List of dreadnought battleships of the Royal Navy
This is a list of dreadnought battleships of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom.
In 1907, before the revolution in design brought about by HMS Dreadnought of 1906, the Royal Navy had 62 battleships in commission or building, a lead of 26 over France and 50 over Germany. However, the launch of Dreadnought in 1906 prompted an arms race with major strategic consequences. Major naval powers raced to build their own dreadnoughts. Possession of modern battleships was not only vital to naval power, but also, as with nuclear weapons today, represented a nation's standing in the world. Germany, France, Russia, Japan, Italy, Austria, and the United States all began dreadnought programmes; and second-rank powers including Turkey, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile commissioned dreadnoughts to be built in British and American yards.
The Royal Navy at the start of the First World War was the largest navy in the world due, in the most part, to The Naval Defence Act 1889 and the two-power standard which called for the navy to maintain a number of battleships such as their strength was at least equal to the combined strength of the next two largest navies in the world, which at that point were France and Russia. The majority of the Royal Navy's strength was deployed at home in the Grand Fleet, with the primary aim of drawing the German High Seas Fleet into an engagement. No decisive victory ever came. The Royal Navy and the German Imperial Navy did come into contact, notably in the Battle of Heligoland Bight, and the Battle of Jutland.
The inter-war period saw the battleship subjected to strict international limitations to prevent a costly arms race breaking out. While the victors were not limited by the Treaty of Versailles, many of the major naval powers were crippled after the war. Faced with the prospect of a naval arms race against Great Britain and Japan, which would in turn have led to a possible Pacific war, the United States was keen to conclude the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. This treaty limited the number and size of battleships that each major nation could possess, and required Britain to accept parity with the U.S. and to abandon the British alliance with Japan. The Washington treaty was followed by a series of other naval treaties, including the First Geneva Naval Conference (1927), the First London Naval Treaty (1930), the Second Geneva Naval Conference (1932), and finally the Second London Naval Treaty (1936), which all set limits on major warships. These treaties became effectively obsolete on 1 September 1939 at the beginning of Second World War, but the ship classifications that had been agreed upon still apply. The treaty limitations meant that fewer new battleships were launched from 1919–1939 than from 1905–1914. The treaties also inhibited development by putting maximum limits on the weights of ships. Designs like the projected British N3-class battleship continued the trend to larger ships with bigger guns and thicker armour, but never got off the drawing board. Those designs which were commissioned during this period were referred to as treaty battleships. After the Second World War, the Royal Navy's four surviving King George V-class ships were scrapped in 1957 and Vanguard followed in 1960. All other surviving British battleships had been sold or broken up by 1949.
- 1 Key
- 1.1 HMS Dreadnought
- 1.2 Bellerophon class
- 1.3 St. Vincent class
- 1.4 HMS Neptune
- 1.5 Colossus class
- 1.6 Orion class
- 1.7 King George V class
- 1.8 Iron Duke class
- 1.9 HMS Agincourt
- 1.10 HMS Erin
- 1.11 HMS Canada
- 1.12 Queen Elizabeth class
- 1.13 Revenge class
- 1.14 N3 class
- 1.15 Nelson class
- 1.16 King George V class (1939)
- 1.17 Lion class
- 1.18 HMS Vanguard
- 2 See also
- 3 Notes
- 4 References
|Main guns||The number and type of the main battery guns|
|Displacement||Ship displacement at full combat load|
|Propulsion||Number of shafts, type of propulsion system, and top speed generated|
|Service||The dates work began and finished on the ship and its ultimate fate|
|Laid down||The date the keel began to be assembled|
|Commissioned||The date the ship was commissioned|
HMS Dreadnought was laid down in October 1905 and completed in December 1906, setting a record for battleship construction that was never equalled. Her new Parsons turbines weighed 300 long tons (305 t) lighter than similar engines of the same power and gave her a speed of 21 knots. The 12-inch (305 mm) main armament was arranged in such a way that only eight of her ten guns could fire a broadside. Once she was launched, the world's other major naval powers started building Dreadnoughts and the name identified the new type of ship. Secondary armament, in 1916, consisted of ten 12-pounder guns and five 18-inch (460 mm) torpedo tubes. During the First World War Dreadnought was the flagship of the Home Fleet, 4th Battle Squadron, based at Scapa Flow. While patrolling the North sea on 18 March 1915, she rammed and sank U-29, becoming the only battleship to have sunk a submarine.
