List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland

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This is a list of the 31 present and extant dukes in the peerages of the Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Scotland, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Ireland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1927 and after. For a more complete historical listing, including extinct, dormant, abeyant, forfeit dukedoms in addition to these extant ones, see List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland.

In the Peerage of England, the title of Duke was created 74 times (using 40 different titles: the rest were recreations). Twice a woman was created a Duchess in her own right (but only for life). Out of the 74 times, 37 titles are now extinct (including the two women's), 16 titles were forfeit or surrendered, 10 were merged with the Crown, and 11 are extant (see list below). The first, Cornwall, is a title that automatically goes to the heir apparent (if and only if he is also the eldest living son of the Sovereign). One of the duchies that was merged into the Crown, Lancaster, still provides income to the Sovereign. All but three of the non-royal ducal titles which became extinct did so before the 20th century (the Duke of Leeds became extinct in 1964, the Duke of Newcastle in 1988, and the Duke of Portland in 1990). The last English dukedom to be forfeit became so in 1715. The last British dukedom to become extinct was the title of Duke of Portland in 1990.[1]

The oldest six titles – created between 1337 and 1386 – were Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Lancaster (1351), Duke of Clarence (1362), Duke of York (1385), Duke of Gloucester (1385), and Duke of Ireland (1386). The Duke of Ireland was a title used for only two years and is somewhat confusing since only a small portion of Ireland was really under the control of England in 1386; it is not to be confused with the dukedoms of the Peerage of Ireland. Clarence has not been used since 1478, when George (the brother of Edward IV) was executed for treason. (However Clarence has since been used as half of a double title, most recently until 1892 when Victoria's grandson (and son of the Prince of Wales), the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, died at the age of 28). The titles of Duke of York and the Duke of Gloucester have both become extinct more than once and been re-created as titles within the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Both titles are reserved for princes (and their descendants). The Duke of Lancaster has merged with the Crown and so is held by the monarch. On 29 September 1397, in an unprecedented move, six dukedoms were created on a single day. None of these titles is extant.

Besides the dukedoms of Cornwall and Lancaster, the oldest extant title is that of Duke of Norfolk, dating from 1483 (the title was first created in 1397). The Duke of Norfolk is considered the Premier Duke of England. The premier duke of Scotland is the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon. The premier duke of Ireland is the Duke of Leinster.[2]

Order of precedence[edit]

Heraldic representation of the Coronet of a British Duke.

The general order of precedence among dukes is:

  1. Dukes in the Peerage of England, in order of creation
  2. Dukes in the Peerage of Scotland, in order of creation
  3. Dukes in the Peerage of Great Britain, in order of creation
  4. Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created before 1801, in order of creation
  5. Dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom and Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland created after 1801, in order of creation

Whilst the general order of precedence is set according to the age of the peerage, the sovereign's Grace may accord any peer higher precedence than his date of creation would warrant. The royal dukes are Dukes of the United Kingdom, but rank higher in the order of precedence than the age of their titles warrants, due to their close relationship to the monarch. The Prince of Wales holds precedence above all dukes, royal and non-royal, and is the Duke of Cornwall and of Rothesay.

Dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland[edit]

