Duke of Schleswig

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The following list is a list of jarls and dukes, who ruled over Schleswig respectively Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland).

First jarls/dukes[edit]

Houses of Estridsen and Schauenburg (1080-1460)[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Death House Consort Notes
Olaf I Hunger
Oluf hunger.jpg
c.1050 1080-1095 18 August 1095 Estridsen Ingegerd of Norway
c.1070
one child
Jarl (earl) of Jutland, since 1086 king of Denmark.
Eric (I) the Good
Erik 1. Ejegod.jpg
c.1050 1095-1103 10 July 1103 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Boedil Thurgotsdatter
before 1086
one child
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Nicholas (I)
Kong niels.jpg
c.1065 1103-1115 25 June 1134 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Margaret Fredkulla
c.1105
two children

Ulvhild Håkansdotter
1130
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Canute I Lavard
Knut Lavard.jpg
12 March 1096 1115-1131 7 June 1131 Estridsen Ingeborg of Kiev
1116
four children
Titled dux Daciae[1] (i.e. Duke of Denmark)
Magnus I c.1106 1131-1134 4 June 1134 Estridsen Richeza of Poland
c.1127
two children
Also King of Sweden
Eric (II) the Memorable
Erik emune.jpg
c.1090 1134-1137 18 September 1137 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Malmfred of Kiev
c.1130
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Eric (III) Lamb
Erik lam.jpg
c.1120 1137-1146 27 August 1146 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Lutgard of Salzwedel
c.1144
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Sweyn III of Denmark
Swen.jpg
c.1125 1146-1152 23 October 1157 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Adela of Meissen
c.1152
two children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Canute V of Denmark
Knud 5. Magnussen coin.jpg
c.1129 9 August 1157 Helena of Sweden
c.1156
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar I of Denmark
Valdemar 1. den Store.jpg
14 January 1131 12 May 1182 Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar I
Valdemar 1. den Store.jpg
14 January 1131 1152-1154 12 May 1182 Estridsen Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Between 1152-1154, titled dux Daciae[2] (i.e. Duke of Denmark), also king of Denmark.
Sweyn III of Denmark
Swen.jpg
c.1125 1154-1157 23 October 1157 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Adela of Meissen
c.1152
two children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Canute V of Denmark
Knud 5. Magnussen coin.jpg
c.1129 9 August 1157 Helena of Sweden
c.1156
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar I of Denmark
Valdemar 1. den Store.jpg
14 January 1131 1154-1170 12 May 1182 Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Christopher I 1150 1170-1173 1173 Estridsen Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Between 1152-1154, titled dux Iuciae[3] (i.e. Duke of Jutland).
Valdemar I of Denmark
Valdemar 1. den Store.jpg
14 January 1131 1173-1182 12 May 1182 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Sophia of Minsk
c.1144
Viborg Cathedral
eight children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Canute VI of Denmark
Knud 4. Valdemarsen.jpg
c.1163 1182-1183 12 November 1202 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Gertrude of Bavaria
February 1177
Lund Cathedral
no children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar II the Victorious
Valdemar sejr.jpg
9 May or 28 June 1170 1183-1216 28 March 1241 Estridsen Dagmar of Bohemia
1205
one son

