List of possible dwarf planets

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Illustration of the relative sizes, albedos, and colours of the largest trans-Neptunian objects

It is estimated that there may be 200 dwarf planets in the Kuiper belt of the outer Solar System[1][needs update] and possibly more than 10,000 in the region beyond.[2] The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has accepted four of these: Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake, as well as Ceres in the inner Solar System. This article lists these and the more likely of the remaining known possibilities.

IAU naming procedures[edit]

In 2008, the IAU modified its naming procedures such that objects considered most likely to be dwarf planets receive differing treatment than others. Objects that have an absolute magnitude (H) less than +1 (and hence a minimum diameter of 838 kilometres (521 mi) if the albedo is below 100%[3]) are overseen by two naming committees, one for minor planets and one for planets. Once named, the objects are declared to be dwarf planets. Makemake and Haumea are the only objects to have proceeded through the naming process as presumed dwarf planets; currently there are no other bodies that meet this criterion. All other bodies are named by the minor-planet naming committee alone, and the IAU has not stated how or if they will be accepted as dwarf planets.

Limiting values[edit]

Calculation of the diameter of Ixion depends on the albedo (the fraction of light that it reflects), which is currently unknown.

The qualifying feature of a dwarf planet is that it "has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid-body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape".[4][5][6] Current observations are generally insufficient for a direct determination as to whether a body meets this definition. Based on a comparison with the icy moons that have been visited by spacecraft, such as Mimas (round at 400 km in diameter) and Proteus (irregular at 410–440 km in diameter), Michael Brown estimated that an icy body relaxes into hydrostatic equilibrium at a diameter somewhere between 200 and 400 km.[1]

Ceres is thought to be the only dwarf planet in the asteroid belt. 4 Vesta, the second-most-massive asteroid, appears to have a fully differentiated interior and was therefore in equilibrium at some point in its history, but it is not today.[7] The third-most massive object, 2 Pallas, has a somewhat irregular surface and is thought to have only a partially differentiated interior. Brown has estimated that, because rocky objects are more rigid than icy objects, rocky objects below 900 kilometres (560 mi) in diameter may not be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus not dwarf planets.[1]

After Brown and Tancredi made their calculations, it was discovered that Iapetus (1,470 km in diameter) and smaller moons of Saturn with well-determined shapes are not in hydrostatic equilibrium as had been thought. They have a hydrostatic shape that froze in some time ago and that does not match the shape an equilibrium body would have at their current rotation rates.[8] Ceres, at 950 km, is the smallest body for which detailed measurements are consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium. [9] It is not clear whether trans-Neptunian objects would behave more like Ceres or Iapetus; thus, some or all trans-Neptunian dwarf planets smaller than Pluto and Eris might not actually be in equilibrium.[citation needed] The IAU has not addressed the issue since these findings.

Tancredi's assessment[edit]

In 2010, Gonzalo Tancredi presented a report to the IAU evaluating a list of 46 candidates for dwarf-planet status based on light-curve-amplitude analysis and the assumption that the object was more than 450 kilometres (280 mi) in diameter. Some diameters are measured, some are best-fit estimates, and others use an assumed albedo of 0.10. Of these, he identified 15 as dwarf planets by his criteria, with another nine being considered possible. To be cautious, he advised the IAU to "officially" accept as dwarf planets the top three: Sedna, Orcus, and Quaoar.[10] Although the IAU had anticipated Tancredi's recommendations, as of 2013, they had not responded.

Brown's assessment[edit]

Brown's categories Min. Number of objects
nearly certainly >900 km 10
highly likely 600–900 km 19
likely 500–600 km 45
probably 400–500 km 71
possibly 200–400 km 548
Source: Mike Brown,[11] as of September 21, 2016. (Summary figures differ on M. Brown's website using a cumulative count).

