Lists of earthquakes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Earthquakes (M6.0+) between 1900 and 2017

Earthquakes are caused by movements within the Earth's crust and uppermost mantle. They range from events too weak to be detectable except by sensitive instrumentation, to sudden and violent events lasting many minutes which have caused some of the greatest disasters in human history. Below, earthquakes are listed by period, region or country, year, magnitude, cost, fatalities and number of scientific studies.

Lists by period[edit]

Lists by country[edit]

Lists by region[edit]

Deadliest earthquakes by year[edit]

Year Magnitude Location Depth (km) MMI Notes Event Date
1948 7.3  Soviet Union, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic 15.0 X 110,000 people were killed and the city of Ashgabat was completely destroyed. 1948 Ashgabat earthquake October 5
1949 7.5  Soviet Union, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 18.0 IX 12,000 people were killed, mostly due to landslides that buried the city of Khait. 1949 Khait earthquake July 10
1950 8.6  India, Assam 15.0 XI It is the largest earthquake on land and the largest one to occur due to continental collision rather than plate subduction. 4,800 people were killed. 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake August 15
1951 6.5  El Salvador offshore 85.0 1,100 people were killed. 1951 El Salvador earthquake May 6
1952 9.0  Soviet Union, Russian Soviet Socialist Republic 21.6 XI Between 2,336 and 20,000 people were killed and a tsunami with a maximum height of 18 metres (59 ft). 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake November 4
1953 7.3  Turkey, Balıkesir Province 10.0 IX 1,070 people killed and US$3,570,000 in damages. 1953 Yenice–Gönen earthquake March 18
1954 6.7  France, Chlef Province, Algeria 15.0 XI 1,243 people were killed and 5,000 injured. 6,000 homes collapsed. 1954 Chlef earthquake September 9
1955 7.4  Philippines, Western Mindanao 35.0 VIII At least 465 people were killed and severe damage along Lanao Lake. 1955 Lanao earthquake March 31
1956 6.4  Iran, Hormozgan 15.0 VII 347 people killed. 1956 Hormozgan earthquake October 31
1957 6.7  Iran, Hamadan 15.0 VII 1,200 people killed and major damage. 1957 Farsinaj earthquake December 13
1958 6.7  Iran, Lorestan 15.0 VII 158 people were killed as well as major damage was reported. 1958 Lorestan earthquake August 16
1959 7.3  United States, Wyoming 5.0 X 28 people were killed. Most of the deaths occurred due to landslides. 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake August 18
1960 5.8  Morocco, Souss-Massa 15.0 X Worst earthquake in Moroccan history. Between 12,000-15,000 were killed. 1960 Agadir earthquake February 29
1961 6.4  Iran, Fars province 15.0 VIII 60 people were killed. 1961 Fars earthquake June 11
1962 7.0  Iran, Qazvin province 10.0 IX 12,225 killed and major property damage. 1962 Buin Zahra earthquake September 1
1963 6.0  Yugoslavia, Republic of North Macedonia 15.0 X 1,070 people killed and 80 percent of Skopje was destroyed. 1963 Skopje earthquake July 26
1964 9.2  United States, Alaska 25.0 XI It is the largest earthquake ever recorded in North America and the second largest in history, behind only the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. 131 people were killed, all but nine died from the tsunami. 1964 Alaska earthquake March 28
1965 7.4  Chile, Valparaíso Region 70.0 IX 400 people were killed, mostly due to a dam failure caused by the quake. 1965 Valparaíso earthquake and the El Cobre dam failures March 28
1966 6.8  China, Hebei 20.0 IX 8,064 killed and 38,000 injured. Largest in an earthquake sequence affecting the area during the month of March that year. 1966 Xingtai earthquakes March 22
1967 6.6  Venezuela, Vargas 25.0 VIII 225 to 300 killed and 1,500+ injured. Major damage in Caracas. 1967 Caracas earthquake July 30
1968 7.1  Iran, South Khorasan Province 10.0 X 15,900 people were killed in the earthquake and the subsequent aftershock the next day. 1968 Dasht-e Bayaz and Ferdows earthquakes August 31
1969 6.4  China, Guangdong 20.0 VIII 3,000 killed. 46,700 houses damaged or destroyed. Felt in Hong Kong. 1969 Yangjiang earthquake July 25
1970 7.9  Peru, Ancash 45.0 VIII Worst earthquake in Peruvian history. Nearly 70,000 killed. Most of the deaths occurred as a result of an avalanche. 1970 Ancash earthquake May 31
1971 6.9  Turkey, Bingöl 10.0 VIII 875 killed. 5,583 houses heavily damaged, 3,418 houses moderately damaged, and 3,638 houses slightly damaged.[1] 1971 Bingöl earthquake May 22
1972 6.6  Iran, Fars 10.0 IX The estimated number of deaths is 5,374, with a further 1,710 injured. Some sources say the death toll is as high as 30,000. 1972 Qir earthquake April 10
1973 7.6  China, Sichuan 11.0 X 2,199 killed and 2,743 injured. 1973 Luhuo earthquake February 6
1974 7.1  China, Yunnan 14.0 IX Between 1,641 and 20,000 were killed. 1974 Zhaotong earthquake May 10
1975 6.7  Turkey, Diyarbakır 26.0 IX 2,311 people were killed. The town of Lice was almost completely destroyed. 1975 Lice earthquake September 6
1976 7.6  China, Hebei 12.2 XI 242,719 people were officially counted as dead, while some sources say the death toll is as high as 655,000. This is the deadliest earthquake of the 20th century and the third deadliest in recorded history. 1976 Tangshan earthquake July 28
1977 7.5  Romania, Vrancea 85.3 IX 1,578 people were killed (1,424 of them in Bucharest) and 11,221 injured in Romania. In neighboring Bulgaria, 120 were killed and 165 were injured, while in Moldova (Moldovan SSR at the time), 2 people died. 1977 Vrancea earthquake March 4
1978 7.4  Iran, Yazd 33.0 IX Between 15,000 and 25,000 people were killed, 85 percent of them coming from Tabas. 1978 Tabas earthquake September 16
1979 8.2  Colombia, Nariño 33.0 IX Between 300 and 600 people were killed from the combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami, the latter causing most of the damage. 1979 Tumaco earthquake December 12
1980 7.3  Algeria, Chlef 10.0 X Between 2,633 and 5,000 people were killed and between 8,369 and 9,000 were injured. This is the largest earthquake to hit the Atlas Mountains since 1790. 1980 El Asnam earthquake October 10
1981 6.6 & 7.1  Iran, Kerman 33.0 VIII & IX Both earthquakes killed at least 3,000 people. The two events occurred six weeks from each other. 1981 Golbaf earthquake and 1981 Sirch earthquake June 11 and July 28
1982 6.2  North Yemen, Dhamar 10.0 VIII 2,800 people were killed, 1,500 injured and 700,000 homeless. 1982 North Yemen earthquake December 13
1983 6.6  Turkey, Erzurum 15.0 IX 1,340 people were killed and 50 settlements destroyed. 1983 Erzurum earthquake October 30
1984 6.3  Japan, Nagano 2.0 VIII 14 people were killed, 10 were injured, and 15 missing. 1984 Nagano earthquake September 13
1985 8.0  Mexico, Michoacán 20.0 IX Between 5,000 and 45,000 were killed and 30,000 were injured. Mexico City was the worst hit, despite being relatively far from the epicenter. 1985 Mexico City earthquake September 19
1986 5.7  El Salvador, San Salvador 10.0 IX 1,000–1,500 were killed and 10,000–20,000 injured. 200,000 were left homeless and extensive damage in San Salvador. 1986 San Salvador earthquake October 10
1987 7.1  Ecuador, Sucumbíos 10.0 IX More than 1,000 were killed and 5,000 missing. 1987 Ecuador earthquakes March 6
1988 6.8  Soviet Union, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic 5.0 X Between 25,000 and 50,000 were killed and up to 130,000 were injured. An aftershock of ML 5.8 occurred shortly after. Four people were also killed in Turkey. 1988 Armenian earthquake December 7
1989 5.3  Soviet Union, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 33.0 VII More than 274 people were killed. Most of the casualties occurred due to landslides that buried three villages. 1989 Gissar earthquake January 22
1990 7.4  Iran, Gilan 18.5 X Between 35,000 and 40,000 people were killed, between 60,000 to 108,000 injured and 105,000 to 450,000 displaced throughout Northern Iran, most especially in the Manjil-Rudbar area and in Tehran. Slight damage also occurred in Azerbaijan (part of the Soviet Union at the time). 1990 Manjil–Rudbar earthquake June 20
1991 6.8  India, Uttar Pradesh 11.6 IX Between 768 and 2,000 people were killed, more than 1,800 injured and 18,000 buildings destroyed in the Chamoli-Uttarkashi area. Some damage occurred at Chandigarh and New Delhi.[2] 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake October 19
