List of earthquakes in California

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Probabilistic seismic hazard map

Earthquakes in California are common occurrences since the state is located on the San Andreas Fault, which cuts across California and forms the tectonic plate boundary between the Pacific and the North American Plate. There are many thousands of small earthquakes per year, most of them so small that they are not felt. California's complex landscape can be attributed to the network of faults that run through the state. The earliest reported earthquake in California was felt in 1769 by the Portola expedition about 30 miles southeast of Los Angeles.[1][2]

Summary[edit]

California has numerous active faults throughout the state which are known to produce large earthquakes. The most active of these is the San Jacinto Fault Zone in Southern California, which has produced large events on a regular basis throughout recent history. The Mendocino Triple Junction located offshore of Northern California is also very active, producing many earthquakes above M6 throughout history.[3] Northern California is also subject to megathrust earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone (extending north from Mendocino), such as the 1700 Cascadia earthquake, magnitude of approximately 9. The town of Parkfield in central California is located on a section of the San Andreas Fault that produces an earthquake of about M6 every 20–30 years on average in 1857, 1881, 1901, 1922, 1934, 1966 and 2004.[4]

The largest recorded earthquake in California was the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 7.9. This earthquake ruptured the San Andreas Fault from Parkfield to Wrightwood, a distance of 225 miles (350 km). The most destructive earthquake to date was the 7.8 magnitude 1906 San Francisco earthquake, when more than 3,000 people perished in the earthquake and the fires that followed. The 1906 quake ruptured the northern segment of the San Andreas Fault for 296 miles (477 km), from San Juan Bautista to near Cape Mendocino in the north.[5] More recently, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, which registered 6.9 and affected the San Francisco Bay Area,[6] and the 1994 Northridge earthquake which registered 6.7 and hit the Greater Los Angeles Area,[7] caused widespread damage and deaths in their respective regions.

Earthquakes[edit]

