List of earthquakes in China

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Earthquakes with a magnitude 4.5 and over (1900–2015). The yellow star is the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.

This is a List of earthquakes in China, part of the series of lists of disasters in China. China has been the location of some of the most deadly earthquakes in history. The most deadly earthquake was the 1976 Tangshan earthquake with 300,000+ deaths.[1] Earthquakes in the loess plateau where residents lived in yaodong caves tended to have big casualties, including the 1303 Hongdong and 1920 Haiyuan earthquakes. The most recent earthquake with a death toll of more than a thousand was the 2010 Yushu earthquake, which killed 2,698.

The collision of India with the rest of Asia has led to seismic activity throughout Western China, particularly in Tibet and the Yunnan, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Gansu and Qinghai provinces. However, these regions in comparison with Eastern China have a low population density. These areas also in general have poorer transport and building codes. Throughout China, poor building codes increases the damage and loss of life from earthquakes. The northern regions of Eastern China are not as seismically active as the western areas of the country, but earthquakes are still possible in this area.

Earthquake prediction was popular between 1966 and 1976, which overlapped with the Cultural Revolution. This reached its height with the successful prediction of the 1975 Haicheng earthquake. This earthquake had a prominent series of foreshocks and authorities who were eager to issue a warning. However very few earthquakes have both these criteria. The unpredictable and devastating 1976 Tangshan earthquake led to a reduction in the popularity of earthquake prediction in China.

Earthquakes[edit]

Date Article Coord Location Mag. Deaths Description
512-05-21 512 Shaanxi earthquake 38°54′N 112°48′E / 38.9°N 112.8°E / 38.9; 112.8 Dai County, Shaanxi 7.5 Ms 5,310 (estimate)
1290-09-27 1290 Chihli earthquake[2] 41°30′N 119°18′E / 41.5°N 119.3°E / 41.5; 119.3 Ningcheng County, Inner Mongolia 6.8 Ms 100,000
1303-09-25 1303 Hongdong earthquake[3] 36°18′N 111°42′E / 36.3°N 111.7°E / 36.3; 111.7 Shaanxi 8.0 ML 270,000 [4] Taiyuan and Pingyang were leveled.
1337-09-08 1337 Huailai earthquake[5] 40°24′N 115°42′E / 40.4°N 115.7°E / 40.4; 115.7 Hebei, Beijing 6.5 Ms .
1556-01-23 1556 Shaanxi earthquake 34°30′N 109°18′E / 34.50°N 109.30°E / 34.50; 109.30 Shaanxi 8.0 MW 100,000+[6] Another 700,000 deaths from plagues and famine.[6]
1604-12-29 1604 Quanzhou earthquake 23°32′N 117°14′E / 23.54°N 117.24°E / 23.54; 117.24 Fujian 8.1 MW Unknown Largest earthquake in southern China
1605-07-13 1605 Guangdong earthquake 19°54′N 110°30′E / 19.9°N 110.5°E / 19.9; 110.5 Guangdong 7.5 Ms several thousand
1622-10-25 1622 North Guyuan earthquake 36°30′N 106°18′E / 36.5°N 106.3°E / 36.5; 106.3 Ningxia 7.2 MW 12,000
1626-06-28 1626 Lingqiu earthquake 39°24′N 114°12′E / 39.4°N 114.2°E / 39.4; 114.2 Shaanxi 7.0 Ms >5,200
1668-07-25 1668 Tancheng earthquake 34°18′N 118°36′E / 34.30°N 118.60°E / 34.30; 118.60 Tancheng County, Shandong 8.5 MW 50,000 Largest seismic event ever recorded in history in eastern China.[7]
1679-09-02 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu earthquake 40°00′N 116°59′E / 40.000°N 116.983°E / 40.000; 116.983 Hebei, Beijing 8.0 Mw 45,500
1695-05-18 1695 Linfen earthquake 36°00′N 111°30′E / 36.0°N 111.5°E / 36.0; 111.5 Linfen 7.8 MS 52,600
1709-10-14 1709 Zhongwei earthquake 37°24′N 105°18′E / 37.4°N 105.3°E / 37.4; 105.3 Ningxia 7.5 Ms 2,032
1718-06-19 1718 Tongwei–Gansu earthquake 35°00′N 105°12′E / 35.0°N 105.2°E / 35.0; 105.2 Gansu 7.5 MS 75,000
1739-01-04 1739 Yinchuan–Pingluo earthquake 38°54′N 106°30′E / 38.9°N 106.5°E / 38.9; 106.5 Ningxia 8.0 Ms 50,000
1786-06-01 1786 Kangding-Luding earthquake[8][9] 29°54′N 102°00′E / 29.9°N 102.0°E / 29.9; 102.0 Sichuan 7.75 ML 100,000+ The earthquake triggered a landslide that formed an artificial mud dam which blocked the Dadu River. Ten days later, this dam was breached resulting in a catastrophic mudslide flooding event.
