List of possible dwarf planets

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The number of dwarf planets in the Solar System is unknown. Estimates have run as high as 200 in the Kuiper belt[1] and over 10,000 in the region beyond.[2] However, consideration of the surprisingly low densities of many dwarf-planet candidates suggests that the numbers may be much lower, possibly only nine among bodies known so far.[3] The International Astronomical Union (IAU) required dwarf planets to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, and notes five in particular: Ceres in the inner Solar System and four in the trans-Neptunian region: Pluto, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake. The last two were accepted as dwarf planets for naming purposes and will keep their names if it turns out they are not dwarf planets. Only Pluto and Ceres have actually been confirmed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium, due to the results of the New Horizons and Dawn missions.[4] Other trans-Neptunian objects have been called dwarf planets if they appear to at least be solid bodies: planetologists generally include at least Orcus, Quaoar, Gonggong, and Sedna.

Limiting values[edit]

Calculation of the diameter of Ixion depends on the albedo (the fraction of light that it reflects). Current estimates are that the albedo is 13–15%, a bit under the midpoint of the range shown here and corresponding to a diameter of 620 km.

Beside directly orbiting the Sun, the qualifying feature of a dwarf planet is that it have "sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid-body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape".[5][6][7] Current observations are generally insufficient for a direct determination as to whether a body meets this definition. Often the only clues for trans-Neptunian objects (TNO) is a crude estimate of their diameters and albedos. Icy satellites as large as 1,500 km in diameter have proven to not be in equilibrium, whereas dark objects in the outer solar system often have low densities that imply they are not even solid bodies, much less gravitationally controlled dwarf planets.

Ceres, which has a significant amount of ice in its composition, is the only accepted dwarf planet in the asteroid belt, though there are unexplained anomalies.[8] 4 Vesta, the second-most-massive asteroid and one that is basaltic in composition, appears to have a fully differentiated interior and was therefore in equilibrium at some point in its history, but no longer is today.[9] The third-most massive object, 2 Pallas, has a somewhat irregular surface and is thought to have only a partially differentiated interior; it is also less icy than Ceres. Michael Brown has estimated that, because rocky objects such as Vesta are more rigid than icy objects, rocky objects below 900 kilometres (560 mi) in diameter may not be in hydrostatic equilibrium and thus not dwarf planets.[1] The question remains open if the two largest icy outer-belt asteroids 10 Hygiea and 704 Interamnia are also dwarf planets.[8][10]

Based on a comparison with the icy moons that have been visited by spacecraft, such as Mimas (round at 400 km in diameter) and Proteus (irregular at 410–440 km in diameter), Brown estimated that an icy body relaxes into hydrostatic equilibrium at a diameter somewhere between 200 and 400 km.[1] However, after Brown and Tancredi made their calculations, better determination of their shapes showed that Mimas and the other mid-sized ellipsoidal moons of Saturn up to at least Iapetus (which, at 1,471 km in diameter, is approximately the same size as Haumea and Makemake) are no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium; they are also icier than TNOs are likely to be. They have equilibrium shapes that froze in place some time ago, and do not match the shapes that equilibrium bodies would have at their current rotation rates.[11] Thus Rhea, at 1528 km in diameter, is the smallest body for which gravitational measurements are consistent with current hydrostatic equilibrium. Ceres, at 950 km in diameter, is close to equilibrium, but some deviations from equilibrium shape remain unexplained.[12] Much larger objects, such as Earth's moon and the planet Mercury, are not near hydrostatic equilibrium today,[13][14][15] though the Moon is composed primarily of silicate rock and Mercury of metal (in contrast to most dwarf planet candidates, which are ice and rock). Saturn's moons may have been subject to a thermal history that would have produced equilibrium-like shapes in bodies too small for gravity alone to do so. Thus, at present it is unknown whether any trans-Neptunian objects smaller than Pluto and Eris are in hydrostatic equilibrium.[3]

