List of diplomatic missions of Taiwan

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Map of countries and territories with current and former Taiwanese diplomatic missions
  Republic of China (Taiwan)
  Has formal embassy and possibly consulate
  Has unofficial representative missions
  Accredited to an office located in another country
  Unaccredited, formerly had official mission(s)
  Unaccredited, formerly had unofficial mission(s)

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, has 112 diplomatic missions across the world as of December 2021.[a] Due to the One-China policy held by the People's Republic of China, countries are only allowed to maintain relations with either Taiwan or the People's Republic of China.[6] As most countries have changed their recognition to the latter over time, only 16 of Taiwan's diplomatic missions have official status, consisting of fourteen embassies and two consulate-generals.[2] This makes Taiwan one of the few countries in the world that has resident embassies in all of the states with which it has formal diplomatic relations.[7]

Despite these barriers, 58 United Nations members maintain relations with Taiwan on an unofficial basis.[7] In addition, Taiwan has informal relations with Somaliland, a state that is not internationally recognized by any other country, including China.[8][9] To serve these locations and other places throughout the world, 92 semi-official representative offices are utilized for matters that would otherwise be handled by embassies or consulates. Their heads are still appointed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, making them de facto missions.[10] Owing to pressure from the People's Republic, most of these offices cannot operate under either the country's official or common name, using the name of the capital Taipei instead to avoid addressing Taiwan's political status. This policy has shifted in recent years, with the offices in Somaliland (opened 2020) and Lithuania (2021) using "Taiwan" in their names.[10][11][4] Taiwan also maintains permanent missions to the European Union and the World Trade Organization, with the latter under the name "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kimmen and Matsu".[12]

Taiwan has also established informal representation in China's two Special Administrative Regions. In Hong Kong, the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong provides services similar to a consulate,[13][14] while relations to Macau are handled by the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Macau.[15] In addition, under a mechanism established in 2010, the Taiwanese government is directly represented in negotiations with its Hong Kong counterpart by the Taiwan–Hong Kong Economic and Cultural Co-operation Council (ECCC), with the latter operating a similar office in reciprocation.[16] Taiwan also maintains unofficial diplomatic exchanges with China using the Straits Exchange Foundation, but the organization does not have a physical presence in the mainland as of 2020.[17]

Diplomatic missions[edit]

Active[edit]

