List of doctoral degrees awarded by country

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The list of doctoral degrees awarded by country includes all doctoral degrees worldwide.

Argentina[edit]

Czech Republic and Slovakia[edit]

The system of Czech and Slovak doctoral degrees has been inherited from Czechoslovakia and is for a large part identical.

Doctoral degrees gained after graduation[edit]

  • Doctor of medicine (Medicinæ universæ doctor – MUDr.)
  • Doctor of dental medicine (Medicinæ dentalis doctor – MDDr.)
  • Doctor of veterinary medicine (Medicinæ veterinariæ doctor – MVDr.)

These degrees are written before the name and are considered as professional doctorates comparable to the US Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree.

Doctoral degrees gained by thesis, viva voce and rigorous examination[edit]

  • Doctor of philosophy (Doktor filozofie – PhDr.)
  • Doctor of natural sciences (Rerum naturalium doctor – RNDr.)
  • Doctor of pharmacy (Pharmaciæ doctor – PharmDr.)
  • Doctor of laws (Juris utrisque doctor – JUDr.)
  • Doctor of paedeutics (Paedagogiæ doctor – PaedDr., no longer used in the Czech Republic)
  • Doctor of theology (Theologiæ doctor – ThDr.)
  • Doctor of economy (Rerum commercialum doctor – RCDr., no longer used)
  • Doctor of social sciences (Rerum socialium doctor – RSDr., deprecated – used by the Czechoslovak communist regime)

These degrees are written before the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after a rigorous examination are popularly called small doctorate (malý doktorát in Czech or Slovakia). Applicants need a master's degree or a post-graduate degree (5 years+) comparable to Master level or higher and have to write a thesis of 50,000-80,000 words and defend this thesis in a viva voce and a rigorous examination in at least 2-3 subjects.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study[edit]

  • Candidate of sciences (Candidatus scientarum – CSc., since 1997 replaced by common PhD.)
  • Doctor of philosophy (Philosophiae doctor – PhD., awarded since 1997; requires at least 3–5-year doctoral study and coursework of 120-180 Credits)
  • Doctor of theology (Theologiae doctor – ThD.) – doctoral study in theology
  • Doctor of sciences (Doctor scientarum – DrSc. (no longer used in the Czech Republic); prerequisite: a PhD.-level degree)

These degrees are written after the name.

Doctoral degrees gained after post-graduate study are popularly called great doctorate (velký doktorát in Czech).

Other doctoral degrees[edit]

These degrees are written after the name.

Both Czech and Slovak orthography state that the 'philosophiae doctor' is abbreviated as 'PhD.' in analogy to all of the other degrees, however, perhaps under influence of international use of 'Ph.D.', this foreign form is used in the Czech Law of the Academic and Scientific Degrees.[1] In fact, Czech lawgivers have enacted an orthographical mistake.

Denmark[edit]

  • dr. med. (doctor medicinæ) – Medicine
  • dr. jur. (doctor juris) – Law
  • dr. theol. (doctor theologiæ) – Theology
  • dr. phil. (doctor philosophiæ) – Philosophy (humanities)
  • dr. polit. (doctor politices) – Economics
  • dr. scient. (doctor scientiarum) – Science (natural sciences)
  • dr. techn. (doctor technices) – Technology/engineering
  • dr. ling. merc. (doctor linguæ mercantilis) – Professional language

Finland[edit]

This list is comprehensive list of doctoral decrees granted by Finnish universities, based on the Government decree on university degrees. The English translations are official.[2]

  • Elintarviketieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Food Science
  • Eläinlääketieteen tohtori – Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
  • Farmasian tohtori– Doctor of Science (Pharmacy)
  • Filosofian tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy
  • Hallintotieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Administrative Sciences
  • Kasvatustieteen tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy (Education)
  • Kauppatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Science (Economics and Business Administration)
  • Kuvataiteen tohtori – Doctor of Fine Arts
  • Liikuntatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Philosophy (Sport and Health Sciences)
  • Lääketieteen tohtori – Doctor of Medical Science
  • Maatalous- ja metsätieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Science (Agriculture and Forestry)
  • Musiikin tohtori – Doctor of Music
  • Oikeustieteen tohtori – Doctor of Laws
  • Psykologian tohtori – Doctor of Psychology
  • Taiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Art and Design)
  • Tanssitaiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Dance)
  • Teatteritaiteen tohtori – Doctor of Arts (Theater and Drama)
  • Tekniikan tohtori – Doctor of Science (Technology) or Doctor of Science (Architecture)
  • Teologian tohtori – Doctor of Theology
  • Terveystieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Health Sciences
  • Valtiotieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Social Sciences
  • Yhteiskuntatieteiden tohtori – Doctor of Social Sciences