Mike Brown considers a large number of trans-Neptunian bodies, ranked by estimated size, to be "probably" dwarf planets.[11] He did not consider asteroids, stating "In the asteroid belt Ceres, with a diameter of 900 km, is the only object large enough to be round".[11]

The terms for varying degrees of likelihood he split these into:

  • Near certainty: diameter estimated/measured to be over 900 kilometres (560 mi). Sufficient confidence to say these must be in hydrostatic equilibrium, even if predominantly rocky.
  • Highly likely: diameter estimated/measured to be over 600 kilometres (370 mi). The size would have to be "grossly in error" or they would have to be primarily rocky to not be dwarf planets.
  • Likely: diameter estimated/measured to be over 500 kilometres (310 mi). Uncertainties in measurement mean that some of these will be significantly smaller and thus doubtful.
  • Probable: diameter estimated/measured to be over 400 kilometres (250 mi). Expected to be dwarf planets, if they are icy, and that figure is correct.
  • Possible: diameter estimated/measured to be over 200 kilometres (120 mi). Icy moons transition from a round to irregular shape in the 200–400 km range, suggesting that the same figure holds true for KBOs. Thus, some of these objects could be dwarf planets.
  • Probably not: diameter estimated/measured to be under 200 km. No icy moon under 200 km is round, suggesting that the same is true for KBOs. The estimated size of these objects would have to be in error for them to be dwarf planets.

Likeliest dwarf planets[edit]

The following trans-Neptunian objects have estimated diameters at least 300 kilometres (190 mi) and so may be dwarf planets. Not all bodies estimated to be this size are included. The list is complicated by bodies such as (47171) 1999 TC36 that were at first assumed to be large single objects but later discovered to be binary or triple systems of smaller bodies.[12] The asteroid Ceres is added for comparison.

The default sort is per Brown's size estimate. The IAU-recognised dwarf planets have bold names. Brown's diameter estimates are in red when they are based upon an assumed albedo. Explanations and sources for the measured masses and diameters can be found in the corresponding articles linked in column "Designation" of the table.

Designation Per Brown[11] Measured per
measured
Diameter
per assumed albedo
Result
per Tancredi[10]
Category Best[a]
diameter
km
H
Diameter[b]
(km)
Geometric
albedo

(%)
Mass
(1018)
H

[13][14]