|HMS Dreadnought||10 × 12 in (305 mm)||18,110 long tons (18,400 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|2 October 1905||2 December 1906||Sold for scrap 9 May 1921|
The Bellerophon class of ships were the first battleships built after HMS Dreadnought and followed the same design with some minor differences. The foremast was moved to in front of the forward funnel and the secondary armament was improved with sixteen 4-inch (102 mm) quick-firing guns for defence against destroyer attack. The armour belt was slightly thinner but protection was improved with the first torpedo bulkheads. In 1917 a 4-inch anti-aircraft gun was added to the after deck and a 3-inch (76 mm) one to the superstructure (Superb's 4-inch was located on the after 12-inch turret). By 1918 they had all been equipped to operate aircraft flying from platforms on "A" and "Y" turrets.
|HMS Bellerophon||10 × 12 in (305 mm)||18,800 long tons (19,100 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|6 December 1906||20 February 1909||Sold for scrap 8 November 1921|
|HMS Superb||6 February 1907||15 May 1909||Sold for scrap 12 December 1923|
|HMS Temeraire||1 January 1907||1 May 1909||Sold for scrap 7 December 1921|
St. Vincent class
To increase the speed of construction the St. Vincent class of ships closely followed the Bellerophons design. They were equipped with a new model 12-inch gun which was not a success. It suffered from a shortened barrel life and reduced accuracy at longer ranges. Secondary armament consisted of twenty 4-inch, four 3-pounder saluting guns and three 18-inch torpedo tubes. Collingwood grounded on uncharted rocks off Ferrol in February 1911. She went on to become the flagship of the 1st Battle Squadron seeing action in the Battle of Jutland. St. Vincent and Vanguard were also part of the 1st Battle Squadron at Jutland.
|HMS St. Vincent||10 × 12 in (305 mm)||19,560 long tons (19,870 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|30 December 1907||July 1909||Sold for scrap 1 December 1921|
|HMS Collingwood||3 February 1907||July 1910||Sold for scrap 12 December 1922|
|HMS Vanguard||2 April 1908||1 March 1910||Sunk when faulty ammunition exploded on 9 July 1917, with the loss of 804 crew|
Neptune was designed to answer the flaws with the preceding designs and to provide a heavier broadside. The turrets on the wings were staggered to allow them to fire across decks and 'X' turret following the American practice was raised a deck level above 'Y' turret. This layout allowed all ten guns to fire a broadside. Secondary armament was sixteen 4-inch guns, four 3-pounder guns, and three 18-inch torpedo tubes. During trials she proved to be the fastest British battleship up to that time at 22.75 knots (42.13 km/h; 26.18 mph). After commissioning Neptune became the flagship of the Commander-in-Chief Home Fleet. During the First World War in April 1916, she was involved in a collision with a merchant ship but was not seriously damaged and later fought in the Battle of Jutland.
|HMS Neptune||10 × 12 in (305 mm)||19,680 long tons (20,000 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|19 January 1909||11 January 1911||Sold for scrap September 1922
The Colossus class of ships were the first two of eight battleships proposed for 1909. The Liberal government of the time being under pressure by reports that Germany were secretly building Dreadnoughts and would soon have 21 in service. These ships were very similar to the proceeding Neptune with only minor changes. The main armament and the secondary armament of sixteen 4-inch and three 3-pounder guns remained the same. The only difference being the three torpedo tubes were now a new 21-inch (533 mm) design. During the Battle of Jutland, Colossus had the distinction of being the only British Grand Fleet battleship hit by gunfire. Hercules was involved in a collision with a merchant ship on 22 March 1913, but was repaired in time to also take part in the battle of Jutland.
