the AMNH

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201.3 million years ago; their dominance continued throughout the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the Late Jurassic epoch. Birds were therefore the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event approximately 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can be divided into avian dinosaurs (birds) and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds.

This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been considered to be non-avian dinosaurs, but also includes some dinosaurs of disputed status (avian? or non-avian?, where "avian" refers to the clade Avialae), as well as purely vernacular terms.

The list includes all commonly accepted genera, but also genera that are now considered invalid, doubtful (nomen dubium), or were not formally published (nomen nudum), as well as junior synonyms of more established names, and genera that are no longer considered dinosaurs. Many listed names have been reclassified as everything from true birds to crocodilians to petrified wood. The list contains 1711 names, of which approximately 1276 are considered either valid dinosaur genera or nomina dubia.

Scope and terminology[edit]

There is no official, canonical list of all non-avian dinosaur genera. The closest is the Dinosaur Genera List, compiled by biological nomenclature expert George Olshevsky, which was first published online in 1995 and was regularly updated until June 2021.[1][2] The most authoritative general source in the field is the second (2004) edition of The Dinosauria. The vast majority of names listed below are sourced to Olshevsky's list, and all subjective determinations (such as junior synonymy or non-dinosaurian status) are based on The Dinosauria, except where they conflict with primary literature. These exceptions are noted.

Naming conventions and terminology follow the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Technical terms used include:[1]

  • Junior synonym: A name which describes the same taxon as a previously published name. If two or more genera are formally designated and the type specimens are later assigned to the same genus, the first to be published (in chronological order) is the senior synonym, and all other instances are junior synonyms. Senior synonyms are generally used, except by special decision of the ICZN (see Tyrannosaurus), but junior synonyms cannot be used again for a different genus, even if deprecated. Junior synonymy is often subjective, unless the genera described were both based on the same type specimen.
  • Nomen nudum (Latin for "naked name"): A name that has appeared in print but has not yet been formally published by the standards of the ICZN. Nomina nuda (the plural form) are invalid, and are therefore not italicized as a proper generic name would be. If the name is later formally published, that name is no longer a nomen nudum and will be italicized on this list. Often, the formally published name will differ from any nomina nuda that describe the same specimen.
  • Nomen oblitum (Latin for "forgotten name"): A name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal.
  • Nomen manuscriptum (Latin for "manuscript name"): A name that appears in manuscript of a formal publication that has no scientific backing.
  • Preoccupied name: A name that is formally published, but which has already been used for another taxon. This second use is invalid (as are all subsequent uses) and the name must be replaced. Preoccupied names are not valid generic names.
  • Nomen dubium (Latin for "dubious name"): A name describing a fossil with no unique diagnostic features. As this can be an extremely subjective and controversial designation (see Hadrosaurus), no genera should be marked as such on this list.

A[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Replica of an Allosaurus skeleton.
Artist's reconstruction of Anzu.
Artist's restoration of Archaeoceratops.
Artist's restoration of Austroraptor.

B[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Reconstructed skeletal mount of Baryonyx at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo.
Artist's restoration of Borealopelta.

C[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Ceratosaurus.

D[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Deinocheirus.
Artist's restoration of Diamantinasaurus.

E[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Replica of an Eoraptor skeleton.
Life restoration of Euoplocephalus.

F[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Fruitadens.

G[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Reconstructed skeleton of Gastonia.
Skeleton of Giraffatitan.

H[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Heterodontosaurus.
Skeleton of Hypsilophodon.

I[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Skeleton of an Iguanodon mounted in a modern quadrupedal posture in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels.

J[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Jinfengopteryx.

K[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Kentrosaurus skeleton.

L[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Lambeosaurus.
Life reconstruction of two individuals of Linhenykus in their arid Campanian-aged living environment.

M[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Massospondylus.
Artist's reconstruction of Microraptor with colouration based on fossilised melanosomes.
Cast of a Muttaburrasaurus skeleton.

