Lists of earthquakes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from List of earthquakes)

Earthquakes (6.0+ Mw) between 1900 and 2017

Earthquakes are caused by movements of tectonic plates. within the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle. They range from events too weak to be detectable except by sensitive instrumentation, to sudden and violent events lasting many minutes which have caused some of the greatest disasters in human history. Below, earthquakes are listed by period, region or country, year, magnitude, cost, fatalities and number of scientific studies.

Lists by time period[edit]

By century[edit]

By decade[edit]

By year[edit]

Lists by location[edit]

By country[edit]

By region[edit]

Deadliest earthquakes by year[edit]

Year Magnitude Location Depth (km) MMI Notes Event Date
1937 6.9  China, Shandong Province 25.0 IX 3,252 people were killed and 12,701 were injured. 1937 Heze earthquakes July 31
1938 6.6  Turkey, Kırşehir Province 10.0 IX 224 people were killed. 1938 Kırşehir earthquake April 19
1939 7.8  Turkey, Erzincan Province 20.0 XII At least 32,700 people were killed. 1939 Erzincan earthquake December 27
1940 7.7  Romania, Vrancea County 133.0 X 1,000 people were killed in Romania and Moldova. Also known as Bucharest earthquake. 1940 Vrancea earthquake November 10
1941 5.8  Yemen, Razih District 35.0 VIII 1,200 people were killed. 1941 Jabal Razih earthquake January 11
1942 7.0  Turkey, Erbaa 10.0 IX 3,000 people were killed. 1942 Niksar–Erbaa earthquake December 20
1943 7.5–7.7  Turkey, Çankırı 20.0 XI Between 2,824 and 5,000 people were killed. 1943 Tosya–Ladik earthquake November 27
1944 7.0  Argentina, San Juan 15.0 IX 10,000 people were killed. 1944 San Juan earthquake January 15
1945 8.1  British India, Makran Coast 15.0 X Between 300 and 4,000 people were killed. 1945 Balochistan earthquake November 28
1946 7.8  Dominican Republic, Samana 15.0 IX 2,550 people were killed. 1946 Dominican Republic earthquake August 4
1948 7.3  Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic 15.0 X Between 10,000 and 110,000 people were killed and the city of Ashgabat was completely destroyed. 1948 Ashgabat earthquake October 6
1949 7.5  Soviet Union, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 18.0 IX 12,000 people were killed, mostly due to landslides that buried the city of Khait. 1949 Khait earthquake July 10
1950 8.6  India, Assam 15.0 XI It is the largest earthquake on land and the largest one to occur due to continental collision rather than plate subduction. 4,800 people were killed. 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake August 15
1951 6.5  El Salvador offshore 85.0 1,100 people were killed. 1951 El Salvador earthquake May 6
1952 9.0  Soviet Union, Russian Soviet Socialist Republic 21.6 XI Between 2,336 and 20,000 people were killed and a tsunami with a maximum height of 18 metres (59 ft). 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake November 5
1953 7.3  Turkey, Balıkesir Province 10.0 IX 1,070 people killed and US$3,570,000 in damages. 1953 Yenice–Gönen earthquake March 18
1954 6.7  France, Chlef Province, Algeria 15.0 XI 1,243 people were killed and 5,000 injured. 6,000 homes collapsed. 1954 Chlef earthquake September 9
1955 7.4  Philippines, Western Mindanao 35.0 VIII At least 465 people were killed and severe damage along Lanao Lake. 1955 Lanao earthquake March 31
1956 6.4  Iran, Hormozgan 15.0 VII 347 people killed. 1956 Hormozgan earthquake October 31
1957 6.7  Iran, Hamadan 15.0 VII 1,200 people killed and major damage. 1957 Farsinaj earthquake December 13
1958 6.7  Iran, Lorestan 15.0 VII 158 people were killed as well as major damage was reported. 1958 Lorestan earthquake August 16
1959 7.3  United States, Wyoming 5.0 X 28 people were killed. Most of the deaths occurred due to landslides. 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake August 18
1960 5.8  Morocco, Souss-Massa 15.0 X Worst earthquake in Moroccan history. Between 12,000 and 15,000 were killed. 1960 Agadir earthquake February 29
1961 6.4  Iran, Fars province 15.0 VIII 60 people were killed. 1961 Fars earthquake June 11
1962 7.0  Iran, Qazvin province 10.0 IX 12,225 killed and major property damage. 1962 Buin Zahra earthquake September 1
1963 6.1  Yugoslavia, Macedonia 15.0 X 1,070 people killed and 80 percent of Skopje was destroyed. 1963 Skopje earthquake July 26
1964 9.2  United States, Alaska 25.0 XI It is the largest earthquake ever recorded in North America and the second largest in history, behind only the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. 131 people were killed, all but nine died from the tsunami. 1964 Alaska earthquake March 27
1965 7.4  Chile, Valparaíso Region 70.0 IX 400 people were killed, mostly due to a dam failure caused by the quake. 1965 Valparaíso earthquake and the El Cobre dam failures March 28
1966 6.8  China, Hebei 20.0 IX 8,064 killed and 38,000 injured. Largest in an earthquake sequence affecting the area during the month of March that year. 1966 Xingtai earthquakes March 22
1967 6.6  Venezuela, Vargas 25.0 VIII 225 to 300 killed and 1,500+ injured. Major damage in Caracas. 1967 Caracas earthquake July 29
1968 7.1  Iran, South Khorasan Province 10.0 X 15,900 people were killed in the earthquake and the subsequent aftershock the next day. 1968 Dasht-e Bayaz and Ferdows earthquakes August 31
1969 6.4  China, Guangdong 20.0 VIII 3,000 killed. 46,700 houses damaged or destroyed. Felt in Hong Kong. 1969 Yangjiang earthquake July 25
1970 7.9  Peru, Ancash 45.0 VIII Worst earthquake in Peruvian history. Nearly 70,000 killed. Most of the deaths occurred as a result of an avalanche. 1970 Ancash earthquake May 31
1971 6.9  Turkey, Bingöl 10.0 VIII 875 killed. 5,583 houses heavily damaged, 3,418 houses moderately damaged, and 3,638 houses slightly damaged.[1] 1971 Bingöl earthquake May 22
1972 6.6  Iran, Fars 10.0 IX The estimated number of deaths is 5,374, with a further 1,710 injured. Some sources say the death toll is as high as 30,000. 1972 Qir earthquake April 10
1973 7.6  China, Sichuan 11.0 X 2,199 killed and 2,743 injured. 1973 Luhuo earthquake February 6
1974 7.1  China, Yunnan 14.0 IX Between 1,641 and 20,000 were killed. 1974 Zhaotong earthquake May 10
1975 6.7  Turkey, Diyarbakır 26.0 IX 2,311 people were killed. The town of Lice was almost completely destroyed. 1975 Lice earthquake September 6
1976 7.6  China, Hebei 12.2 XI 242,719 people were officially counted as dead, while some sources say the death toll is as high as 655,000. This is the deadliest earthquake of the 20th century and the third deadliest in recorded history. 1976 Tangshan earthquake July 28
1977 7.5  Romania, Vrancea 85.3 IX 1,578 people were killed (1,424 of them in Bucharest) and 11,221 injured in Romania. In neighboring Bulgaria, 120 were killed and 165 were injured, while in Moldova (Moldovan SSR at the time), 2 people died. 1977 Vrancea earthquake March 4
1978 7.4  Iran, Yazd 33.0 IX Between 15,000 and 25,000 people were killed, 85 percent of them coming from Tabas. 1978 Tabas earthquake September 16
1979 8.2  Colombia, Nariño 33.0 IX Between 300 and 600 people were killed from the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami, the latter causing most of the damage. 1979 Tumaco earthquake December 12
1980 7.3  Algeria, Chlef 10.0 X Between 2,633 and 5,000 people were killed and between 8,369 and 9,000 were injured. This is the largest earthquake to hit the Atlas Mountains since 1790. 1980 El Asnam earthquake October 10
1981 6.6 & 7.1  Iran, Kerman 33.0 VIII & IX Both earthquakes killed at least 3,000 people. The two events occurred six weeks from each other. 1981 Golbaf earthquake and 1981 Sirch earthquake June 11 and July 28
1982 6.2  North Yemen, Dhamar 10.0 VIII 2,800 people were killed, 1,500 injured and 700,000 homeless. 1982 North Yemen earthquake December 13
1983 6.6  Turkey, Erzurum 15.0 IX 1,340 people were killed and 50 settlements destroyed. 1983 Erzurum earthquake October 30
1984 6.3  Japan, Nagano 2.0 VIII 14 people were killed, 10 were injured, and 15 missing. 1984 Nagano earthquake September 13
1985 8.0  Mexico, Michoacán 20.0 IX Between 5,000 and 45,000 were killed and 30,000 were injured. Mexico City was the worst hit, despite being relatively far from the epicenter. 1985 Mexico City earthquake September 19
1986 5.7  El Salvador, San Salvador 10.0 IX 1,000–1,500 were killed and 10,000–20,000 injured. 200,000 were left homeless and extensive damage in San Salvador. 1986 San Salvador earthquake October 10
1987 7.1  Ecuador, Sucumbíos 10.0 IX More than 1,000 were killed and 5,000 missing. 1987 Ecuador earthquakes March 6
1988 6.8  Soviet Union, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic 5.0 X Between 25,000 and 50,000 were killed and up to 130,000 were injured. An aftershock of ML 5.8 occurred shortly after. Four people were also killed in Turkey. 1988 Armenian earthquake December 7
1989 5.3  Soviet Union, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 33.0 VII More than 274 people were killed. Most of the casualties occurred due to landslides that buried three villages. 1989 Gissar earthquake January 23
1990 7.4  Iran, Gilan 18.5 X Between 35,000 and 40,000 people were killed, between 60,000 and 108,000 injured and 105,000 to 450,000 displaced throughout Northern Iran, most especially in the Manjil-Rudbar area and in Tehran. Slight damage also occurred in Azerbaijan (part of the Soviet Union at the time). 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake June 21