|HMS Colossus||10 × 12 in (305 mm)||20,225 long tons (20,550 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|8 July 1909||July 1911||Sold for scrap July 1928|
|HMS Hercules||30 July 1909||July 1911||Sold for scrap November 1921|
The Orion class were the first class of second generation dreadnoughts constructed for the Royal Navy. The class composed of four ships, Orion, Monarch, Conqueror, and Thunderer. The lead ship of the class, Orion, was launched in 1910. The Orion class had much heavier armour than their predecessors and were the first class of Royal Navy dreadnoughts to have all their main guns in the centreline. The main armament was also a new 13.5-inch (343 mm) gun with a range of 25,000 yards (23,000 m), that proved to be very accurate and reliable. This increase in size also delivered a heavier broadside. The 12-inch shells weighed 850 pounds (390 kg), while the 13.5-inch shells weighed 1,250 pounds (570 kg) each. The members of the Orion class cost almost £1.9 million to construct. All four of the battleships were present at the Battle of Jutland in 1916, but took no damage. They had a relatively short career, all being decommissioned in 1921, due to the Washington Naval Treaty. Orion and Conqueror were scrapped in 1922. Monarch served as a target ship, surviving a full day of shelling and bombing on 20 January 1925 before being sunk by fire from Revenge. Thunderer served longest, acting as a training ship from 1922 until she, too, was sold for scrap in December 1926.
|HMS Orion||10 × 13.5 in (343 mm)||22,000 long tons (22,350 t)||4 × shaft
18 × boilers
|29 November 1909||2 January 1912||Sold for scrap December 1922|
|HMS Monarch||1 April 1910||March 1912||Sunk as a target 1925|
|HMS Conqueror||5 April 1910
|1 December 1912||Sold for scrap December 1922|
|HMS Thunderer||13 April 1910||June 1912||Sold for scrap December 1926|
King George V class
The King George V class of ships had the 13.5-inch main armament in five twin turrets. The secondary armament was sixteen 4-inch, four 3-pounder guns, and three 21-inch torpedoes. The government of the day resisted calls to upgrade the 4-inch to 6-inch (152 mm) guns in an attempt to reduce naval expenditure. In 1915 two 4-inch anti-aircraft guns were added on the quarterdeck and the four 4-inch guns, two either side of 'A' and 'B' turrets were removed as they became swamped in heavy weather. After commissioning King George V became the flagship of the 2nd Battle Squadron. During trials in December 1912 Centurion was in a collision with an Italian merchant ship which delayed her completion until 1913. Ajax fought at Jutland and then served in the Mediterranean and the Black sea. After the war Centurion was decommissioned as a battleship to comply with the naval treaties. She served as a radio controlled target ship between the war. In the Second World War she served as a decoy and as a static anti-aircraft ship on the Suez Canal. She was sunk on 9 June 1944 as a Mulberry harbour block ship off Normandy.
|HMS King George V
|10 × 13.5 in (343 mm)||23,000 long tons (23,370 t)||4 × shafts
18 × Babcock & Wilcox boilers
|16 January 1911||1912||Sold for scrap December 1926|
|HMS Centurion||4 × shafts
18 × Yarrow boilers
|16 January 1911||March 1913||Sunk in 1944 as a block ship|
|HMS Audacious||February 1911||1913||Struck a mine, 27 October 1914|
|HMS Ajax||4 × shafts
18 × Babcock & Wilcox boilers
|27 February 1911||October 1913||Sold for scrap 9 November 1926|
Iron Duke class
The Iron Duke class of ships had the 13.5-inch main armament and to combat the increased range of the 21-inch torpedo, had 12 × 6-inch (152 mm) secondary guns to engage torpedo boats at a greater range. The ships were slightly longer and had a greater beam and depth than the King George V ships to overcome the heavier armament. All were fitted with a tripod forward mast to house the fire director control station, which was a shortcoming of the preceding ships. They were the first class of battleships to have anti-aircraft guns fitted as part of the design, with two 12-pounder guns mounted on the aft superstructure, intended to be used against airships. The ships also did away with the stern torpedo tube, having provision for only one 21-inch tube on each side. Marlborough was the only dreadnought-type ship to be torpedoed at Jutland and had a 70-by-20-foot (21.3 by 6.1 m) hole blown in her side. After the First World War they were -apart from Iron Duke - scrapped to comply with the Washington Naval Treaty. Iron Duke became a gunnery training ship in 1931.