The majority of mid-sized TNOs up to about 900–1000 km in diameter have significantly lower densities (~ 1.0–1.2 g/ml) than larger bodies such as Pluto (1.86 g/ml). Brown had speculated that this was due to their composition, that they were almost entirely icy. However, Grundy et al.[3] point out that there is no known mechanism or evolutionary pathway for mid-sized bodies to be icy while both larger and smaller objects are partially rocky. They demonstrated that at the prevailing temperatures of the Kuiper Belt, water ice is strong enough to support open interior spaces (interstices) in objects of this size; they concluded that mid-size TNOs have low densities for the same reason that smaller objects do—because they have not compacted under self-gravity into fully solid objects, and thus the typical TNO smaller than 900–1000 km in diameter is (pending some other formative mechanism) unlikely to be a dwarf planet.

Tancredi's assessment[edit]

In 2010, Gonzalo Tancredi presented a report to the IAU evaluating a list of 46 trans-Neptunian candidates for dwarf planet status based on light-curve-amplitude analysis and a calculation that the object was more than 450 kilometres (280 mi) in diameter. Some diameters were measured, some were best-fit estimates, and others used an assumed albedo of 0.10 to calculate the diameter. Of these, he identified 15 as dwarf planets by his criteria (including the 4 accepted by the IAU), with another 9 being considered possible. To be cautious, he advised the IAU to "officially" accept as dwarf planets the top three not yet accepted: Sedna, Orcus, and Quaoar.[16] Although the IAU had anticipated Tancredi's recommendations, a decade later the IAU had never responded.

Brown's assessment[edit]

EarthMoonCharonCharonNixNixKerberosKerberosStyxStyxHydraHydraPlutoPlutoDysnomiaDysnomiaErisErisNamakaNamakaHi'iakaHi'iakaHaumeaHaumeaMakemakeMakemakeMK2MK2XiangliuXiangliuGonggongGonggongWeywotWeywotQuaoarQuaoarSednaSednaVanthVanthOrcusOrcusActaeaActaeaSalaciaSalacia2002 MS42002 MS4File:EightTNOs.png
Artistic comparison of Pluto, Eris, Haumea, Makemake, Gonggong, Quaoar, Sedna, Orcus, Salacia, 2002 MS4, and Earth along with the Moon
Brown's categories Min. Number of objects
Nearly certainly >900 km 10
Highly likely 600–900 km 17 (27 total)
Likely 500–600 km 41 (68 total)
Probably 400–500 km 62 (130 total)
Possibly 200–400 km 611 (741 total)
Source: Mike Brown,[17] as of October 22, 2020

Mike Brown considers 130 trans-Neptunian bodies to be "probably" dwarf planets, ranked them by estimated size.[17] He does not consider asteroids, stating "in the asteroid belt Ceres, with a diameter of 900 km, is the only object large enough to be round."[17]

The terms for varying degrees of likelihood he split these into:

  • Near certainty: diameter estimated/measured to be over 900 kilometres (560 mi). Sufficient confidence to say these must be in hydrostatic equilibrium, even if predominantly rocky. 10 objects as of 2020.
  • Highly likely: diameter estimated/measured to be over 600 kilometres (370 mi). The size would have to be "grossly in error" or they would have to be primarily rocky to not be dwarf planets. 17 objects as of 2020.
  • Likely: diameter estimated/measured to be over 500 kilometres (310 mi). Uncertainties in measurement mean that some of these will be significantly smaller and thus doubtful. 41 objects as of 2020.
  • Probably: diameter estimated/measured to be over 400 kilometres (250 mi). Expected to be dwarf planets, if they are icy, and that figure is correct. 62 objects as of 2020.
  • Possibly: diameter estimated/measured to be over 200 kilometres (120 mi). Icy moons transition from a round to irregular shape in the 200–400 km range, suggesting that the same figure holds true for KBOs. Thus, some of these objects could be dwarf planets. 611 objects as of 2020.
  • Probably not: diameter estimated/measured to be under 200 km. No icy moon under 200 km is round, and the same may be true of KBOs. The estimated size of these objects would have to be in error for them to be dwarf planets.