France[edit]

Germany[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

First doctorates[edit]

Graduate-entry degrees in which the candidate must prepare (usually over a period of three or four years full-time, under the supervision of a more experienced researcher) a thesis or other portfolio of publishable research, demonstrating a contribution to knowledge in the chosen field. The Quality Assurance Agency categorises doctorates into three types: "subject specialist doctorates", "doctorates by publication", and "professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates". Doctorates in the last category, such as the EdD, DClinPsych, DBA and EngD, have a greater emphasis on applied research and professional practice, however they still contain a substantial research component.

Subject specialist doctorates[edit]

Doctorates by publication[edit]

Professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates[edit]

Generic titles:

Health, Medicine and related subjects:

  • Professional Doctorate in Advanced Healthcare Practice (DAHP)[13]
  • Doctor of Applied Education and Child Physchology (Ap.Ed and ChildPsy D)[3]
  • Doctor of Applied Educational Psychology (Professional Training) (DAppEdPsy)[14]
  • Doctor of Applied Psychology (Education) (DAppPsyEd)[15]
  • Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy or DClinPsych)[3][7]
  • Doctor of Clinical Science–Psychotherapy (DClinSci–Psychotherapy)[7]
  • Doctor of Counselling Psychology (DCounsPsy)[7]
  • Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS)[3]
  • Doctor of Dental Science (DDSc)[7]
  • Doctor of Educational Psychology (DEdPsy)[3][7]
  • Doctor of Forensic Psychology Practice (Foren.Psy.D or DForenPsy)[3][16]
  • Doctor of Health Research (DHRes)[3]
  • Doctor of Health Science (HScD)[3]
    • Doctor of Health Science (Clinical) (HScD (Clin))[3]
  • Doctor of Health Studies (DHS)[13]
  • Doctor of Medicine (MD or MD (Res))[3][7] (In most universities this degree is a first doctorate, although some classify it as a higher doctorate.)
  • Doctor of Occupational Psychology (DOccPsych)[7]
  • Doctor of Psychology (DPsych)[7]
  • Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)[3][7]
  • Professional Doctorate in Workplace Health and Wellbeing (DocWHW)[17]

Other subjects:

  • Doctor of Architecture (DArch)[7]
  • Professional Doctorate in Architecture, Design and Built Environment (DArch)[4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Agriculture and Food (DAgriFood)[4]
  • Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)[3][7]
  • Doctor of the Built Environment (DBEnv)[6]
  • Doctor in Civil Engineering (EngD)[18]
  • Doctor in Construction (EngD)[18]
  • Doctor of Construction Management (DConsMgt)[6]
  • Doctorate in Creative Arts (DCreative)[4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Criminal Justice (DCrimJ)[4]
  • Doctorate in Criminology and Criminal Justice (DCCJ)[4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Applied Criminology (DAppCrim)[4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Data Science (DDataSci)[4]
  • Doctorate in Design/Doctor of Design (DDes)[4][18]
  • Doctor of Digital Media (DDM)[18]
  • Doctor of Education/Professional Doctorate in Education (EdD)[3][7][19]
  • Doctor of Engineering (EngD or DEng)[3][7][20]
  • Doctor of Fashion Industry (DFI)[18]
  • Doctor of Fine Art (DArt)[7]
  • Doctorate in Fine Arts/Doctor of Fine Art (DFA)[4][18]
  • Doctorate in Heritage (DHeritage)[4]
  • Doctor of Legal Practice (DLegalPrac)[18]
  • Professional Doctorate in Applied Linguistics (DAppLing)[4]
  • Doctor of Management (DMan)[21]
  • Doctor of Ministry (DMin)[3]
  • Doctorate in Music (DMus)[3]
  • Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA or AMusD)[7]
  • Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT)[3]
  • Doctor of Public Management (DPM)[22]
  • Doctor of Public Policy (DPP)[4]
  • Professional Doctorate in Policy Research and Practice (DPRP)[4]
  • Doctor of Real Estate (DRealEst)[18]
  • Professional Doctorate in Security Risk Management (DSyRM)[4]
  • Doctor of Social and Public Policy (SPPD)[13]
  • Doctor of Social Practice (DSocPrac)[18]
  • Doctor of Social Science/Doctorate in Social science (DSocSci)[3][4]
  • Doctor of Social Work (DSW)[13]
  • Doctorate in Sport and Exercise (DSE)[4]
  • Doctor of Theology (ThD)[3][7]
  • Professional Doctorate in Pastoral Theology (DPT)[4]
  • Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT)[3]
  • Professional Doctorate in Practical Theology (DPracTheol or DThM)[3]
  • Professional Doctorate in Veterinary Science (DVet)[4]
  • Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM)[23]
  • Doctor of Veterinary Science (DVet Med, DVSc or DVS)[7][23]