|HMS Iron Duke||10 × 13.5 in (343 mm)||25,000 long tons (25,400 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|12 January 1912||March 1914||Sold for scrap March 1946|
|HMS Marlborough||25 January 1912||June 1914||Sold for scrap June 1932|
|HMS Benbow||30 May 1912||October 1914||Sold for scrap March 1931|
|HMS Emperor of India||31 May 1912||November 1914||Sunk as target ship 1 September 1931|
HMS Agincourt started life as the Brazilian warship Rio de Janeiro, and was to be built in Britain. She was initially intended to have a 12 × 14-inch (356 mm) main armament but a change in the Brazilian government cancelled the order. A new design was however authorised, which was to be armed with the maximum possible number of guns. The new ship was now designed to have seven turrets with two 12-inch guns each. Secondary armament consisted of twenty 6-inch, ten 3-inch, two 3-inch anti-aircraft guns and three 21-inch torpedoes. In July 1912 while she was still being built Brazil sold her to Turkey and she was renamed Sultân Osmân-ı Evvel. The ship had been completed just before the start of the First World War and her handover was delayed to ascertain what position Turkey would take in the war. When Turkey sided with the Germans the ship was seized and renamed HMS Agincourt. She immediately had to be refitted to bring her up to Royal Navy standards.
|HMS Agincourt||14 × 12 in (305 mm)||27,500 long tons (27,940 t)||4 × shafts
22 × boilers
|September 1911||August 1914||Sold for scrap December 1922|
Erin was one of two ships being built for Turkey, that during the First World War were seized by the Admiralty. The design was based on the King George V class with some of the features of the Iron Duke class. Secondary armaments included sixteen 6-inch guns, six 6-pounder guns, two 3-inch anti-aircraft guns and four 21-inch torpedoes. Being designed by a private company the armoured belt was three inches thinner than on the King George ships. Her hull was shorter and beamier than the King George design. This gave her a shorter endurance, her bunkers carrying 1,130 tons less coal. A cleaver type bow in place of the traditional ram type improved sea keeping. In September 1914 she was assigned to the 2nd Battle Squadron and took part in the Battle of Jutland. In 1918 she was given aircraft platforms on top of 'B' and 'Q' turrets. She was sold for break up in 1922 as part of the Washington Naval Treaty.
|HMS Erin||10 × 13.5 in (343 mm)||22,780 long tons (23,150 t)||4 × shafts
15 × boilers
|1 August 1911||August 1914||Sold for scrap December 1922|
In 1911, the Chilean Navy ordered two 28,000-ton displacement super-dreadnought battleships, each to be armed with ten 14-inch and sixteen 6-inch guns, to be named Almirante Latorre and Almirante Cochrane. Almirante Latorre was laid down in November 1911, with Almirante Cochrane being laid down at the Armstrong yards at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 20 February 1913. On the outbreak of the First World War, construction of the two ships was suspended. As Almirante Latorre was almost complete, she was purchased for the Royal Navy, entering service as HMS Canada in 1915. Construction of Almirante Cochrane was much less advanced, and no work was carried out until 1917, when the British decided to complete her as an aircraft carrier for the Royal Navy. She was therefore purchased from Chile at a cost of £1.3 million (£NaN as of 2017), to be converted into the carrier Eagle. She was the fourteenth ship to bear that name.
Her initial redesign was as a base for seaplane operations. After trials with other ships the design was changed to a proper fleet carrier with a full flight deck and "island". She was launched on 8 June 1918 but the delays meant that Eagle was unfinished at the end of hostilities. Construction was slowed by industrial action following the end of the war, and was suspended in October 1919 as Chile wanted to repurchase the ship and have it re-converted to a battleship. The Royal Navy's need to carry out trials with a carrier fitted with an island meant that construction was resumed in November, carrying out sea trials and initial flying trials in February 1920. It was then sent to Devonport dockyard for completion, with its machinery being converted from part-coal burning to all oil burning, a much longer island being fitted and anti-torpedo bulges added, finally being commissioned on 26 February 1924.
|HMS Canada||10 × 14 in (356 mm)||28,600 long tons (29,060 t)||4 × shafts
Brown & Curtiss and Parsons turbines
21 × boilers
|27 November 1911||15 October 1915||Resold to the Chilean Navy, April 1920.|
28 February 1918, converted to an aircraft carrier
|20 February 1913||26 February 1924||Torpedoed 11 August 1942, with the loss of 160 men.|
Queen Elizabeth class
The Queen Elizabeth class had its main armament of eight 15-inch (381 mm) guns arranged in four double turrets. The new calibre guns were intended to still give the Royal Navy and an advantage in range over newer American and Japanese ships which the Admiralty expected were to be armed with 14-inch guns. The initial design was for a five turret ship, being reduced to four when it was realised its greater range and hitting power with a broadside of 15,000 pounds (6,800 kg) compared to 14,000 pounds (6,400 kg) in the Iron Duke class. Secondary armament was fourteen 6-inch, two 3-inch anti-aircraft and four 21-inch torpedoes. The space saved by the reduction of one turret was used to house additional boilers which gave the ships a speed of 24–25 knots (44–46 km/h; 28–29 mph).