1992 7.8  Indonesia, Flores Sea offshore 27.7 VIII At least 2,500 people killed or missing in the Flores region, including 1,490 at Maumere and 700 on Babi. More than 500 people were injured and 90,000 were left homeless. Nineteen people killed and 130 houses destroyed on Kalaotoa. Severe damage, with approximately 90 percent of the buildings destroyed at Maumere by the earthquake and tsunami; 50 to 80 percent of the structures on Flores were damaged or destroyed. Damage also occurred on Sumba and Alor. The tsunami on Flores ran inland as much as 300 meters with wave heights of 25 meters. Landslides and ground cracks were reported at several locations on the island.[3] 1992 Flores earthquake and tsunami December 12
1993 6.3  India, Maharashtra 10.0 VIII At least 9,748 people were killed, about 30,000 were injured and extreme devastation in the Latur-Osmanabad area. Nearly all buildings were destroyed in the village of Khillari. 1993 Latur earthquake September 29
1994 6.8  Colombia, Cauca 12.1 IX At least 1,100 people killed, 500 missing, 13,000 homeless and severe damage caused to houses, highways and bridges by the earthquake and ensuing landslides in Cauca, Huila, Tolima and Valle departments. At least 200 homes were destroyed, including 25 at Toribio and 15 at Piendamo. Moderate structural damage occurred at Bogotá and Cali. 1994 Páez River earthquake June 6
1995 6.9  Japan, Kobe 21.9 XI 6,434 people were killed, 43,792 injured and extensive damage occurred in the Kobe area and on Awaji-shima. Over 90 percent of the casualties occurred along the southern coast of Honshu between Kobe and Nishinomiya. At least 28 people were killed by a landslide at Nishinomiya. About 310,000 people were evacuated to temporary shelters. Over 200,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed. Numerous fires, gas and water main breaks and power outages occurred in the epicentral area. 1995 Kobe earthquake January 17
1996 6.6  China, Yunnan 10.0 X 322 people were killed and 16,925 were injured. About 358,000 houses collapsed and 654,000 others were damaged. More than 320,000 people were left homeless. 1996 Lijiang earthquake February 3
1997 7.3  Iran, Khorasan 10.0 X 2,394 people were killed, 2,300 were injured, 50,000 left homeless, 10,533 houses were destroyed, 5,474 houses damaged and landslides occurred in the Birjand-Qayen area. 1997 Qayen earthquake May 10
1998 6.6  Afghanistan, Takhar 33.0 VII At least 4,500 people were killed, many thousands injured and homeless in Badakhshan and Takhar Provinces. May 1998 Afghanistan earthquake May 30
1999 7.6  Turkey, İzmit 17.0 X At least 17,127 people died and 50,000 were injured. This is the deadliest earthquake in Turkey since 1939. 1999 İzmit earthquake August 17
2000 7.9  Indonesia, Enggano Island offshore 44.0 VI[4] This earthquake killed at least 103 people and injured 2,585 others. 2000 Enggano earthquake June 4
2001 7.7  India, Bhuj 16.0 X 20,085 people were killed, 166,800 people were injured and over a million buildings damaged or destroyed, this was the 3rd largest earthquake in India since 1900. 2001 Gujarat earthquake January 26
2002 7.4 & 6.1  Afghanistan, Baghlan Province 8.0 VII 1,166 people were killed and 200 people were injured. A 45 meter wide fissure opened in Xiker Reservoir in Xinjiang, China. 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes March 3–25
2003 6.6  Iran, Bam 10.0 IX 26,271 people were killed and 30,000 people were injured. The city of Bam was catastrophically impacted with many buildings, including the Bam Citadel completely destroyed. 2003 Bam earthquake December 26
2004 9.1  Indonesia, Sumatra offshore 30.0 IX This is the third largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the largest since the 1964 Alaska earthquake. In total, at least 227,898 people were killed, many more injured and 1,126,900 were displaced by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami in 14 countries in South Asia and East Africa. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake December 26
2005 7.6  Pakistan, Balakot 15.0 XI At least 87,351 people killed, more than 138,000 injured and extensive damage in Pakistan and India. The heaviest damage occurred in the Muzaffarabad area, Pakistan where entire villages were destroyed. In addition, approximately 250,000 farm animals died due to the collapse of stone barns, and more than 500,000 large animals required immediate shelter from the harsh winter. 2005 Kashmir earthquake October 8
2006 6.4  Indonesia, Yogyakarta 10.0 IX At least 28,903 people were killed, 137,883 were injured and as many as 779,287 people were displaced in the Bantul-Yogyakarta area.[5] More than 127,000 houses were destroyed and an additional 451,000 were damaged in the area, with the total loss estimated at approximately 3.1 billion U.S. dollars. 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake May 27
2007 8.0  Peru, Ica offshore 39.0 IX At least 519 people killed, 1,090 injured and more than 39,700 buildings damaged or destroyed. 2007 Peru earthquake August 15
2008 8.0  China, Sichuan 19.0 XI At least 87,587 people killed, 374,643 injured and 18,392 missing and presumed dead. More than 45.5 million people in 10 provinces and regions were affected. At least 15 million people were evacuated from their homes and more than 5 million were left homeless. An estimated 5.36 million buildings collapsed and more than 21 million buildings were damaged. The total economic loss was estimated at 86 billion US dollars. 2008 Sichuan earthquake May 12
2009 7.6  Indonesia, Padang offshore 90.0 VII[6] At least 1,115 people killed, 2,181 injured, 181,665 buildings destroyed or damaged and about 451,000 people displaced in Padang. Damage estimated at 2.3 billion U.S. dollars. 2009 Sumatra earthquake September 30
2010 7.0  Haiti, Léogâne 13.0 X The earthquake killed between 92,000 and 316,000 people, and injured 300,000. With 1.3 million displaced, 97,294 houses were destroyed and 188,383 were damaged in the Port-au-Prince area and in much of southern Haiti. 2010 Haiti earthquake January 12
2011 9.1  Japan, Sendai offshore 29.0 IX At least 19,747 people killed, 2,556 missing, 6,242 injured, 130,927 displaced and at least 332,395 buildings, 2,126 roads, 56 bridges and 26 railways destroyed or damaged by the earthquake and tsunami along the entire east coast of Honshu from Chiba to Aomori. 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami March 11
2012 6.4  Iran, East Azerbaijan 9.0 VIII At least 306 people killed, 3,037 injured, 4 villages destroyed and 60 heavily damaged in the epicentral area 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakes August 11
2013 7.7  Pakistan, Balochistan 15.0 IX At least 825 people killed, 700 people were injured and 21,000 houses destroyed or damaged in Balochistan 2013 Balochistan earthquakes September 24
2014 6.2  China, Ludian County 10.0 IX At least 729 people killed, 3,143 injured and 42,000 houses damaged or destroyed. 2014 Ludian earthquake August 3
2015 7.8    Nepal, Gorkha District 8.2 X At least 9,182 people killed, 25,482 injured, and 769,817 houses damaged or destroyed in Nepal in this earthquake and the M 7.3 aftershock on May 12. April 2015 Nepal earthquake April 25
2016 7.8  Ecuador, Esmeraldas 20.6 VIII[7] At least 676 people killed, 27,732 injured and 7,000 buildings damaged or destroyed including most of the town of Pedernales and its surrounding urban areas. 2016 Ecuador earthquake April 16
2017 7.3 IranIraq IranIraq border Region 19.0 IX At least 630 people killed, more than 8,100 injured, 70,000 displaced, 12,000 buildings destroyed and 15,000 buildings damaged. 2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake November 12
2018 7.5  Indonesia, Palu 20.0 X At least 4,340 people killed, 10,679 and 1.5 million people displaced. most of the casualties and damage were caused by a tsunami up to 7 m (23 ft) in Donggala. There are unconfirmed reports that a tsunami up to 15 m (50 ft) was observed in Sigi Regency. 2018 Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami September 28
2019 6.4  Albania, Durrës 10.0 VIII At least 51 people killed, 3,000 people injured and many buildings damaged or destroyed. 2019 Albania earthquake November 26
2020 7.0  Greece,  Turkey, Aegean Sea 21.0 VIII At least 119 people killed, 1,096 people were injured and a 6 meter (20 ft) high tsunami. Most of the casualties and damage occurred in Turkey 2020 Aegean Sea earthquake October 30
2021 7.2  Haiti, Nippes 10.0 IX At least 2,248 people killed, 12,763 people were injured and 136,800 buildings destroyed in Les Cayes 2021 Haiti earthquake August 14
2022 6.0  Afghanistan, Khost 10.0 VIII At least 1,163 people were killed and 6,027 others injured. Many homes were destroyed. June 2022 Afghanistan earthquake June 21