Beside the five accepted by the IAU, the 'nearly certain' category includes Gonggong, Quaoar, Sedna, Orcus, 2002 MS4, and Salacia.

Grundy et al.’s assessment[edit]

Grundy et al. propose that dark, low-density TNOs in the size range of approximately 400–1000 km are transitional between smaller, porous (and thus low-density) bodies and larger, denser, brighter and geologically differentiated planetary bodies (such as dwarf planets). Bodies in this size range should have begun to collapse the interstitial spaces left over from their formation, but not fully, leaving some residual porosity.[3]

Many TNOs in the size range of about 400–1000 km have oddly low densities, in the range of about 1.0–1.2 g/cm3, that are substantially less than dwarf planets such as Pluto, Eris and Ceres, which have densities closer to 2. Brown has suggested that large low-density bodies must be composed almost entirely of water ice, since he presumed that bodies of this size would necessarily be solid. However, this leaves unexplained why TNOs both larger than 1000 km and smaller than 400 km, and indeed comets, are composed of a substantial fraction of rock, leaving only this size range to be primarily icy. Experiments with water ice at the relevant pressures and temperatures suggest that substantial porosity could remain in this size range, and it is possible that adding rock to the mix would further increase resistance to collapsing into a solid body. Bodies with internal porosity remaining from their formation could be at best only partially differentiated, in their deep interiors (if a body had begun to collapse into a solid body, there should be evidence in the form of fault systems from when its surface contracted). The higher albedos of larger bodies is also evidence of full differentiation, as such bodies were presumably resurfaced with ice from their interiors. Grundy et al.[3] propose therefore that mid-size (< 1,000 km), low-density (< 1.4 g/ml) and low-albedo (< ~0.2) bodies such as Salacia, Varda, Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà, and (55637) 2002 UX25 are not differentiated planetary bodies like Orcus, Quaoar, and Charon. The boundary between the two populations would appear to be in the range of about 900–1000 km, although Grundy et al. also speculated that 600–700 km might constitute an upper limit to retaining significant porosity.[3]

If Grundy et al.[3] are correct, then very few known bodies in the outer Solar System are likely to have compacted into fully solid bodies, and thus to possibly have become dwarf planets at some point in their past or to still be dwarf planets at present. Pluto–Charon, Eris, Haumea, Gonggong, Makemake, Quaoar, Orcus, and Sedna are either known (Pluto) or strong candidates (the others).

There are a number of smaller bodies, probably between 700 and 900 km diameter, for most of which not enough is known to apply these criteria. All of them are dark, mostly with albedos under 0.11, with brighter 2013 FY27 (0.18) an exception; this suggests that they are not dwarf planets. However, Salacia and Varda may be dense enough to be solid. If Salacia were spherical and had the same albedo as its moon, it would have a density of between 1.4 and 1.6 g/cm3, calculated a few months after Grundy et al.'s initial assessment, though still an albedo of only 0.04.[18] Varda might have a higher density of 1.78±0.06 g/cm3 (although a lower density of 1.23±0.04 g/cm3 was still considered possible though less probable), published the year after Grundy et al.'s initial assessment;[19] its albedo of 0.10 is close to Quaoar's.