1815-10-23 1815 Pinglu earthquake 34°48′N 111°12′E / 34.8°N 111.2°E / 34.8; 111.2 Shanxi 6.8 Ms 13,000
1830-11-10 1830 Cixian earthquake 36°24′N 114°12′E / 36.4°N 114.2°E / 36.4; 114.2 Hebei 7.4 Mw 7,477
1833-09-06 1833 Kunming earthquake 25°24′N 103°00′E / 25.400°N 103.000°E / 25.400; 103.000 Yunnan 8.0 Mw 6,000
1850-09-12 1850 Xichang earthquake 27°48′N 102°18′E / 27.8°N 102.3°E / 27.8; 102.3 Sichuan 7.6-7.9 Mw 20,650
1870-04-11 1870 Batang earthquake 30°00′N 99°06′E / 30.0°N 99.1°E / 30.0; 99.1 Sichuan 7.3 Mw 5,000
1879-07-01 1879 Gansu earthquake 33°12′N 104°42′E / 33.2°N 104.7°E / 33.2; 104.7 Gansu 8.0 Ms 22,000
1902-08-22 1902 Turkestan earthquake 40°00′N 77°00′E / 40.0°N 77.0°E / 40.0; 77.0 Xinjiang 7.7 Mw 2,500-20,000
1906-12-22 1906 Manasi earthquake 44°18′N 85°36′E / 44.3°N 85.6°E / 44.3; 85.6 Xinjiang 7.8 Mw 280
1918-02-13 1918 Shantou earthquake 23°32′N 117°14′E / 23.54°N 117.24°E / 23.54; 117.24 Shantou, Guangdong 7.2 Mw 1,000+
1920-12-16 1920 Haiyuan earthquake 36°30′N 105°42′E / 36.50°N 105.70°E / 36.50; 105.70 Haiyuan County, Ningxia 7.8 ML 265,000 [10]
1923-03-24 1923 Renda earthquake 31°17′42″N 100°45′00″E / 31.295°N 100.750°E / 31.295; 100.750 Luhuo County, Sichuan 7.0 Ms 4,800
1925-03-16 1925 Dali earthquake 25°42′N 100°24′E / 25.7°N 100.4°E / 25.7; 100.4 Dali, Yunnan 7.0 Ms 5,000
1927-05-22 1927 Gulang earthquake 37°23′N 102°19′E / 37.39°N 102.31°E / 37.39; 102.31 Gulang County, Gansu 7.6 Mw 40,900
1931-08-10 1931 Fuyun earthquake[11] 47°06′N 89°48′E / 47.1°N 89.8°E / 47.1; 89.8 Fuyun County, Xinjiang 8.0 Mw 10,000[12]
1932-12-25 1932 Changma earthquake 39°42′N 96°42′E / 39.7°N 96.7°E / 39.7; 96.7 Gansu 7.6 Ms 275
1933-08-25 1933 Diexi earthquake 32°00′N 103°42′E / 32.0°N 103.7°E / 32.0; 103.7 Mao County, Sichuan 7.5 MS 9,000
1937-07-31 1937 Heze earthquakes 35°16′08″N 115°11′24″E / 35.269°N 115.190°E / 35.269; 115.190 Mudan District, Shandong 6.9 MS 3,252+
1950-08-15 1950 Assam–Tibet earthquake[13] 28°22′N 96°27′E / 28.36°N 96.45°E / 28.36; 96.45 Zayü County, Tibet 8.6 Mw 4,000 Largest seismic event ever recorded in China and largest known seismic event on land. 3,300 deaths in Chinese-claimed territories
1952-08-18 1952 Damxung earthquake 30°38′53″N 91°36′4″E / 30.64806°N 91.60111°E / 30.64806; 91.60111 Damxung, Tibet 7.5 Mw 54
1955-4-14 1955 Kangding earthquake[14] 31°17′42″N 100°45′00″E / 31.295°N 100.750°E / 31.295; 100.750 Sichuan 7.1
1955-09-23 1955 Yuzha earthquake 26°36′N 101°48′E / 26.60°N 101.80°E / 26.60; 101.80 Yunnan 6.8 MS 728