1991 6.8  India, Uttar Pradesh 11.6 IX Between 768 and 2,000 people were killed, more than 1,800 injured and 18,000 buildings destroyed in the Chamoli-Uttarkashi area. Some damage occurred at Chandigarh and New Delhi.[2] 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake October 20
1992 7.8  Indonesia, Flores Sea offshore 27.7 VIII At least 2,500 people killed or missing in the Flores region, including 1,490 at Maumere and 700 on Babi. More than 500 people were injured and 90,000 were left homeless. Nineteen people killed and 130 houses destroyed on Kalaotoa. Severe damage, with approximately 90 percent of the buildings destroyed at Maumere by the earthquake and tsunami; 50 to 80 percent of the structures on Flores were damaged or destroyed. Damage also occurred on Sumba and Alor. The tsunami on Flores ran inland as much as 300 meters with wave heights of 25 meters. Landslides and ground cracks were reported at several locations on the island.[3] 1992 Flores earthquake and tsunami December 12
1993 6.3  India, Maharashtra 10.0 VIII At least 9,748 people were killed, about 30,000 were injured and extreme devastation in the Latur-Osmanabad area. Nearly all buildings were destroyed in the village of Khillari. 1993 Latur earthquake September 29
1994 6.8  Colombia, Cauca 12.1 IX At least 1,100 people killed, 500 missing, 13,000 homeless and severe damage caused to houses, highways and bridges by the earthquake and ensuing landslides in Cauca, Huila, Tolima and Valle departments. At least 200 homes were destroyed, including 25 at Toribio and 15 at Piendamo. Moderate structural damage occurred at Bogotá and Cali. 1994 Páez River earthquake June 6
1995 6.9  Japan, Kobe 21.9 XI 6,434 people were killed, 43,792 injured and extensive damage occurred in the Kobe area and on Awaji-shima. Over 90 percent of the casualties occurred along the southern coast of Honshu between Kobe and Nishinomiya. At least 28 people were killed by a landslide at Nishinomiya. About 310,000 people were evacuated to temporary shelters. Over 200,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed. Numerous fires, gas and water main breaks and power outages occurred in the epicentral area. 1995 Kobe earthquake January 17
1996 6.6  China, Yunnan 10.0 X 322 people were killed and 16,925 were injured. About 358,000 houses collapsed and 654,000 others were damaged. More than 320,000 people were left homeless. 1996 Lijiang earthquake February 3
1997 7.3  Iran, Khorasan 10.0 X 2,394 people were killed, 2,300 were injured, 50,000 left homeless, 10,533 houses were destroyed, 5,474 houses damaged and landslides occurred in the Birjand-Qayen area. 1997 Qayen earthquake May 10
1998 6.6  Afghanistan, Takhar 33.0 VII At least 4,500 people were killed, many thousands injured and homeless in Badakhshan and Takhar Provinces. May 1998 Afghanistan earthquake May 30
1999 7.6  Turkey, İzmit 17.0 X At least 17,127 people were killed, 43,953 injured. More than 250,000 people were left homeless in the affected cities. 1999 İzmit earthquake August 17
2000 7.9  Indonesia, Enggano Island offshore 44.0 VI[4] This earthquake killed at least 103 people and injured 2,585 others. 2000 Enggano earthquake June 4
2001 7.7  India, Bhuj 16.0 X 20,085 people were killed, 166,800 people were injured and over a million buildings damaged or destroyed, this was the 3rd largest earthquake in India since 1900. 2001 Gujarat earthquake January 26
2002 7.4 & 6.1  Afghanistan, Baghlan Province 8.0 VII 1,166 people were killed and 200 people were injured. A 45 meter wide fissure opened in Xiker Reservoir in Xinjiang, China. 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes March 3–25
2003 6.6  Iran, Bam 10.0 IX 26,271 people were killed and 30,000 people were injured. The city of Bam was catastrophically impacted with many buildings, including the Bam Citadel completely destroyed. 2003 Bam earthquake December 26
2004 9.1  Indonesia, Sumatra offshore 30.0 IX This is the third largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the largest since the 1964 Alaska earthquake. In total, at least 227,898 people were killed, many more injured and 1,126,900 were displaced by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in 14 countries in South Asia and East Africa. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake December 26
2005 7.6  Pakistan, Balakot 15.0 XI At least 87,351 people killed, more than 138,000 injured and extensive damage in Pakistan and India. The heaviest damage occurred in the Muzaffarabad area, Pakistan where entire villages were destroyed. In addition, approximately 250,000 farm animals died due to the collapse of stone barns, and more than 500,000 large animals required immediate shelter from the harsh winter. 2005 Kashmir earthquake October 8
2006 6.4  Indonesia, Yogyakarta 10.0 IX At least 5,749 people were killed, over 38,000 were injured and at least 600,000 people were displaced in the Bantul-Yogyakarta area.[5] More than 127,000 houses were destroyed and an additional 451,000 were damaged in the area, with the total loss estimated at 3.1 billion U.S. dollars. 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake May 27
2007 8.0  Peru, Ica offshore 39.0 IX At least 519 people killed, 1,090 injured and more than 39,700 buildings damaged or destroyed. 2007 Peru earthquake August 15
2008 7.9  China, Sichuan 19.0 XI At least 87,587 people killed, 374,643 injured and 18,392 missing and presumed dead. More than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions were affected. At least 15 million people were evacuated from their homes and more than 5 million were left homeless. An estimated 5.36 million buildings collapsed and more than 21 million buildings were damaged. The total economic loss was estimated at 86 billion US dollars. 2008 Sichuan earthquake May 12
2009 7.6  Indonesia, Padang offshore 90.0 VII[6] At least 1,115 people killed, 2,181 injured, 181,665 buildings destroyed or damaged and about 451,000 people displaced in Padang. Damage estimated at 2.3 billion U.S. dollars. 2009 Sumatra earthquake September 30
2010 7.0  Haiti, Léogâne 13.0 X The earthquake killed between 92,000 and 316,000 people, and injured 300,000. With 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses were destroyed and 188,383 were damaged in the Port-au-Prince area and in much of southern Haiti. 2010 Haiti earthquake January 12
2011 9.1  Japan, Sendai offshore 29.0 IX At least 19,747 people killed, 2,556 missing, 6,242 injured, 130,927 displaced and at least 332,395 buildings, 2,126 roads, 56 bridges and 26 railways destroyed or damaged by the earthquake and tsunami along the entire east coast of Honshu from Chiba to Aomori. 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami March 11
2012 6.4  Iran, East Azerbaijan 9.0 VIII At least 306 people killed, 3,037 injured, 4 villages destroyed and 60 heavily damaged in the epicentral area 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakes August 11
2013 7.7  Pakistan, Balochistan 15.0 IX At least 825 people killed, 700 people were injured and 21,000 houses destroyed or damaged in Balochistan 2013 Balochistan earthquakes September 24
2014 6.2  China, Ludian County 10.0 IX At least 729 people killed, 3,143 injured and 42,000 houses damaged or destroyed. 2014 Ludian earthquake August 3
2015 7.8    Nepal, Gorkha District 8.2 X At least 9,182 people killed, 25,482 injured, and 769,817 houses damaged or destroyed in Nepal in this earthquake and the M 7.3 aftershock on May 12. April 2015 Nepal earthquake April 25
2016 7.8  Ecuador, Esmeraldas 20.6 VIII[7] At least 676 people killed, 27,732 injured and 7,000 buildings damaged or destroyed including most of the town of Pedernales and its surrounding urban areas. 2016 Ecuador earthquake April 16
2017 7.3 IranIraq IranIraq border Region 19.0 IX At least 630 people killed, more than 8,100 injured, 70,000 displaced, 12,000 buildings destroyed and 15,000 buildings damaged. 2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake November 12
2018 7.5  Indonesia, Palu 20.0 X At least 4,340 people killed, 10,679 people injured, 667 people missing, and 206,524 people made refugees. most of the casualties and damage were caused by a tsunami up to 7 m (23 ft) in Donggala. 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami September 28
2019 6.4  Albania, Durrës 10.0 VIII At least 51 people killed, 3,000 people injured and many buildings damaged or destroyed. 2019 Albania earthquake November 26
2020 7.0  Greece
 Turkey
Aegean Sea
21.0 VIII At least 119 people killed, 1,096 people were injured and a 6-meter (20 ft) high tsunami. Most of the casualties and damage occurred in Turkey 2020 Aegean Sea earthquake October 30
2021 7.2  Haiti, Nippes 10.0 IX At least 2,248 people killed, 12,763 people were injured and 136,800 buildings destroyed in Les Cayes 2021 Haiti earthquake August 14
2022 6.0  Afghanistan, Khost 10.0 VIII At least 1,163 people were killed and 6,027 others injured. Many homes were destroyed. June 2022 Afghanistan earthquake June 21
2023 7.8  Turkey, Southeastern Anatolia
 Syria, Aleppo and Idlib Governorates
17.9
10.0
XII At least 59,488 people were killed and 121,704 people were injured after a Mw 7.8 earthquake hit Turkey and Syria, followed by a Mw 7.7 aftershock occurring a few hours later. 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquake February 6
2024 7.5  Japan, Ishikawa 10.0 IX At least 240 people were killed, 1,289 were injured, and 15 are missing. A tsunami reaching up to 6.58 m (21.6 ft) tall was generated and affected the Sea of Japan. It was the deadliest earthquake in Japan since 2016. 2024 Sea of Japan earthquake January 1