Key
Country has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Countries that have official diplomatic relations with the Republic of China/Taiwan[7]
List of operating diplomatic missions to individual countries as of 2021[18][19][20]
Country Region City Mission Opened Notes Ref(s)
 Argentina Americas Buenos Aires Embassy (de facto) 1972 Also serves  Uruguay [21]
Australia Oceania Canberra Embassy (de facto) 1988 [22]
Brisbane Consulate (de facto) [zh] 2005 [23]
Melbourne Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1979 [22]
Sydney Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1979 [22]
 Austria Europe Vienna Embassy (de facto) 1972
Also serves:
[24][25]
 Bahrain Asia Manama Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1977 [26]
 Belgium Europe Brussels Embassy (de facto) 1976 Also direct representative to the  European Union[b] [24]
BelizeCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Belize City Embassy [zh] 1989 [27]
Brazil Americas Brasília Embassy (de facto) 1992 [28]
São Paulo Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1975 [28]
 Brunei Asia Bandar Seri Begawan Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1978 Closed between 2006 and 2007 [29]
Canada Americas Ottawa Embassy (de facto) 1993 Split from Toronto office
Also serves  Saint Pierre and Miquelon
[30]
Toronto Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1991 Split to Ottawa office, which became main office [30]
Vancouver Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1991 [31]
Chile Americas Santiago Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1975 Also serves  Falkland Islands[h] [32]
China Asia Hong Kong Consulate (de facto) 1966 Also serves  Pakistan[i] [33][14]
 Macau Consulate (de facto)
 Colombia Americas Bogotá Embassy (de facto) 1969 Succeeded embassy
Also serves:
[34]
Czech Republic Europe Prague Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1991 Initially served  Czechoslovakia [35]
Denmark Europe Copenhagen Embassy (de facto) 1973
Also serves:
[36]
 Ecuador Americas Quito Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1977 [37]
EswatiniCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Africa Mbabane Embassy 1968 Also serves  Mozambique [38]
 Fiji Oceania Suva Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1971 [39]
 Finland Europe Helsinki Embassy (de facto) 1990 [35]
 France Europe Paris Embassy (de facto) 1972 [24]
Aix-en-Provence Consulate (de facto) [zh] 2020 [40]
 Germany Europe Berlin Embassy (de facto) 1981 [35]
Frankfurt Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1980 [24]
Hamburg Consulate (de facto) [zh]
Munich Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1988 [35]
 Greece Europe Athens Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1973
Also serves:
[41][42]
 GuatemalaCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Guatemala City Embassy [ja] 1935 Initially consulate, promoted to legation in 1954 and embassy in 1960
[43]
HaitiCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Port-au-Prince Embassy [ja] 1960 Initially legation, promoted to embassy in 1965 [44]
Holy SeeCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Europe Rome[y] Embassy 1943 Started as legation, promoted to embassy in 1959
Also serves  Sovereign Military Order of Malta
[45]
 HondurasCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Tegucigalpa Embassy [ja] 1957 Started as legation, promoted to consulate in 1962, then embassy in 1965
Also serves:
[46]
San Pedro Sula Consulate-general [ja] 1997 [47]
 Hungary Europe Budapest Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1990 [35]
India Asia New Delhi Embassy (de facto) 1995
Also serves:
[48]
Chennai Consulate (de facto) 2012
Also serves:
[49]
Indonesia Asia Jakarta Embassy (de facto) 1971 Also serves  Timor-Leste [50]
Surabaya Consulate (de facto) [zh] 2015 [51]
 Ireland Europe Dublin Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1988 [35]
 Israel Asia Tel Aviv Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1993 Also serves  Palestine [52]
Italy Europe Rome Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1990
Also serves:
[53]
Japan Asia Tokyo Embassy (de facto) 1972 [54]
Fukuoka Consulate (de facto) [ja] 1972 [54]
Naha Consulate (de facto) [ja] 1958 Operated by a separate organization until 2006 due to the Senkaku Islands dispute [55][56]
Osaka Consulate (de facto) [ja] 1972 [54]
Sapporo Consulate (de facto) [ja] 2009 [57]
Yokohama Consulate (de facto) [ja] 1972 [54]
 Jordan Asia Amman Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1977
Also serves:
[58]