Diameter
(km)
Geometric
albedo[c]
(%)
Small
albedo=100%
(km)
Large
albedo=4%
(km)
136199 Eris −1.1 2330 99 16700 −1.1 2326±12 90 2206 11028 accepted (measured) SDO 2326
134340 Pluto −0.7 2329 64 13030 −0.4 2374±8 45 1598 7989 accepted (measured) 2:3 resonant 2374
136472 Makemake 0.1 1426 81 −0.3 1430±14 114 1526 7629 accepted cubewano 1430
(225088) 2007 OR10 2 1290 19 1.8 1535+75
−225
14 580 2901 SDO 1535
136108 Haumea 0.4 1252 80 4000 0.2 1430 72 1212 6060 accepted cubewano 1430
50000 Quaoar 2.7 1092 13 1400 2.82 1110±5 11 363 1813 accepted (and recommended) cubewano 1110
90377 Sedna 1.8 1041 32 1.83 995±80 33 572 2861 accepted (and recommended) detached 995
90482 Orcus 2.3 983 23 580 2.31 917±25 25 459 2293 accepted (and recommended) 2:3 resonant 917
(307261) 2002 MS4 4 960 5 3.7 934±47 7 242 1209 cubewano 934
1 Ceres 939 3.36 946±2 9 283 1414 asteroid belt 946
120347 Salacia 4.2 921 4 450 4.25 854±45 5 188 939 possible cubewano 854
2013 FY27 3.3 771 15 3 334 1669 SDO 771
(208996) 2003 AZ84 3.7 747 11 3.74 727+62
−67
11 237 1187 accepted 2:3 resonant 727
20000 Varuna 4 746 9 3.76 668+154
−86
12 235 1176 accepted cubewano 668
(55565) 2002 AW197 3.7 746 12 3.4 768+39
−38
13 278 1388 accepted cubewano 768
174567 Varda 3.6 718 14 265 3.61 705+81
−75
13 252 1260 possible cubewano 705
(55637) 2002 UX25 3.9 704 11 125 3.87 665±29 11 224 1118 3:5 resonant 665
(90568) 2004 GV9 4.2 703 8 4.25 680±34 8 188 939 accepted 3:5 resonant 680
(202421) 2005 UQ513 3.7 701 13 3.4 498+63
−75
31 278 1388 cubewano 498
(145452) 2005 RN43 3.9 697 11 3.89 679+55
−73
11 222 1108 possible cubewano 679
28978 Ixion 3.8 674 12 3.83 617+19
−20
14 228 1139 accepted 2:3 resonant 617
2010 RF43 4 652 12 3.7 242 1209 SDO 652
2014 EZ51 4 652 12 3.7 242 1209 detached 652
2015 RR245 4 652 12 3.7 242 1209 SDO 652
2015 KH162 4.1 621 11 3.9 221 1103 detached 621
(229762) 2007 UK126 3.7 612 17 3.69 648+60
−46
14 243 1215 SDO 648
19521 Chaos 5 612 5 4.8 600+140
−130
6 146 729 cubewano 600
2010 KZ39 4.2 607 10 4 211 1053 cubewano 607
2014 WK509 4.2 607 10 4 211 1053 detached 607
2012 VP113 4.2 607 10 4 211 1053 detached 607
2013 FZ27 4.3 592 10 4.1 201 1006 cubewano 592
2014 AN55 4.3 592 10 4.1 201 1006 SDO 592
2010 RE64 4.3 592 10 4.1 201 1006 SDO 592
(230965) 2004 XA192 4.3 592 10 4.1 339+120
−95
35 201 1006 1:2 resonant 339
2004 XR190 4.3 592 10 4.1 201 1006 detached 592
(84522) 2002 TC302 4.2 591 12 3.8 584+106
−88
16 231 1155 2:5 resonant 584
(78799) 2002 XW93 5.4 584 4 5.5 106 528 SDO 584
(42301) 2001 UR163 4.4 578 9 4.2 192 960 possible SDO 578
2010 FX86 4.4 578 9 4.2 192 960 cubewano 578
2008 ST291 4.4 578 9 4.2 192 960 detached 578
2006 QH181 4.5 564 9 4.3 183 917 SDO 564
2002 XV93 5.4 564 4 5.42 549+22
−23
4 110 548 2:3 resonant 549
(455502) 2003 UZ413 4.5 564 9 4.3 183 917 2:3 resonant 564
2014 YA50 4.5 564 9 4.3 183 917 cubewano 564
2013 XC26 4.6 551 9 4.4 175 876 3:5 resonant 551
(470443) 2007 XV50 4.6 551 9 4.4 175 876 cubewano 551
(120348) 2004 TY364 4.6 551 9 4.52 512+37
−40
10 166 829 not accepted 2:3 resonant 512
(145451) 2005 RM43 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 possible SDO 538
(470308) 2007 JH43 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 2:3 resonant 538
(278361) 2007 JJ43 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 cubewano 538
2013 AT183 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 SDO 538
2014 BV64 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 cubewano 538
2014 FC72 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 detached 538
2014 HA200 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 SDO 538
2014 WP509 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 cubewano 538
2015 BZ518 4.7 538 8 4.5 167 837 cubewano 538
(84922) 2003 VS2 4.1 537 15 4.1 523+35
−34
15 201 1006 not accepted 2:3 resonant 523
2010 OO127 4.8 525 8 4.6 160 799 3:5 resonant 525
2010 VK201 4.8 525 8 4.6 160 799 cubewano 525
2014 TZ85 4.8 525 8 4.6 160 799 4:7 resonant 525
2014 FC69 4.8 525 8 4.6 160 799 detached 525
2014 FT71 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 4:7 resonant 513
(472271) 2014 UM33 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 cubewano 513
2014 US224 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 cubewano 513
2010 DN93 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 detached 513
(470599) 2008 OG19 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 SDO 513
(444030) 2004 NT33 4.9 513 8 4.7 423+87
−80
13 153 763 cubewano 423
2003 QX113 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 SDO 513
2003 UA414 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 SDO 513
(82075) 2000 YW134 4.9 513 8 4.7 153 763 detached 513
(315530) 2008 AP129 5 500 7 4.8 146 729 cubewano 500
2014 VU37 5 500 7 4.8 146 729 cubewano 500
2015 AM281 5 500 7 4.8 146 729 detached 500
2014 BZ57 5 500 7 4.8 146 729 cubewano 500
2014 HZ199 5 500 7 4.8 146 729 4:7 resonant 500
2014 JP80 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 2:3 resonant 489
2014 JR80 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 2:3 resonant 489
2011 WJ157 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 489
2013 FS28 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 489
2014 WH509 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 cubewano 489
(26181) 1996 GQ21 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 489
(307982) 2004 PG115 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 SDO 489
(119979) 2002 WC19 5.1 489 7 4.9 139 696 1:2 resonant 489