Berengaria of Portugal
1214
four children
titled dux slesvicensis[4] (i.e. Sleswickian duke), represented by the regent Bishop Valdemar Knudsen (1182–1193), Valdemar II became Danish king in 1202.
Valdemar (III) the Young
Valdemar den Unge 1209-1231.jpg
c.1209 1209-1216 28 November 1231 Estridsen Eleanor of Portugal
24 June 1229
Ribe Cathedral
one child
Minor duke as co-duke of Valdemar II.
Eric (I) Ploughpenny
Erik d4 Plovpenning cropped.jpg
c.1216 1216-1232 9 August 1250 Estridsen Jutta of Saxony
17 November 1239
six children
Minor duke as co-duke of Valdemar II.
Abel
Abel af Danmark.JPG
c.1218 1232-1252 29 June 1252 Estridsen Matilda of Holstein
25 April 1237
Schleswig Cathedral
four children
Also king of Denmark from 1250.
Christopher I of Denmark
Kong Christoffer 1. (1219-1259).jpg
c.1219 1252-1254 29 May 1259 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Margaret Sambiria
1248
five children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar III c.1238 1254-1257 c.1257 Estridsen Unmarried
Eric I
Erikabelsenssegl.jpg
c.1242 1257-1272 27 May 1272 Estridsen Margaret of Rugia
1259 or 1260
three children
Margaret Sambiria (regent)
Krolowa Malgorzata Sambiria afT.jpeg
c.1219 1272-1282 29 December 1282 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Christopher I of Denmark
1248
five children
Regent of Schleswig-Denmark.
Eric V of Denmark
Erik Glipping.jpg
c.1249 1282-1283 22 November 1286 Estridsen
Part of Denmark
Agnes of Brandenburg
11 November 1273
Schleswig Cathedral
seven children
Duke-King of Schleswig-Denmark.
Valdemar IV c.1265 1283-1312 26 March or 7 July 1312 Estridsen Elisabeth of Saxe-Lauenburg
1287
one child
Eric II c.1290 1312-1325 12 March 1325 Estridsen Adelaide of Holstein-Rendsburg
1313
two children
Gerhard III, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg (regent)
Grevgerhardssegl.jpg
1292 1325-1326 1 April 1340 In the name of the House of Estridsen Sophia of Werle
1315
four children
Regent in name of his nephew, Valdemar V, placed him on Denmark in 1326 and ruled Schleswig himself.
Valdemar V
Valdemar 3 kongesegl.jpg
c.1314 c.1364 Estridsen Richardis of Schwerin
c.1329?
two children
Under regency of his uncle, in 1326 became king of Denmark.
Gerhard I the Great
Grevgerhardssegl.jpg
1292 1325-1330 1 April 1340 Schauenburg Sophia of Werle
1315
four children
Regent in name of his nephew, Valdemar V, placed him on Denmark in 1326 and ruled Schleswig himself.
Valdemar V
Valdemar 3 kongesegl.jpg
c.1314 1330-1364 c.1364 Estridsen Richardis of Schwerin
c.1329?
two children
Henry I c.1342 1364-1375 August 1375 Estridsen Kunigunde
no children
Nicholas I
Seal Nikolaus (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1321 1375-1386 8 May 1397 Schauenburg Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1354
one child
Joint rule with his brother. In 1386 abicated for his nephew Gerhard. Also count of Holstein-Rendsburg.
Henry II of Iron
Seal Heinrich II. (Holstein-Rendsburg) 01.jpg
1317 1375-1384 1384 Schauenburg Matilda of Lippe
one child

Ingeborg of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
before 1374
four children
Joint rule with his brother. Also count of Holstein-Rendsburg.
Gerhard II
Gerhard VI.jpg
1367 1384-1404 5 August 1404 Schauenburg Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1390
six children
Also count of Holstein-Rendsburg.
Catherine Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg (regent)
Catharina of Brunswick.jpg
1385 1404-1413 After 1423 Schauenburg Gerhard II
1390
six children
Respectively mother and uncle, took the regency in name of Henry III.
Henry III, Count of Schauenburg-Holstein (regent)
Seal Heinrich III. von Schauenburg-Holstein 01.jpg
c.1372 February 1421 Unmarried
Henry III 1397 1413-1427 28 May 1427 Schauenburg Unmarried Died without descendants. Passed the land to his brothers.
Adolphus I
C. W. Eckersberg Hertug Adolf, som afslaar Tilbudet om den danske Krone.jpg
1401 1427-1459 4 December 1459 Schauenburg Matilda
before 1433
no children

Margareta of Mansfeld
1433
no children
He was the mightiest vassal of Danish crown at his time. Gained royal Danish recognition in 1440. After his death his patrimony is annexed by Denmark.
Gerhard III
Seal Gerhard VII. (Holstein) 01.jpg
1404 1427-1433 24 July 1433 Schauenburg Agnes of Baden
2 June 1432
Baden
ten children
Co-ruler, also Count of Holstein-Rendsburg as Gerhard VII, younger brother of Adolf VIII, during his lifetime, the claim to dukedom remained disputed by the Danish crown