Largest earthquakes by year[edit]

Year Magnitude Location Depth (km) MMI Notes Deaths Injuries Event Date
1944 8.1  Japan, Wakayama offshore 30.0 VIII A destructive tsunami which had a height of 10 meters caused severe damage in the Tōkai region. 1,223 2,135 1944 Tonankai earthquake December 7
1945 8.1  Pakistan, Balochistan offshore 15.0 X A destructive 15-metre high tsunami was observed in the Makran Coast. 4,000 0 1945 Balochistan earthquake November 27
1946 8.6  United States, Alaska offshore 15.0 VI Most of the casualties and damage occurred in Hawaii, where a 17-metre high tsunami was observed. At least five people also died in Unimak Island. 173 0 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake April 1
1947 7.6  Indonesia, Papua offshore 15.0 VI - 0 0 [8] May 27
 Peru, Junin 20.0 IX Severe damage and landslides. Felt as far away as Lima. 2,233 0 1947 Satipo earthquake November 1
1948 7.8 Philippines Philippines, Panay 15.0 X Extensive damage. A 2-meter tsunami was also triggered. 50 0 1948 Lady Caycay earthquake January 24
1949 8.0 Canada Canada, Haida Gwaii 10.0 VIII Minor damage was reported and a 0.6 meter tsunami was triggered. 0 0 1949 Queen Charlotte Islands earthquake August 22
1950 8.6 IndiaChina India–China, AssamTibet border region 15.0 XI This was the strongest earthquake ever recorded on land. 4,800 0 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake August 15
1951 7.8  Taiwan, East Rift Valley 30.0 VII This was the strongest earthquake in a sequence of events. 85 1,200 1951 East Rift Valley earthquakes November 24
1952 9.0  Russia, Kamchatka 21.6 XI The death toll from this earthquake and resulting tsunami may be as high as 17,000. 2,336 0 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake November 4
1953 7.9  Japan, Yokohama 25.0 V 1 0 [9] November 25
1954 7.8  Spain, Andalusia 626.2 IV 0 0 [10] March 29
1955 7.5  New Zealand, Kermadec Islands 15.0 I 0 0 [11] February 27
1956 7.7  Greece, Dodecanese Islands 20.0 IX The earthquake triggered a 30 m (98 ft) high tsunami. 56 0 1956 Amorgos earthquake July 9
1957 8.6  United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 25.0 VIII A 10 meter high tsunami led to most of the damage. 2 0 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake March 9
1958 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 35.0 IX[12] 0 51 [13] November 6
1959 7.9  Russia, Kamchatka 55.0 VIII A tsunami up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high occurred in the Aleutian Islands. 1 13 1959 Kamchatka earthquake May 4
1960 9.5  Chile, Valdivia 25.0 XII This is the most powerful earthquake recorded since 1900. A tsunami up to 25 m (82 ft) high occurred. 6,000 11,000 1960 Valdivia earthquake May 22
1961 7.6  Peru, Madre de Dios Region 612.2 IV 0 0 [14] August 19
1962 7.5  Fiji offshore 390.0 I 0 0 [15] May 21
1963 8.5  Russia, Kuril Islands 35.0 IX 0 0 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake October 13
1964 9.2 United States Alaska, Prince William Sound 25.0 XI Most of the deaths were caused by a tsunami, which was the largest earthquake-produced tsunami ever recorded at a height of 67.0 m (219.8 ft). This is the second most powerful earthquake in modern times and the most powerful in North America. 131 0 1964 Alaska earthquake March 27
1965 8.7 United States Alaska, Aleutian Islands 30.3 VI[16] A tsunami up to 10.7 m (35 ft) occurred, but caused little damage. This is the second most powerful earthquake in Alaska and the United States as a whole. 0 0 1965 Rat Islands earthquake February 3
1966 8.1  Peru, Arequipa 38.0 IX A 3.4 m (11 ft) high tsunami occurred. 125 3,000 1966 Peru earthquake October 17
1967 7.4  Turkey, Sakarya Province 30.0 X 86 0 1967 Mudurnu earthquake July 22
1968 8.3  Japan, Hokkaidō 26.0 VIII A majority of the casualties were from a 6 m (20 ft) high tsunami. 52 330 1968 Tokachi earthquake May 16
1969 8.2  Russia, Kuril Islands 30.0 VIII 0 0 [17] August 11
1970 8.0  Colombia, Amazonas Department 644.8 IV This was one of the most powerful deep-focus earthquakes ever recorded. 1 4 1970 Colombia earthquake July 31
1971 8.1  Papua New Guinea, Kokopo 37.0 IX An 8.0 event occurred 12 days earlier.[18] 3 5 1971 Solomon Islands earthquakes July 26
1972 8.0  Philippines, Mindanao 60.0 VII 0 0 [19] December 2
1973 7.8  Japan, Hokkaidō 43.3 VIII A 5.98 m (19.6 ft) high tsunami occurred. 0 27 1973 Nemuro earthquake June 17
1974 8.1  Peru, Lima 13.0 IX Severe damage in the Lima area. 78 2,400 1974 Lima earthquake October 3
1975 7.9 north Atlantic Ocean 33.0 VI Some damage was reported in Madeira, Portugal.[20] The tsunami measured 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in). 0 0 1975 North Atlantic earthquake May 26
 Papua New Guinea, Bougainville Island 49.0 VIII A 2 m (6 ft 7 in) tsunami destroyed a few homes. 0 0 [21] July 20
1976 8.0  Philippines, Moro Gulf 33.0 VIII Further casualties from a 9 m (30 ft) tsunami. 8,000 10,000 1976 Moro Gulf earthquake August 17
 New Zealand, Kermadec Islands offshore 33.0 VII Some damage was reported in Raoul Island.[22] 0 0 [23] August 17
1977 8.3  Indonesia, Bima 25.0 VI The earthquake was felt as far away as Albany in Australia. The tsunami measured 5.8 m (19 ft). 189 1,100 1977 Sumba earthquake August 19
1978 7.7  Japan, Miyagi 44.0 VIII 6,757 buildings destroyed or badly damaged. The earthquake also triggered a 60 cm (2.0 ft) tsunami. 28 1,325 1978 Miyagi earthquake June 12
1979 8.2  Ecuador, Tumaco 24.0 IX A tsunami up to 6 m (20 ft) high was triggered.[citation needed] 600 0 1979 Tumaco earthquake December 12
1980 7.9  Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz Islands 33.0 VI 0 0 [24] July 17
1981 7.7  Samoa, Apia 25.0 VI One person drowned in a 1 m (3 ft 3 in) tsunami. 1[25] 0 [26] September 1
1982 7.3  El Salvador, Offshore 73.0 VII 43 0 1982 El Salvador earthquake June 19
1983 7.6  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 88.8 VII In areas close to the epicentre, landslides occurred and trees were uprooted, and a 25 cm (0.82 ft) tsunami was observed. 0 0 [27] March 18
1984 7.6  Solomon Islands, Honiara 18.1 VIII Some landslides occurred. 0 0 [28] February 7
1985 8.0  Mexico, Mexico City 27.9 IX At least 3,536 buildings damaged or destroyed. A 3.0 m (9.8 ft) tsunami was observed on the Mexican coast, although some estimates put the height at 30 m (98 ft)[29] 10,000 30,000 1985 Mexico City earthquake September 19
1986 8.0  United States, Aleutian Islands, Alaska 19.0 VII Minor damage was reported in areas near the epicenter. A 10 ft (3.0 m) tsunami struck Hawaii, more than 4,000 km (2,500 mi) away.[30] 0 0 [31] May 7
1987 7.9  United States, Gulf of Alaska 10.0 VI Minor damage near the epicentre and a small tsunami was observed. 0 0 [32] November 30
1988 7.7 MyanmarChina Myanmar–China border region 17.8 X Some damage was also reported in Myanmar and Thailand. 938 7,700 1988 Lancang–Gengma earthquakes November 6
1989 8.0  Australia, Macquarie Island 10.0 V 0 0 [33] May 23
1990 7.8  Philippines, Luzon 24.4 IX 1,621 3,000 1990 Luzon earthquake July 16
1991 7.7  Costa Rica, Limón 10.0 IX A 4 m (13 ft) tsunami was observed. 127 759 1991 Limon earthquake April 22
1992 7.8  Indonesia, Sunda Islands 23.5 VIII A 25 m (82 ft) tsunami occurred. 2,500 0 1992 Flores earthquake and tsunami December 12
1993 7.8  Guam, Offshore 59.3 IX 71 people were injured and a 2.1 m (6 ft 11 in) tsunami was observed. 0 71 1993 Guam earthquake August 8
1994 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 3.0 IX A 3.5 m (11 ft) tsunami was observed. 12 1,742 1994 Kuril Islands earthquake October 5
1995 8.0  Chile, Antofagasta 30.5 VII 3 59 1995 Antofagasta earthquake July 30
1996 8.2  Indonesia, Biak 11.5 VIII A 7 m (23 ft) tsunami occurred. 166 423 1996 Biak earthquake February 17
1997 7.7  Russia, Kamchatka Peninsula 23.5 VIII An 8.2 m (27 ft) tsunami was observed. 0 0 1997 Kamchatka earthquake December 5
1998 8.1  Antarctica, Balleny Islands 10.0 VI Believed to be the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in this area to date. 0 0 1998 Balleny Islands earthquake March 25
1999 7.7  Taiwan, Nantou County 15.5 IX At least 105,479 buildings damaged or destroyed. 2,444 11,305 1999 Jiji earthquake September 21
2000 8.0  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 13.0 VII One person killed in a landslide, another from a heart attack. Two 7.8 Mw  aftershocks occurred the following day. 2 0 2000 New Ireland earthquakes November 16
2001 8.4  Peru, Arequipa 33.0 VIII At least 90 drowned in a 7 m (23 ft) tsunami. 145 2,713 2001 southern Peru earthquake June 23
2002 7.9  United States, Alaska 4.2 IX It is the largest earthquake in Alaska in 16 years. 0 1 2002 Denali earthquake November 3
2003 8.3  Japan, Hokkaidō 23.5 IX Two missing. A 4 m (13 ft) tsunami observed. 0 849 2003 Tokachi earthquake September 26
2004 9.1–9.3  Indonesia, Sumatra 10.0 IX Majority of the deaths associated a tsunami that devastated parts of Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. The tsunami measured 51 m (167 ft) in Banda Aceh. 227,898 125,000 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami December 26
2005 8.6  Indonesia, Simeulue 21.0 IX Ten fatalities in Sri Lanka due to evacuations. A 3 m (9.8 ft) tsunami damaged an airport. 1,313 300 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake March 28
2006 8.3  Russia, Kuril Islands 10.0 VI 1 person injured when a tsunami struck with heights of 15 m (49 ft). 0 1 2006 Kuril Islands earthquake November 15
2007 8.4  Indonesia, Sumatra 34.0 VIII A 3 m (9.8 ft) tsunami observed. 23 0 September 2007 Sumatra earthquakes September 12
2008 8.0 Ms  China, Sichuan 19.0 XI 87,587 374,177 2008 Sichuan earthquake May 12
2009 8.1  Samoa, Offshore 18.0 VII A tsunami up to 14 m (46 ft) struck the Samoan coast. 189 7 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami September 29
2010 8.8  Chile, Concepción 22.9 IX A 10 m (33 ft) tsunami struck the Chilean coast. 550 12,000 2010 Chile earthquake February 27
2011 9.1  Japan, Honshu 29.0 IX A tsunami up to 40.5 m (133 ft) struck the Tohoku coast. 19,747 6,000 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami March 11
2012 8.6  Indonesia, Indian Ocean 20.0 VII An 8.2 Mw  aftershock occurred a few hours later. 10 12 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes April 11
2013 8.3  Russia, Sea of Okhotsk 598.1 VI Felt as far away as Moscow. 0 0 2013 Okhotsk Sea earthquake May 24
2014 8.2  Chile, Iquique 25.0 VIII 6 9 2014 Iquique earthquake April 1
2015 8.3  Chile, Coquimbo 22.4 IX 21 34 2015 Illapel earthquake September 16
2016 7.9  Papua New Guinea, New Ireland 94.5 VII 0 0 2016 Solomon Islands earthquakes#December 17 earthquake December 17
2017 8.2  Mexico, Chiapas 47.4 IX 98 250 2017 Chiapas earthquake September 7
2018 8.2  Fiji, Offshore 600.0 V 0 0 2018 Fiji earthquake August 19
2019 8.0  Peru, Loreto 122.6 VIII 2 0 2019 Peru earthquake May 26
2020 7.8  United States, Alaska Peninsula offshore 28.0 VII Foreshock to the 8.2 in 2021, along with an event in October. 0 0 July 2020 Alaska Peninsula earthquake July 22
2021 8.2  United States, Alaska Peninsula offshore 32.2 VII This is the largest earthquake in the United States since 1965. 0 0 2021 Chignik earthquake July 28
2022 7.6  Papua New Guinea, Morobe 61.4 VIII Extensive damage. Felt as far away as Indonesia. 12 42 2022 Papua New Guinea earthquake September 11
 Mexico, Michoacán 25.5 VIII Extensive damage. Felt as far away as Mexico City. A magnitude 6.8 aftershock two days later caused three additional fatalities. 2 35 2022 Michoacán earthquake September 19

Largest earthquakes by magnitude[edit]

A pie chart comparing the seismic moment release of the three largest earthquakes for the hundred-year period from 1906 to 2005 with that for all earthquakes of magnitudes <6, 6 to 7, 7 to 8 and >8 for the same period. The 2011 Japan quake would be roughly similar to Sumatra.
Earthquakes of magnitude 8.0 and greater from 1900 to 2018. The apparent 3D volumes of the bubbles are linearly proportional to their respective fatalities.[34] The colour indicates the continent, and the legend counts the number of quakes for each. Notice the absence of Africa.

Listed below are all the 46 known earthquakes with an estimated magnitude of 8.5 or higher since 1501. Limited to a timeframe with enough data, this gives a rough estimate of its frequency per century. (The timeframe does not include outlying events like the earlier 1498 Meiō earthquake, 1420 Caldera earthquake, 1361 Shōhei earthquake, 1356 Lisbon earthquake, 869 Jōgan earthquake, and 365 Crete earthquake, each estimated to have magnitude ≥8.5.)