|HMS Queen Elizabeth||8 × 15 in (381 mm)||27,500 long tons (27,940 t)||4 × shafts
24 × boilers
|21 October 1912||January 1915||Sold for scrap April 1948|
|HMS Warspite||31 October 1912||March 1915||Sold for scrap July 1946|
|HMS Barham||24 February 1913||October 1915||Torpedoed and sunk 25 November 1941|
|HMS Valiant||31 January 1913||February 1916||Sold for scrap March 1948|
|HMS Malaya||20 October 1913||February 1916||Sold for scrap February 1948|
The Revenge class (or as sometimes known, the Royal Sovereign class) were designed as a cheaper alternative to the Queen Elizabeth class. Plans had initially been for a class of eight ships, but at the start of the First World War work stopped on all new capital ships. The last three ships Renown, Repulse and Resistance were cancelled. The first two of these were eventually redesigned as battlecruisers. During design they were planned to have a maximum speed of just over 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph) and had reverted to being coal- and oil-fuelled. However, in 1915, this was changed and they became oil-fuelled only. Secondary armament was fourteen 6-inch, two 3-inch anti-aircraft, four 3-pounder guns and four 21-inch torpedoes. Both Revenge and Royal Oak were completed in time to take part in the Battle of Jutland. Royal Oak was torpedoed at anchor in Scapa Flow during the Second World War.
|8 × 15 in (381 mm)||28,000 long tons (28,450 t)||4 × shafts
18 × boilers
|22 December 1913||March 1916||Sold for scrap February 1948|
|HMS Royal Sovereign||15 January 1914||May 1916||Sold for scrap February 1949|
|HMS Royal Oak||15 January 1914||May 1916||Torpedoed and sunk by U-47 on 14 October 1939|
|HMS Resolution||29 November 1913||May 1916||Sold for scrap February 1949|
|HMS Ramillies||12 November 1913||September 1917||Sold for scrap 1948|
The N3, like the contemporary G3-class battlecruiser design, were planned in response to other nations intentions to build superior navies. The design concentrated the main guns forward of the bridge to reduce weight while allowing very thick armour over the critical parts but they would still be about twice the displacement of predecessors. The design was approved in 1921 but in 1922 the major naval powers agreed the Washington Naval Treaty to limit the size and number of warships in their navies. The treaty set an upper limit of 35,000 tons displacement and 16-inch guns; the ships had not been ordered and no construction had been started.
|4 ships||9 × 18 in (457 mm)||about 48,000 long tons (48,800 t)||2 shafts, geared steam turbines||Never ordered|
The two ships of the Nelson class were the only new battleships the Royal Navy were allowed to build under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty. The layout was based on that of the N3 battleship and G3 battlecruiser but further reduced to come under the weight limit. Nine BL 16 inch Mk I guns – the same as were to have been used on the G3 battlecruisers – were carried in three forward turrets. Secondary armament was twelve 6-inch guns mounted in six turrets at the rear of the ship, six 4.7-inch (119 mm) anti-aircraft guns, seven eight-barrelled 2-pounder "pompom" mountings, four quadruple 40 mm Bofors guns and sixty five 20 mm Oerlikon cannon.