Largest earthquakes by year[edit]

Year Magnitude Location Depth (km) MMI Notes Deaths Injuries Event Date
1937 7.8  China, Qinghai 15.0 VIII 0 0 [8] January 7
1938 8.5–8.6  Dutch East Indies, Maluku offshore 60.0 VII A damaging tsunami up to 1.5 meters high was reported across the Banda Sea region. 0 0 1938 Banda Sea earthquake February 1
1939 8.1  Dutch East Indies, Central Sulawesi offshore 150.0 VII 0 0 [9] December 21
1940 8.2  Peru, Lima 45.0 VIII A tsunami up to 2 meters high was generated without major damage. 179–300 3,500 1940 Lima earthquake May 24
1941 8.0  Japan, Miyazaki offshore 35.0 VII A tsunami up to 1.2 meters high was observed in Kyushu and Shikoku. 2 0 1941 Hyūga-nada earthquake November 18
1942 8.2  Peru, Ica 35.0 IX In Callao, the amplitude of the tsunami's oscillations was 1.6 meters. 30 25 1942 Peru earthquake August 24
1943 7.9–8.2  Chile, Coquimbo 35.0 VIII A minor tsunami caused local damage along the coast. 11 0 1943 Ovalle earthquake April 6
1944 8.1  Japan, Wakayama offshore 30.0 VIII A destructive tsunami which had a height of 10 meters caused severe damage in the Tōkai region. 1,223 2,135 1944 Tonankai earthquake December 7
1945 8.1  India, Balochistan offshore 15.0 X A destructive 15-metre high tsunami was observed in the Makran Coast. 4,000 0 1945 Balochistan earthquake November 27
1946 8.6  United States, Alaska offshore 15.0 VI Most of the casualties and damage occurred in Hawaii, where a 17-metre high tsunami was observed. At least five people also died in Unimak Island. 173 0 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake April 1
1947 7.6  Dutch East Indies, Papua offshore 15.0 VI 0 0 [10] May 27
 Peru, Junin 20.0 IX Severe damage and landslides. Felt as far away as Lima. 2,233 0 1947 Satipo earthquake November 1
1948 7.8  Philippines, Panay 15.0 X Extensive damage. A 2-meter tsunami was also triggered. 50 0 1948 Lady Caycay earthquake January 24
1949 8.0  Canada, Haida Gwaii 10.0 VIII Minor damage was reported and a 0.6 meter tsunami was triggered. 0 0 1949 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake August 22
1950 8.6 IndiaChina India–China, AssamTibet border region 15.0 XI This was the strongest earthquake ever recorded on land. 4,800 0 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake August 15
1951 7.8  Taiwan, East Rift Valley 30.0 VII This was the strongest earthquake in a sequence of events. 85 1,200 1951 East Rift Valley earthquakes November 24
1952 9.0  Soviet Union, Kamchatka 21.6 XI The death toll from this earthquake and resulting tsunami may be as high as 17,000. 2,336 0 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake November 4
1953 7.9  Japan, Yokohama 25.0 V 1 0 [11] November 25
1954 7.8  Spain, Andalusia 626.2 IV 0 0 [12] March 29
1955 7.5  New Zealand, Kermadec Islands 15.0 I 0 0 [13] February 27
1956 7.7  Greece, Dodecanese Islands 20.0 IX The earthquake triggered a 30 m (98 ft) high tsunami. 56 0 1956 Amorgos earthquake July 9
1957 8.6–9.1  United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 25.0 VIII A 10 meter high tsunami led to most of the damage. 2 0 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake March 9
1958 8.3  Soviet Union, Kuril Islands 35.0 X A tsunami up to 5 m (16 ft) high caused most of the damage. 0 51 1958 Kuril Islands earthquake November 6
1959 7.9  Soviet Union, Kamchatka 55.0 VIII A tsunami up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high occurred in the Aleutian Islands. 1 13 1959 Kamchatka earthquake May 4
1960 9.5  Chile, Valdivia 25.0 XII This is the most powerful earthquake recorded since 1900. A tsunami up to 25 m (82 ft) high occurred. 6,000 11,000 1960 Valdivia earthquake May 22
1961 7.6  Peru, Madre de Dios Region 612.2 IV 0 0 [14] August 19
1962 7.5  Fiji offshore 390.0 I 0 0 [15] May 21
1963 8.5  Soviet Union, Kuril Islands 35.0 IX 0 0 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake October 13
1964 9.2 United States Alaska, Prince William Sound 25.0 XI Most of the deaths were caused by a tsunami, which was the largest earthquake-produced tsunami ever recorded at a height of 67.0 m (219.8 ft). This is the second most powerful earthquake in modern times and the most powerful in North America. 131 0 1964 Alaska earthquake March 27
1965 8.7 United States Alaska, Aleutian Islands 30.3 VI[16] A tsunami up to 10.7 m (35 ft) occurred, but caused little damage. This is the second most powerful earthquake in Alaska and the United States as a whole. 0 0 1965 Rat Islands earthquake February 3
1966 8.1  Peru, Arequipa 38.0 IX A 3.4 m (11 ft) high tsunami occurred. 125 3,000 1966 Peru earthquake October 17
1967 7.4  Turkey, Sakarya Province 30.0 X 86 0 1967 Mudurnu earthquake July 22
1968 8.3  Japan, Hokkaidō 26.0 VIII A majority of the casualties were from a 6 m (20 ft) high tsunami. 52 330 1968 Tokachi earthquake May 16
1969 8.2  Soviet Union, Kuril Islands 30.0 VIII 0 0 [17] August 11
1970 8.0  Colombia, Amazonas Department 644.8 IV This was one of the most powerful deep-focus earthquakes ever recorded. 1 4 1970 Colombia earthquake July 31
1971 8.1  Papua New Guinea, Kokopo 37.0 IX An 8.0 event occurred 12 days earlier.[18] 3 5 1971 Solomon Islands earthquakes July 26
1972 8.0  Philippines, Mindanao 60.0 VII 0 0 [19] December 2
1973 7.8  Japan, Hokkaidō 43.3 VIII A 5.98 m (19.6 ft) high tsunami occurred. 0 27 1973 Nemuro earthquake June 17
1974 8.1  Peru, Lima 13.0 IX Severe damage in the Lima area. 78 2,400 1974 Lima earthquake October 3
1975 7.9 north Atlantic Ocean 33.0 VI Some damage was reported in Madeira, Portugal.[20] The tsunami measured 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in). 0 0 1975 North Atlantic earthquake May 26
 Papua New Guinea, Bougainville Island 49.0 VIII A 2 m (6 ft 7 in) tsunami destroyed a few homes. 0 0 [21] July 20
1976 8.0  Philippines, Moro Gulf 33.0 VIII Further casualties from a 9 m (30 ft) tsunami. 8,000 10,000 1976 Moro Gulf earthquake August 17
 New Zealand, Kermadec Islands offshore 33.0 VII Some damage was reported in Raoul Island.[22] 0 0 [23] August 17
1977 8.3  Indonesia, Bima 25.0 VI The earthquake was felt as far away as Albany in Australia. The tsunami measured 5.8 m (19 ft). 189 1,100 1977 Sumba earthquake August 19
1978 7.7  Japan, Miyagi 44.0 VIII 6,757 buildings destroyed or badly damaged. The earthquake also triggered a 60 cm (2.0 ft) tsunami. 28 1,325 1978 Miyagi earthquake June 12
1979 8.2  Colombia, Nariño offshore
 Ecuador, Esmeraldas offshore
24.0 IX A tsunami up to 6 m (20 ft) high was triggered.[citation needed] 600 0 1979 Tumaco earthquake December 12
1980 7.9  Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands 33.0 VI 0 0 [24] July 17
1981 7.7  Samoa, Apia 25.0 VI One person drowned in a 1 m (3 ft 3 in) tsunami. 1[25] 0 [26] September 1
1982 7.3  El Salvador, Offshore 73.0 VII 43 0 1982 El Salvador earthquake June 19
1983 7.6  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 88.8 VII In areas close to the epicentre, landslides occurred and trees were uprooted, and a 25 cm (0.82 ft) tsunami was observed. 0 0 [27] March 18
1984 7.6  Solomon Islands, Honiara 18.1 VIII Some landslides occurred. 0 0 [28] February 7
1985 8.0  Mexico, Mexico City 27.9 IX At least 3,536 buildings damaged or destroyed. A 3.0 m (9.8 ft) tsunami was observed on the Mexican coast, although some estimates put the height at 30 m (98 ft)[29] 10,000 30,000 1985 Mexico City earthquake September 19
1986 8.0  United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 19.0 VII Minor damage was reported in areas near the epicenter. A 10 ft (3.0 m) tsunami struck Hawaii, more than 4,000 km (2,500 mi) away.[30] 0 0 [31] May 7
1987 7.9  United States, Gulf of Alaska 10.0 VI Minor damage near the epicentre and a small tsunami was observed. 0 0 [32] November 30
1988 7.7 MyanmarChina Myanmar–China border region 17.8 X Some damage was also reported in Myanmar and Thailand. 938 7,700 1988 Lancang–Gengma earthquakes November 6
1989 8.0  Australia, Macquarie Island 10.0 V 0 0 [33] May 23
1990 7.8  Philippines, Luzon 24.4 IX 1,621 3,000 1990 Luzon earthquake July 16
1991 7.7  Costa Rica, Limón 10.0 IX A 4 m (13 ft) tsunami was observed. 127 759 1991 Limon earthquake April 22
1992 7.8  Indonesia, Sunda Islands 23.5 VIII A 25 m (82 ft) tsunami occurred. 2,500 0 1992 Flores earthquake and tsunami December 12
1993 7.8  Guam, Offshore 59.3 IX 71 people were injured and a 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in) tsunami was observed. 0 71 1993 Guam earthquake August 8
1994 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 3.0 IX A 3.5 m (11 ft) tsunami was observed. 12 1,742 1994 Kuril Islands earthquake October 5
1995 8.0  Chile, Antofagasta 30.5 VII 3 59 1995 Antofagasta earthquake July 30
1996 8.2  Indonesia, Biak 11.5 VIII A 7 m (23 ft) tsunami occurred. 166 423 1996 Biak earthquake February 17
1997 7.7  Russia, Kamchatka Peninsula 23.5 VIII An 8.2 m (27 ft) tsunami was observed. 0 0 1997 Kamchatka earthquake December 5
1998 8.1  Antarctica, Balleny Islands 10.0 Believed to be the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in this area to date. 0 0 1998 Balleny Islands earthquake March 25
1999 7.7  Taiwan, Nantou County 15.5 IX At least 105,479 buildings damaged or destroyed. 2,444 11,305 1999 Jiji earthquake September 21
2000 8.0  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 13.0 VII One person killed in a landslide, another from a heart attack. Two 7.8 Mw  aftershocks occurred the following day. 2 0 2000 New Ireland earthquakes November 16
2001 8.4  Peru, Arequipa 33.0 VIII At least 90 drowned in a 7 m (23 ft) tsunami. 145 2,713 2001 southern Peru earthquake June 23
2002 7.9  United States, Alaska 4.2 IX It is the largest earthquake in Alaska in 16 years. 0 1 2002 Denali earthquake November 3
2003 8.3  Japan, Hokkaidō 23.5 IX Two missing. A 4 m (13 ft) tsunami observed. 0 849 2003 Tokachi earthquake September 26
2004 9.1–9.3  Indonesia, Sumatra 10.0 IX Majority of the deaths associated a tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The tsunami measured 51 m (167 ft) in Banda Aceh. 227,898 125,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami December 26
2005 8.6  Indonesia, Simeulue 21.0 IX Ten fatalities in Sri Lanka due to evacuations. A 3 m (9.8 ft) tsunami damaged an airport. 1313 300 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake March 28
2006 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 10.0 VI 1 person injured when a tsunami struck with heights of 15 m (49 ft). 0 1 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake November 15
2007 8.4  Indonesia, Sumatra 34.0 VIII A 3 m (9.8 ft) tsunami observed. 23 0 September 2007 Sumatra earthquakes September 12
2008 7.9  China, Sichuan 19.0 XI 87,587 374,177 2008 Sichuan earthquake May 12
2009 8.1  Samoa, Offshore 18.0 VII A tsunami up to 14 m (46 ft) struck the Samoan coast. 189 7 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami September 29
2010 8.8  Chile, Concepción 22.9 IX A 10 m (33 ft) tsunami struck the Chilean coast. 550 12,000 2010 Chile earthquake February 27
2011 9.1  Japan, Honshu 29.0 IX A tsunami up to 40.5 m (133 ft) struck the Tohoku coast. 19,747 6,000 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami March 11
2012 8.6  Indonesia, Indian Ocean 20.0 VII An 8.2 Mw  aftershock occurred a few hours later. 10 12 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes April 11
2013 8.3  Russia, Sea of Okhotsk 598.1 VI Felt as far away as Moscow. 0 0 2013 Okhotsk Sea earthquake May 24
2014 8.2  Chile, Iquique 25.0 VIII 6 9 2014 Iquique earthquake April 1
2015 8.3  Chile, Coquimbo 22.4 IX 21 34 2015 Illapel earthquake September 16
2016 7.9  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 94.5 VII 0 0 2016 Solomon Islands earthquakes#December 17 earthquake December 17
2017 8.2  Mexico, Chiapas 47.4 IX 98 250 2017 Chiapas earthquake September 7
2018 8.2  Fiji, Offshore 600.0 V 0 0 2018 Fiji earthquake August 19
2019 8.0  Peru, Loreto 122.6 VIII 2 0 2019 Peru earthquake May 26
2020 7.8  United States, Alaska Peninsula offshore 28.0 VII Foreshock to the 8.2 in 2021, along with an event in October. 0 0 July 2020 Alaska Peninsula earthquake July 22
2021 8.2  United States, Alaska Peninsula offshore 32.2 VII This is the largest earthquake in the United States since 1965. 0 0 2021 Chignik earthquake July 28
2022 7.6  Papua New Guinea, Morobe 61.4 VIII Extensive damage. Felt as far away as Indonesia. 21 42 2022 Papua New Guinea earthquake September 11
 Mexico, Michoacán 25.5 VIII Extensive damage. Felt as far away as Mexico City. A magnitude 6.8 aftershock two days later caused three additional fatalities. 2 35 2022 Michoacán earthquake September 19
2023 7.8  Turkey, Southeastern Anatolia 17.9 XII Felt as far as Beirut; another 7.7 Mw  earthquake followed hours after. 59,488–62,013 121,704 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquake February 6
2024 7.5  Japan, Ishikawa 10.0 IX Deadliest in Japan since 2016. 240 1,289 2024 Sea of Japan earthquake January 1