South Korea Asia Seoul Embassy (de facto) 1993 [59]
Busan Consulate (de facto) [ko] 2004 [59]
 Kuwait Asia Kuwait City Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1986 Also serves  Qatar[ab] [60]
Latvia Europe Riga Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1997 Also serves  Estonia [61][62]
Lithuania Europe Vilnius Embassy (de facto) 2021 [4]
Malaysia Asia Kuala Lumpur Embassy (de facto) 1974 [50]
 Marshall IslandsCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Oceania Majuro Embassy [zh] 1998 Also serves  Federated States of Micronesia [63]
Mexico Americas Mexico City Embassy (de facto) 1989 [64]
Mongolia Asia Ulaanbaatar Embassy (de facto) 2002 [65]
Myanmar Asia Yangon Embassy (de facto) [zh] 2016 [66]
 NauruCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Oceania Aiwo Embassy [ja] 1980 Initially consulate-general, promoted to embassy in 1990
Closed during suspension of relations from 2002 to 2005
[67]
 Netherlands Europe The Hague Embassy (de facto) 1979
Also serves:
[24]
 New Zealand Oceania Wellington Embassy (de facto) 1991
Also serves:
[68]
Auckland Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1973 Also serves  French Polynesia[ac] [69]
 Nigeria Africa Lagos[ad] Embassy (de facto) 1991 [70]
 Oman Asia Muscat Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1977 [71]
 PalauCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Oceania Koror Embassy [ja] 1999 [72]
 Papua New Guinea Oceania Port Moresby Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1990 Also serves  Solomon Islands [73]
ParaguayCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Asunción Embassy [ja] 1959 [74]
Ciudad del Este Consulate-general [ja] 1988 [74]
 Peru Americas Lima Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1978 Also serves  Bolivia [75]
Philippines Asia Manila Embassy (de facto) 1975 [50]
Poland Europe Warsaw Embassy (de facto) [pl] 1992 Also serves  Ukraine[ag] as of February 25, 2022 [35]
 Portugal Europe Lisbon Embassy (de facto) 1992 [35]
Russia Europe Moscow Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1993 [76]
 Saint Kitts and NevisCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Basseterre Embassy 1984 [77]
 Saint LuciaCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Gros Islet Embassy 2007
Also serves:
[78]
 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Americas Kingstown Embassy 1983 [79]
Saudi Arabia Asia Riyadh Embassy (de facto) 1990 [80]
Singapore Asia Singapore Embassy (de facto) 1969 Also serves  North Korea [50]
 Slovakia Europe Bratislava Embassy (de facto) 2003 Also serves  Romania[z] [81]
Somaliland Africa Hargeisa Embassy (de facto) 2020 [3]
South Africa Africa Pretoria Embassy (de facto) 1998 [82]
Cape Town Consulate (de facto) 1998 Also serves  Namibia [82]
Spain Europe Madrid Embassy (de facto) 1973 Also serves  Equatorial Guinea [24]
 Sweden Europe Stockholm Embassy (de facto) 1981 Also serves  Norway [24]
  Switzerland Europe Bern Embassy (de facto) [zh] 1994 Moved from Lausanne office
Also serves  Liechtenstein
[83]
Geneva Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1997 [83]
 Thailand Asia Bangkok Embassy (de facto) 1980 Also serves  Bangladesh[aa] [50]
Turkey Asia Ankara Embassy (de facto) 1989 [84]
 TuvaluCountry has official relations with ROC/Taiwan Oceania Funafuti Embassy [ja] 1998 [67]
 United Arab Emirates Asia Dubai Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1979
Also serves:
[85]
United Kingdom Europe London Embassy (de facto) 1974 [24]
Edinburgh Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1998 Also serves  Isle of Man [86]
United States Americas Washington, D.C. Embassy (de facto) 1979 [87]
Atlanta Consulate (de facto) [zh]
Boston Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1982 [88]
Chicago Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1979 [89]
Denver Consulate (de facto) [zh] 2015 Moved from Kansas City office that was originally opened in 1985 [90]
Hagåtña,  Guam Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1991 Closed in 2017, reopened 2020
Also serves:  Northern Mariana Islands
[91]
Honolulu Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1979 Also serves  American Samoa and  United States Minor Outlying Islands [92]
Houston Consulate (de facto)
Los Angeles Consulate (de facto) [zh]
Miami Consulate (de facto) [zh] 1988 [93][94]
New York City Consulate (de facto) [zh]
San Francisco Consulate (de facto) [zh]
Seattle Consulate (de facto) [zh]
Vietnam Asia Hanoi Embassy (de facto) 1992 Also serves  Laos [95]
Ho Chi Minh City Consulate (de facto) 1992 Also serves  Cambodia [95]

