List of automated urban metro subway systems

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Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver
The Vancouver SkyTrain is the longest automated transit system in North America
London's Victoria line trains - 2009 stock

The London Underground's Victoria line, opened in 1967, was the first line operated with Automatic Train Operation ATO. Many lines now operate like that, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board.

This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP[2]

  • In a Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4) system like the Copenhagen Metro, trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.
  • In a Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3) system like the Docklands Light Railway, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.
  • In a Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2) system with ATO like London Underground Victoria line, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations.

Grade of Automation 4 Systems[edit]

These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.


North America[edit]

AirTrain JFK system

South America[edit]


Singapore's Bukit Panjang LRT
Kuala Lumpur's Kelana Jaya Line
Taipei Metro Brown Line

Grade of Automation 3 Systems[edit]

Grade of Automation 2 systems[edit]


North America[edit]

Latin America[edit]


  • Puerto Rico Puerto Rico - San Juan - Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.



Future system and lines[edit]

Standard systems for automated operation[edit]

Defunct systems[edit]

  • United Kingdom Post Office Railway - subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
  • Germany Berlin M-Bahn - This was a maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.

See also[edit]


External links[edit]