(175113) 2004 PF115 4.5 482 12 4.54 406+98
−75
16 164 821 2:3 resonant 406
2011 FW62 5.2 481 7 5 133 665 2:3 resonant 481
2011 OA60 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 cubewano 477
2013 HV156 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 1:2 resonant 477
2014 AM55 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 cubewano 477
2014 XR40 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 cubewano 477
2015 AN281 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 3:5 resonant 477
2015 AJ281 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 4:7 resonant 477
2014 SV349 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 SDO 477
2014 OJ394 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 detached 477
2014 QW441 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 cubewano 477
2005 CA79 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 1:2 resonant 477
2010 ER65 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 detached 477
(445473) 2010 VZ98 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 SDO 477
2010 RF188 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 SDO 477
2010 RF64 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 cubewano 477
2010 RO64 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 cubewano 477
2010 TJ 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 SDO 477
(48639) 1995 TL8 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 detached 477
(469306) 1999 CD158 5.2 477 7 5 133 665 4:7 resonant 477
(471143) 2010 EK139 3.8 475 25 3.8 470+35
−10
24 231 1155 SDO 470
(26375) 1999 DE9 5.2 474 7 4.9 461±45 9 139 696 possible SDO 461
(35671) 1998 SN165 5.7 473 4 5.6 393+39
−38
7 101 504 cubewano 393
(145480) 2005 TB190 4.4 469 15 4.4 464±62 14 175 876 detached 464
(119951) 2002 KX14 4.9 468 10 4.86 445±27 10 142 709 2:3 resonant 445
(120132) 2003 FY128 5.1 467 8 4.8 460±21 10 146 729 SDO 460
(307616) 2003 QW90 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2003 UY413 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
38628 Huya 5 466 8 5.04 406±16 10 130 652 accepted 2:3 resonant 406
2010 EL139 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 2:3 resonant 466
(471137) 2010 ET65 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 SDO 466
(471165) 2010 HE79 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 2:3 resonant 466
2014 SH349 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2014 YZ49 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2015 AH281 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2014 XS40 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2014 YF50 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 SDO 466
(471288) 2011 GM27 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2014 FY71 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 4:7 resonant 466
2014 CO23 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
2014 DN143 5.3 466 6 5.1 127 635 cubewano 466
(84719) 2002 VR128 5.6 459 5 5.58 449+42
−43
5 102 509 2:3 resonant 449
2002 CY248 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2008 UA332 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
(308379) 2005 RS43 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 1:2 resonant 455
2014 EA52 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2014 LO28 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
(471318) 2011 JF31 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2012 JH67 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 1:2 resonant 455
2013 JW63 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 1:2 resonant 455
(471921) 2013 FC28 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2013 AP183 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 SDO 455
2014 WZ509 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2014 WS510 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 2:5 resonant 455
2014 WW509 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 3:5 resonant 455
2015 FG345 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 3:5 resonant 455
2014 QA442 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2014 GX53 5.4 455 6 5.2 121 606 cubewano 455
2003 QX111 6.8 453 2 6.8 58 290 2:3 resonant 453
2006 HH123 5.4 452 6 5.2 121 606 2:5 resonant 452
(469372) 2001 QF298 5.4 421 7 5.43 408+40
−45
7 109 545 2:3 resonant 408
(303775) 2005 QU182 3.8 415 33 3.8 416±73 31 231 1155 SDO 416
(437915) 2002 GD32 6 414 4 5.8 92 460 cubewano 414
(144897) 2004 UX10 4.8 409 14 4.75 361+124
−94
17 149 746 possible 2:3 resonant 361
(469333) 2000 PE30 6.1 396 4 5.9 88 439 SDO 396
2002 PJ149 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
2007 PS45 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 1:2 resonant 384
2010 JK124 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 2:3 resonant 384
2010 MQ116 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
(471196) 2010 PK66 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
(471210) 2010 VW11 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 SDO 384
2010 VQ11 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
2014 OD394 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
2014 UR224 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 TNO 384
2015 BX518 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 3:5 resonant 384
2014 YE50 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 SDO 384
2015 BE519 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
2014 WQ510 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 2:3 resonant 384
