List of early and legendary monarchs of Burma

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This is a list of early and legendary monarchs of Burma (Myanmar). It covers the monarchs of the early polities according to the Royal Chronicles that gave rise to Pagan Kingdom. The list consists of two types. Some of the dynasties were likely derived from "Indian legends taken from Sanskrit or Pali originals" in order to link the Burmese monarchy to the Buddha.[1][2] Many others were actual historical figures cloaked in pre-Buddhist legends, and probably existed in a different time period than that described in the chronicles. Moreover, many of these historical-based legendary figures were likely contemporaries of rival small settlements, rather than in the continuous lineage presented by the chronicles.[3]

Upper Burma[edit]

First Tagaung Dynasty[edit]

This is the First Tagaung Dynasty as given in Hmannan Yazawin.[4]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Abhiyaza 850–825 BCE Introduced for the first time in 1832 as the founder of Burmese monarchy[5]
Kanyaza Nge 825–? Son
Zambudipa Yaza Son
Thingatha Yaza Son
Weippanna Yaza Son
Dewata Yaza Son
Munika Yaza Son
Naga Yaza Paternal uncle
Einda Yaza Brother
Thamuti Yaza Son
Dewa Yaza Son
Maheindra Yaza Son
Wimala Yaza Son
Thihanu Yaza Son
Mingana Yaza Son
Kantha Yaza Son
Kaleinga Yaza Son
Thindwe Yaza Son
Thihala Yaza Son
Thamuti Yaza Son
Hantha Yaza Brother
Wara Yaza Son
Alaung Yaza Son
Kawlaka Yaza Son
Thuriya Yaza Son
Thingyi Yaza Son
Taingchit Yaza Son
Madu Yaza Son
Minhlagyi Yaza Son
Thanthu Thiha Yaza Son
Daninga Yaza Son
Heinda Yaza Son
Mawriya Yaza Son
Beinnaka Yaza Son

Second Tagaung Dynasty[edit]

This is the list of kings of the Second Tagaung Dynasty as given in Hmannan Yazawin. No reign dates are given except for the date when the Sri Ksetra Kingdom was founded by two princes from Tagaung.[6]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Daza Yaza c. 600 BCE–? Introduced for the first time in 1829 as the founder of the second Tagaung dynasty[5]
Thado Taing-Ya
Thado Yahta-Ya
Thado Tagun-Ya
Thado Hlanbyan-Ya
Thado Shwe
Thado Galon-Ya
Thado Naga-Ya
Thado Naga-Naing
Thado Yahawlaw
Thado Paungshe
Thado Kyaukshe
Thado Hsinlauk
Thado Hsinhtein
Thado Taingchit
Thado Mingyi
Thado Maha Yaza His sons founded Sri Ksetra Kingdom in 483 BCE.

Sri Ksetra Kingdom[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Maha Thanbawa 483–477 BCE Son of Thado Maha Yaza of Tagaung
Sula Thanbawa 477–442 Brother
Duttabaung 442–372 Son of Maha Thanbawa Historical figure believed to have ascended the throne in 739 CE
Duttayan 372–350 Son
Yan Baung 350–300 Son
Yan Man 300–250 Son
Yetkhan 250–219 Son
Khanlaung 219–181 Son
Letkhaing 181–147 Son
Thirikhan 147–119 Son
Thiriyit 119–110 Son Last of Duttabaung's line
Taba 110–59 Adopted son
Papiyan 59 BCE–7 CE Son
Yan Mukha 7–22 Son
Yan Theinkha 22–25 Son
Yan Monsaleinda 25–40 Son
Bereinda 40–52 Brother
Monsala 52–57 Son
Ponna 57–60 Son
Thakha 60–63 Brother
Thathi 63–66 Son
Kan Nu 66–67 Younger brother
Kan Tet 67–70 Elder brother
Beizza 70–74 Elder brother
Thumondari 74–81 Not stated
Atitya 81–84 Son
Thupyinnya 84–94 Brother End of Sri Ksetra dynasty

Early Pagan[edit]

Formative Early Pagan[edit]

The following is the list of Pagan kings as given in the main chronicles.[7]

Name Reign per Zatadawbon Yazawin Reign per Maha Yazawin, Yazawin Thit, and Hmannan Yazawin Relationship with the predecessor
Thamoddarit 80–125 107–152 Nephew of Thupyinnya of Sri Ksetra
Yathekyaung 125–140 152–167 Caretaker
Pyusawhti 140–222 167–242 Son-in-law of Thamudarit
Hti Min Yin 222–249 242–299 Son
Yin Min Paik 249–334 299–324 Son
Paik Thinli 334–371 324–344 Son
Thinli Kyaung I 371–415 344–387 Son
Kyaung Tu Yit 415–440 387–412 Son
Thihtan 440–477 412–439 Son
Thuye 477–492 439–494 Usurper
Tharamon Phya 492–514 494–516 Grandson of Thihtan
Thaik Taing 514–521 516–523 Son
Thinli Kyaung II 521–530 523–532 Son
Thinli Paik 530–535 532–547 Brother
Khan Laung 535–545 547–557 Brother
Khan Lat 545–557 557–569 Brother
Htun Taik 557–570 569–582 Son
Htun Pyit 570–586 582–598 Son
Htun Chit 586–613 598–613 Son

Middle Early Pagan[edit]

All four main chronicles are in agreement with the regnal dates in this period.[7]