|HMS Nelson||9 × 16 in (406 mm)||33,900 long tons (34,440 t)||2 × shafts
8 × boilers
|28 December 1922||15 August 1927||Sold for scrap 15 March 1949|
|HMS Rodney||28 December 1922||10 November 1927||Sold for scrap 26 March 1948|
King George V class (1939)
The King George V class of ships were criticised for having 14-inch main guns (the preceding Nelson class having 16 inch). The decision to use 14-inch guns was taken in October 1935, while the United Kingdom was negotiating for a continuation of the Naval Treaties with the other parties of the London Treaty. The British Government favoured a reduction in the maximum gun calibre to 14 inches and, in early October, the government learned that the United States would support this position if the Japanese could also be persuaded to do so. Since the large guns needed to be ordered by the end of the year, the British Admiralty decided on 14-inch guns for the King George V class. The guns were arranged in three turrets, two with four and one (behind and above the forward turret) with two guns. Secondary armament was sixteen QF 5.25-inch Mk I guns, four eight-barrelled 2-pounder "pom-pom" anti-aircraft mountings (King George V and Prince of Wales the later ships all had six mountings). Anson and Howe had eighteen Oerlikon 20 mm cannon and the Duke of York six. They were all fitted with amidships catapults for the three Supermarine Walrus spotter/patrol aircraft they carried. The King George V class were designed to reach a speed of over 27 knots. As the treaty negotiations collapsed, this lack of speed and the smaller size of their main armament left them slower and with a lesser broadside than foreign battleships that were being produced around the same time. However, their main armour belt was thicker than others, with the exception of the two very large ships of the Yamato class from Japan.
|HMS King George V||10 × 14 in (356 mm)||36,730 long tons (37,320 t)||4 × shafts
8 × boilers
|1 January 1937||1 October 1940||Sold for scrap 1957|
|HMS Prince of Wales||1 January 1937||31 March 1940||Sunk December 1941 by Japanese air attack|
|HMS Duke of York||5 May 1937||4 November 1941||Sold for scrap 1957|
|HMS Anson||20 July 1937||22 June 1942||Sold for scrap 1957|
|HMS Howe||1 June 1937||29 August 1942||Sold for scrap 1958|
During the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936, the upper limit for battleships was agreed by the powers attending. By 1938 concerns about the Japanese prompted Britain and the United States to raise the limits allowed to 45,000 long tons (46,000 t) and 16 in (406 mm) guns. The Admiralty had planned to scrap the ineffective Revenge class when the King George V ships entered service. These plans were soon changed, the Admiralty's new ambition was to raise a battle fleet of 20 ships, 15 of them to match the new standard, keeping the Revenge class until at least 1942. To meet this target the navy wanted three battleships added to the 1938 plans, but in the end only two got the go ahead and even then they had to use reserve slipways, normally only used in emergencies. At the same time it was identified that unless the 1938 ships were completed by 1942, the Royal Navy between 1940 and 1943 would be at a disadvantage fielding only twelve modern and eight older battleships against a combined German–Japanese fleet of twenty modern ships.
|HMS Lion||9 × 16 in (410 mm)
|40,000 long tons (41,000 t)
|—||4 July 1939||—||Scrapped 15 October 1945|
|HMS Temeraire||1 June 1939||—||Scrapped 15 October 1945|
Vanguard was the last Royal Navy battleship, she was designed to use the 15-inch gun mountings removed from Glorious and Courageous when they were converted to aircraft carriers. Vanguard was launched in 1944 but not completed until after the Second World War in 1946. Vanguard was never involved in any conflict and never fired a shot in anger before she was finally scrapped in 1960. Secondary armaments was sixteen 5.25-inch dual purpose guns in twin turrets. There were also ten six-barrelled 40 mm Bofors, one twin STAAG mount and eleven single 40 mm Bofors mountings.
|HMS Vanguard||8 × 15 in (381 mm)||44,500 long tons (45,210 t)||4 × shafts
8 × boilers
|2 October 1942||25 April 1946||Sold for scrap 4 August 1960|
- List of ironclads of the Royal Navy
- List of pre-dreadnought battleships of the Royal Navy
- List of battlecruisers of the Royal Navy
- Keegan (1999), p.209.
- Keegan (1999), p. 281.
- Sondhaus (2001), p 161.
- "The First World War and the Inter-war years 1914–1939". Royal Navy. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
- Friedman (1985), pp.181–182.
- Kennedy (1983), p.277.
- Ireland (1997), pp.124–126, 139–142.
- Sumrall (1973), pp.25–28.
- "Vanguard to Trident 1945–2000". Royal Navy. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- Gardiner (2001), pp.7 and 14.
- Gardiner (1985), p.21.
- Gardiner (1985), p.22.
- Gardiner (1985), p.23.
- Gardiner (1985), p.25.