Largest earthquakes by magnitude[edit]

A pie chart comparing the seismic moment release of the three largest earthquakes for the hundred-year period from 1906 to 2005 with that for all earthquakes of magnitudes <6, 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and >8 for the same period. The 2011 Japan quake would be roughly similar to Sumatra.
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater from 1900 to 2018. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities.[34] The colour indicates the continent, and the legend counts the number of quakes for each. Notice the absence of Africa.

45 earthquakes with an estimated magnitude of 8.5 or higher have occurred since 1501. For those which occurred before the development and deployment of seismographs – starting around 1900 – magnitudes are estimated from historical reports of the extent and severity of damage.[35]

Rank Date Location Event Magnitude
1 May 22, 1960 Chile Valdivia, Chile 1960 Valdivia earthquake 9.4–9.6
2 June 11, 1585 United States Pacific Ocean, Aleutian Islands (now Alaska, United States) 1585 Aleutian Islands earthquake 9.25 (est.)
3 July 8, 1730 Spanish Empire Valparaiso, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1730 Valparaíso earthquake 9.1–9.3 (est.)[36]
4 March 27, 1964 United States Prince William Sound, Alaska, United States 1964 Alaska earthquake 9.2
5 December 26, 2004 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 9.1–9.3
6 March 11, 2011 Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 2011 Tōhoku earthquake 9.1
7 October 17, 1737 Russian Empire Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Empire 1737 Kamchatka earthquake 9.0–9.3 (est.)
8 November 17, 1837 Chile Valdivia, Chile 1837 Valdivia earthquake 8.8–9.5 (est.)[37]
9 December 16, 1575 Spanish Empire Valdivia, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1575 Valdivia earthquake 9.0 (est.)
10 November 24, 1604 Spanish Empire Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1604 Arica earthquake 9.0 (est.)
11 October 28, 1707 Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan 1707 Hōei earthquake 8.7–9.3 (est.) [38]
12 November 25, 1833 Dutch East Indies Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1833 Sumatra earthquake 8.8–9.2 (est.)
13 May 17, 1841 Russian Empire Kamchatka, Russian Empire 1841 Kamchatka earthquake 9.0 (est.)
14 November 4, 1952 Soviet Union Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake 9.0
15 January 26, 1700 Spanish Empire Pacific Ocean, US and Canada (then claimed by the Spanish Empire and the British Empire) 1700 Cascadia earthquake 8.7–9.2 (est.)
16 August 13, 1868 Peru Arica, Chile (then Peru) 1868 Arica earthquake 8.5–9.3 (est.)
17 March 9, 1957 United States Andreanof Islands, Alaska, United States 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake 8.6–9.1
18 November 26, 1852 Dutch East Indies Banda Islands, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1852 Banda Sea earthquake 8.8 (est.)[39]
19 May 9, 1877 Peru Iquique, Chile (then Peru) 1877 Iquique earthquake 8.7–8.9 (est.)
20 January 31, 1906 EcuadorColombia Ecuador – Colombia 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake 8.8
21 February 27, 2010 Chile Maule, Chile 2010 Chile earthquake 8.8
22 November 1, 1755 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1755 Lisbon earthquake 8.5–9.0 (est.)
23 October 20, 1687 Spanish Empire Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1687 Peru earthquake 8.7 (est.)
24 October 28, 1746 1746 Lima–Callao earthquake 8.6–8.8 (est.)
25 February 3, 1965 United States Rat Islands, Alaska, United States 1965 Rat Islands earthquake 8.7
26 April 2, 1762 Chittagong, Bangladesh (then Kingdom of Mrauk U) 1762 Arakan earthquake 8.5–8.8 (est.)
27 March 28, 1787 Spanish Empire Oaxaca, Mexico (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1787 New Spain earthquake 8.6 (est.)
28 February 2, 1816 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1816 North Atlantic earthquake 8.6 (est.)
29 April 1, 1946 United States Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United States 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake 8.6
30 August 15, 1950 IndiaChina Assam, India – Tibet, China 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake 8.6
31 March 28, 2005 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake 8.6
32 April 11, 2012 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes 8.6
33 November 10, 1922 Chile Atacama Region, Chile 1922 Vallenar earthquake 8.5–8.6
34 February 1, 1938 Dutch East Indies Banda Sea, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1938 Banda Sea earthquake 8.5–8.6
35 May 13, 1647 Spanish Empire Santiago, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1647 Santiago earthquake 8.5 (est.)
36 July 25, 1668 Qing dynasty Shandong, China 1668 Shandong earthquake 8.5 (est.)[40]
37 May 24, 1751 Spanish Empire Concepción, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1751 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
38 March 31, 1761 Kingdom of Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1761 Lisbon earthquake 8.5 (est.)[41]
39 April 4, 1819 Chile Copiapó, Chile 1819 Copiapó earthquake 8.5 (est.)[37]
40 November 19, 1822 Chile Valparaíso, Chile 1822 Valparaíso earthquake 8.5 (est.)
41 February 20, 1835 Chile Concepción, Chile 1835 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
42 February 8, 1843 Guadeloupe Guadeloupe region, Lesser Antilles 1843 Guadeloupe earthquake 8.5 (est.)[42]
43 February 16, 1861 Dutch East Indies Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1861 Sumatra earthquake 8.5 (est.)
44 June 15, 1896 Empire of Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Empire of Japan 1896 Sanriku earthquake 8.5 (est.)
45 October 13, 1963 Soviet Union Kuril Islands, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake 8.5
Century Number of
magnitude ≥8.5
1501–1600 2
1601–1700 5
1701–1800 9
1801–1900 13
1901–2000 11
2001–present 5
Total 45

Historical records are known to be incomplete. Earthquakes that occurred in remote areas prior to the advent of modern instrumentation in the early to mid 1900s were not well-reported, and exact locations and magnitudes of such events are often unknown. Therefore, the apparent increase in large earthquake frequency over the last few centuries is unlikely to be accurate, with the better interpretation that, had the list been more complete, then a dozen or so per century would be average.

Largest earthquakes by country/territory[edit]