Likeliest dwarf planets[edit]

The assessments of the IAU, Tancredi et al., Brown, and Grundy et al. for sixteen of the largest potential dwarf planets (the ones whose estimated diameters are above 700 km) are as follows. For the IAU, the acceptance criteria were for naming purposes. An IAU question-and-answer press release from 2006 was more specific: it estimated that objects with mass above 0.5×1021 kg and diameter greater than 800 km (800 km across) would "normally" be in hydrostatic equilibrium ("the shape ... would normally be determined by self-gravity"), but that "all borderline cases would need to be determined by observation." This is close to Grundy et al.'s suggestion for the approximate limit (they list 900 km diameter instead).[20]

Several of these objects had not yet been discovered when Tancredi et al. did their analysis. Brown's sole criterion is diameter; he accepts significantly many more as "highly likely" to be dwarf planets, for which his threshold is 600 km (see below). Grundy et al. did not determine which bodies were dwarf planets, but rather which could not be. A red No marks objects that are not dense enough to be solid bodies; to this is added a question mark for the objects whose densities are not known (they are all dark, suggesting that they are not dwarf planets). The question of current equilibrium was not addressed.

Some objects are included for comparison. Mercury, Iapetus, and Earth's moon are round but known to be out of equilibrium today. Callisto, Rhea, and Titan have shapes that are consistent with hydrostatic equilibrium, but it has been questioned if they are actually in it. Triton formed as a TNO, and Charon is larger than some dwarf planet candidates. Phoebe is small and not round today, but may have been in equilibrium in the past.

Designation Measured mean
diameter (km)
Albedo Per Grundy
et al.[3][18]
Per Brown[17] Per Tancredi
et al.[16]
Per IAU Category
Maybe S VI Titan 5149 1.880 0.22 (shape consistent with equilibrium)[21] (moon of Saturn)
No Mercury 4880 5.427 0.142 (no longer in equilibrium)[22] (planet)
Maybe J IV Callisto 4820 1.834 0.22 (shape consistent with equilibrium)[23] (moon of Jupiter)
No The Moon 3475 3.344 0.136 (no longer in equilibrium)[24][25] (moon of Earth)
N I Triton 2707±2 2.06 0.60 to 0.95 (likely in equilibrium)[26] (moon of Neptune)
134340 Pluto 2376±3 1.854±0.006 0.49 to 0.66 Yes Yes Yes Yes 2:3 resonant
136199 Eris 2326±12 2.43±0.05 0.96 Yes Yes Yes Yes SDO
136108 Haumea ≈ 1560 ≈ 2.018 0.51 Yes Yes Yes Yes
(naming rules)
resonant cubewano
Maybe S V Rhea 1527 1.236±0.005 0.949±0.003 (shape consistent with equilibrium)[27][28] (moon of Saturn)
No S VIII Iapetus 1469±6 1.09±0.01 0.05 to 0.5 (no longer in equilibrium)[28] (moon of Saturn)
136472 Makemake 1430+38
1.9±0.2 0.81 Yes Yes Yes Yes
(naming rules)
hot cubewano
225088 Gonggong 1230±50 1.74±0.16 0.14 Yes Yes N/A 3:10 resonant
P I Charon 1212±1 1.70±0.02 0.2 to 0.5 (possibly in equilibrium)[29] (moon of Pluto)
50000 Quaoar 1110±5 2.0±0.5 0.11 Yes Yes Yes hot cubewano
90377 Sedna 995±80 ? 0.32±0.06 Yes Yes Yes detached
1 Ceres 946±2 2.16±0.01 0.09 (close to equilibrium)[30] Yes asteroid
90482 Orcus 910+50
1.53±0.14 0.23 Yes Yes Yes plutino (2:3 resonant)
120347 Salacia 846±21 1.5±0.12 0.04 Maybe Yes Maybe hot cubewano
(307261) 2002 MS4 800±24 ? 0.10 No? Yes N/A hot cubewano
(55565) 2002 AW197 768±39 ? 0.11 No? Maybe Yes hot cubewano
174567 Varda 749±18 1.78±0.06? or 1.23±0.04? 0.10 Maybe Maybe Maybe 4:7 resonant
(532037) 2013 FY27 742+78
? 0.17 No? Maybe N/A SDO
28978 Ixion 710±0.2 ? 0.10 No? Maybe Yes plutino (2:3 resonant)
(208996) 2003 AZ84 707±24 0.87±0.01?[31] 0.10 No Maybe Yes plutino (2:3 resonant)
No S IX Phoebe 213±2 1.64±0.03 0.06 (no longer in equilibrium)[32] (moon of Saturn)