# Title Year of Creation Arms Current holder Age Peerage Notes
1. The Duke of Cornwall 1337 [Notes 1] Arms of the Duchy of Cornwall.svg HRH The Prince Charles, 24th Duke of Cornwall 70 (b. 14 Nov 1948) England Also Duke of Rothesay in the Peerage of Scotland 1398 – see below
2. The Duke of Norfolk 1483 Arms of the Duke of Norfolk.svg Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk 61 (b. 3 Dec 1956) England
3. The Duke of Somerset 1547 Arms of Seymour Family.svg John Seymour, 19th Duke of Somerset 65 (b. 30 Dec 1952) England
4. The Duke of Richmond 1675 Duke of Richmond CoA.svg Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond 63 (b. 8 Jan 1955) England Also Duke of Lennox in the Peerage of Scotland (1675) – see below
5. The Duke of Grafton 1675 Arms of the Duke of Grafton.svg Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton 40 (b. 6 Apr 1978) England
6. The Duke of Beaufort 1682 Arms of John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset.svg Henry Somerset, 12th Duke of Beaufort 66 (b. 22 May 1952) England
7. The Duke of St Albans 1684 Blason Charles II Beauclerk (1696-1751) 2e duc de Saint-Albans.svg Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans 79 (b. 19 Jan 1939) England
8. The Duke of Bedford 1694 Duke of Bedford (Sodacannic).svg Andrew Russell, 15th Duke of Bedford 56 (b. 30 Mar 1962) England
9. The Duke of Devonshire 1694 Cavendish arms.svg Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire 74 (b. 27 Apr 1944) England
10. The Duke of Marlborough 1702 Arms of Winston Churchill.svg Jamie Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of Marlborough 62 (b. 24 Nov 1955) England
11. The Duke of Rutland 1703 Duke of Rutland CoA.svg David Manners, 11th Duke of Rutland 59 (b. 8 May 1959) England
The Duke of Rothesay 1398 [Notes 1] Shield of Arms of the Duke of Rothesay.svg HRH The Prince Charles, 23rd Duke of Rothesay 69 (b. 14 Nov 1948) Scotland Also Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of England (1337) – see above
12. The Duke of Hamilton 1643 Douglas-Hamilton COA.svg Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 16th Duke of Hamilton 40 (b. 31 Mar 1978) Scotland Also Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain (1711) – see below
13. The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry 1663 and 1684 Duke of Buccleuch arms.svg Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch 64 (b. 14 Feb 1954) Scotland
The Duke of Lennox 1675 Duke of Richmond CoA.svg Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Lennox 63 (b. 9 Jan 1955) Scotland Also Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England (1675) – see above
14. The Duke of Argyll 1701 Duke of Argyll.svg Torquhil Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll 49 (b. 29 May 1968) Scotland Also Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom (1892) – see below
15. The Duke of Atholl 1703 Duke of Atholl arms.svg Bruce Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl 58 (b. 6 Apr 1960) Scotland
16. The Duke of Montrose 1707 Graham-Montrose arms.svg James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose 83 (b. 6 Apr 1935) Scotland
17. The Duke of Roxburghe 1707 Coat of arms of the Duke of Roxburghe.svg Guy Innes-Ker, 10th Duke of Roxburghe 63 (b. 18 Nov 1954) Scotland
The Duke of Brandon 1711 Douglas-Hamilton COA.svg Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 13th Duke of Brandon 40 (b. 31 Mar 1978) Great Britain Also Duke of Hamilton in the Peerage of Scotland (1643) – see above
18. The Duke of Manchester 1719 Coat of arms of the Duke of Manchester.svg Alexander Montagu, 13th Duke of Manchester 55 (b. 11 Dec 1962) Great Britain
19. The Duke of Northumberland 1766 Coat of Arms of the Duke of Northumberland.svg Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland 61 (b. 16 Nov 1956) Great Britain
20. The Duke of Leinster 1766 Duke of Leinster.svg Maurice FitzGerald, 9th Duke of Leinster 70 (b. 7 Apr 1948) Ireland
21. The Duke of Wellington 1814 Arms of the Duke of Wellington.svg Charles Wellesley, 9th Duke of Wellington 73 (b. 19 Aug 1945) United Kingdom
22. The Duke of Sutherland 1833 Egerton family COA (Dukes of Bridgewater, Dukes of Sutherland).svg Francis Egerton, 7th Duke of Sutherland 78 (b. 18 Feb 1940) United Kingdom
23. The Duke of Abercorn 1868 [Notes 2] Arms of Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn.svg James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn 83 (b. 4 July 1934) Ireland
24. The Duke of Westminster 1874 Duchy of Westminster.svg Hugh Grosvenor, 7th Duke of Westminster 27 (b. 29 Jan 1991) United Kingdom
The Duke of Gordon 1876 Duke of Richmond CoA.svg Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Gordon 63 (b. 9 Jan 1955) United Kingdom Also Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England (1675) and Duke of Lennox in the Peerage of Scotland(1675)
The Duke of Argyll 1892 Duke of Argyll.svg Torquhil Campbell, 6th Duke of Argyll 49 (b. 29 May 1968) United Kingdom Also Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of Scotland (1701) – see above
25. The Duke of Fife 1900 Arms of the Duke of Fife since 2017.png David Carnegie, 4th Duke of Fife 57 (b. 3 Mar 1961) United Kingdom
26. The Duke of Gloucester 1928 Arms of Richard, Duke of Gloucester.svg HRH Prince Richard, 2nd Duke of Gloucester [Notes 3] 74 (b. 26 Aug 1944) United Kingdom
27. The Duke of Kent 1934 Arms of Edward, Duke of Kent.svg HRH Prince Edward, 2nd Duke of Kent [Notes 3] 83 (b. 9 Oct 1935) United Kingdom
28. The Duke of Edinburgh 1947 Arms of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg HRH The Prince Philip, 1st Duke of Edinburgh [Notes 3] 96 (b. 10 Jun 1921) United Kingdom
29. The Duke of York 1986 Arms of Andrew, Duke of York.svg HRH The Prince Andrew, 1st Duke of York [Notes 3] 58 (b. 19 Feb 1960) United Kingdom
30. The Duke of Cambridge 2011 Arms of William, Duke of Cambridge.svg HRH Prince William, 1st Duke of Cambridge [Notes 3] 36 (b. 21 Jun 1982) United Kingdom
31. The Duke of Sussex 2018 Arms of Harry, Duke of Sussex.svg HRH Prince Henry, 1st Duke of Sussex [Notes 3] 34 (b. 15 Sep 1984) United Kingdom