Prior to the development and deployment of seismographs – starting around 1900 – magnitudes can only be estimated, based on historical reports of the extent and severity of damage.[35]

Rank Date Location Event Magnitude
1 May 22, 1960 Chile Valdivia, Chile 1960 Valdivia earthquake 9.4–9.6
2 June 11, 1585 United States Pacific Ocean, Aleutian Islands (now Alaska, United States) 1585 Aleutian Islands earthquake 9.25 (est.)
3 July 8, 1730 Chile Valparaiso, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1730 Valparaíso earthquake 9.1–9.3 (est.)[36]
4 March 27, 1964 United States Prince William Sound, Alaska, United States 1964 Alaska earthquake 9.2
5 December 26, 2004 Indonesia Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 9.1–9.3
6 October 17, 1737 Russia Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia 1737 Kamchatka earthquake 9.0–9.3 (est.)
7 November 17, 1837 Chile Valdivia, Chile 1837 Valdivia earthquake 8.8–9.5 (est.)[37]
8 March 11, 2011 Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 2011 Tōhoku earthquake 9.1
9 October 28, 1707 Japan Pacific Ocean, Shikoku region, Japan 1707 Hōei earthquake 8.7–9.3 (est.) [38]
10 November 25, 1833 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1833 Sumatra earthquake 8.8–9.2 (est.)
11 May 17, 1841 Russia Kamchatka, Russian Empire 1841 Kamchatka earthquake 9.0 (est.)
12 November 4, 1952 Russia Kamchatka, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union 1952 Severo-Kurilsk earthquake 9.0
13 January 26, 1700 CanadaUnited States Pacific Ocean, US and Canada (then claimed by the Spanish Empire and the British Empire) 1700 Cascadia earthquake 8.7–9.2 (est.)
14 August 13, 1868 Chile Arica, Chile (then Peru) 1868 Arica earthquake 8.5–9.3 (est.)
16 April 2, 1762 Bangladesh Chittagong, Bangladesh (then Kingdom of Mrauk U) 1762 Arakan earthquake 8.8 (est.)
17 November 26, 1852 Indonesia Banda Islands, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1852 Banda Sea earthquake 8.8 (est.)[39]
18 May 9, 1877 Chile Iquique, Chile (then Peru) 1877 Iquique earthquake 8.7–8.9 (est.)
19 January 31, 1906 EcuadorColombia Ecuador – Colombia 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake 8.8
15 February 27, 2010 Chile Maule, Chile 2010 Chile earthquake 8.8
20 December 16, 1575 Chile Valdivia, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1575 Valdivia earthquake 8.5–9.0 (est.)
21 November 1, 1755 Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1755 Lisbon earthquake 8.5–9.0 (est.)
22 October 20, 1687 Peru Lima, Peru (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1687 Peru earthquake 8.7 (est.)
23 October 28, 1746 1746 Lima–Callao earthquake 8.6–8.8 (est.)
24 February 3, 1965 United States Rat Islands, Alaska, United States 1965 Rat Islands earthquake 8.7
25 March 28, 1787 Mexico Oaxaca, Mexico (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1787 New Spain earthquake 8.6 (est.)
26 February 2, 1816 Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1816 North Atlantic earthquake 8.6 (est.)
27 April 1, 1946 United States Aleutian Islands, Alaska, United States 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake 8.6
28 August 15, 1950 IndiaChina Assam, India – Tibet, China 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake 8.6
29 March 9, 1957 United States Andreanof Islands, Alaska, United States 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake 8.6
30 March 28, 2005 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake 8.6
31 April 11, 2012 Indonesia Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes 8.6
32 November 24, 1604 Chile Arica, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1604 Arica earthquake 8.5 (est.)
33 May 13, 1647 Chile Santiago, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1647 Santiago earthquake 8.5 (est.)
34 July 25, 1668 China Shandong, China 1668 Shandong earthquake 8.5 (est.)[40]
35 May 24, 1751 Chile Concepción, Chile (then part of the Spanish Empire) 1751 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
36 March 31, 1761 Portugal Atlantic Ocean, Lisbon, Portugal 1761 Lisbon earthquake 8.5 (est.)[41]
37 April 4, 1819 Chile Copiapó, Chile 1819 Copiapó earthquake 8.5 (est.)[37]
38 November 19, 1822 Chile Valparaíso, Chile 1822 Valparaíso earthquake 8.5 (est.)
39 February 20, 1835 Chile Concepción, Chile 1835 Concepción earthquake 8.5 (est.)
40 February 8, 1843 Guadeloupe Guadeloupe region, Lesser Antilles 1843 Guadeloupe earthquake 8.5 (est.)[42]
41 February 16, 1861 Indonesia Sumatra, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1861 Sumatra earthquake 8.5 (est.)
42 June 15, 1896 Japan Pacific Ocean, Tōhoku region, Japan 1896 Sanriku earthquake 8.5 (est.)
43 November 10, 1922 Chile Atacama Region, Chile Catamarca Province, Argentina 1922 Vallenar earthquake 8.5
44 February 1, 1938 Indonesia Banda Sea, Indonesia (then part of the Dutch East Indies) 1938 Banda Sea earthquake 8.5
45 October 13, 1963 Russia Kuril Islands, Russia (USSR) 1963 Kuril Islands earthquake 8.5
Century Number of
magnitude ≥8.5
1501–1600 2
1601–1700 5
1701–1800 9
1801–1900 13
1901–2000 11
2001–present 5
Total 45

Note that historical records are known to be incomplete. Earthquakes that occurred in remote areas prior to the advent of modern instrumentation in the early to mid 1900s were not well-reported, and exact locations and magnitudes of such events are often unknown. Therefore, the apparent increase in large earthquake frequency over the last few centuries is unlikely to be accurate.

Largest earthquakes by country/territory[edit]