Largest measured candidates[edit]

The following trans-Neptunian objects have measured diameters at least 600 kilometres (370 mi) to within measurement uncertainties; this was the threshold to be considered a "highly likely" dwarf planet in Brown's early assessment. Grundy et al. speculated that 600 km to 700 km diameter could represent "the upper limit to retain substantial internal pore space", and that objects around 900 km could have collapsed interiors but fail to completely differentiate.[3] The two satellites of TNOs that surpass this threshold have also been included: Pluto's moon Charon and Eris' moon Dysnomia. The next largest TNO moon is Orcus' moon Vanth at 442.5±10.2 km and a poorly constrained (52±16)×1018 kg, with an albedo of about 8%.

Ceres, generally accepted as a dwarf planet, is added for comparison. Also added for comparison is Triton, which is thought to have been a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt before it was captured by Neptune.

Bodies with very poorly known sizes (e.g. 2018 VG18 "Farout") have been excluded. Complicating the situation for poorly known bodies is that a body assumed to be a large single object might turn out to be a binary or ternary system of smaller objects, such as 2013 FY27 or Lempo. A 2021 occultation of 2004 XR190 ("Buffy") found a chord of 560 km: if the body is approximately spherical, it is likely that the diameter is greater than 560 km, but if it is elongated, the mean diameter may well be less. Explanations and sources for the measured masses and diameters can be found in the corresponding articles linked in column "Designation" of the table.

  • The bodies with estimated diameter over 900 km are bolded; they have general consensus as being dwarfs, per the previous section. (Charon is also bolded, as it has sometimes been considered a possible dwarf in its own right; Triton is bolded as a former KBO that is still rounded and geologically active.)
  • Those with estimated diameter between 700 km and 900 km are in bold italic; most are borderline possibilities, but in most cases are too poorly known for much certainty. They tend to be dark, suggesting that they are not dwarf planets, but some might be dense enough to be fully solid bodies.
  • The others, having estimated diameter below 700 km, are unlikely to be dwarf planets on the basis of current evaluation, but may be transitional (partially compressed) bodies.
  • Light grey indicates objects whose densities may or may not be higher than 1.5 g/cm3.
  • Dark grey indicates those whose densities are known to be lower, and hence if the data is correct cannot be dwarf planets.
  • Satellites are highlighted in pink, as under the current definition a dwarf planet must directly orbit the Sun.

All of these categories are subject to change with further evidence.

Possible dwarf planets with measured sizes or masses
(satellites Triton, Charon, Dysnomia included for comparison)
Designation H