List of heirs of Dukes in the Peerages of the British Isles[edit]

Heirs apparent[edit]

No Heir Dukedom Relationship Notes
Royal Dukedoms
1 HRH The Prince of Wales Edinburgh Eldest son Not styled Earl of Merioneth
2 HRH Prince George of Cambridge Cambridge Eldest son Not styled Earl of Strathearn
Peerage of England
3 Earl of Arundel Norfolk Eldest son
4 Lord Seymour Somerset Eldest son
5 Earl of March and Kinrara Richmond Eldest son
6 Earl of Euston Grafton Eldest son
7 Marquess of Worcester Beaufort Eldest son
8 Earl of Burford St Albans Only son
9 Marquess of Tavistock Bedford Only son
10 Earl of Burlington Devonshire Only son Does not use Marquess of Hartington
11 Marquess of Blandford Marlborough Eldest son
12 Marquess of Granby Rutland Eldest son
Peerage of Scotland
13 Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale Hamilton Eldest son
14 Earl of Dalkeith Buccleuch Eldest son
Earl of March and Kinrara Lennox Eldest son See Duke of Richmond
Earl of Dalkeith Queensberry Eldest son See Duke of Buccleuch
15 Marquess of Lorne Argyll Eldest son
16 Marquess of Tullibardine Atholl Eldest son
17 Marquess of Graham Montrose Eldest son
18 Marquess of Bowmont and Cessford Roxburghe Eldest son
Peerage of Great Britain
Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale Brandon Eldest son See Duke of Hamilton
Viscount Mandeville Manchester Eldest son Title Disputed
19 Earl Percy Northumberland Eldest son
Peerage of the United Kingdom
20 Earl of Mornington Wellington Eldest son Does not use Marquess of Douro
21 Marquess of Hamilton Abercorn Eldest son
Earl of March and Kinrara Gordon Eldest son See Duke of Richmond
22 Earl of Southesk Fife Eldest son
23 Earl of Ulster Gloucester Only son
24 Earl of St Andrews Kent Eldest son

Heirs presumptive[edit]

No Heir Dukedom Relationship Notes
Peerage of Great Britain
Lord Kimble Montagu Manchester Younger brother Title disputed
Peerage of Ireland
Edward FitzGerald Leinster Nephew

Dukes without heirs[edit]

Duke Notes
Royal Dukedoms
Duke of Sussex Currently married with no issue
Duke of York Currently divorced with issue but no sons
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Duke of Westminster Currently single
The Earl of Wilton is the heir presumptive to the latter's Marquessate of Westminster.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b As the eldest son of the Sovereign, the Duke of Cornwall and Rothesay ranks higher in precedence than he would by virtue of the seniority of his dukedoms alone.
  2. ^ The Dukedom of Abercorn was created after the Acts of Union 1800. It takes precedence after earlier Dukedoms of the United Kingdom.
  3. ^ a b c d e f As members of the Royal Family, these dukes rank higher in precedence than they would by virtue of the seniority of their dukedoms alone.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Debretts". n.d. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
  2. ^ "Debretts". n.d. Retrieved 9 March 2015.

Sources[edit]