N[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Neimongosaurus.
Restored head of Nemegtomaia.

O[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Omeisaurus.

P[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Pachycephalosaurus.
Artist's restoration of Plateosaurus.

Q[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Qiupalong.

R[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Rapetosaurus.

S[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Scelidosaurus.
Fossil of Sinocalliopteryx with feathers preserved.
Artist's restoration of Stegosaurus.

T[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Thecodontosaurus.

U[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Illustration of the skull of Udanoceratops.

V[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Velociraptor.

W[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Wiehenvenator.

X[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's reconstruction of Xiongguanlong.

Y[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Artist's restoration of Yinlong.

Z[edit]

Contents: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y ZSee also
Life restoration of Zby.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • Most uncited genus names are taken from Olshevsky's "Dinosaur Genera List".[1] Non-dinosaur dinosauromorphs and non-avebrevicaudan avialans are also listed by Olshevsky, but are omitted from this list as they are not considered "non-avian dinosaurs" in most published sources.
  1. ^ a b c Olshevsky, G. (1995–2021). Dinosaur Genera List. Retrieved June 7, 2021.
  2. ^ Montague, Jeremy R. (2006). "Estimates of Body Size and Geological Time of Origin for 612 Dinosaur Genera (Saurischia, Ornithischia)". Florida Scientist: 243–257.
  3. ^ Vila, Bernat; Sellés, Albert; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Razzolini, Novella L.; Gil-Delgado, Alejandro; Canudo, José Ignacio; Galobart, Àngel (2022-02-07). "A titanosaurian sauropod with Gondwanan affinities in the latest Cretaceous of Europe". Nature Ecology & Evolution: 1–9. doi:10.1038/s41559-021-01651-5. ISSN 2397-334X. PMID 35132183. S2CID 246650381.
  4. ^ Dai, H.; Li, N.; Maidment, S. C. R.; Wei, G.; Zhou, Y. X.; Hu, X. F.; Ma, Q. Y.; Wang, X. Q.; Hu, H. Q.; Peng, G. Z. (2022). "New Stegosaurs from the Middle Jurassic Lower Member of the Shaximiao Formation of Chongqing, China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. in press: e1995737. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.1995737.
  5. ^ de Souza GA, Soares MB, Weinschütz LC, Wilner E, Lopes RT, de Araújo OM, Kellner AW (2021). "The first edentulous ceratosaur from South America". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): Article number 22281. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1122281D. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-01312-4. PMC 8602317. PMID 34795306.
  6. ^ Lockwood, Jeremy A. F.; Martill, David M.; Maidment, Susannah C. R. (2021-11-10). "A new hadrosauriform dinosaur from the Wessex Formation, Wealden Group (Early Cretaceous), of the Isle of Wight, southern England". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 19 (12): 847–888. doi:10.1080/14772019.2021.1978005. ISSN 1477-2019. S2CID 244067410.
  7. ^ a b Barker, C.T.; Hone, D.; Naish, D.; Cau, A.; Lockwood, J.; Foster, B.; Clarkin, C.; Schneider, P.; Gostling, N. (2021). "New spinosaurids from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous, UK) and the European origins of Spinosauridae". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): 19340. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1119340B. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-97870-8. PMC 8481559. PMID 34588472.
  8. ^ Cau A, Madzia D (2021). "The phylogenetic affinities and morphological peculiarities of the bird-like dinosaur Borogovia gracilicrus from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia". PeerJ. 9: e12640. doi:10.7717/peerj.12640. PMC 8656384. PMID 34963824.
  9. ^ Averianov AO, Sues HD (2022). "New material and diagnosis of a new taxon of alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Bissekty Formation of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. in press: e2036174. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.2036174.