House of Oldenburg[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Death Part Consort Notes
Christian I
(Christian 1.)
Christian I of Denmark, Norway & Sweden 1440s.jpg
February 1426 1460-1481 21 May 1481 Schleswig Dorothea of Brandenburg
28 October 1449
Copenhagen
five children
First ruler of Schleswig, which was inherited from Holstein-Rendsburg. Also King of Denmark and of the Kalmar Union.
John I
(Hans)
1455 Johann.JPG
2 February 1455 1481-1513 20 February 1513 Schleswig Christina of Saxony
6 September 1478
Copenhagen
five children
Ruled jointly in Schleswig, John and Frederick, brothers, ruled togerther, and after the death of John, Frederick, kept the co-rulership with his nephew, Christian II. In 1523 the latter was deposed in both Denmark and Schleswig. They were also in succession Kings of Denmark: John 1481-1513, Christian 1513-23, Frederick 1523-33. John and Christian were also Kings of the Kalmar Union.
Frederick I
(Frederik 1.)
Frederik 1-detail.jpg
7 October 1471 1490-1533 20 February 1533 Schleswig Anna of Brandenburg
10 April 1502
Stendal
two children

Sophie of Pomerania
9 October 1518
Kiel
six children
Christian II the Tyrant
(Christian 2.)
ChristianII of denmark.jpg
February 1426 1513-1523 21 May 1481 Schleswig Isabella of Austria
12 August 1515
Copenhagen
six children
Christian III
(Christian 3.)
Christian III of Denmark.jpg
12 August 1503 1533-1544 1 January 1559 Schleswig Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 October 1525
Lauenburg
five children
Christian was also King of Denmark. In 1544 divided Schleswig with his half-brothers. John received Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev, and Adolph Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp.
1544-1559 Schleswig-Schleswig
John II the Elder
Hans den Eldre.JPG
21 June 1521 1544-1580 1 October 1580 Schleswig-Holstein-Haderslev Unmarried
Adolph
Adolf I. von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf.jpg
25 January 1526 1544-1586 1 October 1586 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Christine of Hesse
17 December 1564
Schleswig
ten children
Haderslev divided between Schleswig and Gottorp
Frederick II
(Frederik 2.)
1581 Lorck Frederik 2.(crop).jpg
1 July 1534 1559-1588 4 April 1588 Schleswig-Schleswig Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
20 July 1572
Copenhagen
eight children
Also King of Denmark.
Frederick III 21 April 1568 1586-1587 15 June 1587 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Unmarried Died without descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Philip
Hertug Philip af Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp.jpg
10 August 1570 1587-1590 18 October 1590 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Unmarried Died without descendants. He was succeeded by his brother.
Council of Regency: 1588-1596
Christian IV
(Christian 4.)
Kristian IV av Danmark, malning av Pieter Isaacsz 1611-1616.jpg
12 April 1577 1596-1648 28 February 1648 Schleswig-Schleswig Anne Catherine of Brandenburg
27 November 1597
Haderslev
seven children

Kirsten Munk
31 December 1615
Copenhagen
(morganatic)
twelve children
Also King of Denmark.
John Adolph
Johann Adolf von Holstein Gottorp.jpg
27 February 1575 1590-1616 31 March 1616 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Augusta of Denmark
30 August 1596
Copenhagen
eight children
Frederick IV
Friedrich III Herzog von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf.jpg
22 December 1597 1616-1659 10 August 1659 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Marie Elisabeth of Saxony
21 February 1630
Dresden
sixteen children
Frederick V
(Frederik 3.)
Frederik 3 by window.jpg
18 March 1609 1648-1670 9 February 1670 Schleswig-Schleswig Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
1 October 1643
Glücksburg
eight children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick III.
Christian Albert
Christian Albrecht.jpg
3 February 1641 1659-1695 6 January 1695 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Frederica Amalia of Denmark
24 October 1667
Glücksburg
four children
Christian V
(Christian 5.)
Christian V of Denmark.jpg
15 April 1646 1670-1699 25 August 1699 Schleswig-Schleswig Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel
25 June 1667
Nykøbing Falster
eight children
Also King of Denmark.
Frederick VI
Frederik IV af Slesvig-Holsten-Gottorp.jpg
18 October 1671 1695-1702 19 July 1702 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Hedvig Sophia of Sweden
12 May 1698
Karlberg
one child
Frederick VII
(Frederik 4.)
Frederik den 4.jpg
11 October 1671 1699-1713 12 October 1730 Schleswig-Schleswig Louise of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
5 December 1695
Copenhagen
five children

Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg
26 September 1703
(morganatic and bigamous)
one child