Multilateral organizations[edit]

List of operating diplomatic missions to multilateral organizations as of 2021
Organization City Mission Opened Notes Ref(s)
European Union Brussels Representative office 2001 Also direct representative to  Belgium[b] [96]
 World Trade Organization Geneva Permanent mission 2002 [97]

Former[edit]

Key
* Mission closed due to withdrawal of official diplomatic recognition
** Same as above, but an unofficial office was set up to succeed it that is still in operation
List of defunct diplomatic missions as of 2021
Country Region City Mission Opened Closed Notes Ref(s)
Bangladesh Asia Dhaka Embassy (de facto) 2004 2009 Reassigned to representative office in India [48][98]
 Belarus Europe Minsk Embassy (de facto) 1996 2006 Reassigned to representative office in Russia [99][100]
 Benin Africa Cotonou Embassy* 1965 [101]
 Bolivia Americas La Paz Embassy (de facto) 1990 2009 [102] [103]
 Botswana Africa Gaborone Embassy* 1974 [104]
Burkina Faso Africa Ouagadougou Embassy* 2018 [105]
 Cambodia Asia Phnom Penh "Military mission" 1972 1975 [106]
Embassy (de facto) 1994 1997 [107][108]
 Central African Republic Africa Bangui Embassy* 1964 [109]
 Colombia Americas Bogotá Embassy** 1947 1980 Initially legation, promoted to embassy in 1961 [34]
Barranquilla Consulate-general* 1972 1980 Initially consulate, promoted to consulate-general in 1979 [34]
Consulate (de facto) 1980 1991 [34]
 Costa Rica Americas San José Embassy* 2007 [110]
 Dominica Americas Roseau Embassy* 2004 [111]
Dominican Republic Americas Santo Domingo Embassy* 2018 [112]
 Ecuador Americas Guayaquil Consulate (de facto) 1974 1998 [37]
 El Salvador Americas San Salvador Embassy* 2018 [113]
 Gabon Africa Libreville Embassy* 1974 [114]
Gambia Africa Banjul Embassy* 1974 [115]
1996 2013 [116][117]
 Greece Europe Athens Embassy** 1929 1972 Started as legation, promoted to embassy in 1947 [41]
Japan Asia Taihoku Consulate-General[ax] 1930 1945 [118]
 Kiribati Oceania Bairiki Embassy* 2004 2019 [119][120]
Latvia Europe Riga Consulate-general[ay] 1992 1994 [121]
 Liberia Africa Monrovia Embassy* 1957 2003 Started as legation, promoted to embassy in 1960 [122][123][124]
 Libya Africa Tripoli Embassy (de facto) 1980 1997 [125]
2008 2011 Closed due to the First Libyan Civil War [126][127]
 Luxembourg Europe Luxembourg Embassy (de facto) 1975 2002 Reassigned to representative mission in Belgium/EU [24][128]
 North Macedonia Europe Skopje Embassy*[az] 1999 2001 [129][130]
 Macau Asia Macau Embassy (de facto) 1945 1966 Special commissariat [131][132]
 Madagascar Africa Antananarivo Embassy* 1960 1972 Formerly a consulate-general before Madagascar's independence [133]
Malawi Africa Lilongwe Embassy* 2008 [134]
 Malaysia Asia Kuala Lumpur Consulate-general** 1964 1974 Started as consulate, promoted to consulate-general in 1969. Succeeded by unofficial representative office [135] [136] [137] [138]
 Nicaragua Americas Managua Embassy * 1930 2021 Originally consulate-general, promoted to legation in 1955 and then embassy in 1965, closed due to breaking off of relations in 1985-1990 and since 2021. [139][140]
 Niger Africa Niamey Embassy* 1974 [141]
 Nigeria Africa Abuja Embassy (de facto) 2001 2018 Ultimately temporary relocation of Lagos office [142][143]
 Norway Europe Oslo Embassy (de facto) 1980 2017 Reassigned to representative mission in Sweden [24][144]
 Panama Americas Panama City Embassy* 2017 [145]
Colón Consulate-general 2009 [146]
 Rwanda Africa Kigali Embassy* 1972 [147]
 Peru Americas Lima Embassy** 1911 1971 Continuation of Qing embassy opened in 1875 [148]
 Saudi Arabia Asia Jeddah Consulate (de facto) 2017 Reassigned to main office in Riyadh [144]
São Tomé and Príncipe Africa São Tomé Embassy* 2016 [149]
 Solomon Islands Oceania Honiara Embassy* 2019 [150]
South Africa Africa Pretoria Embassy* 1976 1998 Succeeded by unofficial representative office [151][82]
Johannesburg Consulate* 1912 1998 Continuation of a Qing-era consulate, succeeded by unofficial representative office [151][82]
Consulate (de facto) 1998 2009 [82][146]
Cape Town Consulate** 1973 1998 [152][82]
 Senegal Africa Dakar Embassy* 1964 [153]
  Switzerland Europe Zurich Embassy (de facto) 1973 2007 Merged with Bern office [83]
Lausanne Consulate (de facto) 1979 1994 Moved to Bern [83]
 Togo Africa Lomé Embassy* 1972 [154]
 Tonga Oceania Nukuʻalofa Embassy* 1998 [155]
 Uruguay Americas Montevideo Embassy 1957 1988 [156]
Embassy (de facto) 1992 2002 Closure in 2002 intended to be temporary, no record since
Reassigned to representative mission in Argentina
[156][157]
United States Americas Washington, D.C. Embassy** 1912 1978 Continuation of Qing legation, promoted to embassy in 1935 [158][159][160]
Chicago Consulate** 1930 1979 [89]
Kansas City Consulate 1974 1978 [161][162]
Consulate (de facto) 1985 2015 Moved to Denver [90]
Venezuela Americas Caracas Embassy (de facto) 1974 2009 [163]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ This figure includes 107 diplomatic posts and permanent missions, official and unofficial, outside the People's Republic of China as of November 2019,[1][2] three representative offices opened in 2020,[3] another opened as well as one closed in 2021,[4][5] and two missions in Hong Kong and Macau. The Taipei Representative Office in the EU and Belgium is counted as one mission.
  2. ^ a b Although the office in Brussels was opened in 1976, it initially served only Belgium and did not start serving the European Union as an organization until 2001.
  3. ^ a b c Burundi is served by the representative offices in Belgium, France and South Africa.