  10. ^ Prieto-Marquez, Albert; Carrera Farias, Miguel (2021). "A new late-surviving early diverging Ibero-Armorican duck-billed dinosaur and the role of the Late Cretaceous European Archipelago in hadrosauroid biogeography". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 66. doi:10.4202/app.00821.2020. ISSN 0567-7920.
  11. ^ Agnolín FL, Cerroni MA, Scanferla A, Goswami A, Paulina-Carabajal A, Halliday T, Cuff AR, Reuil S (2022). "First definitive abelisaurid theropod from the Late Cretaceous of Northwestern Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. in press: e2002348. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.2002348. S2CID 246766133.
  12. ^ a b Wang X, Bandeira KL, Qiu R, Jiang S, Cheng X, Ma Y, Kellner AW (2021). "The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China". Scientific Reports. 11 (1): Article number 14962. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1114962W. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7. PMC 8361124. PMID 34385481.
  13. ^ a b Rozadilla, Sebastián; Brissón-Egli, Federico; Lisandro Agnolín, Federico; Aranciaga-Rolando, Alexis Mauro; Novas, Fernando Emilio (2022). "A new hadrosaurid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia and the radiation of South American hadrosaurids". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. doi:10.1080/14772019.2021.2020917.
  14. ^ Mateus, Octávio; Estraviz-López, Darío (2022-02-16). "A new theropod dinosaur from the early cretaceous (Barremian) of Cabo Espichel, Portugal: Implications for spinosaurid evolution". PLOS ONE. 17 (2): e0262614. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0262614. ISSN 1932-6203. PMID 35171930.
  15. ^ Beccari, V.; Mateus, O.; Wings, O.; Milàn, J.; Clemmensen, L. B. (2021). "Issi saaneq gen. et sp. nov.—A New Sauropodomorph Dinosaur from the Late Triassic (Norian) of Jameson Land, Central East Greenland". Diversity. 13 (11): 561. doi:10.3390/d13110561.
  16. ^ Averianov, A. O.; Lopatin, A. V. (2021). "A New Theropod Dinosaur (Theropoda, Dromaeosauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Tajikistan". Doklady Earth Sciences. 499 (1): 570–574. Bibcode:2021DokES.499..570A. doi:10.1134/S1028334X21070047. S2CID 239088573.
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  19. ^ Iori, F.V.; de Araújo-Júnior, H.I.; Simionato Tavares, S.A.; da Silva Marinho, T.; Martinelli, A.G. (2021). "New theropod dinosaur from the late Cretaceous of Brazil improves abelisaurid diversity". Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 112: 103551. Bibcode:2021JSAES.11203551I. doi:10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103551. ISSN 0895-9811. S2CID 239682640.
  20. ^ Gianechini FA, Méndez AH, Filippi LS, Paulina-Carabajal A, Juárez-Valieri RD, Garrido AC (2021). "A New Furileusaurian Abelisaurid from La Invernada (Upper Cretaceous, Santonian, Bajo De La Carpa Formation), Northern Patagonia, Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 40 (6): e1877151. doi:10.1080/02724634.2020.1877151.
  21. ^ Rolando, Alexis M. A.; Motta, Matias J.; Agnolín, Federico L.; Manabe, Makoto; Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Novas, Fernando E. (2021-12-22). "A large Megaraptoridae (Theropoda: Coelurosauria) from Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) of Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Scientific Reports. 12 (1): Article number 6318. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09272-z.
  22. ^ Rolando MA, Garcia Marsà JA, Agnolín FL, Motta MJ, Rodazilla S, Novas FE (2022). "The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina". Cretaceous Research. 129: 105029. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 240577726.
  23. ^ Ji S, Zhang P (2022). "First new genus and species of basal iguanodontian dinosaur (Ornithischia: Ornithopoda) from southern China". Acta Geoscientica Sinica. 43 (1): 1–10. doi:10.3975/cagsb.2021.090701.
  24. ^ Averianov, Alexander O.; Lopatin, Alexey V. (2022-02-19). "A new alvarezsaurid theropod dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Gobi Desert, Mongolia". Cretaceous Research: 105168. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2022.105168. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 247000540.