Anne Sophie Reventlow
4 April 1721
Copenhagen
three children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick IV. In 1713 reunited Schleswig.
1713-1730 Schleswig
Hedvig Sophia of Sweden (regent)
David von Krafft - Porträt der Prinzessin Hedwig Sophia von Schweden, Herzogin von Holstein-Gottorf.jpg
26 June 1681 1702-1708 22 December 1708 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp Frederick VI
12 May 1698
Karlberg
one child
Regent on behalf of her son.
Charles Frederick
Carl Frederick of Sweden c 1722 by David von Krafft.jpg
30 April 1700 1708-1739 18 June 1739 Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp (until 1713)

Holstein-Gottorp (after 1713)
Anna Petrovna of Russia
21 May 1725
St Petersburg
one child
Christian VI
(Christian 6.)
Christian 6.jpg
30 November 1699 1730-1746 6 August 1746 Schleswig Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach
7 August 1721
Pretzsch
three children
Also King of Denmark.
Charles Peter Ulrich
Coronation portrait of Peter III of Russia -1761 (cropped).jpg
21 February 1728 1739-1762 17 July 1762 Holstein-Gottorp Sophie Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
21 August 1745
St Petersburg
one child
He later ascended as Peter III of Russia.
Frederick VIII
(Frederik 5.)
Pilo - Frederik V of Denmark.jpg
31 March 1723 1746-1766 14 January 1766 Schleswig Louise of Great Britain
11 December 1743
Altona
five children

Juliana Maria of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 July 1752
Hillerød
one son
Also King of Denmark as Frederick V.
Paul I
Borovikovsky Pavel I.jpg
1 October 1754 1762-1773 23 March 1801 Holstein-Gottorp Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
20 September 1773
St Petersburg
no children

Wilhelmina Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt
7 October 1776
St Petersburg
ten children
He later ascended as Peter III of Russia.
Gottorp reunited with Schleswig
Christian VII
(Christian 7.)
Christian VII 1772 by Roslin.jpg
29 January 1749 1766-1773 13 March 1808 Schleswig Caroline Matilda of Great Britain
8 November 1766
Copenhagen
two children
Also King of Denmark. In 1773 reunited Schleswig and Holstein.
1773-1784 Schleswig-Holstein
Frederick IX
(Frederik 6.)
Fiedrichvidenmark.jpg
28 January 1768 1784-1808
(as Regent)

1808-1839
8 December 1839 Schleswig-Holstein Marie Sophie of Hesse-Kassel
31 July 1790
Schleswig
eight children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick VI. He had been regent in name of his father, with mental instability, since 1784.
Christian VIII
(Christian 8.)
Christian VIII af Wilhelm Marstrand.jpg
18 September 1786 1839-1848 20 January 1848 Schleswig-Holstein Charlotte Frederica of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
21 June 1806
Ludwigslust
two children

Caroline Amalie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
22 May 1815
Augustenborg
no children
Also King of Denmark.
Frederick X
(Frederik 7.)
Frederik VII af August Schiøtt.jpg
6 October 1808 1848-1863 15 November 1863 Schleswig-Holstein Vilhelmine Marie of Denmark
1 November 1828
Copenhagen
(annulled 1837)
no children

Caroline Mariane of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
10 June 1841
Neustrelitz
(annulled 1846)
no children

Louise Rasmussen
7 August 1850
Hillerød
(morganatic)
no children
Also King of Denmark as Frederick VII.
Christian IX
(Christian 9.)
Christian IX af Henrik Olrik.jpg
8 April 1818 1863-1864 29 January 1906 Schleswig-Holstein Louise of Hesse-Kassel
26 May 1842
Copenhagen
six children
He was from the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg branch of the Oldenburgs. Also King of Denmark. In 1864 the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia.

In 1864, following the Second Schleswig War, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein became an occupied territory of the German Confederation and two years later, following the Austro-Prussian War, part of the new Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Esben Albrectsen, "Das Abel-Geschlecht und die Schauenburger als Herzöge von Schleswig", Marion Hartwig and Frauke Witte (trls.), in: Die Fürsten des Landes: Herzöge und Grafen von Schleswig, Holstein und Lauenburg [De slevigske hertuger; German], Carsten Porskrog Rasmussen (ed.) on behalf of the Gesellschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinische Geschichte, Neumünster: Wachholtz, 2008, pp. 52–71, here p. 52. ISBN 978-3-529-02606-5
  2. ^ "Albrectsen 2008 p. 52"
  3. ^ "Albrectsen 2008 p. 52"
  4. ^ "Albrectsen 2008 p. 52"