2013 HU156 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 2:3 resonant 384
2012 HG84 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
2014 DF143 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 cubewano 384
2014 DK143 5.5 384 8 5.3 116 579 3:5 resonant 384
(168703) 2000 GP183 6.2 379 4 6 84 419 cubewano 379
1999 CL119 6.2 379 4 6 84 419 cubewano 379
2001 QS297 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2010 VW224 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 4:7 resonant 367
(470596) 2008 NW4 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2010 TR19 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 SDO 367
2010 RN64 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
(312645) 2010 EP65 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 1:2 resonant 367
(444745) 2007 JF43 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 2:3 resonant 367
2014 DM143 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2014 CQ23 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2014 DO143 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2014 GW53 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2014 GT53 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2013 MA12 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2013 PV74 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 TNO 367
(471954) 2013 RM98 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2013 YJ151 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 detached 367
2014 WJ509 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2014 QS441 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2014 QX441 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 2:3 resonant 367
2014 QY441 5.6 367 8 5.4 111 553 cubewano 367
2001 QX322 6.3 362 4 6.1 80 400 SDO 362
2000 KK4 6.3 362 4 6.1 80 400 cubewano 362
2000 CQ105 6.3 362 4 6.1 80 400 SDO 362
(126154) 2001 YH140 5.7 351 8 5.8 345±45 7 92 460 3:5 resonant 345
2002 GH32 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 3:5 resonant 351
2002 XH91 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 351
(305543) 2008 QY40 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 351
2008 CT190 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 351
2010 TY53 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 351
2010 VR11 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 351
2014 MY69 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 351
2014 LV28 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 351
2014 WG509 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 3:5 resonant 351
2014 WQ509 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 351
2014 JJ80 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 351
2014 JM80 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 detached 351
2014 JW80 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 SDO 351
2014 JS80 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 cubewano 351
2014 DR143 5.7 351 8 5.5 106 528 2:3 resonant 351
2007 TG422 6.4 347 4 6.2 76 382 SDO 347
(82155) 2001 FZ173 6.4 347 4 6.2 76 382 SDO 347
(15874) 1996 TL66 5.4 344 11 5.4 339±20 11 111 553 accepted SDO 339
(135182) 2001 QT322 6.4 342 4 6.2 76 382 cubewano 342
(82158) 2001 FP185 6.4 336 5 6.38 332+31
−24
4 70 352 SDO 332
(469421) 2001 XD255 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 336
2007 JF45 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 336
2010 AH2 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 336
2014 FJ72 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 SDO 336
2014 BX64 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 336
2014 GU53 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 4:7 resonant 336
2012 BW154 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 336
2011 HP83 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 SDO 336
2012 XR157 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 1:2 resonant 336
2013 CD223 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 336
2014 WY509 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 336
2014 YK50 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 SDO 336
2015 FL345 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 336
2014 UO224 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 3:5 resonant 336
2014 MH70 5.8 336 8 5.6 101 504 2:3 resonant 336
2014 OE394 4.8 331 20 4.6 160 799 cubewano 331
2001 QC298 6.5 331 4 6.3 73 365 cubewano 331
(148209) 2000 CR105 6.5 331 4 6.3 73 365 detached 331
2001 KA77 5.6 324 10 5 133 665 cubewano 324
(307251) 2002 KW14 5.9 322 8 5.6 101 504 cubewano 322
2003 UB292 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2001 RU143 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 321
(79978) 1999 CC158 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
(471150) 2010 FC49 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 321
2010 PT66 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
2010 PU75 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
2010 RD188 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2010 VL201 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2010 SS43 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2008 SP266 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 QZ441 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 3:5 resonant 321
2014 OP394 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