Date Area M MMI Deaths Injuries Total damage / notes
2014-08-24 North Bay 6.0 Mw VIII 1 ~200 $362 million–$1 billion
2014-03-28 Los Angeles Area 5.1 Mw VI Few $10.8 million NGDC
2010-04-04 Baja California 7.2 Mw VII 2–4 100–233 $1.15 billion
2010-01-09 North Coast 6.5 Mw VI 35 $21.8–43 million
2008-07-29 Los Angeles Area 5.5 Mw VI 8 Limited
2007-10-30 South Bay 5.6 Mw VI Minor
2003-12-22 Central Coast 6.6 Mw VIII 2 40 $250–300 million
2000-09-03 North Bay 5.0 Mw VII 41 $10–50 million
1999-10-16 Eastern 7.1 Mw VIII 5 Limited
1994-12-26 North Coast 4.8 Ms VII $2.1 million [8]
1994-01-17 Los Angeles Area 6.7 Mw IX 57 8,700+ $13–$40 billion
1992-06-28 Inland Empire 6.5 Mw VIII Some Moderate / triggered
1992-06-28 Inland Empire 7.3 Mw IX 3 400+ $92 million
1992-04-26 North Coast 6.6 Mw VIII Damage / triggered
1992-04-26 North Coast 6.5 Mw VIII Damage / triggered
1992-04-25 North Coast 7.2 Mw IX 98–356 $48.3–75 million / tsunami
1992-04-22 Inland Empire 6.2 Mw VII 32 Light–moderate [9]
1991-08-17 North Coast 6.3 Mw VII Damage / landslides [10]
1991-06-28 Los Angeles Area 5.6 Mw VII 1 100–107 $33.5–40 million
1990-02-28 Los Angeles Area 5.7 Mw VII 30 $12.7 million
1989-10-17 Santa Cruz Mountains 6.9 Mw IX 63 3,757 $5.6–6 billion / tsunami
1989-08-08 Santa Cruz Mountains 5.4 ML VII 1 Moderate
1987-11-24 Imperial Valley 6.5 Mw VII Triggered [11]
1987-11-23 Imperial Valley 6.1 Mw VI $3 million [11]
1987-10-01 Los Angeles Area 5.9 Mw VIII 8 200 $213–358 million
1986-07-21 Eastern 6.2 Mw VI 2 $2.7 million / sequence
1986-07-08 Inland Empire 6.0 Mw VII 29–40 $4.5–6 million
1984-04-24 South Bay 6.2 Mw VIII 21–27 $7.5–8 million
1983-05-02 Central Valley 6.2 Mw VIII 94 $10 million
1980-11-08 North Coast 7.3 Mw VII 6 $2–2.75 million
1980-05-25 Eastern 6.2 Mw VII 9 $1.5 million / swarm [12]
1980-01-26 East Bay 5.4 Mw VII Doublet [13]
1980-01-24 East Bay 5.8 Mw VII $11.5 million / doublet [14]
1979-10-15 Imperial Valley 6.4 Mw IX 91 $30 million
1979-08-06 South Bay 5.7 Mw VII 16 $500,000
1978-08-13 Central Coast 5.8 Mw VII 65 $12 million [15]
1975-08-01 Butte County 5.7 ML VIII 10 $3 million NGDC
1973-02-21 South Coast 5.7 Mb VII $1 million NGDC
1971-02-09 Los Angeles Area 6.5–6.7 Mw XI 64 2,000 $553 million
1969-10-01 North Bay 5.7 Mw VIII Doublet
1969-10-01 North Bay 5.6 Mw VII 1 $8.35 million / doublet
1968-04-08 Imperial Valley 6.5 Mw VII Damage / rockslides [16]
1957-03-22 Bay Area 5.7 Mw VII 1 40 $1 million
1954-12-21 North Coast 6.5 ML VII 1 Several $2.1 million [17]
1952-08-22 Central Valley 5.8 Mw VIII 2 Several $10 million
1952-07-21 Central Valley 7.3 Mw XI 12 Hundreds $60 million
1948-12-04 Inland Empire 6.3 ML VII Several Minor
1941-06-30 Central Coast 5.9 Mw VIII $100,000 [18]
1940-05-18 Imperial Valley 6.9 Mw X 9 20 $6 million
1933-03-10 South Coast 6.4 Mw VIII 115–120 $40 million
1932-06-06 North Coast 6.4 Mw VIII 1 3 Severe
1927-11-04 Central Coast 7.3 Mw VIII Moderate / tsunami [19]
1925-06-29 Central Coast 6.8 Mw IX 13 $8 million
1923-01-22 North Coast 7.2 Ms VIII Severe / tsunami [20]
1920-06-21 Los Angeles Area 4.9 ML VIII More than $100,000 [21]
1918-04-21 Inland Empire 6.7 Mw IX 1 Several $200,000
1915-06-22 Imperial Valley 5.5 Mw VIII Additional damage / doublet [22]
1915-06-22 Imperial Valley 5.5 Mw VIII 6 $900,000 / doublet [22]
1906-04-18 NorthernCentral 7.8 Mw XI 3000 Conflagration / tsunami
1899-12-25 Inland Empire 6.7 Mw IX 6 $50,000 or more [23]
1898-03-30 North Bay 6.2 MLa VIII $350,000 / severe [24]
1892-04-21 Central Valley 6.2 MLa IX Doublet
1892-04-19 North Bay 6.4 MLa IX 1 $225,000–250,000 / doublet
1892-02-23 Baja California 7.1–7.2 Mw VIII Moderate
1872-03-26 Eastern 7.4–7.9 Mw X 27 56 $250,000
1868-10-21 Bay Area 6.8–7.0 ML IX 30 $350,000
1865-10-08 Santa Cruz Mountains 6.3 MLa VIII $500,000 [25]
1857-01-09 CentralSouthern 7.9 Mw IX 2 Severe
1838-06 Bay Area 7.0 MLa VIII Minor [26]
1836-06-10 Bay Area 6.8 MLa VIII Damage / ground disturbances [26]
1812-12-21 Central Coast 7.1 MLa VIII 1 Tsunami [26]
1812-12-08 Inland Empire 6.9 ML VIII 40 Moderate
Note: Stover & Coffman 1993 uses various seismic scales. MLa is a local magnitude (equivalent to ML) for events that occurred prior to the instrumental period and is based on the area of perceptibility (as presented on isoseismal maps). The list includes events that occurred offshore or in Baja California, Mexico. The inclusion criteria for adding events are based on WikiProject Earthquakes' notability guideline that was developed for stand alone articles. The principles described are also applicable to lists. In summary, only damaging, injurious, or deadly events should be recorded.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources

External links[edit]