Higher doctorates[edit]

Higher doctorates are awarded to established academics in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically, the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-reviewed context and/or as specialist textbooks and pay an examination fee. The university then assembles a committee of academics, both internal and external, who review the work submitted and decide whether the candidate has satisfied the requirements for the award.

Higher doctorates can also be awarded as honorary degrees, but these are differentiated from the equivalent degrees earned by presenting a body of work to be reviewed.

Honorary doctorates[edit]

All levels of degree - though usually of Masters'-level and above - can be awarded as honorary degrees. However, some universities have a degree which is only awarded honoris causa:

No longer awarded[edit]

United States[edit]

Research degrees[edit]

The National Science Foundation recognizes the following as research degrees:[33]

Professional degrees[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Czech law No. 111/1998 Sb.—The University Law (in Czech)
  2. ^ Annex to the Government Decree on University Degrees (Asetus yliopistojen tutkinnoista, 794/2004) Retrieved 5-5-2008. Partly English.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Characteristics Statement: Doctoral Degree" (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Careers Research & Advisory Centre (January 2016). "Provision of professional doctorates in English HE institutions" (PDF). HEFCE. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  5. ^ "European Doctorate (DocEuro) Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c "Academic Regulations for Research Programmes 2016/17" (PDF). University of Salford. July 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Tom Bourner; Rachel Bowden; Stuart Laing (2001). "Professional Doctorates in England". Studies in Higher Education. 26 (1): 65–83. 
  8. ^ "REGULATIONS FOR THE AWARD OF THE UNIVERSITY’S DEGREES OF MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY, DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY, AND PROFESSIONAL DOCTORATE." (PDF). Glasgow Caledonian University. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  9. ^ "Doctor of Professional Practice". University of Wales Trinity Saint David. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  10. ^ "Doctorate in Professional Practice". Swansea University. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  11. ^ "The Doctorate in Professional Studies". University of Middlesex. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "Ordinance 2: Degrees" (PDF). University of Bradford. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Professional Doctorates". Cardiff University. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  14. ^ "Doctorate of Applied Educational Psychology (Professional Training) Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "Doctorate of Applied Psychology (Educational) Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  16. ^ "Doctor of Forensic Psychology Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  17. ^ "Professional Doctorate in Workplace Health and Wellbeing (DocWHW) Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Code of Practice For Research Degrees" (PDF). Nottingham Trent University. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  19. ^ "Professional Doctorate in Education (EdD) Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  20. ^ "DEng in Renewable Energy Marine Structures (EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training)". University of Oxford. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  21. ^ "Professional Doctorate in Management". University of Hertfordshire. Retrieved 2017-04-25. 
  22. ^ "Doctor of Public Management Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  23. ^ a b "Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Doctor of Veterinary Surgery Regulations". University of Nottingham. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  24. ^ a b "Report of the review of higher degrees" (PDF). University of Oxford. 2016. p. 2. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "University of London Awards" (PDF). University of London. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Cambridge glossary". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  27. ^ a b c d e "Ordinances and Regulations: Higher Doctorates". University of Manchester. June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  28. ^ "Doctor of Medicine". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  29. ^ "Doctor of Medicine". University of Bath. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  30. ^ "Report of the review of higher degrees" (PDF). University of Oxford. 2016. p. 6. Retrieved 1 October 2016. 
  31. ^ "Ordinance governing the Degrees of Doctor of Engineering, Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Letters, Doctor of Science or Doctor of Technology" (PDF). University of Bradford. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  32. ^ Nicholas Groves (2011). Shaw's Academical Dress of Great Britain and Ireland. Burgon Society. pp. 46,156–160,302. 
  33. ^ "Research degrees included in the Survey of Earned Doctorates: 2011–15" (PDF). National Science Foundation. December 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2017.