  • This list is a work in progress. Information is likely to be changed.
  • The list refers to current country boundaries rather than those at the date of the earthquake.
  • Please note, multiple countries could have the same earthquake listed, such as the 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake being listed for both Ecuador and Colombia.
  • Unless otherwise noted, magnitudes are reported on the Moment magnitude scale (Mw).
Country/Territory Magnitude Date More information
 Afghanistan 7.8 November 15, 1921 [43]
 Albania 6.7 November 30, 1967 [44]
 Algeria 7.1 October 10, 1980 1980 El Asnam earthquake
 American Samoa 6.4 October 11, 1944 [45]
 Andorra 6.7 Me February 2, 1428 1428 Catalonia earthquake
 Angola 6.0 May 24, 1914 [46]
 Anguilla 6.3 February 16, 1906 [47]
Antarctica 8.1 March 25, 1998 1998 Balleny Islands earthquake
 Antigua and Barbuda 8.0 Ms April 16, 1690 [48]
 Argentina 7.5 Ms October 27, 1894 1894 San Juan earthquake
 Armenia 6.8 Ms December 7, 1988 1988 Armenian earthquake
 Australia 8.1 December 23, 2004 2004 Tasman Sea earthquake
 Austria 5.6–6.5 September 15, 1590 1590 Neulengbach earthquake
 Azerbaijan 7.0–7.3 September 30, 1139 1139 Ganja earthquake
 Bangladesh 8.5–8.8 April 2, 1762 1762 Arakan earthquake
 Barbados 6.5 February 18, 2014 & July 16, 2015 [49][50]
 Belgium 6.0–6.5 Ms September 18, 1692 1692 Northwestern Europe earthquake
 Belize 4.7 mb June 28, 1985 [51]
 Benin 4.4 mb September 11, 2009 [52]
 Bhutan 7.6–8.6 May 4, 1714 1714 Bhutan earthquake
 Bolivia 8.2 June 9, 1994 1994 Bolivia earthquake
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.1 October 27, 1969 1969 Banja Luka earthquake
 Botswana 6.7 ML October 11, 1952 [53]
 Brazil 7.6 November 9, 1963 [54]
 British Indian Ocean Territory 7.3 November 30, 1983 1983 Chagos Archipelago earthquake
 Brunei 5.2 mb February 22, 1992 [55]
 Bulgaria 7.2 March 31, 1901 & April 4, 1904 1901 Black Sea earthquake & 1904 Kresna earthquakes
 Burundi 5.4 October 30, 1966 [56]
 Cameroon 5.9 September 12, 1945 [57]
 Canada 8.7–9.2 January 26, 1700 1700 Cascadia earthquake
 Cape Verde 6.5 August 15, 1941 [58]
 Caribbean Netherlands 5.2 March 10, 2017 [59]
 Cayman Islands 7.7 January 28, 2020 2020 Caribbean earthquake
 Central African Republic 4.9 mb February 6, 1994 [60]
 Chile 9.4–9.6 May 22, 1960 1960 Valdivia earthquake
 China 8.6 August 15, 1950 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake
 Cocos Islands 7.9 June 18, 2000 [61]
 Colombia 8.8 January 31, 1906 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake
 Comoros 6.2 August 23, 1918 [62]
 Congo 5.2 April 26, 1998 [63]
 Costa Rica 7.7 April 22, 1991 1991 Limon earthquake
 Croatia 6.7 July 2, 1898 1898 Trilj earthquake
 Cuba 7.1 February 20, 1917 [64]
 Cyprus 7.0–7.5 May 11, 1222 1222 Cyprus earthquake
 Czech Republic 4.8 ML December 23, 1985 [65]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.9 December 13, 1910 [66]
 Denmark 4.4 mb February 19, 2010 [67]
 Djibouti 6.5 August 20, 1989 [68]
 Dominica 6.4 January 8, 1959 [69]
 Dominican Republic 7.8 August 4, 1946 1946 Dominican Republic earthquake
 East Timor 7.2 September 29, 1905 [70]
 Ecuador 8.8 January 31, 1906 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake
 Egypt 7.3 November 22, 1995 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake
 El Salvador 8.0 MI December 19, 1862 [71]
 Equatorial Guinea 4.9 mb March 28, 1999 [72]
 Eritrea 6.6 December 28, 1977 [73]
 Estonia 4.5–4.7 mb October 25, 1976 Osmussaar earthquake
 Eswatini 4.4 mb August 4, 1987 [74]
 Ethiopia 6.5 August 25, 1906 [75]
 Fiji 8.2 August 19, 2018 2018 Fiji earthquakes
 Finland 4.7 Muk November 4, 1898 [76]
 France 6.4–6.5 Muk January 25, 1799 1799 Vendée earthquake
 French Guiana 6.9 August 4, 1885 [77]
 French Polynesia 5.6 March 6, 1965 [78]
 Gabon 6.0 September 23, 1974 [79]
 Georgia 7.0 April 29, 1991 1991 Racha earthquake
 Germany 6.4 ML February 18, 1756 1756 Düren earthquake
 Ghana 6.4 June 22, 1939 [80]
 Greece 8.5+ July 21, 365 365 Crete earthquake
 Greenland 7.4 November 20, 1933 1933 Baffin Bay earthquake
 Grenada 7.0 Ms December 3, 1831 [81]
 Guadeloupe 8.5 Muk February 8, 1843 1843 Guadeloupe earthquake
 Guam 7.8 August 8, 1993 1993 Guam earthquake
 Guatemala 7.7 August 6, 1942 1942 Guatemala earthquake
 Guinea 6.3 December 22, 1983 1983 Guinea earthquake
 Guyana 5.5 January 31, 2021 [82]
 Haiti 8.1 Ms May 7, 1842 1842 Cap-Haïtien earthquake
 Honduras 7.5 January 10, 2018 2018 Swan Islands earthquake
 Hong Kong 3.8 ML January 5, 2020 [83]
 Hungary 6.2–6.5 June 28, 1763 1763 Komárom earthquake
 Iceland 7.0 January 22, 1910 [84]
 India 8.6 August 15, 1950 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake
 Indonesia 9.1–9.3 December 26, 2004 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
 Iran 7.9 Ms December 22, 856 856 Damghan earthquake
 Iraq 7.0 September 22, 1666 [85]
 Ireland 4.0 ML June 6, 2012 [86]
 Israel 7.3 December 5, 1033 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake
 Italy 7.4 January 11, 1693 1693 Sicily earthquake
 Jamaica 7.7 January 28, 2020 2020 Caribbean earthquake
 Japan 9.0–9.1 March 11, 2011 2011 Tōhoku earthquake
 Jersey 5.4 July 30, 1926 [87]
 Jordan 7.3 December 5, 1033 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake
 Kazakhstan 8.0 July 11, 1889 & January 3, 1911 1889 Chilik earthquake & 1911 Kebin earthquake
 Kenya 6.7 January 6, 1928 [88]
 Kiribati 5.9 mb May 23, 1982 [89]
 Kosovo 6.1 ML February 26, 1755 & August 10, 1921 [90]
 Kuwait 4.7 mb June 2, 1993 & November 11, 2020 [91][92]
 Kyrgyzstan 8.0 July 11, 1889 & January 3, 1911 1889 Chilik earthquake & 1911 Kebin earthquake
 Laos 6.7 December 22, 1925 [93]
 Lebanon 7.5 July 9, 551 551 Beirut earthquake
 Liberia 4.5 mb November 25, 1995 [94]
 Libya 6.8 April 19, 1935 [95]
 Liechtenstein 3.6 December 12, 2013 [96]
 Luxembourg 2.9 ML September 3, 1986 [97]
 Madagascar 6.2 July 4, 1919 [98]
 Malawi 6.3 March 10, 1989 1989 Malawi earthquake
 Malaysia 6.6 August 11, 1923 [99]
 Maldives 7.4 February 29, 1944 [100]
 Mali 4.2 mb January 11, 1999 [101]
 Malta 5.5 April 21, 2023 [102]
 Marshall Islands 5.7 March 22, 1982 [103]
 Martinique 7.5–8.0 January 11, 1839 1839 Martinique earthquake
 Mauritania 4.6 mb September 3, 1993 & March 1, 2012 [104][105]
 Mauritius 6.4 June 19, 1976 [106]
 Mayotte 5.9 May 15, 2018 [107]
 Mexico 8.6 March 28, 1787 1787 New Spain earthquake
 Micronesia 7.8 August 16, 1911 [108]
 Moldova 3.9 mb April 2, 1988 [109]
 Monaco 6.3 July 19, 1963 [110]
 Mongolia 8.3 July 23, 1905 1905 Bolnai earthquake
 Montenegro 6.9 April 15, 1979 1979 Montenegro earthquake
 Morocco 6.8 November 27, 1755 & September 8, 2023 1755 Meknes earthquake & 2023 Marrakesh-Safi earthquake
 Mozambique 7.0 February 22, 2006 2006 Mozambique earthquake
 Myanmar 8.5–8.8 April 2, 1762 1762 Arakan earthquake
 Namibia 5.4 April 4, 2021 [111]
   Nepal 8.2–8.8 June 6, 1505 1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
 Netherlands 5.3 April 13, 1992 1992 Roermond earthquake
 New Caledonia 7.9 August 9, 1901 [112]
 New Zealand 8.2 January 23, 1855 & May 1, 1917 1855 Wairarapa earthquake[113]
 Nicaragua 7.7 September 2, 1992 1992 Nicaragua earthquake
 Niger 4.6 mb January 18, 2017 [114]
 Nigeria 4.5 mb March 7, 2000 [115]
 North Korea 7.7 September 29, 1973 [116]
 North Macedonia 6.7 March 8, 1931 [117]
 Northern Mariana Islands 7.7 December 28, 1940 & July 29, 2016 [118][119]
 Norway 6.8 August 30, 2012 [120]
 Oman 5.7 March 30, 1966 [121]
 Pakistan 8.1 November 28, 1945 1945 Balochistan earthquake
 Palau 6.5 May 31, 1982 [122]
 Palestine 7.3 December 5, 1033 1033 Jordan Rift Valley earthquake
 Panama 7.9–8.3 Ms September 7, 1882 1882 Panama earthquake
 Papua New Guinea 8.2 May 6, 1919 [123]
 Paraguay 6.5 February 28, 1989 [124]
 Peru 8.5–9.3 August 13, 1868 1868 Arica earthquake
 Philippines 8.3 August 15, 1918 1918 Celebes Sea earthquake
 Poland 5.6 December 3, 1786 [125]
 Portugal 8.5–9.0 November 1, 1755 1755 Lisbon earthquake
 Puerto Rico 8.0 May 2, 1787 1787 Boricua earthquake
 Réunion 5.3 mb April 6, 2007 [126]
 Romania 7.9 October 26, 1802 1802 Vrancea earthquake
 Russia 9.0–9.3 October 16, 1737 1737 Kamchatka earthquake
 Rwanda 5.9 February 3, 2008 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
 Saint Barthélemy 5.4 November 18, 1990 [127]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 6.5 March 16, 1985 [128]
 Saint Lucia 7.3 March 19, 1953 [129]
 Saint Martin 5.0 July 4, 2012 [130]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 7.2 November 18, 1929 1929 Grand Banks earthquake
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6.1 July 6, 1940 [131]
 Samoa 8.3–8.5 June 25, 1917 1917 Samoa earthquake
 São Tomé and Príncipe 5.5 December 19, 2019 [132]
 Saudi Arabia 7.3 November 22, 1995 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake
 Senegal 5.5 May 21, 1986 [133]
 Serbia 6.0 May 15, 1927 [134]
 Seychelles 5.2 mb April 28, 1995 [135]
 Slovakia 6.2–6.5 June 28, 1763 1763 Komárom earthquake
 Slovenia 6.1 ML April 14, 1895 1895 Ljubljana earthquake
 Solomon Islands 8.1 April 1, 2007 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake
 Somalia 6.0 January 22, 1929 [136]
 South Africa 6.8 December 31, 1932 [137]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 8.1–8.3 August 12, 2021 2021 South Sandwich Islands earthquakes
 South Korea 7.5 June 26, 1681 1681 Yangyang earthquake [ko]
 South Sudan 7.2 May 20, 1990 1990 South Sudan earthquakes
 Spain 7.8 March 29, 1954 [138]
 Sri Lanka 5.7 August 30, 1973 [139]
 Sudan 6.0 May 12, 1938 [140]
 Sweden 4.9 mb May 18, 2020 [141]
  Switzerland 6.0–7.1 October 18, 1356 1356 Basel earthquake
 Syria 7.6 Ms May 20, 1202 1202 Syria earthquake
 Taiwan 8.2 June 5, 1920 1920 Hualien earthquake
 Tajikistan 7.5 July 10, 1949 1949 Khait earthquake
 Tanzania 7.0 July 8, 1919 [142]
 Thailand 6.1 May 5, 2014 2014 Mae Lao earthquake
 Tonga 8.3–8.5 June 25, 1917 1917 Samoa earthquake
 Trinidad and Tobago 6.7 March 10, 1988 & April 22, 1997 [143][144]
 Tunisia 7.2 October 9, 859 [145]
 Turkey 7.8–8.0 Ms August 17, 1668 1668 North Anatolia earthquake
 Turkmenistan 7.3 Ms October 6, 1948 1948 Ashgabat earthquake
 Tuvalu 5.8 mb February 5, 1983 & March 8, 1983 [146]
 Uganda 6.5 June 30, 1952 [147]
 Ukraine 6.7 September 11, 1927 1927 Crimean earthquakes
 United Arab Emirates 5.0 March 11, 2002 [148]
 United Kingdom 6.1 ML June 7, 1931 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake
 United States 9.25 June 11, 1585 1585 Aleutian Islands earthquake
 U.S. Virgin Islands 7.2 November 18, 1867 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake and tsunami
 Uruguay 5.5 Ms June 5, 1888 1888 Río de la Plata earthquake
 Uzbekistan 7.4 Ms October 21, 1907 1907 Qaratog earthquake
 Vanuatu 8.1 September 20, 1920 [149]
 Venezuela 7.6–7.7 October 29, 1900 1900 San Narciso earthquake
 Vietnam 6.8 November 1, 1935 [150]
 Wallis and Futuna 7.6 May 23, 1956 [151]
 Yemen 6.7 December 18, 1908 [152]
 Zambia 6.5 May 1, 1919 [153]
 Zimbabwe 5.5 September 25, 1963 [154]

Costliest earthquakes[edit]

This is the top ten major earthquakes by the dollar value of property (public and private) losses directly attributable to the earthquake.