  25. ^ Pei, R.; Qin, Yuying; Wen, Aishu; Zhao, Q.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Guo, W.; Liu, P.; Ye, W.; Wang, L.; Yin, Z.; Dai, R.; Xu, X. (2022). "A New Troodontid from the Upper Cretaceous Gobi Basin of Inner Mongolia, China". Cretaceous Research. 130: Article 105052. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105052. S2CID 244186762.
  26. ^ Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Takasaki, Ryuji; Fiorillo, Anthony R.; Chinzorig, Tsogtbaatar; Hikida, Yoshinori (2022-05-03). "New therizinosaurid dinosaur from the marine Osoushinai Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Japan) provides insight for function and evolution of therizinosaur claws". Scientific Reports. 12 (1): 7207. doi:10.1038/s41598-022-11063-5. ISSN 2045-2322.
  27. ^ Spiekman SN, Ezcurra MD, Butler RJ, Fraser NC, Maidment SC (2021). "Pendraig milnerae, a new small-sized coelophysoid theropod from the Late Triassic of Wales". Royal Society Open Science. 8 (10): Article ID 210915. Bibcode:2021RSOS....810915S. doi:10.1098/rsos.210915. PMC 8493203. PMID 34754500.
  28. ^ Santos-Cubedo, Andrés; de Santisteban, Carlos; Poza, Begoña; Meseguer, Sergi (2021-07-07). "A new styracosternan hadrosauroid (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Early Cretaceous of Portell, Spain". PLOS ONE. 16 (7): e0253599. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1653599S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253599. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8262792. PMID 34232957.
  29. ^ Upchurch P, Mannion PD, Xu X, Barrett PM (2021). "Re-assessment of the Late Jurassic eusauropod dinosaur Hudiesaurus sinojapanorum Dong, 1997, from the Turpan Basin, China, and the evolution of hyper-robust antebrachia in sauropods". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Online edition: e1994414. doi:10.1080/02724634.2021.1994414. S2CID 245164168.
  30. ^ Dalman, S.G.; Lucas, S.G.; Jasinski, S.E.; Longrich, N.R. (2022). "Sierraceratops turneri, a new chasmosaurine ceratopsid from the Hall Lake Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of south-central New Mexico". Cretaceous Research. 130: Article 105034. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105034. S2CID 244210664.
  31. ^ Evans, David; Brown, Caleb M.; You, Hailu; Campione, Nicolás E. (2021). "Description and revised diagnosis of Asia's first recorded pachycephalosaurid, Sinocephale bexelli gen. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous of Inner Mongolia, China". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. e–First (10): 981–992. Bibcode:2021CaJES..58..981E. doi:10.1139/cjes-2020-0190. S2CID 244227050.
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  34. ^ Tanaka K, Anvarov OU, Zelenitsky DK, Ahmedshaev AS, Kobayashi Y (2021). "A new carcharodontosaurian theropod dinosaur occupies apex predator niche in the early Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan". Royal Society Open Science. 8 (9): Article ID 210923. Bibcode:2021RSOS....810923T. doi:10.1098/rsos.210923. PMC 8424376. PMID 34527277.
  35. ^ Longrich, Nicholas R.; Martill, David M.; Jacobs, Megan L. (2021-12-17). "A new dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Wessex Formation (Lower Cretaceous, Barremian) of the Isle of Wight, and implications for European palaeobiogeography". Cretaceous Research: 105123. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105123. ISSN 0195-6671. S2CID 245324247.
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References[edit]

  • Lambert, D. (1993). "A to Z of Dinosaurs" In: The Ultimate Dinosaur Book. Dorling Kindersley, 192 pp. ISBN 0-7513-0047-0
  • Olshevsky, G. (1995–2021). Dinosaur Genera List. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  • Walters, M. & J. Paker (1995). Dictionary of Prehistoric Life. Claremont Books. ISBN 1-85471-648-4.
  • Weishampel, D.B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds.) (2004). The Dinosauria, Second Edition. University of California Press, 861 pp. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.