Name Reign per Zatadawbon Yazawin, Maha Yazawin, Yazawin Thit, and Hmannan Yazawin Relationship with the predecessor
Popa Sawrahan 613–640 Usurper
Shwe Ohnthi 640–652 Son-in-law
Peit Thon 652–660 Brother
Peit Taung 660–710 Son
Min Khwe 710–716 Brother
Myingyway 716–726 Usurper
Theinga 726–734 Elected by court; of royal blood
Thein Khun 734–744 Son
Shwe Laung 744–753 Son
Htun Htwin 753–762 Son
Shwe Hmauk 762–785 Son
Htun Lut 785–802 Brother
Saw Khin Hnit 802–829 Son
Khe Lu 829–846 Son

Late Early Pagan[edit]

The chronicles again do not agree with the dates for this period. The dates in later chronicles Yazawin Thit and Hmannan Yazawin now depart from Maha Yazawin dates from 846 CE forward.[7]

Name Reign per Zatadawbon Yazawin Reign per Maha Yazawin Reign per Yazawin Thit and Hmannan Yazawin Relationship with predecessor(s)
Pyinbya 846–886 846–858 846–878 Brother
Tannet 886–904 858–876 878–906 Son
Sale Ngahkwe 904–934 876–901 906–915 Usurper
Theinhko 934–956 901–917 915–931 Son
Nyaung-u Sawrahan 956–1001 917–950 931–964 Usurper
Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu 1001–1021 950–971 964–986 Son of Tannet
Kyiso 1021–1038 971–977 986–992 Son of Nyaung-u Sawrahan
Sokkate 1038–1044 977–1002 992–1017 Brother

Lower Burma[edit]

Thaton Kingdom[edit]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thiha Yaza  ?–543 BCE Died in the year the Buddha died; came from India
Dhamma Thawka I
Titha Tissa
Dhamma Pala
Dhamma Daza
Einkura
Upadewa Yaza
Thiwa Yaza
Zawta Kumma
Dhamma Thawka II
Uttara
Katha Wunna
Maha Thala
Araka
Narathu I
Maha Beinda
Adara
Angula
Urunnata
Thuganda I
Thuganda II
Bramah Datta
Manya Yaza
Adika
Maradi Yaza
Thaduka
Dipa Yaza I
Athinkha Yaza
Bomma Yaza
Manda Yaza
Mahintha Yaza
Dhamma Sekka Yaza
Thusanbadi
Baddara Yaza
Narathu II
Zambudipa Yaza
Ketharit Yaza
Wizaya Kumma
Mani Yaza
Tekka Min
Athinkha Yaza
Kutha Yaza
Dipa Yaza II
Nara Yaza
Yaza Thura
Seitta Yaza
Diga Yaza
Ottama Yaza
Thiri Yaza
Dhamma Yaza
Maha Seitta Yaza
Ganda Yaza
Zeya Yaza
Thumana Yaza
Maddaka Yaza
Aminna Yaza
Udinna Yaza
Manuha  ?–1057 CE

Early Hanthawaddy[edit]

The list here is per Harvey who reported it from the Shwemawdaw Thamaing (lit. "History of Shwemawdaw Pagoda"); the dates are unattested.[3] Other Mon Chronicles give a similar list of rulers from 573 to 781 with no records thereafter, leaving a gap of 276 years to Pagan's conquest of Pegu in 1057.[8] Harvey's list better synchronizes with historically confirmed Pagan dates. But according to Michael Aung-Thwin, pre-Pagan Mon kingdoms of Lower Burma are later 15th century legends, unattested by evidence. Pegu as a place name only first appeared in a 1266 Old Burmese inscription.[9]

Monarch Reign Relationship Notes
Thamala 825–837 Founds Pegu (Bago) in 825
Wimala 837-854 Brother
Atha 854–861 Nephew
Areindama 861–885 Son
A monk 885–902
Geinda 902–917
Migadeippa I 917–932
Geissadiya 932–942
Karawika 942–954
Pyinzala 954–967 Son
Attatha 967–982 Brother
Anuyama 982–994 Nephew
Migadeippa II 994–1004
Ekkathamanda 1004–1016
Uppala 1016–1028
Pontarika 1028–1043 Founds Dagon
Tissa 1043–1057

Arakan[edit]

  • See List of Arakanese monarchs – Arakanese Chronicles report dates back to 2666 BCE. Dates prior to Pagan's conquest of Arakan in 1118 are completely unattested. The reliable dates begin with Mrauk U Kingdom (1429–1785).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hall 1960: 7
  2. ^ Lieberman 2003: 196
  3. ^ a b Harvey 1925: 368
  4. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 1829: 155–156
  5. ^ a b Than Tun 1964: ix–x
  6. ^ Hmannan Vol. 1 1829: 159–160
  7. ^ a b c Maha Yazawin Vol. 1 2006: 343–347
  8. ^ Phayre 1883: 289
  9. ^ Aung-Thwin 2005: 29

References[edit]

  • Aung-Thwin, Michael (2005). The mists of Rāmañña: The Legend that was Lower Burma (illustrated ed.). Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2886-8. ISBN 0-8248-2886-0. 
  • Charney, Michael W. (2006). Powerful Learning: Buddhist Literati and the Throne in Burma's Last Dynasty, 1752–1885. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. 
  • Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1. 
  • Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. 
  • Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin Gyi (in Burmese). 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing. 
  • Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. 
  • Phayre, Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. 
  • Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar. 
  • Than Tun (1964). Studies in Burmese History (in Burmese). 1. Yangon: Maha Dagon.