Rank Event Location Magnitude Property damage
1 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami Japan Japan 9.1 $360 billion[155][156]
2 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake Japan Japan 6.9 $200 billion[157]
3 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquake Turkey Syria Turkey
Syria
7.8 $163.6 billion[158][159]
4 2008 Sichuan earthquake China China 7.9 $150 billion[160]
5 2011 Christchurch earthquake New Zealand New Zealand 6.3 $40 billion[161]
6 2004 Chūetsu earthquake Japan Japan 6.6 $28 billion[162][163]
7 2011 Sikkim earthquake India India 6.9 $22.3 billion[164]
8 1999 İzmit earthquake Turkey Turkey 7.6 $20 billion[162]
9 2009 L'Aquila earthquake Italy Italy 6.3 $16 billion[165]
10 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes Italy Italy 6.1 $15.8 billion[166]

Deadliest earthquakes[edit]

The following is a summary list of earthquakes with over approximately 100,000 deaths:

Deadliest earthquakes[167]
Rank Event Date Location Fatalities Magn­itude Notes
1 1556 Shaanxi earthquake January 23, 1556 Shaanxi, China 100,000 (direct toll from quake), 820,000–830,000 (highest possible estimated death toll)[168] 8.0 Estimated death toll in Shaanxi, China
2 1976 Tangshan earthquake July 28, 1976 China Hebei, China 242,769–700,000+[169][170][171] 7.8
3 1920 Haiyuan earthquake December 16, 1920 Beiyang government NingxiaGansu, China 273,400[169][172] 7.8 Major fractures, landslides.
4 526 Antioch earthquake May 21, 526 Byzantine Empire Antioch, Byzantine Empire (modern-day Turkey) 250,000[173] 7.0[174] Procopius (II.14.6), sources based on John of Ephesus.
5 1139 Ganja earthquake September 30, 1139 Ganja, Seljuk Empire (modern-day Azerbaijan Azerbaijan) 230,000–300,000[175] 7.0 Mw Death toll may have been a historical conflation with earthquakes on November 1137 in the Jazira plain and the 1138 Aleppo earthquake.
6 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami December 26, 2004 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 227,898 9.1–9.3 Became the deadliest tsunami on record, causing nearly 230,000 deaths from the earthquake and resulting tsunami across 14 countries.
7 1138 Aleppo earthquake October 11, 1138 Aleppo, Seljuk Empire (modern-day Syria Syria) 130,000–230,000[176] 7.1[176] The figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and on September 30, 1139, in the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.[177]
8 2010 Haiti earthquake January 12, 2010 Haiti Haiti 100,000–316,000 (estimates) 7.0 Estimates vary from 316,000 (Haitian government) to 222,570 (UN OCHA estimate)[178] to 158,000 (Medicine, Conflict and Survival) to between 85,000 and 46,000 (report commissioned by USAID).[179][180]
9 1303 Hongdong earthquake July 25, 1303 Shanxi, Yuan dynasty (modern-day China China) 200,000[181] 8.0 Taiyuan and Pingyang were leveled.
10 856 Damghan earthquake December 22, 856 Damghan, Abbasid Caliphate (modern-day Iran Iran) 200,000 7.9 Ms
11 893 Ardabil earthquake March 22, 893 Ardabil, Abbasid Caliphate (modern-day Iran Iran) 150,000 Unknown Reports probably relate to the 893 Dvin earthquake, due to misreading of the Arabic word for Dvin, 'Dabil' as 'Ardabil'.[182] This is regarded as a 'fake earthquake'.[183]
12 533 Aleppo earthquake November 29, 533 Byzantine Empire Aleppo, Byzantine Empire (modern-day Syria) 130,000[184] Unknown
13 1908 Messina earthquake December 28, 1908 Kingdom of Italy Messina, Italy 123,000[185] 7.1 The ground shook for 30 to 40 seconds around 5:20 am, and destruction occurred within a 300 km radius. 91% of structures in Messina were destroyed and ~70,000 residents died. Rescuers searched for weeks, and whole families were pulled out alive days later. A 40-foot (12 m) tsunami struck nearby coasts. Reggio Calabria on the Italian mainland also suffered heavy damage.
14 1948 Ashgabat earthquake October 6, 1948 Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR (modern-day Turkmenistan) 10,000–110,000 7.3 Ms
15 1923 Great Kantō earthquake September 1, 1923 Empire of Japan Kantō region, Japan 105,385[186] 7.9 This earthquake with an epicenter beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, shook the Kantō plain on the Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58 am. Shaking duration reported between 4 and 10 minutes, devastating Tokyo, Yokohama, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka.[187] Shaking slid the 93-ton Great Buddha statue at Kamakura almost 2 feet (0.61 m) forward. Casualty estimates range from 100,000 to 142,800, the latter figure including ~40,000 missing later presumed dead.
16 1290 Zhili earthquake September 27, 1290 Ningcheng, Yuan dynasty (modern-day China China) 100,000[188] 6.8 Ms

Most studied earthquakes[edit]

The 50 most studied earthquakes according to the International Seismological Centre (ISC), based on a count of scientific papers (mostly in English) that discuss that earthquake. The "Event #" is linked to the ISC Event Bibliography for that event.

Rank Event origin time ISC Event # Papers ISC code Event
1 2011-03-11 05:46:23 16461282 1992 TOHOKU2011 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
2 2008-05-12 06:28:00 13228121 1641 WENCHUAN2008 2008 Sichuan earthquake
3 2004-12-26 00:58:52 7453151 948 SUMATRA2004 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
4 1999-09-20 17:47:16 1718616 753 CHI-CHI1999 1999 Jiji earthquake
5 1995-01-16 20:46:51 124708 536 SHYOGO1995 Great Hanshin earthquake
6 1994-01-17 12:30:54 189275 530 NORTHRIDGE1994 1994 Northridge earthquake
7 2010-02-27 06:34:13 14340585 515 MAULE2010 2010 Chile earthquake
8 2009-04-06 01:32:42 13438018 511 LAQUILA2009 2009 L'Aquila earthquake
9 1989-10-18 00:04:14 389808 508 LOMAPRIETA1989 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
10 2015-04-25 06:11:26 607208674 488 GORKHA2015 April 2015 Nepal earthquake
11 1992-06-28 11:57:35 289086 429 LANDERS1992 1992 Landers earthquake
12 1999-08-17 00:01:38 1655218 415 IZMIT1999 1999 İzmit earthquake
13 2016-04-15 16:25:06 610289055 339 KUMAMOTO2016 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
14 1964-03-28 03:36:13 869809 327 ALASKA1964 1964 Alaska earthquake
15 2013-04-20 00:02:47 607304721 307 LUSHAN2013 2013 Lushan earthquake
16 1960-05-22 19:11:20 879136 280 VALDIVIA1960 1960 Valdivia earthquake
17 2010-09-03 16:35:46 15155483 251 DARFIELD2010 2010 Canterbury earthquake
18 2001-01-26 03:16:40 1763683 251 BHUJ2001 2001 Gujarat earthquake
19 1985-09-19 13:17:50 516095 249 MEXICOCITY1985 1985 Mexico City earthquake
20 2016-08-24 01:36:33 611462212 248 AMATRICE2016 August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
21 1971-02-09 14:00:40 787038 241 SANFERNANDO1971 1971 San Fernando earthquake
22 1976-07-27 19:42:53 711732 232 TANGSHAN1976 1976 Tangshan earthquake
23 2016-11-13 11:02:59 615035032 228 KAIKOURA2016 2016 Kaikōura earthquake
24 2003-09-25 19:50:07 7134409 221 TOKACHI-OKI2003 2003 Tokachi earthquake
25 1980-11-23 18:34:52 635924 210 IRPINIA1980 1980 Irpinia earthquake
26 2004-10-23 08:55:58 7421058 203 MID-NIIGATA2004 2004 Chūetsu earthquake
27 1976-05-06 20:00:12 713583 198 FRIULI1976 1976 Friuli earthquake
28 2012-05-20 02:03:53 601025379 197 EMILIA2012A 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
29 2011-02-21 23:51:42 16168897 197 CHRISTCHURCH2011A 2011 Christchurch earthquake
30 2019-07-06 03:19:55 616203758 194 RIDGECREST2019B 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
31 2005-03-28 16:09:35 7486110 192 NIAS2005 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake
32 2004-09-28 17:15:24 7406045 191 PARKFIELD2004 Parkfield earthquake
33 2016-10-30 06:40:19 609624987 183 NORCIA2016 October 2016 Central Italy earthquakes
34 1999-10-16 09:46:45 1643776 179 HECTOR-MINE1999 1999 Hector Mine earthquake
35 2005-10-08 03:50:37 7703077 171 KASHMIR2005 2005 Kashmir earthquake
36 2001-11-14 09:26:12 2331800 170 KUNLUN2001 2001 Kunlun earthquake
37 1923-09-01 02:58:35 911526 170 KANTO1923 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
38 2022-01-15 04:14:45 621831271 169 HUNGATONGAHUNGAAPAI2022 2022 Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai eruption and tsunami
39 1979-10-15 23:16:57 657282 163 IMPERIAL1979 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake
40 2015-09-16 22:54:30 611531714 161 ILLAPEL2015 2015 Illapel earthquake
41 2002-11-03 22:12:41 6123395 160 DENALI2002 2002 Denali earthquake
42 1999-11-12 16:57:19 1650092 159 DUZCE1999 1999 Düzce earthquake
43 2014-04-01 23:46:47 610102185 154 IQUIQUE2014 2014 Iquique earthquake
44 2010-01-12 21:53:10 14226221 153 HAITI2010 2010 Haiti earthquake
45 2017-08-08 13:19:49 610874246 151 JUIZHAIGOU2017 2017 Jinghe earthquake
46 1988-12-07 07:41:24 417441 151 ARMENIA1988 1988 Armenian earthquake
47 2019-07-04 17:33:50 616217956 150 RIDGECREST2019A 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
48 2003-12-26 01:56:53 7217667 145 BAM2003 2003 Bam earthquake
49 2010-04-04 22:40:43 600257057 145 EL-MAYOR-CUCAPAH2010 2010 Baja California earthquake
50 2012-05-29 07:00:04 605482196 144 EMILIA2012B 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes

modified from figure 2, "The most studied events", at the ISC's Overview of the ISC Event Bibliography.