- The Times (London), Wednesday, 11 January 1911, p.7.
- Gardiner (1985), p.26.
- Butler, pp. 39–40
- Gardiner (1985), p.28.
- The Times (London), Tuesday, 2 January 1912, p.6
- The Times (London), Thursday, 30 March 1911, p.8.
- The Times (London), Wednesday, 13 November 1912, p.16 col. F.
- Gardiner (1985), p.30.
- Gardiner (1985), p.31.
- Hore (2006), pp. 44–45.
- Gardiner (1985), p.37.
- Gardiner (1985), p.36.
- Archibald (1971), pp. 77–79.
- Purnell (1978–79), p. 91.
- Gardiner (1985), p. 70.
- UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com.
- Purnell (1978–79), p. 808.
- Brown (1972), p. 14.
- Gardiner (1985), p. 38.
- Burt (1988), p. 240.
- Brown (1972), p. 20.
- Gardiner (1985), p.33.
- Gardiner (1985), p. 35.
- Bennett (2008), p.118.
- Garzke (), p.5.
- Sandler (2001), p. 126.
- Roberts (1989), p. 13.
- Roberts (1989), p. 14.
- Roberts (1989), p. 21.
- Maiolo (1988), pp. 148–150.
- Maiolo (1988), p. 151.
- "Vanguard official journal of the Royal Naval Association" (PDF). October 2007. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
- Addington, Larry H. (1994). The Patterns of War Since the Eighteenth Century. Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-20860-2.
- Archibald, E.H.H (1971). The Metal Fighting Ship in the Royal Navy 1860–1970. London: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-0551-5.
- Bennett, Geoffery Martin (2008). Naval battles of World War II. London: Batsford. ISBN 0713429976.
- Brown, David (1972). Carrier Air Groups: HMS Eagle:Volume 1. Windsor, UK: Hylton Lacy. ISBN 0-85064-103-9.
- Burt, R. A. (1988). British Battleships 1889–1904. Annapolis, Maryland:: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-061-0.
- Butler, Daniel Allen (2006). Distant victory: the Battle of Jutland and the Allied triumph in the First World War:Praeger Security International Series. xxxxxxx: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-99073-7.
- Friedman, Norman (1985). U.S. Battleships. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-715-1.
- Gardiner, Robert; Randal, Gray; Przemyslaw, Budzbon. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906–1921, Conway's Naval History after 1850 Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5.
- Gardiner, Robert (1979). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1860–1905. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-912-X.
- Gardiner, Robert; Lambert, Andrew (2001). Steam, Steel and Shellfire: The Steam Warship 1815–1905-Conway's History of the Ship. Edison, New Jersey: Book Sales. ISBN 978-0-7858-1413-9.
- Garzke, William H; Dulin, Robert (1985). Battleships: Axis and Neutral Battleships in World War II:Volume 3 of Battleships Series. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-101-3.
- Hore, Peter (2006). Battleships of World War I. London: Southwater Books. ISBN 978-1-84476-377-1.
- Ireland, Bernard (1997). Jane's War at Sea, 1897–1997. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-472065-2.
- Keegan, John (1999). The First World War. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-6645-1.
- Kennedy, Paul M. (1983). The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-333-35094-4.
- Maiolo, Joseph A (1998). The Royal Navy and Nazi Germany, 1933–39: a Study in Appeasement and the Origins of the Second World War. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-21456-1.
- Parkinson, Roger (2008). The late Victorian Navy: the Pre-Dreadnought Era and the Origins of the First World War. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press. ISBN 1-84383-372-7.
- Purnell's Illustrated Encyclopedia of Modern Weapons and Warfare (Part work 1978–1979). London: Phoebus.
- Roberts, John (1989). Warship, Volume 3. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-204-8.
- Sandler, Stanley (2004). Battleships: an Illustrated History of their Impact. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-410-5.
- Sondhaus, Lawrence (2001). Naval warfare, 1815–1914, Volume 2000, Warfare and History. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415214785.
- Sumrall, Robert (1973). The Battleship and Battlecruiser. London: Conway Maritime. ISBN 0-85177-607-8.
- Konstam, Angus; Wright, Paul (2009). British Battleships 1939–45 1: Queen Elizabeth and Royal Sovereign Classes, Volume 154 of New Vanguard. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84603-388-8.