  4. ^ a b c Cameroon is served by the representative offices in Belgium, France and Nigeria.
  5. ^ a b c Republic of the Congo is served by both the representative office in Nigeria and representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  6. ^ a b c Gabon is served by both the representative office in Belgium and the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  7. ^ a b c Rwanda is served by the representative offices in Belgium, France and South Africa.
  8. ^ a b Falkland Islands is served by both the representative offices in Chile and United Kingdom.
  9. ^ a b Pakistan is served by both the representative offices in Hong Kong and Saudi Arabia.
  10. ^ a b Algeria is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  11. ^ a b Andorra is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  12. ^ a b c Benin is served by both the representative office in Nigeria and representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  13. ^ a b Burkina Faso is served by both the representative offices in France and Nigeria.
  14. ^ a b Chad is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  15. ^ a b Comoros is served by both the representative offices in France and South Africa.
  16. ^ a b Côte d'Ivoire is served by both the representative offices in France and Nigeria.
  17. ^ a b Libya is served by both the representative offices in France and Jordan.
  18. ^ a b Mauritania is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  19. ^ a b Monaco is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  20. ^ a b Morocco is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  21. ^ a b Senegal is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  22. ^ a b Togo is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  23. ^ a b Tunisia is served by the representative offices in Paris and Aix-en-Provence, France.
  24. ^ a b Dominican Republic is served by both the Embassy in Guatemala and the representative office in Miami, United States.
  25. ^ Located outside Vatican territory in Rome, Italy, a country in which Taiwan is not recognized.
  26. ^ a b Romania is served by both the representative offices in Hungary and Slovakia.
  27. ^ a b Bangladesh is served by both the representative offices in India and Thailand.
  28. ^ a b Qatar is served by both the representative offices in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  29. ^ French Polynesia is served by both the representative offices in Fiji and Auckland, New Zealand.
  30. ^ Previously located in Abuja from 2001 to 2018.
  31. ^ a b Ghana is served by both the representative offices in Nigeria and United Kingdom.
  32. ^ a b Sierra Leone is served by both the representative offices in Nigeria and United Kingdom.
  33. ^ a b Ukraine is served by both the representative offices in Poland and Russia.
  34. ^ a b Georgia is served by both the representative offices in Russia and Turkey.
  35. ^ a b Kazakhstan is served by both the representative offices in Russia and Turkey.
  36. ^ a b Kyrgyzstan is served by both the representative offices in Russia and Turkey.
  37. ^ a b Tajikistan is served by both the representative offices in Russia and Turkey.
  38. ^ a b Turkmenistan is served by both the representative offices in Russia and Turkey.
  39. ^ a b Uzbekistan is served by both the representative offices in Russia and Turkey.
  40. ^ a b Cayman Islands is served by both the Embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis and the representative office in United Kingdom.
  41. ^ a b British Virgin Islands is served by both the Embassy in Saint Kitts and Nevis and the representative office in United Kingdom.
  42. ^ a b Djibouti is served by both the representative offices in Saudi Arabia and Somaliland.
  43. ^ a b Ethiopia is served by both the representative offices in Saudi Arabia and Somaliland.
  44. ^ a b Kenya is served by both the representative offices in Somaliland and South Africa.
  45. ^ a b Uganda is served by both the representative offices in Somaliland and South Africa.
  46. ^ a b Eritrea is served by both the representative offices in South Africa and United Arab Emirates.
  47. ^ a b Seychelles is served by both the representative offices in South Africa and United Kingdom.
  48. ^ a b Somalia is served by both the representative offices in South Africa and United Arab Emirates.
  49. ^ a b Turks and Caicos Islands is served by both the representative offices in United Kingdom and Miami, United States.
  50. ^ In 1930, the Nationalist government opened the consulate-general in Taihoku (Taipei), when Taiwan was under Japanese rule until it was closed in 1945 after the end of the war. It was succeeded by an unofficial representative office that is still operating.
  51. ^ Although Latvia did not establish relations with Taiwan, it allowed the consulate to function as an official diplomatic office. It was succeeded by an unofficial representative office that is still operating.
  52. ^ Although embassies were established by each country, relations only went up to ministerial level, and the Taiwanese embassy was staffed with a chargé d'affaires.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "China now has the most diplomatic posts worldwide". BBC News. 27 November 2019. Archived from the original on 6 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Global Diplomacy Index – 2019 Country Ranking". Lowy Institute. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  3. ^ a b Teng, Sylvia (25 August 2020). "Taiwan to open representative office in Aix-en-Provence in Southern France". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Agencies (19 November 2021). "China condemns opening of Taiwan office in Lithuania as 'egregious act'". the Guardian. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  5. ^ Wang, Joyu (10 December 2021). "Nicaragua Breaks Off Ties With Taiwan, Switching Allegiance to Beijing". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 10 December 2021 – via www.wsj.com.