International Seismological Centre. Event Bibliography. Thatcham, United Kingdom. 2018.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "22 Mayıs 1971 Bingöl Depremi Ms:6.8". deprem.afad.gov.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  2. ^ "M 6.8 – 32 km E of Uttark?shi, India". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "Today in Earthquake History". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 27, 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ "M 7.9 – 103 km S of Bengkulu, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  5. ^ Nichols, J. (2007), The 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake—a preliminary study of deaths, ResearchGate, retrieved February 15, 2024
  6. ^ "M 7.6 – 30 km WSW of Pariaman, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  7. ^ "M 7.8 – 27 km SSE of Muisne, Ecuador". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  8. ^ "M 7.8 – southern Qinghai, China". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  9. ^ "M 8.1 – 68 km SSW of Gorontalo, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved January 9, 2023.
  10. ^ "M 7.6 – 138 km SW of Insrom, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. May 27, 1947. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  11. ^ "M 7.9 – off the east coast of Honshu, Japan". United States Geological Survey. November 25, 1953. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  12. ^ "M 7.8 – Strait of Gibraltar". United States Geological Survey. March 29, 1954. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  13. ^ "M 7.5 – Kermadec Islands region". United States Geological Survey. February 27, 1955. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  14. ^ "M 7.6 – Peru-Brazil border region". United States Geological Survey. August 19, 1961. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  15. ^ "M 7.5 – Fiji region". United States Geological Survey. May 21, 1962. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  16. ^ "M 8.7 – Rat Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska". United States Geological Survey. February 4, 1965. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  17. ^ "M 8.2 – Kuril Islands". United States Geological Survey. August 11, 1969. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  18. ^ "M 8.0 – New Ireland region, Papua New Guinea". United States Geological Survey. July 14, 1971. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  19. ^ "M 8.0 – Mindanao, Philippines". United States Geological Survey. December 2, 1972. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  20. ^ "Significant Earthquake: KERMADEC ISLANDS". National Geophysical Data Center. May 26, 1975. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  21. ^ "M 7.9 – Bougainville region, Papua New Guinea". United States Geological Survey. July 20, 1975. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  22. ^ "Significant Earthquake: KERMADEC ISLANDS". National Geophysical Data Center. January 14, 1976. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  23. ^ "M 8.0 – Kermadec Islands region". United States Geological Survey. January 14, 1976. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  24. ^ "M 7.9 – 199 km S of Lata, Solomon Islands". United States Geological Survey. July 17, 1980. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  25. ^ "Tsunami Event: SAMOA ISLANDS". National Geophysical Data Center. September 1, 1981. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  26. ^ "M 7.7 – 133 km NE of Hihifo, Tonga". United States Geological Survey. September 1, 1981. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  27. ^ "M 7.6 – 157 km ESE of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea". United States Geological Survey. March 18, 1983. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  28. ^ "M 7.6 – 85 km SE of Honiara, Solomon Islands". United States Geological Survey.
  29. ^ "M 8.0 – 26 km NW of El Habillal, Mexico". United States Geological Survey.
  30. ^ "Major earthquake Strikes Alaska, Tsunami Strikes Hawaii". The Washington Post. May 7, 1986.
  31. ^ "M 8.0 – 85 km SSW of Atka, Alaska". United States Geological Survey. May 7, 1986.
  32. ^ "M 7.9 – 200km WSW of Yakutat, Alaska". United States Geological Survey. November 30, 1987.
  33. ^ "M 8.0, Macquarie Island region". United States Geological Survey. May 23, 1989.
  34. ^ "Magnitude 8 and Greater Earthquakes Since 1900". usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016.
  35. ^ Johnston, Arch C.; Halchuk, Stephen (June–July 1993), "The seismicity data base for the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program", Annali di Geofisica, 36 (3–4): 133–151, pp. 140, 142 et seq.
  36. ^ Carvajal, M.; Cisternas, M.; Catalán, P.A. (2017). "Source of the 1730 Chilean earthquake from historical records: Implications for the future tsunami hazard on the coast of Metropolitan Chile". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 122 (5): 3648–3660. Bibcode:2017JGRB..122.3648C. doi:10.1002/2017JB014063. S2CID 133806784.
  37. ^ a b Jin Junfang; Yin Shuyan; Yan Junping (2014). "Symmetry and tendency judgment of Ms ≥ 8.0 strong earthquakes in Chile". Geodesy and Geodynamics. 5 (1): 34–40. Bibcode:2014G&G.....5...34J. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1246.2014.01034.
  38. ^ "M 9.3Re-evaluation of Mw of the 1707 Hoei earthquake – near the east coast of Honshu, Japan" (PDF). AIST.
  39. ^ H. Ringer; J. P. Whitehead; J. Krometis; R. A. Harris; N. Glatt-Holtz; S. Giddens; C. Ashcraft; G. Carver; A. Robertson; M. Harward; J. Fullwood; K. Lightheart; R. Hilton; A. Avery; C. Kesler; M. Morrise; M. H. Klein (2021). "Methodological Reconstruction of Historical Seismic Events From Anecdotal Accounts of Destructive Tsunamis: A Case Study for the Great 1852 Banda Arc Mega-Thrust Earthquake and Tsunami" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 126 (4). arXiv:2009.14272. Bibcode:2021JGRB..12621107R. doi:10.1029/2020JB021107. S2CID 222066748. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 9, 2022. Retrieved June 19, 2021.
  40. ^ "Significant Earthquake Information CHINA: SHANDONG PROVINCE". NGCD. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  41. ^ NCEI Global Historical Hazard Database. "Significant Earthquake Information PORTUGAL: LISBON". www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  42. ^ Hough S.E. (2013). "Missing great earthquakes". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 118 (3): 1098–1108. Bibcode:2013JGRB..118.1098H. doi:10.1002/jgrb.50083. S2CID 128458643.
  43. ^ "M 7.8 – 71 km SSW of Jurm, Afghanistan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  44. ^ "M 6.7 – Albania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  45. ^ "M 6.4 – 188 km SW of Vailoatai, American Samoa". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  46. ^ "M 6.0 – 67 km N of Sumbe, Angola". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  47. ^ "M 6.3 – 121 km NNW of The Valley, Anguilla". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  48. ^ "NCEI Significant Earthquake Information". ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  49. ^ "M 6.5 – 171 km NNE of Greenland, Barbados". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  50. ^ "M 6.5 – 128 km NE of Bathsheba, Barbados". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  51. ^ "M 4.7 – 55 km ESE of Dangriga, Belize".
  52. ^ "M 4.4 – 13 km NNE of Abomey-Calavi, Benin". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  53. ^ Simon, RE; Kwadiba, MTO; King, JG; Moidaki, M (2012). "A History of Botswana's Seismic Network". Botswana Notes and Records. 44: 184–192. JSTOR 43855570.
  54. ^ M 7.6 – Peru-Brazil border region, USGS
  55. ^ "M 5.2 – 68 km N of Tutong, Brunei". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  56. ^ "M 5.4 – 20 km S of Gitega, Burundi". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  57. ^ "M 5.9 – 93 km NW of Ouésso, Republic of the Congo". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  58. ^ "M 6.5 – 267 km NNW of Ponta do Sol, Cabo Verde". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  59. ^ "M 5.2 – 64 km N of Coro, Venezuela". United States Geological Survey.
  60. ^ "M 4.9 – Central African Republic". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  61. ^ "M 7.9 – South Indian Ocean". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  62. ^ "M 6.2 – 1 km NNE of Vanadjou, Comoros". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  63. ^ "M 5.2 – 116 km SW of Impfondo, Republic of the Congo". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  64. ^ "M 7.1 – 84 km SW of Niquero, Cuba". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  65. ^ "M 4.8 – 0 km NW of Skalná, Czechia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  66. ^ "M 6.9 – 39 km WSW of Karema, Tanzania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  67. ^ "M 4.4 – North Sea (4.4 magnitude earthquake 47 km from Thyborøn, Central Jutland, Denmark)". United States Geological Survey. November 7, 2014. Archived from the original on April 26, 2016.
  68. ^ "M 6.5 – Djibouti". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  69. ^ "M 6.4 – 18 km SSE of Berekua, Dominica". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  70. ^ "M 7.2 – 58 km ENE of Lospalos, Timor Leste". earthquake.usgs.gov. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  71. ^ White, R. A.; Ligorria, J. P.; Cifuentes, I. L. (2004). "Seismic history of the Middle America subduction zone along El Salvador, Guatemala, and Chiapas, Mexico: 1526–2000". Natural Hazards in El Salvador. Geological Society of America. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-8137-2375-4.
  72. ^ "M 4.9 - Equatorial Guinea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  73. ^ "M 6.6 – 144 km NE of Massawa, Eritrea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  74. ^ "M 4.4 – 16 km ENE of Sidvokodvo, Eswatini". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  75. ^ "M 6.5 – 8 km E of Goba, Ethiopia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  76. ^ "Largest earthquake in Finland". Sodankylän Geofysiikan Observatorio, Oulun Toimintayksikkö (University of Oulu). Archived from the original on May 28, 2006. Retrieved June 21, 2022.
  77. ^ Marcelo Assumpção, Alberto V. Veloso (2020). "The 1885 M 6.9 Earthquake in the French Guiana–Brazil Border: The Largest Midplate Event in the Nineteenth Century in South America". Seismological Research Letters. 91 (5): 2497–2510. Bibcode:2020SeiRL..91.2497A. doi:10.1785/0220190325. S2CID 219502957.
  78. ^ "M 5.6 – South Pacific Ocean". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  79. ^ "M 6.2 – Gabon". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  80. ^ "M 6.4 – 8 km ENE of Swedru, Ghana". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 9, 2022.
  81. ^ "NCEI Significant Earthquake Information". ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  82. ^ "M 5.5 – 82 km SSE of Lethem, Guyana". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  83. ^ "M 3.8 – 14 km SW of Tai O, Hong Kong". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  84. ^ "M 7.0 – 79 km N of Norðurþing, Iceland". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  85. ^ Onur, T.; Gok, R.; Abdulnaby, W.; Mahdi, H.; Numan, N.M.; Al-Shukri, H.; Shakir, A.; Chlaib, H.; Ameen, T.H.; Abd, N. (2016). "A Comprehensive Earthquake Catalogue for Iraq in Terms of Moment Magnitude". Seismological Research Letters. 88 (3): 798–811. doi:10.1785/0220160078. OSTI 1466119.
  86. ^ "M 4.0 - 60 km W of Belmullet, Ireland". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  87. ^ "M 5.4 – 18 km E of Saint Helier, Jersey". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  88. ^ "M 6.7 – 33 km WNW of Nyahururu, Kenya". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  89. ^ "M 5.9 – Gilbert Islands, Kiribati region". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  90. ^ "Të gjitha tërmetet që kanë ndodhur në territorin e Kosovës". September 24, 2019.