2014 UP224 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 OH394 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 WF509 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 UV224 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
2015 BT518 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2015 OV79 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2015 BD519 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 2:5 resonant 321
2014 YB50 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 3:5 resonant 321
2014 WT69 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 WU509 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2013 EC138 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2013 EJ154 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2012 UB178 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 3:5 resonant 321
2011 UT410 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 321
2013 PX74 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 2:3 resonant 321
2014 HF200 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
2014 HW199 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 JU80 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 SDO 321
2014 LT28 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2014 DE143 5.9 321 8 5.7 96 481 cubewano 321
2004 VN112 6.6 317 4 6.4 70 349 detached 317
2004 OJ14 6.6 317 4 6.4 70 349 2:5 resonant 317
(470316) 2007 OC10 5.4 315 13 5 133 665 SDO 315
2007 TB418 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 2:5 resonant 307
2007 LF38 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2008 AQ118 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2007 VK305 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2005 RP43 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
(469615) 2004 PT107 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2000 AF255 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2002 GF32 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 2:3 resonant 307
(472232) 2014 FW71 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2014 KW101 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2013 LY35 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2013 JH64 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2013 AR183 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2011 VJ24 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 2:3 resonant 307
2012 DW98 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2013 FB28 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2014 XV40 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2015 BP518 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 4:7 resonant 307
2015 BQ518 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2016 FW59 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2016 FX58 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 4:7 resonant 307
2014 WD510 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2014 TA86 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 3:5 resonant 307
2014 UH192 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2014 OS394 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2014 QC442 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 SDO 307
2014 OF394 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2014 NZ65 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 4:7 resonant 307
2014 MB70 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2014 MG70 6 307 8 5.8 92 460 cubewano 307
2000 CP104 6.7 303 4 6.5 67 333 cubewano 303
2005 SD278 6.7 303 4 6.5 67 333 2:5 resonant 303
  1. ^ The measured diameter, else Brown's estimated diameter, else the diameter calculated from H using an assumed albedo of 8%.
  2. ^ Diameters with the text in red indicate that Brown's bot derived them from heuristically expected albedo.
  3. ^ The geometric albedo is calculated from the measured absolute magnitude and measured diameter via the formula:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mike Brown. "The Dwarf Planets". Retrieved 2008-01-20. 
  2. ^ "Today we know of more than a dozen dwarf planets in the solar system [and] it is estimated that the ultimate number of dwarf planets we will discover in the Kuiper Belt and beyond may well exceed 10,000".The PI's Perspective
  3. ^ Dan Bruton. "Conversion of Absolute Magnitude to Diameter for Minor Planets". Department of Physics & Astronomy (Stephen F. Austin State University). Retrieved 2008-06-13. 
  4. ^ "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes". International Astronomical Union. 2006. Retrieved 2008-01-26. 
  5. ^ "Dwarf Planets". NASA. Retrieved 2008-01-22. 
  6. ^ "Plutoid chosen as name for Solar System objects like Pluto" (Press release). 
  7. ^ Savage, Don; Jones, Tammy; Villard, Ray (1995-04-19). "Asteroid or Mini-Planet? Hubble Maps the Ancient Surface of Vesta". Hubble Site News Release STScI-1995-20. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2015/dps15-1112-ceres.html
  10. ^ a b Tancredi, G. (2010). "Physical and dynamical characteristics of icy "dwarf planets" (plutoids)". Icy Bodies of the Solar System: Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 263, 2009. 
  11. ^ a b c d Michael E. Brown. "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? (updates daily)". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  12. ^ "AstDys (47171) 1999TC36 Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  13. ^ "List Of Trans-Neptunian Objects". Minor Planet Center. 
  14. ^ "List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects". Minor Planet Center. 

External links[edit]