1966-03-08 1966 Xingtai earthquake[15] 37°04′N 114°29′E / 37.067°N 114.483°E / 37.067; 114.483 Hebei 6.8 Mw 8,064
1969-07-26 1969 Yangjiang earthquake 21°37′N 111°50′E / 21.61°N 111.83°E / 21.61; 111.83 Yangjiang, Guangdong 6.4 Mw 3,000
1970-01-04 1970 Tonghai earthquake 24°11′N 102°32′E / 24.19°N 102.54°E / 24.19; 102.54 Tonghai County, Yunnan 7.1 Mw 15,621
1973-02-06 1973 Luhuo earthquake 31°23′53″N 100°34′52″E / 31.398°N 100.581°E / 31.398; 100.581 Luhuo County, Sichuan 7.5 MS[16] 2,175
1974-05-10 1974 Zhaotong earthquake 28°12′N 104°00′E / 28.2°N 104.0°E / 28.2; 104.0 Zhaotong, Yunnan 6.8 20,000[17]
1975-02-04 1975 Haicheng earthquake 40°40′N 122°41′E / 40.66°N 122.68°E / 40.66; 122.68 Haicheng, Liaoning 7.4 Mw 2,041 one of the few earthquakes to be successfully predicted throughout history[18]
1976-05-29 1976 Longling earthquake 24°29′N 98°58′E / 24.49°N 98.96°E / 24.49; 98.96 Yunnan 6.9 MS
7.0 MS
98 Doublet earthquake
1976-07-27 1976 Tangshan earthquake 39°38′N 118°06′E / 39.63°N 118.10°E / 39.63; 118.10 Tangshan, Hebei 7.5 MW 300,000+[1] Deadliest earthquake in Chinese history. Among the top disasters in China by death toll.
1976-08-16 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake 32°41′N 104°12′E / 32.69°N 104.2°E / 32.69; 104.2 Sichuan 7.2 MS 41 Earthquake swarm
1981-01-23 1981 Dawu earthquake 30°56′N 101°06′E / 30.93°N 101.10°E / 30.93; 101.10 Sichuan 6.8 ML 150
1988-11-06 1988 Lancang–Gengma earthquakes 22°47′20″N 99°36′40″E / 22.789°N 99.611°E / 22.789; 99.611 Yunnan 7.7 Mw
7.2 Mw
939 Occurred near the border with Shan State, Myanmar. Doublet earthquake
1990-04-26 1990 Gonghe earthquake 35°59′10″N 100°14′42″E / 35.986°N 100.245°E / 35.986; 100.245 Qinghai 7.0 MS 126
1996-02-03 1996 Lijiang earthquake 27°18′N 100°17′E / 27.30°N 100.29°E / 27.30; 100.29 Yunnan 7.0 MS 309
2000-01-14 2000 Yunnan earthquake 25°37′N 101°04′E / 25.61°N 101.06°E / 25.61; 101.06 Yunnan 5.9 MW 7
2001-02-23 2001 Sichuan earthquake[19] 29°30′47″N 101°07′44″E / 29.513°N 101.129°E / 29.513; 101.129 Sichuan 5.6 MW 3
2001-11-14 2001 Kunlun earthquake 36°07′N 90°32′E / 36.12°N 90.54°E / 36.12; 90.54 Qinghai 7.8 MW 0
2003-02-24 2003 Bachu earthquake 39°37′N 77°14′E / 39.61°N 77.24°E / 39.61; 77.24 Maralbexi (Bachu) County, Xinjiang 6.3 MW 261
2003-12-01 2003 Zhaosu earthquake 42°54′18″N 80°30′54″E / 42.905°N 80.515°E / 42.905; 80.515 Zhaosu County, Xinjiang 6.0 MW 10
2005-11-26 2005 Ruichang earthquake 29°39′25″N 115°43′01″E / 29.657°N 115.717°E / 29.657; 115.717 Ruichang, Jiangxi 5.2 MW 14