  • This list is a work in progress. Information is likely to be changed.
  • The list refers to current country boundaries rather than those at the date of the earthquake.
  • Please note, multiple countries could have the same earthquake listed, such as the 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake being listed for both Ecuador and Colombia.
  • Unless otherwise noted, magnitudes are reported on the Moment magnitude scale (Mw).
Country/Territory Magnitude Date More information
Afghanistan Afghanistan 7.8 15 November 1921 [43]
Albania Albania 6.7 30 November 1967 [44]
Algeria Algeria 7.1 10 October 1980 1980 El Asnam earthquake
American Samoa American Samoa 6.4 11 October 1944 [45]
Andorra Andorra 6.7 Me 2 February 1428 1428 Catalonia earthquake
Angola Angola 6.0 24 May 1914 [46]
Anguilla Anguilla 6.3 16 February 1906 [47]
Antarctica 8.1 25 March 1998 1998 Balleny Islands earthquake
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda 8.0 Ms 16 April 1690 [48]
Argentina Argentina 7.5 Ms 27 October 1894 1894 San Juan earthquake
Armenia Armenia 6.8 Ms 7 December 1988 1988 Armenian earthquake
Australia Australia 8.1 23 December 2004 2004 Tasman Sea earthquake
Austria Austria 5.6–6.5 15 September 1590 1590 Neulengbach earthquake
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 7.0–7.3 30 September 1139 1139 Ganja earthquake
Bangladesh Bangladesh 8.8 2 April 1762 1762 Arakan earthquake
Barbados Barbados 6.5 18 February 2014 [49]
Belgium Belgium 6.3 18 September 1692 [50]
Belize Belize 4.7 mb 28 June 1985 [51]
Benin Benin 4.4 11 September 2009 [52]
Bhutan Bhutan 8.1 4 May 1714 1714 Bhutan earthquake
Bolivia Bolivia 8.2 9 June 1994 1994 Bolivia earthquake
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.1 27 October 1969 1969 Banja Luka earthquake
Botswana Botswana 6.7 ML 11 October 1952 [53]
Brazil Brazil 7.6 9 November 1963 [54]
British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory 7.3 30 November 1983 1983 Chagos Archipelago earthquake
Brunei Brunei 5.2 22 February 1992 [55]
Bulgaria Bulgaria 7.2 Ms 4 April 1904 1904 Kresna earthquakes
Burundi Burundi 5.4 30 October 1966 [56]
Cameroon Cameroon 5.9 12 September 1945 [57]
Canada Canada 8.7–9.2 26 January 1700 1700 Cascadia earthquake
Cape Verde Cape Verde 6.5 15 August 1941 [58]
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands 5.2 10 March 2017 [59]
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands 6.8 14 December 2004 [60]
Central African Republic Central African Republic 4.9 mb 6 February 1994 [61]
Chile Chile 9.4–9.6 22 May 1960 1960 Valdivia earthquake
China China 8.6 15 August 1950 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Islands 7.9 18 June 2000 [62]
Colombia Colombia 8.8 31 January 1906 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake
Comoros Comoros 6.2 23 August 1918 [63]
Republic of the Congo Congo 5.2 26 April 1998 [64]
Costa Rica Costa Rica 7.7 22 April 1991 1991 Limon earthquake
Croatia Croatia 6.7 2 July 1898 1898 Trilj earthquake
Cuba Cuba 7.1 20 February 1917 [65]
Cyprus Cyprus 7.0–7.5 11 May 1222 1222 Cyprus earthquake
Czech Republic Czech Republic 4.8 ML 23 December 1985 [66]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo 6.9 13 December 1910 [67]
Denmark Denmark 4.4 ML 19 February 2010 [68][69][70]
Djibouti Djibouti 6.5 20 August 1989 [71]
Dominica Dominica 6.4 8 January 1959 [72]
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 7.8 4 August 1946 1946 Dominican Republic earthquake
East Timor East Timor 7.2 29 September 1905 [73]
Ecuador Ecuador 8.8 31 January 1906 1906 Ecuador–Colombia earthquake
Egypt Egypt 7.3 22 November 1995 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake
El Salvador El Salvador 8.0 MI 19 December 1862 [74]
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 4.9 mb 28 March 1999 [75]
Eritrea Eritrea 6.6 Ms 28 December 1977 [76]
Estonia Estonia 4.5–4.7 mb 25 October 1976 Osmussaar earthquake
Eswatini Eswatini 4.4 4 August 1987 [77]
Ethiopia Ethiopia 6.5 25 August 1906 [78]
Fiji Fiji 8.2 19 August 2018 2018 Fiji earthquakes
Finland Finland 4.7 4 November 1898 [79]
France France 6.0 11 June 1909 1909 Provence earthquake
French Guiana French Guiana 6.9 4 August 1885 [80]
French Polynesia French Polynesia 4.8 16 August 2012 [81]
Gabon Gabon 6.2 Ms 23 September 1974 [82]
Georgia (country) Georgia 7.0 29 April 1991 1991 Racha earthquake
Germany Germany 6.4 ML 18 February 1756 1756 Düren earthquake
Ghana Ghana 6.4 22 June 1939 [83]
Greece Greece 8.5+ 21 July 365 365 Crete earthquake
Greenland Greenland 7.4 20 November 1933 1933 Baffin Bay earthquake
Grenada Grenada 7.0 Ms 3 December 1831 [84]
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe 8.5 8 February 1843 1843 Guadeloupe earthquake
Guam Guam 7.8 8 August 1993 1993 Guam earthquake
Guatemala Guatemala 7.7 6 August 1942 1942 Guatemala earthquake
Guinea Guinea 6.3 22 December 1983 1983 Guinea earthquake
Guyana Guyana 5.5 31 January 2021 [85]
Haiti Haiti 8.1 Ms 7 May 1842 1842 Cap-Haïtien earthquake
Honduras Honduras 7.5 10 January 2018 2018 Swan Islands earthquake
Hong Kong Hong Kong 3.8 ML 5 January 2020 [86]
Hungary Hungary 6.2–6.5 28 June 1763 1763 Komárom earthquake
Iceland Iceland 7.0 22 January 1910 [87]
India India 8.6 15 August 1950 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake
Indonesia Indonesia 9.1–9.3 26 December 2004 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
Iran Iran 7.9 Ms 22 December 856 856 Damghan earthquake
Iraq Iraq 7.0 22 September 1666 [88]
Republic of Ireland Ireland 4.0 ML 6 June 2012 [89]
Israel Israel 6.3 11 July 1927 1927 Jericho earthquake
Italy Italy 7.4 11 January 1693 1693 Sicily earthquake
Jamaica Jamaica 7.7 28 January 2020 2020 Caribbean earthquake
Japan Japan 9.0–9.1 11 March 2011 2011 Tōhoku earthquake
Jersey Jersey 5.4 30 July 1926 [90]
Jordan Jordan 6.3 11 July 1927 1927 Jericho earthquake
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 8.0 11 July 1889 & 3 January 1911 1889 Chilik earthquake & 1911 Kebin earthquake
Kenya Kenya 6.7 6 January 1928 [91]
Kiribati Kiribati 5.9 mb 23 May 1982 [92]
Kosovo Kosovo 6.1 ML 26 February 1755 & 10 August 1921 [93]
Kuwait Kuwait 4.7 3 June 1993 [94]
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 8.0 11 July 1889 & 3 January 1911 1889 Chilik earthquake & 1911 Kebin earthquake
Laos Laos 6.9 Ms 24 June 1983 [95]
Lebanon Lebanon 7.5 9 July 551 551 Beirut earthquake
Liberia Liberia 4.5 25 November 1995 [96]
Libya Libya 6.8 19 April 1935 [97]
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein 3.6 12 December 2013 [98]
Luxembourg Luxembourg 2.9 ML 3 September 1986 [99]
Madagascar Madagascar 6.2 4 July 1919 [100]
Malawi Malawi 6.3 10 March 1989 1989 Malawi earthquake
Malaysia Malaysia 6.6 11 August 1923 [101]
Maldives Maldives 7.4 29 February 1944 [102]
Mali Mali 4.2 mb 11 January 1999 [103]
Malta Malta 5.3 Ms 29 September 1992 [104]
Marshall Islands Marshall Islands 5.6 mb 22 March 1982 [105]
Martinique Martinique 7.5–8.0 11 January 1839 1839 Martinique earthquake
Mauritania Mauritania 4.6 1 March 2012 [106]
Mauritius Mauritius 6.7 26 July 1976 [107]
Mayotte Mayotte 6.0 29 April 1952 [108]
Mexico Mexico 8.6 28 March 1787 1787 New Spain earthquake
Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia 7.8 16 August 1911 [109]
Moldova Moldova 3.9 2 April 1988 [110]
Monaco Monaco 6.3 19 July 1963 [111]
Mongolia Mongolia 8.3 23 July 1905 1905 Bolnai earthquake
Montenegro Montenegro 6.9 15 April 1979 1979 Montenegro earthquake
Morocco Morocco 6.3 24 February 2004 2004 Al Hoceima earthquake
Mozambique Mozambique 7.0 22 February 2006 2006 Mozambique earthquake
Myanmar Myanmar 8.0+ 23 March 1839 & 12 September 1946 1839 Ava earthquake and 1946 Sagaing earthquakes
Namibia Namibia 5.4 4 April 2021 [112]
Nepal Nepal 8.2–8.8 6 June 1505 1505 Lo Mustang earthquake
Netherlands Netherlands 5.3 13 April 1992 1992 Roermond earthquake
New Caledonia New Caledonia 7.9 9 August 1901 [113]
New Zealand New Zealand 8.2 23 January 1855 1855 Wairarapa earthquake
Nicaragua Nicaragua 7.7 2 September 1992 1992 Nicaragua earthquake
Nigeria Nigeria 4.5 7 March 2000 [114]
North Korea North Korea 6.8 8 October 1960 [115]
North Macedonia North Macedonia 6.7 8 March 1931 [116]
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands 7.7 29 July 2016 [117]
Norway Norway 6.8 30 August 2012 [118]
Oman Oman 5.7 30 March 1966 [119]
Pakistan Pakistan 8.1 28 November 1945 1945 Balochistan earthquake
Palau Palau 7.8 16 August 1911 [120]
Panama Panama 7.7–7.9 7 September 1882 1882 Panama earthquake
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 8.2 6 May 1919 [121]
Paraguay Paraguay 6.5 28 February 1989 [122]
Peru Peru 8.5–9.3 13 August 1868 1868 Arica earthquake
Philippines Philippines 8.3 15 August 1918 1918 Celebes Sea earthquake
Poland Poland 5.6 3 December 1786 [123]
Portugal Portugal 8.5–9.0 1 November 1755 1755 Lisbon earthquake
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 8.0 2 May 1787 1787 Boricua earthquake
Réunion Réunion 5.3 mb 6 April 2007 [124]
Romania Romania 7.9 26 October 1802 1802 Vrancea earthquake
Russia Russia 9.0–9.3 16 October 1737 1737 Kamchatka earthquake
Rwanda Rwanda 5.9 3 February 2008 2008 Lake Kivu earthquake
Saint Barthélemy Saint Barthélemy 5.4 18 November 1990 [125]
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis 6.5 16 March 1985 [126]
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia 7.3 19 March 1953 [127]
Collectivity of Saint Martin Saint Martin 5.0 4 July 2012 [128]
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon 7.2 18 November 1929 1929 Grand Banks earthquake
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6.1 6 July 1940 [129]
Samoa Samoa 8.3–8.5 25 June 1917 1917 Samoa earthquake
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe 5.5 19 December 2019 [130]
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia 7.3 22 November 1995 1995 Gulf of Aqaba earthquake
Senegal Senegal 5.5 21 May 1986 [131]
Serbia Serbia 6.0 15 May 1927 [132]
Seychelles Seychelles 5.2 mb 28 April 1995 [133]
Slovakia Slovakia 5.8 28 June 1763 [134]
Slovenia Slovenia 6.1 ML 14 April 1895 1895 Ljubljana earthquake
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 8.1 1 April 2007 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake
Somalia Somalia 6.0 22 January 1929 [135]
South Africa South Africa 6.8 31 December 1932 [136]
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 8.1 27 June 1929 & 12 August 2021 2021 South Sandwich Islands earthquakes[137]
South Korea South Korea 7.5 26 June 1681 1681 Yangyang earthquake [ko]
South Sudan South Sudan 7.2 20 May 1990 1990 South Sudan earthquakes
Spain Spain 7.8 29 March 1954 [138]
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 5.9 mb 30 August 1973 [139]
Sudan Sudan 6.0 12 May 1938 [140]
Sweden Sweden 4.9 mb 18 May 2020 [141]
Switzerland Switzerland 6.0–7.1 18 October 1356 1356 Basel earthquake
Syria Syria 7.6 Ms 20 May 1202 1202 Syria earthquake
Taiwan Taiwan 8.2 5 June 1920 1920 Hualien earthquake[142]
Tajikistan Tajikistan 7.5 10 July 1949 1949 Khait earthquake
Tanzania Tanzania 7.0 8 July 1919 [143]
Thailand Thailand 6.1 5 May 2014 2014 Mae Lao earthquake
Tonga Tonga 8.1 30 April 1919 [144]
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 6.7 22 April 1997 [145][146]
Tunisia Tunisia 7.2 9 October 859 [147]
Turkey Turkey 7.8–8.0 Ms 17 August 1668 1668 North Anatolia earthquake
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 7.3 Ms 5 October 1948 1948 Ashgabat earthquake
Tuvalu Tuvalu 5.8 mb 5 February 1983 & 8 March 1983 [148]
Uganda Uganda 6.5 30 June 1952 [149]
Ukraine Ukraine 6.7 11 September 1927 1927 Crimean earthquakes
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 5.0 11 March 2002 [150]
United Kingdom United Kingdom 6.1 ML 7 June 1931 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake
United States United States 9.25 11 June 1585 1585 Aleutian Islands earthquake
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands 7.2 18 November 1867 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake and tsunami
Uruguay Uruguay 5.5 Ms 5 June 1888 1888 Rio de la Plata earthquake
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 7.0 19 March 1984 [151]
Vanuatu Vanuatu 8.1 20 September 1920 [152]
Venezuela Venezuela 7.6–7.7 29 October 1900 1900 San Narciso earthquake
Vietnam Vietnam 6.8 1 November 1935 [153]
Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna 7.6 23 May 1956 [154]
Yemen Yemen 6.7 18 December 1908 [155]
Zambia Zambia 6.5 1 May 1919 [156]
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 5.5 25 September 1963 [157]

Costliest earthquakes[edit]

This is the top ten major earthquakes by the dollar value of property (public and private) losses directly attributable to the earthquake.

Rank Event Location Magnitude Property damage
1 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami  Japan 9.1[158] $360 billion[159][160]
2 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake  Japan 6.9 $200 billion[161]
3 2008 Sichuan earthquake China Sichuan, China 8.0 $150 billion[162]
4 2010 Canterbury earthquake  New Zealand 7.0 $40 billion[163]
5 2004 Chūetsu earthquake  Japan 6.8 $28 billion[164][165]
6 2011 Sikkim earthquake  India 6.9 $22.3 billion[166]
7 1999 İzmit earthquake  Turkey 7.6 $20 billion[164]
8 2009 L'Aquila earthquake  Italy 6.3 $16 billion[167]
9 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes  Italy 6.1[168] $15.8 billion[169]
10 2011 Christchurch earthquake  New Zealand 6.3[170] $15–40 billion[171][172]

Deadliest earthquakes[edit]

The following is a summary list of earthquakes with over approximately 100,000 deaths:

Deadliest earthquakes[173]
Rank Event Date Location Fatalities Magn­itude Notes
1 1556 Shaanxi earthquake January 23, 1556 Shaanxi, China 100,000 (direct toll from quake), (820,000–830,000 (highest possible estimated death toll))[174] 8.0 Estimated death toll in Shaanxi, China
2 1976 Tangshan earthquake July 28, 1976 Hebei, China 242,769–700,000+[175][176][177] 7.8
3 1920 Haiyuan earthquake December 16, 1920 NingxiaGansu, China 273,400[175][178] 7.8 Major fractures, landslides.
4 526 Antioch earthquake May 21, 526 Antioch, Byzantine Empire (modern-day Turkey) 250,000[179] 7.0[180] Procopius (II.14.6), sources based on John of Ephesus.
5 1139 Ganja earthquake September 30, 1139 Ganja, Azerbaijan 230,000–300,000[181] 7.0 Mw Death toll may have been a historical conflation with earthquakes on November 1137 in the Jazira plain and the 1138 Aleppo earthquake.
6 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean, Sumatra, Indonesia 227,898 9.1–9.3 Became the deadliest tsunami on record, causing nearly 230,000 deaths from the earthquake and resulting tsunami across 14 countries.
7 1138 Aleppo earthquake October 11, 1138 Aleppo, Syria 130,000–230,000[182] 7.1[182] The figure of 230,000 dead is based on a historical conflation of this earthquake with earthquakes in November 1137 on the Jazira plain and on September 30, 1139 in the Azerbaijani city of Ganja. The first mention of a 230,000 death toll was by Ibn Taghribirdi in the fifteenth century.[183]
8 2010 Haiti earthquake January 12, 2010 Haiti 100,000–316,000 (estimates) 7.0 Estimates vary from 316,000 (Haitian government) to 222,570 (UN OCHA estimate)[184] to 158,000 (Medicine, Conflict and Survival) to between 85,000 and 46,000 (report commissioned by USAID).[185][186]
9 1303 Hongdong earthquake July 25, 1303 Shanxi, China 200,000[187] 8.0 Taiyuan and Pingyang were leveled.
10 856 Damghan earthquake December 22, 856 Damghan, Iran 200,000 7.9 Ms
11 893 Ardabil earthquake March 22, 893 Ardabil, Iran 150,000 Unknown Reports probably relate to the 893 Dvin earthquake, due to misreading of the Arabic word for Dvin, 'Dabil' as 'Ardabil'.[188] This is regarded as a 'fake earthquake'.[189]
12 533 Aleppo earthquake November 29, 533 Syria 130,000[190] Unknown
13 1908 Messina earthquake December 28, 1908 Messina, Italy 123,000[191] 7.1 The ground shook for 30 to 40 seconds around 5:20 am, and destruction occurred within a 300 km radius. 91% of structures in Messina were destroyed and ~70,000 residents died. Rescuers searched for weeks, and whole families were pulled out alive days later. A 40-foot (12 m) tsunami struck nearby coasts. Reggio Calabria on the Italian mainland also suffered heavy damage.
14 1948 Ashgabat earthquake October 6, 1948 Ashgabat, Turkmen SSR (modern-day Turkmenistan) 10,000–110,000 7.3 Ms
15 1923 Great Kantō earthquake September 1, 1923 Kantō region, Japan 105,385[192] 7.9 This earthquake with an epicenter beneath Izu Ōshima Island in Sagami Bay, shook the Kantō plain on the Japanese island of Honshū at 11:58 am. Shaking duration reported between 4 and 10 minutes, devastating Tokyo, Yokohama, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Shizuoka.[193] Shaking slid the 93-ton Great Buddha statue at Kamakura almost two feet forward. Casualty estimates range from 100,000 to 142,800, the latter figure including ~40,000 missing later presumed dead.
16 1290 Chihli earthquake September 27, 1290 Ningcheng, China 100,000[194] 6.8 Ms

Most studied earthquakes[edit]

The 50 most studied earthquakes according to the International Seismological Centre (ISC), based on a count of scientific papers (mostly in English) that discuss that earthquake. The "Event #" is linked to the ISC Event Bibliography for that event.

Rank Event origin time ISC Event # Papers ISC code Event
1 2011-03-11 05:46:23 16461282 1723 TOHOKU2011 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami
2 2008-05-12 06:28:00 13228121 1329 WENCHUAN2008 2008 Sichuan earthquake
3 2004-12-26 00:58:52 7453151 876 SUMATRA2004 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
4 1999-09-20 17:47:16 1718616 685 CHI-CHI1999 1999 Jiji earthquake
5 1994-01-17 12:30:54 189275 494 NORTHRIDGE1994 1994 Northridge earthquake
6 1995-01-16 20:46:51 124708 472 SHYOGO1995 Great Hanshin earthquake
7 2009-04-06 01:32:42 13438018 460 LAQUILA2009 2009 L'Aquila earthquake
8 2010-02-27 06:34:13 14340585 458 MAULE2010 2010 Chile earthquake
9 1989-10-18 00:04:14 389808 440 LOMAPRIETA1989 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
10 1992-06-28 11:57:35 289086 402 LANDERS1992 1992 Landers earthquake
11 1999-08-17 00:01:38 1655218 384 IZMIT1999 1999 İzmit earthquake
12 2015-04-25 06:11:26 607208674 369 GORKHA2015 April 2015 Nepal earthquake
13 2016-04-15 16:25:06 610289055 266 KUMAMOTO2016 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes
14 1964-03-28 03:36:13 869809 264 ALASKA1964 1964 Alaska earthquake
15 1960-05-22 19:11:20 879136 256 CHILE1960 1960 Valdivia earthquake
16 1985-09-19 13:17:50 516095 244 MEXICOCITY1985 1985 Mexico City earthquake
17 2010-09-03 16:35:46 15155483 234 DARFIELD2010 2010 Canterbury earthquake
18 2001-01-26 03:16:40 1763683 232 BHUJ2001 2001 Gujarat earthquake
19 1971-02-09 14:00:40 787038 230 SANFERNANDO1971 1971 San Fernando earthquake
20 2013-04-20 00:02:47 607304721 209 LUSHAN2013 2013 Lushan earthquake
21 1976-07-27 19:42:53 711732 207 TANGSHAN1976 1976 Tangshan earthquake
22 2003-09-25 19:50:07 7134409 197 TOKACHI-OKI2003 2003 Tokachi earthquake
23 1980-11-23 18:34:52 635924 196 IRPINIA1980 1980 Irpinia earthquake
24 1976-05-06 20:00:12 713583 194 FRIULI1976 1976 Friuli earthquake
25 2016-08-24 01:36:33 611462212 189 AMATRICE2016 August 2016 Central Italy earthquake
26 2011-02-21 23:51:42 16168897 182 CHRISTCHURCH2011A 2011 Christchurch earthquake
27 2004-09-28 17:15:24 7406045 178 PARKFIELD2004 Parkfield earthquake
28 2005-03-28 16:09:35 7486110 177 NIAS2005 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake
29 2004-10-23 08:55:58 7421058 176 MID-NIIGATA2004 2004 Chūetsu earthquake
30 2016-11-13 11:02:59 615035032 168 KAIKOURA2016 2016 Kaikōura earthquake
31 2012-05-20 02:03:53 601025379 165 EMILIA2012A 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
32 1999-10-16 09:46:45 1643776 162 HECTOR-MINE1999 1999 Hector Mine earthquake
33 2001-11-14 09:26:12 2331800 158 KUNLUN2001 2001 Kunlun earthquake
34 2005-10-08 03:50:37 7703077 150 KASHMIR2005 2005 Kashmir earthquake
35 2002-11-03 22:12:41 6123395 147 DENALI2002 2002 Denali earthquake
36 1988-12-07 07:41:24 417441 145 ARMENIA1988 1988 Armenian earthquake
37 1999-11-12 16:57:19 1650092 145 DUZCE1999 1999 Düzce earthquake
38 1923-09-01 02:58:35 911526 145 KANTO1923 1923 Great Kantō earthquake
39 1979-10-15 23:16:57 657282 142 IMPERIAL1979 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake
40 2003-12-26 01:56:53 7217667 133 BAM2003 2003 Bam earthquake
41 2014-04-01 23:46:47 610102185 131 IQUIQUE2014 2014 Iquique earthquake
42 2010-01-12 21:53:10 14226221 127 HAITI2010 2010 Haiti earthquake
43 2015-09-16 22:54:30 611531714 127 ILLAPEL2015 2015 Illapel earthquake
44 2016-10-30 06:40:19 609624987 120 NORCIA2016 October 2016 Central Italy earthquakes
45 2012-05-29 07:00:04 605482196 120 EMILIA2012B 2012 Northern Italy earthquakes
46 1983-05-26 02:59:58 577008 120 SEAOFJAPAN1983 1983 Sea of Japan earthquake
47 1906-04-18 13:12:27 16957905 120 SANFRANCISCO1906 1906 San Francisco earthquake
48 1944-12-07 04:35:45 899647 115 TONANKAI1944 1944 Tōnankai earthquake
49 2019-07-06 03:19:55 616203758 112 RIDGECREST2019B 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
50 2008-06-13 23:43:46 13377361 111 IWATE-MIYAGI2008 2008 Iwate–Miyagi Nairiku earthquake

modified from figure 2, "The most studied events", at the ISC's Overview of the ISC Event Bibliography.