  6. ^ "What is the 'One China' policy?". BBC News. 10 February 2017. Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  7. ^ a b c Shattuck, Thomas J. (2020). "The Race to Zero?: China's Poaching of Taiwan's Diplomatic Allies". Orbis. 64 (2): 334–352. doi:10.1016/j.orbis.2020.02.003. ISSN 0030-4387. PMC 7102519. PMID 32292214.
  8. ^ Aspinwall, Nick (10 July 2020). "Taiwan Throws a Diplomatic Curveball by Establishing Ties With Somaliland". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  9. ^ Zhang, Adrianna (6 July 2020). "Taiwan-China Diplomatic Competition Comes to Somaliland". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 20 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  10. ^ a b Lim, Emerson (18 August 2020). "Name of Taiwan's office in Somaliland significant: MOFA". Focus Taiwan. Central News Agency. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  11. ^ Shattuck, Thomas J. (28 August 2020). "China-Taiwan Competition over Somaliland and Implications for Small Countries". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  12. ^ Charnovitz, Steve (2006). "Taiwan's WTO Membership and its International Implication". Asian Journal of WTO & International Health Law and Policy. 1 (2). Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  13. ^ Lau, Chris; Cheung, Gary (17 July 2020). "Three in Taiwan's Hong Kong office forced out over 'one-China' declaration". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 18 July 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  14. ^ a b Lee, Yimou (17 July 2020). "Hong Kong demands Taiwan officials sign 'one China' document for visa renewal, source says". Reuters. Archived from the original on 6 October 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  15. ^ Moura, Nelson (24 September 2020). "Rising Beijing-Taipei tensions also taking a toll in Macau-Taipei relations". Macau News Agency. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  16. ^ "Different era and mood for 'little dragons' talks". South China Morning Post. 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  17. ^ Tiezzi, Shannon (12 February 2014). "Taiwan, Mainland China Agree to New Communication Mechanism". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  18. ^ "ROC Embassies and Missions Abroad". Bureau of Consular Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 31 July 2017. Archived from the original on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  19. ^ "Links to Embassies and Missions". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). Archived from the original on 5 July 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  20. ^ "Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao Emergency Service Information". Mainland Affairs Council. 22 March 2009. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
  21. ^ "Informaciones Generales" [General Information]. Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Argentina (in Spanish). Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 9 October 2020. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  22. ^ a b c Albinski, Henry S. (1996). "Taiwan and Hong Kong in Australian External Policy Perspective". In Mackerras, Colin (ed.). Australia and China: Partners in Asia. Melbourne: Macmillan Education Australia. ISBN 9780732941864. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  23. ^ Chang, Yun-Ping (18 December 2005). "Fourth representative office opens in Australia". Taipei Times. p. 5. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mengin 2004, p. 154.
  25. ^ MOFA 2018, pp. 226–227, 244.
  26. ^ "Welcome message from Representative SUN". Taipei Trade Office in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 22 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  27. ^ "Taiwan offers 24 international scholarships for Belizean students". The San Pedro Sun. 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  28. ^ a b MOFA 2018, pp. 368–369.
  29. ^ MOFA 2018, p. 69.
  30. ^ a b MOFA 2018, p. 276.
  31. ^ "Organizations". Taipei Economic and Cultural Office, Vancouver. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China (Taiwan). 25 December 2020. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  32. ^ MOFA 2018, p. 370.
  33. ^ "New Progress in Taiwan-Hong Kong Relations: Taiwan's Hong Kong Office to be Renamed and its Functions and Status Upgraded". Mainland Affairs Council (Press release). Mainland Affairs Council. 7 June 2013. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  34. ^ a b c d MOFA 2018, p. 371.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h Brødsgaard 2001, p. 282.
  36. ^ Brødsgaard 2001, p. 290.
  37. ^ a b MOFA 2018, p. 374.
  38. ^ MOFA 2018, p. 173.
  39. ^ Brady, Anne-Marie (2 August 2010). "New Zealand, the Pacific and China: The Challenges Ahead". In Brady (ed.). Looking North, Looking South: China, Taiwan, And The South Pacific. World Scientific. p. 198. ISBN 978-981-4465-09-0. Archived from the original on 29 December 2020. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
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General bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]