  91. ^ "M 4.7 – 44 km S of Al Jahr?', Kuwait". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  92. ^ "M 4.7 – 38 km NW of Al Wafrah, Kuwait". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  93. ^ "M 6.7 – 41 km S of Luang Namtha, Laos". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  94. ^ "M 4.5 – 16 km SW of Tubmanburg, Liberia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  95. ^ "M 6.8 – near the coast of Libya". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  96. ^ "M 3.6 – 1 km SSW of Balzers, Liechtenstein". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  97. ^ "M 2.9 – 2 km E of Wilwerwiltz, Luxembourg". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  98. ^ "M 6.2 – 283 km WSW of Anakao, Madagascar". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  99. ^ "M 6.6 – 26 km NNW of Lahad Datu, Malaysia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  100. ^ "M 7.4 – 212 km E of Fuvahmulah, Maldives". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  101. ^ "M 4.2 – 75 km NW of Kolokani, Mali". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  102. ^ "M 5.5 – 109 km SE of Birżebbuġa, Malta". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  103. ^ "M 5.6 – Marshall Islands region". United States Geological Survey.
  104. ^ "M 4.6 – Mauritania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  105. ^ "M 4.6 – 76 km E of Zouerate, Mauritania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  106. ^ "M 6.1 – 279 km NE of Port Mathurin, Mauritius". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  107. ^ "M 5.9 – 32 km E of Pamandzi, Mayotte". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  108. ^ "M 7.8 – State of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  109. ^ "M 3.9 – 12 km S of Ocni?a, Moldova". United States Geological Survey. April 2, 1988. Retrieved August 30, 2022.
  110. ^ "M 6.3 – Ligurian Sea". United States Geological Survey. July 19, 1963. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  111. ^ "M 5.4 – 68 km NNW of Khorixas, Namibia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  112. ^ "7.9 magnitude earthquake near Tadine, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia : August 09, 1901 13:01". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  113. ^ "M 8.2 – Kermadec Islands region". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  114. ^ "M 4.6 – 259 km WNW of Bilma, Niger". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  115. ^ "M 4.5 – 34 km S of Siluko, Nigeria". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  116. ^ National Earthquake Information Center. "M 6.5 – 61 km SSE of Ungsang-nodongjagu, North Korea". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved April 9, 2023.
  117. ^ "M 6.7 – 3 km SW of Kuklis, North Macedonia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  118. ^ "M 7.7 – Mariana Islands region". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  119. ^ "M 7.7 – Pagan region, Northern Mariana Islands". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  120. ^ "M 6.8 – 89 km NW of Olonkinbyen, Svalbard and Jan Mayen". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  121. ^ "M 5.7 – 291 km ESE of Sur, Oman". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  122. ^ "M 6.4 – 121 km ESE of Kayangel, Palau". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 24, 2023.
  123. ^ "M 8.2 – 183 km ESE of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  124. ^ "M 6.5 – 86 km E of General Enrique Mosconi, Argentina". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 24, 2023.
  125. ^ Wiejacz, Paweł; Debski, Wojciech (2009). "Podhale, Poland, earthquake of November 30, 2004". Acta Geophysica. 57 (2): 346–366. Bibcode:2009AcGeo..57..346W. doi:10.2478/s11600-009-0007-8. S2CID 128410108.
  126. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Réunion". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  127. ^ "M 5.4 – 26 km NE of Upper Hell's Gate, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  128. ^ "M 6.5 – 18 km SE of Market Shop, Saint Kitts and Nevis". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  129. ^ "M 7.3 – Windward Islands". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  130. ^ "M 5.0 – 13 km ESE of Blowing Point Village, Anguilla". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  131. ^ "M 6.1 – 13 km W of Barrouallie, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  132. ^ "M 5.5 – 87km ENE of Santo Antonio, Sao Tome and Principe". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  133. ^ "M 5.5 – 289 km W of Mermoz Boabab, Senegal". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  134. ^ "M 6.0 – 8 km WNW of Kragujevac, Serbia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  135. ^ "M 5.2 – South Indian Ocean". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  136. ^ "M 6.0 – northwestern Somalia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  137. ^ "M 6.8 – 118 km ESE of Richards Bay, South Africa". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  138. ^ "M 7.8 – Strait of Gibraltar". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  139. ^ "M 5.9 – 275 km E of Kalmunai, Sri Lanka". August 30, 1973.
  140. ^ "M 6.0 – 70 km SSW of Tok?r, Sudan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  141. ^ "M 4.9 Mine Collapse – 3 km SSE of Kiruna, Sweden". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 9, 2022.
  142. ^ "M 7.0 – 17 km SSW of Sumbawanga, Tanzania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  143. ^ "M 6.7 – Tobago region, Trinidad and Tobago". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  144. ^ "M 6.7 – 62 km ESE of Sangre Grande, Trinidad and Tobago". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved February 2, 2023.
  145. ^ Kázmér, Miklós (May 19, 2020). "Repeated historical earthquakes in Sousse, Monastir and El-Jem (Tunisia)—an archaeoseismological study" (PDF). Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 14 (3): 214. doi:10.1007/s12517-020-06372-w. S2CID 231738302. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  146. ^ "M 5.8 – 290 km N of Kulia Village, Tuvalu". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022. and "M 5.8 – 293 km N of Kulia Village, Tuvalu". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  147. ^ "M 6.5 – 53 km N of Rukungiri, Uganda". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 24, 2023.
  148. ^ "M 5.0 – 14 km NW of Reef Al Fujairah City, United Arab Emirates". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  149. ^ "M 8.1 – 97 km WSW of Isangel, Vanuatu". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 24, 2023.
  150. ^ "M 6.8 – 27 km SE of Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  151. ^ "M 7.6 – Wallis and Futuna". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  152. ^ "M 6.7 – 170 km E of Hadibu, Yemen". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  153. ^ "M 6.5 – 12 km WNW of Chama, Zambia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  154. ^ "M 5.5 – 38 km SW of Siavonga, Zambia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  155. ^ Zhang, Bo. "Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History". AccuWeather.com. News & Video. Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  156. ^ Victoria Kim (March 21, 2011). "Japan damage could reach $235 billion, World Bank estimates". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  157. ^ Tierney, Kathleen (1997). Emergency response: lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center.
  158. ^ "Deprem bölgesinde fatura borçlarının silinmesi için süre uzatıldı". Milat Gazetsi. August 22, 2023. Retrieved November 9, 2023.
  159. ^ "Political failure has killed people in Syria before and after the earthquakes". Counsil for Arab-British Understanding. April 10, 2023. Retrieved April 14, 2023.
  160. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (1972). "Significant Earthquake Information". doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.
  161. ^ "Four years on: Insurance and the Canterbury Earthquakes" (PDF). Deloitte Access Economics. February 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  162. ^ a b National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (1972). "Significant Earthquake Information". doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.
  163. ^ Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Santos, Indhira; Borde, Alexandre (2013). The Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-984193-6.
  164. ^ Santanu Baruah; Sowrav Saikia; Saurabh Baruah; Pabon K. Bora; Ruben Tatevossian; J. R. Kayal (March 19, 2014). "The September 2011 Sikkim Himalaya earthquake Mw 6.9: is it a plane of detachment earthquake?". Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. 7: 248–263. doi:10.1080/19475705.2014.895963. S2CID 128915677.
  165. ^ "Italy Quake Reconstruction to Cost at Least $16 Billion". Fox News. April 15, 2009. Archived from the original on April 19, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  166. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS) (1972). "Significant Earthquake Database" (Data Set). National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.
  167. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
  168. ^ International Association of Engineering Geology International Congress. Proceedings. [1990] (1990). ISBN 90-6191-664-X.[author missing][title missing][page needed][verification needed]
  169. ^ a b "Death toll of 1920 China earthquake higher than previously estimated". xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2013.
  170. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". USGS. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
  171. ^ Theodore S. Glickman. [1993] (1993). Acts of God and Acts of Man. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1-56806-371-7
  172. ^ Utsu, T. "Search Page". Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2008). Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  173. ^ Sbeinati, Mohamed Reda; Darawchech, Ryad; Mouty, Mikhail (June 2005). "The historical earthquakes of Syria: an analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D." (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. 48 (3): 347–435. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  174. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (1972). "Significant Earthquake Information". doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.
  175. ^ "Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  176. ^ a b Grǖnthal G.; Wahlström R. (2009). "A harmonized seismicity data base for the EuroMediterranean region" (PDF). Proceedings of the 27th ECGS Workshop 'Seismicity Patterns in the Euro-Med Region: 15–21.
  177. ^ Ambraseys, Nicholas N., "The 12th century seismic paroxysm in the Middle East: a historical perspective" (PDF), Annals of Geophysics, Vol. 47, N. 2/3, April/June 2004, p. 743.
  178. ^ Haiti Dominates Earthquake Fatalities in 2010 (January 11, 2011), U.S. Geological Survey.
  179. ^ Maura R. O'Connor, [Two Years Later, Haitian Earthquake Death Toll in Dispute], Columbia Journalism Review (January 12, 2012).
  180. ^ Report challenges Haiti earthquake death toll (June 1, 2011), BBC.
  181. ^ "china virtual museums_quake". www.kepu.net.cn. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
  182. ^ Ambraseys, N.N.; Melville, C.P. (2005). A History of Persian Earthquakes. Cambridge Earth Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-521-02187-6.
  183. ^ Gupta, H. (2011). Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences (2 ed.). Springer. p. 566. ISBN 978-90-481-8701-0.
  184. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (1972). "Significant Earthquake Information". doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.
  185. ^ The world's worst natural disasters Calamities of the 20th and 21st centuries CBC News'.' Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  186. ^ "Today in Earthquake History". usgs.gov.
  187. ^ Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: the Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 278, citing Francis Hawks, (1856). Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854 under the Command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy, Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson by order of Congress, 1856; originally published in Senate Executive Documents, No. 34 of 33rd Congress, 2nd Session.
  188. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS): NCEI/WDS Global Significant Earthquake Database. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (1972). "Significant Earthquake Information". doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.

External links[edit]