International Seismological Centre. Event Bibliography. Thatcham, United Kingdom. 2018.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "22 Mayıs 1971 Bingöl Depremi Ms:6.8". deprem.afad.gov.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  2. ^ "M 6.8 - 32 km E of Uttark?shi, India". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "Today in Earthquake History". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 27, 2022. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ "M 7.9 - 103 km S of Bengkulu, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  5. ^ "Number of deaths caused by the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake".
  6. ^ "M 7.6 - 30 km WSW of Pariaman, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  7. ^ "M 7.8 - 27 km SSE of Muisne, Ecuador". earthquake.usgs.gov. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved January 8, 2022.
  8. ^ "M 7.6 - 138 km SW of Insrom, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. May 27, 1947. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  9. ^ "M 7.9 – off the east coast of Honshu, Japan". United States Geological Survey. November 25, 1953. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  10. ^ "M 7.8 – Strait of Gibraltar". United States Geological Survey. March 29, 1954. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  11. ^ "M 7.5 – Kermadec Islands region". United States Geological Survey. February 27, 1955. Retrieved July 26, 2021.
  12. ^ "M 8.3 – Kuril Islands". United States Geological Survey. November 6, 1958. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  13. ^ "M 8.3 – Kuril Islands". United States Geological Survey. November 6, 1958. Retrieved July 23, 2021.
  14. ^ "M 7.6 – Peru-Brazil border region". United States Geological Survey. August 19, 1961. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  15. ^ "M 7.5 – Fiji region". United States Geological Survey. May 21, 1962. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  16. ^ "M 8.7 – Rat Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska". United States Geological Survey. February 4, 1965. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  17. ^ "M 8.2 – Kuril Islands". United States Geological Survey. August 11, 1969. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  18. ^ "M 8.0 – New Ireland region, Papua New Guinea". United States Geological Survey. July 14, 1971. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  19. ^ "M 8.0 – Mindanao, Philippines". United States Geological Survey. December 2, 1972. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  20. ^ "Significant Earthquake: KERMADEC ISLANDS". National Geophysical Data Center. May 26, 1975. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  21. ^ "M 7.9 – Bougainville region, Papua New Guinea". United States Geological Survey. July 20, 1975. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  22. ^ "Significant Earthquake: KERMADEC ISLANDS". National Geophysical Data Center. January 14, 1976. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  23. ^ "M 8.0 - Kermadec Islands region". United States Geological Survey. January 14, 1976. Retrieved August 5, 2017.
  24. ^ "M 7.9 – 199 km S of Lata, Solomon Islands". United States Geological Survey. July 17, 1980. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  25. ^ "Tsunami Event: SAMOA ISLANDS". National Geophysical Data Center. September 1, 1981. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  26. ^ "M 7.7 – 133 km NE of Hihifo, Tonga". United States Geological Survey. September 1, 1981. Retrieved June 26, 2021.
  27. ^ "M 7.6 – 157 km ESE of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea". United States Geological Survey. March 18, 1983. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  28. ^ "M 7.6 – 85 km SE of Honiara, Solomon Islands". United States Geological Survey.
  29. ^ "M 8.0 - 26 km NW of El Habillal, Mexico". United States Geological Survey.
  30. ^ "Major earthquake Strikes Alaska, Tsunami Strikes Hawaii". The Washington Post. May 7, 1986.
  31. ^ "M 8.0 – 85 km SSW of Atka, Alaska". United States Geological Survey. May 7, 1986.
  32. ^ "M 7.9 – 200km WSW of Yakutat, Alaska". United States Geological Survey. November 30, 1987.
  33. ^ "M 8.0, Macquarie Island region". United States Geological Survey. May 23, 1989.
  34. ^ "Magnitude 8 and Greater Earthquakes Since 1900". usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016.
  35. ^ Johnston, Arch C.; Halchuk, Stephen (June–July 1993), "The seismicity data base for the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program", Annali di Geofisica, 36 (3–4): 133–151, pp. 140, 142 et seq.
  36. ^ Carvajal, M.; Cisternas, M.; Catalán, P.A. (2017). "Source of the 1730 Chilean earthquake from historical records: Implications for the future tsunami hazard on the coast of Metropolitan Chile". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 122 (5): 3648–3660. Bibcode:2017JGRB..122.3648C. doi:10.1002/2017JB014063. S2CID 133806784.
  37. ^ a b Jin Junfang; Yin Shuyan; Yan Junping (2014). "Symmetry and tendency judgment of Ms ≥ 8.0 strong earthquakes in Chile". Geodesy and Geodynamics. 5 (1): 34–40. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1246.2014.01034.
  38. ^ {{cite web | url=https://unit.aist.go.jp/ievg/gever/en/materials/sharing/G-EVER1_P_Ishikawa_AIST.pdf(est.)%7C title=M 9.3Re-evaluation of Mw of the 1707 Hoei earthquake – near the east coast of Honshu, Japan | publisher=AIST ||
  39. ^ H. Ringer, J. P. Whitehead, J. Krometis, R. A. Harris, N. Glatt-Holtz, S. Giddens, C. Ashcraft, G. Carver, A. Robertson, M. Harward, J. Fullwood, K. Lightheart, R. Hilton, A. Avery, C. Kesler, M. Morrise, M. H. Klein (2021). "Methodological Reconstruction of Historical Seismic Events From Anecdotal Accounts of Destructive Tsunamis: A Case Study for the Great 1852 Banda Arc Mega-Thrust Earthquake and Tsunami" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 126 (4). arXiv:2009.14272. Bibcode:2021JGRB..12621107R. doi:10.1029/2020JB021107. S2CID 222066748. Retrieved June 19, 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  40. ^ "Significant Earthquake Information CHINA: SHANDONG PROVINCE". NGCD. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
  41. ^ NCEI Global Historical Hazard Database. "Significant Earthquake Information PORTUGAL: LISBON". www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  42. ^ Hough S.E. (2013). "Missing great earthquakes". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 118 (3): 1098–1108. Bibcode:2013JGRB..118.1098H. doi:10.1002/jgrb.50083. S2CID 128458643.
  43. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Afghanistan". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  44. ^ "M 6.7 – Albania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  45. ^ "M 6.4 - 188 km SW of Vailoatai, American Samoa". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  46. ^ "M 6.0 - 67 km N of Sumbe, Angola". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  47. ^ "M 6.3 - 121 km NNW of The Valley, Anguilla". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  48. ^ "NCEI Significant Earthquake Information". ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  49. ^ "6.5 magnitude earthquake near Greenland, Saint Andrew, Barbados and Ciudad Guayana, Bolívar, Venezuela : February 18, 2014 09:27". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  50. ^ Petermans, T.; Devleeschouwer, X.; Pouriel, F.; Rosset, P. (2006), "Mapping the local seismic hazard in the urban area of Brussels, Belgium (IAEG2006 Paper number 424)" (PDF), IAEG2006 — 10th IAEG International Congress : Nottingham, Geological Society of London
  51. ^ "M 4.7 - 55 km ESE of Dangriga, Belize".
  52. ^ "4.4 magnitude earthquake 13 km from Abomey-Calavi, Atlantique, Benin".
  53. ^ Simon, RE; Kwadiba, MTO; King, JG; Moidaki, M (2012). "A History of Botswana's Seismic Network". Botswana Notes and Records. 44: 184–192. JSTOR 43855570.
  54. ^ M 7.6 – Peru-Brazil border region, USGS
  55. ^ "5.2 magnitude earthquake 68 km from Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei and Muara, Brunei". earthquaketrack.com.
  56. ^ "M 5.4 - 20 km S of Gitega, Burundi". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  57. ^ "M 5.9 - 93 km NW of Ouésso, Republic of the Congo". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  58. ^ "6.5 magnitude earthquake 259 km from Ponta do Sol, Ribeira Grande, Cape Verde".
  59. ^ "M 5.2 - 64 km N of Coro, Venezuela". United States Geological Survey.
  60. ^ "6.8 magnitude earthquake near George Town, Cayman Islands and Havana, La Habana, Cuba : December 14, 2004 23:20". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  61. ^ "M 4.9 – Central African Republic". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  62. ^ "M 7.9 – South Indian Ocean". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  63. ^ "M 6.2 - 1 km NNE of Vanadjou, Comoros". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  64. ^ "5.2 magnitude earthquake near Impfondo, Likouala, Republic of the Congo and Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo : April 26, 1998 14:16". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved February 27, 2021.
  65. ^ "M 7.1 - 84 km SW of Niquero, Cuba". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  66. ^ "4.8 magnitude earthquake near Skalná, Karlovarský, Czech Republic and Prague, Praha, Czech Republic : December 23, 1985 04:27". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  67. ^ "M 6.9 - 39 km WSW of Karema, Tanzania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  68. ^ "M4.4 – North Sea (4.4 magnitude earthquake 47 km from Thyborøn, Central Jutland, Denmark)". United States Geological Survey. November 7, 2014. Archived from the original on April 26, 2016.
  69. ^ There was also a 4.4 Mw earthquake on 15 June 1985 in the Kattegat between Denmark and Sweden. "Denmark: Copenhagen: Saturday, June 15, 1985 Earthquake". Earthquake.Zone.;"M4.4 – Sweden". United States Geological Survey.
  70. ^ Earlier large earthquakes affecting Denmark occurred in Norway and Sweden. Voss, P. H.; Larsen, T. B.; Ottemöller, L.; Gregersen, S. (2009). "Earthquake in southern Sweden wakes up Denmark on 16 December 2008" (PDF). Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. 17: 11. doi:10.34194/geusb.v17.5002.
  71. ^ "M 6.5 – Djibouti". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  72. ^ "M 6.4 - 18 km SSE of Berekua, Dominica". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 1, 2022.
  73. ^ "M 7.2 - 58 km ENE of Lospalos, Timor Leste". earthquake.usgs.gov. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  74. ^ White, R. A.; Ligorria, J. P.; Cifuentes, I. L. (2004). "Seismic history of the Middle America subduction zone along El Salvador, Guatemala, and Chiapas, Mexico: 1526–2000". Natural Hazards in El Salvador. Geological Society of America. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-8137-2375-4.
  75. ^ "M 4.9 - Equatorial Guinea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  76. ^ "M 6.6 - 144 km NE of Massawa, Eritrea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  77. ^ "4.4 magnitude earthquake 16 km from Sidvokodvo, Swaziland".
  78. ^ "M 6.5 - 8 km E of Goba, Ethiopia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  79. ^ "Largest earthquake in Finland". Sodankylän Geofysiikan Observatorio, Oulun Toimintayksikkö (University of Oulu). Archived from the original on May 28, 2006. Retrieved June 21, 2022.
  80. ^ Marcelo Assumpção, Alberto V. Veloso (2020). "The 1885 M 6.9 Earthquake in the French Guiana–Brazil Border: The Largest Midplate Event in the Nineteenth Century in South America". Geosciences World. 91 (5): 2497–2510. doi:10.1785/0220190325. S2CID 219502957.
  81. ^ "Biggest Earthquakes Near French Polynesia". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  82. ^ "M 6.2 – Gabon". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  83. ^ "M 6.4 - 8 km ENE of Swedru, Ghana". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 9, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  84. ^ "NCEI Significant Earthquake Information". ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  85. ^ "M 5.5 – 82 km SSE of Lethem, Guyana". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved January 31, 2021.
  86. ^ "M 3.8 - 14 km SW of Tai O, Hong Kong". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  87. ^ "M 7.0 - 79 km N of Norðurþing, Iceland". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  88. ^ Onur, T.; Gok, R.; Abdulnaby, W.; Mahdi, H.; Numan, N.M.; Al-Shukri, H.; Shakir, A.; Chlaib, H.; Ameen, T.H.; Abd, N. (2016). "A Comprehensive Earthquake Catalogue for Iraq in Terms of Moment Magnitude". Seismological Research Letters. 88 (3): 798–811. doi:10.1785/0220160078. OSTI 1466119.
  89. ^ "M 4.0 - 60 km W of Belmullet, Ireland". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  90. ^ "M 5.4 - 18 km E of Saint Helier, Jersey". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  91. ^ "M 6.7 - 33 km WNW of Nyahururu, Kenya". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  92. ^ "M 5.9 – Gilbert Islands, Kiribati region". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  93. ^ "Të gjitha tërmetet që kanë ndodhur në territorin e Kosovës".
  94. ^ "4.7 magnitude earthquake 44 km from Al Jahrā', Al Jahrāʼ, Kuwait".