Method Mass[b]
(1018 kg)
Neptune I Triton −1.2 60% to 95% 2707±2 direct 21390±28 2.061 satellite of Neptune
134340 Pluto −0.76 49% to 66% 2377±3 direct 13030±30 1.854±0.006 2:3 resonant
136199 Eris −1.17 96% 2326±12 occultation 16466±85 2.43±0.05 SDO
136108 Haumea 0.43 49% 1559 occultation 4006±40 2.018 cubewano
136472 Makemake 0.05 83% 1429+38
occultation ≈ 3100 1.9±0.2 cubewano
225088 Gonggong 2.34 14% 1230±50 thermal 1750±70 1.74±0.16 3:10 resonant
134340 Pluto I Charon 1 20% to 50% 1212±1 direct 1586±15 1.702±0.017 satellite of Pluto
50000 Quaoar 2.74 11% 1103+47
occultation 1400±200 2.0±0.5 cubewano
90377 Sedna 1.83 32% ± 6% 995±80 thermal ? ? detached
1 Ceres 3.36 9% 939±2 direct 939 2.16±0.01 asteroid belt
90482 Orcus 2.31 23% ± 2% 910+50
thermal 635±2
(primary: 565–601)
1.53±0.14 2:3 resonant
120347 Salacia 4.27 5% 846±21 thermal 492±7 1.5±0.12 cubewano
(307261) 2002 MS4 3.62 10% 800±24 occultation ? cubewano
(55565) 2002 AW197 3.57 11% 768+39
thermal ? cubewano
174567 Varda 3.61 11% 749±18 occultation 245±6 1.78±0.06? or
(532037) 2013 FY27 3.15 18% 742+78
thermal ? SDO
28978 Ixion 3.83 10% 710±0.2 occultation ? 2:3 resonant
(208996) 2003 AZ84 3.74 11% 707±24 occultation 0.87±0.01?? 2:3 resonant
136199 Eris I Dysnomia 5.6 4+2
700±115 thermal 144+83
(if 0.8 g/cm3) to 437+252
(if Eris's density)
? satellite of Eris
(90568) 2004 GV9 4.23 8% 680±34 thermal ? cubewano
(145452) 2005 RN43 3.89 11% 679+55
thermal ? cubewano
(55637) 2002 UX25 3.87 12% 659±38 thermal 125±3 0.82±0.11 cubewano
229762 Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà 3.69 14% 655+14
occultation 136±3 1.04±0.17 SDO
20000 Varuna 3.76 12% 654+154
thermal 0.992+0.086
(145451) 2005 RM43 4.4 11% 644 occultation ? SDO
2014 UZ224 3.4 14% 635+65
thermal ? SDO
19521 Chaos 4.8 5% 600+140
thermal ? cubewano
(78799) 2002 XW93 5.5 4% 565+71
thermal ? SDO
  1. ^ The geometric albedo is calculated from the measured absolute magnitude and measured diameter via the formula: . Ranges have been given for Triton, Pluto, and Charon, which have been observed up close and therefore have known local albedo variations.
  2. ^ This is the total system mass (including moons), except for Pluto.

Brightest unmeasured candidates[edit]

For objects without a measured size or mass, sizes can only be estimated by assuming an albedo. Most sub-dwarf objects are thought to be dark, because they haven't been resurfaced; this means that they are also relatively large for their magnitudes. Below is a table for assumed albedos between 4% (the albedo of Salacia) and 20% (a value above which suggests resurfacing), and the sizes objects of those albedos would need to be (if round) to produce the observed absolute magnitude. Backgrounds are blue for >900 km and cyan for >600km.

