List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

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The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country includes all doctoral degrees worldwide.


Czech Republic and Slovakia[edit]

The system of Czech and Slovak doctoral degrees has been inherited from Czechoslovakia and is for a large part identical.

Doctoral degrees gained after graduation[edit]

  • Doctor of medicine (Medicinæ universæ doctor – MUDr.)
  • Doctor of dental medicine (Medicinæ dentalis doctor – MDDr.)
  • Doctor of veterinary medicine (Medicinæ veterinariæ doctor – MVDr.)

These degrees are written before the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study, viva voce examination and rigorous examination[edit]

  • Doctor of philosophy (Doktor filozofie – PhDr.)
  • Doctor of natural sciences (Rerum naturalium doctor – RNDr.)
  • Doctor of pharmacy (Pharmaciæ doctor – PharmDr.)
  • Doctor of laws (Juris utrisque doctor – JUDr.)
  • Doctor of paedeutics (Paedagogiæ doctor – PaedDr., no longer used in the Czech Republic)
  • Doctor of theology (Theologiæ doctor – ThDr.)
  • Doctor of economy (Rerum commercialum doctor – RCDr., no longer used)
  • Doctor of social sciences (Rerum socialium doctor – RSDr., deprecated – used by the Czechoslovak communist regime)

These degrees are written before the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after a rigorous examination are popularly called small doctorate (malý doktorát in Czech or Slovakia). Applicants need a master's degree or a post-graduate degree (5 years+) comparable to Master level or higher and have to write a thesis of 50.000-80.000 words and defend this thesis in a viva voce and a rigorous examination in at least 2-3 subjects.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study[edit]

  • Candidate of sciences (Candidatus scientarum – CSc., since 1997 replaced by common PhD.)
  • Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiae doctor – PhD., awarded since 1997; requires at least 3–5-year doctoral study and coursework of 120-180 Credits)
  • Doctor of theology (Theologiae doctor – ThD.) – doctoral study in theology
  • Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum – DrSc. (no longer used in the Czech Republic); prerequisite: a PhD.-level degree)

These degrees are written after the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study are popularly called great doctorate (velký doktorát in Czech).

Other doctoral degrees[edit]

  • Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum – DSc) - highest appreciation of scientific work, granting from the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
  • Honorary Doctorate (Doctor honoris causa – Dr.h.c.) – honorary degree, usually it is not in use

These degrees are written after the name.

Both Czech and Slovak orthography state that the 'philosophiae doctor' is abbreviated as 'PhD.' in analogy to all of the other degrees, however, perhaps under influence of international use of 'Ph.D.', this foreign form is used in the Czech Law of the Academic and Scientific Degrees.[1] In fact, Czech lawgivers have enacted an orthographical mistake.


  • dr. med. (doctor medicinæ) – Medicine
  • dr. jur. (doctor juris) – Law
  • dr. theol. (doctor theologiæ) – Theology
  • dr. phil. (doctor philosophiæ) – Philosophy (humanities)
  • dr. polit. (doctor politices) – Economics
  • dr. scient. (doctor scientiarum) – Science (natural sciences)
  • dr. techn. (doctor technices) – Technology/engineering
  • dr. ling. merc. (doctor linguæ mercantilis) – Professional language


This list is comprehensive list of doctoral decrees granted by Finnish universities, based on the Government decree on university degrees. The English translations are official.[2]

  • Elintarviketieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Food Science
  • Eläinlääketieteen tohtori – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
  • Farmasian tohtori– Doctor of Science (Pharmacy)
  • Filosofian tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy
  • Hallintotieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Administrative Sciences
  • Kasvatustieteen tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy (Education)
  • Kauppatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Science (Economics and Business Administration)
  • Kuvataiteen tohtori – Doctor of Fine Arts
  • Liikuntatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy (Sport and Health Sciences)
  • Lääketieteen tohtori – Doctor of Medical Science
  • Maatalous- ja metsätieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Science (Agriculture and Forestry)
  • Musiikin tohtori – Doctor of Music
  • Oikeustieteen tohtori – Doctor of Laws
  • Psykologian tohtori – Doctor of Psychology
  • Taiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Art and Design)
  • Tanssitaiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Dance)
  • Teatteritaiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Theater and Drama)
  • Tekniikan tohtori – Doctor of Science (Technology) or Doctor of Science (Architecture)
  • Teologian tohtori – Doctor of Theology
  • Terveystieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Health Sciences
  • Valtiotieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Social Sciences
  • Yhteiskuntatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Social Sciences




South Africa[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

First doctorates[edit]

Graduate-entry degrees in which the candidate must prepare (usually over a period of three or four years full-time, under the supervision of a more experienced researcher) a thesis or other portfolio of publishable research, demonstrating a contribution to knowledge in the chosen field. Some degrees of this type (such as the EdD, DClinPsych, DBA and EngD) are referred to as "vocational doctorates" or "professional doctorates" to reflect their greater emphasis on applied research and professional practice, however they still comprise a substantial research component.

Research doctorate[edit]

Professional doctorates[edit]

Higher doctorates[edit]

Higher doctorates are awarded to established academics in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically, the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-reviewed context and/or as specialist textbooks and pay an examination fee. The university then assembles a committee of academics, both internal and external, who review the work submitted and decide whether the candidate has satisfied the requirements for the award.

Higher doctorates can also be awarded as honorary degrees, but these are differentiated from the equivalent degrees earned by presenting a body of work to be reviewed.

Honorary doctorates[edit]

All levels of degree - though usually of Masters'-level and above - can be awarded as honorary degrees. However, some universities have a degree which is only awarded honoris causa:

No longer awarded[edit]

United States[edit]

Research degrees[edit]

The National Science Foundation recognizes the following degrees as research degrees:

Professional degrees[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Czech law No. 111/1998 Sb.—The University Law (in Czech)
  2. ^ Annex to the Government Decree on University Degrees (Asetus yliopistojen tutkinnoista, 794/2004) Retrieved 5-5-2008. Partly English.
  3. ^ Tom Bourner , Rachel Bowden & Stuart Laing (2001) Professional Doctorates in England, Studies in Higher Education, 26:1, 65-83