  95. ^ "6.9 magnitude earthquake near Dien Bien Phu, Tỉnh Ðiện Biên, Vietnam and Hanoi, Ha Nội, Vietnam : June 24, 1983 09:07". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  96. ^ "4.5 magnitude earthquake 16 km from Tubmanburg, Bomi, Liberia". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  97. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Libya". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  98. ^ "M 3.6 - 1 km SSW of Balzers, Liechtenstein". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved October 15, 2022.
  99. ^ "M 2.9 - 2 km E of Wilwerwiltz, Luxembourg". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  100. ^ "M 6.2 - 283 km WSW of Anakao, Madagascar". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  101. ^ "M 6.6 - 26 km NNW of Lahad Datu, Malaysia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  102. ^ "M 7.4 - 212 km E of Fuvahmulah, Maldives". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  103. ^ "M 4.2 - 75 km NW of Kolokani, Mali". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  104. ^ "M 5.3 - 149 km S of Bir?ebbu?a, Malta". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  105. ^ "M 5.6 - Marshall Islands region". United States Geological Survey.
  106. ^ "4.6 magnitude earthquake 74 km from Zouérat, Tiris Zemmour, Mauritania". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  107. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Mauritius". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  108. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Mayotte". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  109. ^ "M 7.8 - State of Yap, Federated States of Micronesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  110. ^ "M 3.9 - 12 km S of Ocni?a, Moldova". United States Geological Survey. April 2, 1988. Retrieved August 30, 2022.
  111. ^ "M 6.3 - Ligurian Sea". United States Geological Survey. July 19, 1963. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  112. ^ "M 5.4 - 68 km NNW of Khorixas, Namibia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 5, 2021.
  113. ^ "7.9 magnitude earthquake near Tadine, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia : August 09, 1901 13:01". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  114. ^ "4.5 magnitude earthquake 34 km from Siluko, Edo, Nigeria". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved March 31, 2022.
  115. ^ "M 6.8 – North Korea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  116. ^ "M 6.7 - 3 km SW of Kuklis, North Macedonia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  117. ^ "7.7 magnitude earthquake near Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands : July 29, 2016 21:18". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  118. ^ "M 6.8 – 89 km NW of Olonkinbyen, Svalbard and Jan Mayen". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
  119. ^ "M 5.7 - 291 km ESE of Sur, Oman". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  120. ^ "7.8 magnitude earthquake near Melekeok Village, Melekeok, Palau : August 16, 1911 22:41". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  121. ^ "M 8.2 - 183 km ESE of Kokopo, Papua New Guinea". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  122. ^ "6.5 magnitude earthquake near General Enrique Mosconi, Formosa, Argentina and Asunción, Paraguay : February 28, 1989 13:01". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  123. ^ Wiejacz, Paweł; Debski, Wojciech (2009). "Podhale, Poland, earthquake of November 30, 2004". Acta Geophysica. 57 (2): 346–366. Bibcode:2009AcGeo..57..346W. doi:10.2478/s11600-009-0007-8. S2CID 128410108.
  124. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Réunion". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved July 17, 2017.
  125. ^ "M 5.4 - 26 km NE of Upper Hell's Gate, Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  126. ^ "M 6.5 - 18 km SE of Market Shop, Saint Kitts and Nevis". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  127. ^ "M 7.3 - Windward Islands". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  128. ^ "M 5.0 - 13 km ESE of Blowing Point Village, Anguilla". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 20, 2022.
  129. ^ "M 6.1 - 13 km W of Barrouallie, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  130. ^ "M 5.5 – 87km ENE of Santo Antonio, Sao Tome and Principe". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  131. ^ "M 5.5 - 289 km W of Mermoz Boabab, Senegal". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  132. ^ "M 6.0 - 8 km WNW of Kragujevac, Serbia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  133. ^ "M 5.2 – South Indian Ocean". earthquake.usgs.gov.
  134. ^ "Najvýznamnejšie zemetrasenia v histórii s epicentrom na území dnešného Slovenska". vedanadosah.cvtisr.sk (in Slovak). Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  135. ^ "M 6.0 - northwestern Somalia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  136. ^ "M 6.8 - 118 km ESE of Richards Bay, South Africa". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved March 5, 2022.
  137. ^ "M 8.1 - South Sandwich Islands region". earthquake.usgs.gov. USGS–ANSS. 1929. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  138. ^ "M 7.8 – Strait of Gibraltar". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  139. ^ "M 5.9 – 275 km E of Kalmunai, Sri Lanka". August 30, 1973.
  140. ^ "M 6.0 - 70 km SSW of Tok?r, Sudan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  141. ^ "M 4.9 Mine Collapse - 3 km SSE of Kiruna, Sweden". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 9, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  142. ^ "8.2 magnitude earthquake near Hualian, Taiwan, Taiwan and Taichung, Taiwan, Taiwan : June 05, 1920 04:21". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
  143. ^ "M 7.0 - 17 km SSW of Sumbawanga, Tanzania". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  144. ^ "8.1 magnitude earthquake near Neiafu, Vava'u, Tonga : April 30, 1919 07:17". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  145. ^ "M 6.7 – Tobago region, Trinidad and Tobago". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  146. ^ "The April 1997 Earthquakes". ttweathercenter.com. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  147. ^ Kázmér, Miklós (May 19, 2020). "Repeated historical earthquakes in Sousse, Monastir and El-Jem (Tunisia)—an archaeoseismological study" (PDF). Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 14 (3): 214. doi:10.1007/s12517-020-06372-w. S2CID 231738302. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  148. ^ "M 5.8 - 290 km N of Kulia Village, Tuvalu". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022. and "M 5.8 - 293 km N of Kulia Village, Tuvalu". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  149. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Uganda". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  150. ^ "M 5.0 - 14 km NW of Reef Al Fujairah City, United Arab Emirates". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2022.
  151. ^ "M 7.0 – western Uzbekistan". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 20, 2017.
  152. ^ "The Largest Earthquakes in Vanuatu". earthquaketrack.com. Retrieved April 3, 2017.
  153. ^ "M 6.8 - 27 km SE of Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  154. ^ "M 7.6 – Wallis and Futuna". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  155. ^ "M 6.7 - 170 km E of Hadibu, Yemen". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 1, 2022.
  156. ^ "M 6.5 - 12 km WNW of Chama, Zambia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  157. ^ "M 5.5 - 38 km SW of Siavonga, Zambia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved August 11, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  158. ^ "M 9.1 – near the east coast of Honshu, Japan". Earthquake Hazards Program. USGS. 2016. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
  159. ^ Zhang, Bo. "Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History". AccuWeather.com. News & Video. Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  160. ^ Victoria Kim (March 21, 2011). "Japan damage could reach $235 billion, World Bank estimates". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 31, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  161. ^ Tierney, Kathleen (1997). Emergency response: lessons learned from the Kobe earthquake. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center.
  162. ^ "Significant Earthquake". www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  163. ^ "Four years on: Insurance and the Canterbury Earthquakes" (PDF). Deloitte Access Economics. February 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 24, 2016. Retrieved February 29, 2016.
  164. ^ a b "Significant Earthquake Database". NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
  165. ^ Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Santos, Indhira; Borde, Alexandre (2013). The Economic Impacts of Natural Disasters. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-984193-6.
  166. ^ Santanu Baruah; Sowrav Saikia; Saurabh Baruah; Pabon K. Bora; Ruben Tatevossian; J. R. Kayal (March 19, 2014). "The September 2011 Sikkim Himalaya earthquake Mw 6.9: is it a plane of detachment earthquake?". Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk. 7: 248–263. doi:10.1080/19475705.2014.895963. S2CID 128915677. Retrieved August 1, 2022.
  167. ^ "Italy Quake Reconstruction to Cost at Least $16 Billion". Fox News. April 15, 2009. Archived from the original on April 19, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  168. ^ "Where can I learn more about the 1906 Earthquake?". Berkeley Seismological Lab. December 11, 2011.
  169. ^ National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS) (1972). "Significant Earthquake Database" (Data Set). National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K.
  170. ^ "New Zealand Earthquake Report". GeoNet. Earthquake Commission and GNS Science. February 22, 2011. Archived from the original on February 23, 2011.
  171. ^ "Christchurch rebuild to cost $10b more". 3 News NZ. April 28, 2013. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  172. ^ "Significant Earthquake". www.ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  173. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
  174. ^ International Association of Engineering Geology International Congress. Proceedings. [1990] (1990). ISBN 90-6191-664-X.[author missing][title missing][page needed][verification needed]
  175. ^ a b "Death toll of 1920 China earthquake higher than previously estimated". xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2013.
  176. ^ "Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths". USGS. Archived from the original on June 5, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
  177. ^ Theodore S. Glickman. [1993] (1993). Acts of God and Acts of Man. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1-56806-371-7
  178. ^ Utsu, T. "Search Page". Catalog of Damaging Earthquakes in the World (Through 2008). Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  179. ^ Sbeinati, Mohamed Reda; Darawchech, Ryad; Mouty, Mikhail (June 2005). "The historical earthquakes of Syria: an analysis of large and moderate earthquakes from 1365 B.C. to 1900 A.D." (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. 48 (3): 347–435. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  180. ^ National Geophysical Data Center. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  181. ^ "Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World". Earthquake.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. Retrieved April 22, 2022.
  182. ^ a b Grǖnthal G.; Wahlström R. (2009). "A harmonized seismicity data base for the EuroMediterranean region" (PDF). Proceedings of the 27th ECGS Workshop 'Seismicity Patterns in the Euro-Med Region: 15–21.
  183. ^ Ambraseys, Nicholas N., "The 12th century seismic paroxysm in the Middle East: a historical perspective" (PDF), Annals of Geophysics, Vol. 47, N. 2/3, April/June 2004, p. 743.
  184. ^ Haiti Dominates Earthquake Fatalities in 2010 (January 11, 2011), U.S. Geological Survey.
  185. ^ Maura R. O'Connor, [Two Years Later, Haitian Earthquake Death Toll in Dispute], Columbia Journalism Review (January 12, 2012).
  186. ^ Report challenges Haiti earthquake death toll (June 1, 2011), BBC.
  187. ^ "china virtual museums_quake". www.kepu.net.cn. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
  188. ^ Ambraseys, N.N.; Melville, C.P. (2005). A History of Persian Earthquakes. Cambridge Earth Science. Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-521-02187-6.
  189. ^ Gupta, H. (2011). Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences (2 ed.). Springer. p. 566. ISBN 978-90-481-8701-0.
  190. ^ Paula Dunbar. "Significant Earthquake". Ngdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  191. ^ The world's worst natural disasters Calamities of the 20th and 21st centuries CBC News'.' Retrieved October 29, 2010.
  192. ^ "Today in Earthquake History". usgs.gov.
  193. ^ Hammer, Joshua. (2006). Yokohama Burning: the Deadly 1923 Earthquake and Fire that Helped Forge the Path to World War II, p. 278, citing Francis Hawks, (1856). Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan Performed in the Years 1852, 1853 and 1854 under the Command of Commodore M.C. Perry, United States Navy, Washington: A.O.P. Nicholson by order of Congress, 1856; originally published in Senate Executive Documents, No. 34 of 33rd Congress, 2nd Session.
  194. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved October 29, 2010.

External links[edit]