Size calculations (km)[a] for brightest objects without measured size or mass
H Objects with this magnitude (H) Assumed albedo (p)
4% 6% 8% 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20%
3.6 2021 DR15 1,270 1,030 900 800 730 680 630 600 570
3.7 1,210 990 860 770 700 650 610 570 540
3.8 2014 EZ51, 2015 RR245 1,160 940 820 730 670 620 580 540 520
3.9 2007 JJ43, 2010 RF43, 2018 VG18 "Farout" 1,100 900 780 700 640 590 550 520 490
4.0 2010 JO179, 2010 KZ39, 2005 UQ513,
2012 VP113, 2021 LL37
1,050 860 750 670 610 560 530 500 470
4.1 2014 AN55, 2015 KH162 1,010 820 710 640 580 540 500 470 450
4.2 2018 AG37 "FarFarOut" 960 780 680 610 560 510 480 450 430
4.3 2006 QH181 920 750 650 580 530 490 460 430 410
4.4 2013 FZ27, 2010 RE64, 2008 ST291,
2014 WK509, 2013 XC26, 2007 XV50
880 720 620 550 510 470 440 410 390
4.5 2015 BP519, 2007 JH43, 2014 WP509 840 680 590 530 480 450 420 390 370
4.6 2013 AT183, 2014 FC69, 2017 OF69,
2010 OO127, 2014 YA50
800 650 570 510 460 430 400 380 360
4.7 2008 AP129, 2014 BV64, 2015 BZ518,
2014 FC72, 2010 FX86, 2014 HA200,
2008 OG19, 2014 UM33
760 620 540 480 440 410 380 360 340
4.8 2015 AM281, 2010 DN93, 2014 TZ85,
2010 VZ98
730 600 520 460 420 390 360 340 330
4.9 2013 FS28 700 570 490 440 400 370 350 330 310
  1. ^ The diameter can be calculated from the measured absolute magnitude , and for an assumed albedo , via the formula:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Mike Brown. "The Dwarf Planets". Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  2. ^ Stern, Alan (24 August 2012). "The Kuiper Belt at 20: Paradigm Changes in Our Knowledge of the Solar System". Applied Physics Laboratory. Today we know of more than a dozen dwarf planets in the solar system [and] it is estimated that the ultimate number of dwarf planets we will discover in the Kuiper Belt and beyond may well exceed 10,000.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Grundy, W.M.; Noll, K.S.; Buie, M.W.; Benecchi, S.D.; Ragozzine, D.; Roe, H.G. (December 2019). "The mutual orbit, mass, and density of transneptunian binary Gǃkúnǁʼhòmdímà ((229762) 2007 UK126)" (PDF). Icarus. 334: 30–38. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.037. S2CID 126574999. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 April 2019.
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  6. ^ "Dwarf Planets". NASA. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
  7. ^ "Plutoid chosen as name for Solar System objects like Pluto" (Press release). 11 June 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2011. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
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  10. ^ Hanuš, J.; Vernazza, P.; Viikinkoski, M.; Ferrais, M.; Rambaux, N.; Podlewska-Gaca, E.; Drouard, A.; Jorda, L.; Jehin, E.; Carry, B.; Marsset, M.; Marchis, F.; Warner, B.; Behrend, R.; Asenjo, V.; Berger, N.; Bronikowska, M.; Brothers, T.; Charbonnel, S.; Colazo, C.; Coliac, J.-F.; Duffard, R.; Jones, A.; Leroy, A.; Marciniak, A.; Melia, R.; Molina, D.; Nadolny, J.; Person, M.; et al. (2020). "(704) Interamnia: A transitional object between a dwarf planet and a typical irregular-shaped minor body". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 633: A65. arXiv:1911.13049. Bibcode:2020A&A...633A..65H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201936639. S2CID 208512707.
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  12. ^ Raymond, C.; Castillo-Rogez, J.C.; Park, R.S.; Ermakov, A.; et al. (September 2018). "Dawn Data Reveal Ceres' Complex Crustal Evolution" (PDF). European Planetary Science Congress. Vol. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  13. ^ Garrick; Bethell; et al. (2014). "The tidal-rotational shape of the Moon and evidence for polar wander". Nature. 512 (7513): 181–184. Bibcode:2014Natur.512..181G. doi:10.1038/nature13639. PMID 25079322. S2CID 4452886.
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  15. ^ Perry, Mark E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Kahan, Daniel S.; et al. (September 2015). "The low-degree shape of Mercury". Geophysical Research Letters. 42 (17): 6951–6958. Bibcode:2015GeoRL..42.6951P. doi:10.1002/2015GL065101. S2CID 103269458.
  16. ^ a b Tancredi, G. (2010). "Physical and dynamical characteristics of icy "dwarf planets" (plutoids)". Icy Bodies of the Solar System: Proceedings IAU Symposium No. 263, 2009. 263: 173–185. Bibcode:2010IAUS..263..173T. doi:10.1017/S1743921310001717.
  17. ^ a b c d Michael E. Brown (13 September 2019). "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system?". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 13 October 2019. Retrieved 24 November 2019.
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