2006-07-22 2006 Yanjin earthquake 27°59′31″N 104°12′54″E / 27.992°N 104.215°E / 27.992; 104.215 Yunnan 5.2 MW 22 Moderate damage
2008-05-12 2008 Sichuan earthquake 31°01′16″N 103°22′01″E / 31.021°N 103.367°E / 31.021; 103.367 Wenchuan County, Sichuan 7.9 MW 87,587 18th deadliest earthquake of all time
2008-08-21 2008 Yingjiang earthquakes 24°54′N 97°48′E / 24.9°N 97.8°E / 24.9; 97.8 Yunnan 6.0 Mw 5
2008-08-30 2008 Panzhihua earthquake 26°12′N 101°54′E / 26.2°N 101.9°E / 26.2; 101.9 Sichuan 5.7 MW 41
2008-10-06 2008 Damxung earthquake 29°27′00″N 90°11′13″E / 29.45°N 90.187°E / 29.45; 90.187 Damxung County, Tibet 6.4 MW 10
2010-04-14 2010 Yushu earthquake 33°18′N 96°42′E / 33.3°N 96.7°E / 33.3; 96.7 Yushu, Qinghai 6.9 Mw 2,698 270 Missing
2011-03-10 2011 Yunnan earthquake 24°42′36″N 97°59′38″E / 24.710°N 97.994°E / 24.710; 97.994 Yunnan 5.4 MW 26
2012-09-07 2012 Yunnan earthquakes 27°34′55″N 103°59′24″E / 27.582°N 103.990°E / 27.582; 103.990 Yiliang County, Yunnan 5.6 Mw 81
2013-03-03 2013 Yunnan earthquakes 25°55′08″N 99°43′30″E / 25.919°N 99.725°E / 25.919; 99.725 Dali, Yunnan 5.5 Mw 0 2,500 houses were damaged
2013-04-20 2013 Ya'an earthquake 30°17′02″N 102°57′22″E / 30.284°N 102.956°E / 30.284; 102.956 Lushan County, Sichuan 6.9 Mw 193 24 missing[20]
2013-07-22 2013 Dingxi earthquake 34°30′N 104°12′E / 34.5°N 104.2°E / 34.5; 104.2 Min County, Gansu 5.9 Mw 95 Magnitude M(s)6.6 according to CENC.
2013-08-31 2013 Yunnan earthquake 28°13′12″N 99°20′35″E / 28.220°N 99.343°E / 28.220; 99.343 Deqen, Yunnan 5.8 Mw 5
2014-05-24 2014 Yingjiang earthquake 25°00′N 97°48′E / 25.0°N 97.8°E / 25.0; 97.8 Yingjiang County, Yunnan 5.6 Mw 0 9,412 homes were destroyed.[21]
2014-08-03 2014 Ludian earthquake 27°14′42″N 103°25′37″E / 27.245°N 103.427°E / 27.245; 103.427 Ludian County, Yunnan 6.1 Mw 617 112 missing[22]
2017-08-08 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake 33°12′N 103°49′E / 33.20°N 103.82°E / 33.20; 103.82 Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan 6.5 Mw 25 Landslides
2019-06-17 2019 Sichuan earthquake 28°24′18″N 104°57′25″E / 28.405°N 104.957°E / 28.405; 104.957 Changning County, Sichuan 5.8 Mw 13 20,000 houses were damaged
2021-05-21 2021 Dali earthquake 25°45′40″N 100°00′29″E / 25.761°N 100.008°E / 25.761; 100.008 Dali, Yunnan 6.1 Mw 3 32 injured, 12,882 houses damaged
2021-05-22 2021 Maduo earthquake 34°35′10″N 98°15′18″E / 34.586°N 98.255°E / 34.586; 98.255 Madoi, Qinghai 7.3 Mw 20 19 people injured (official), 20 dead 300 injured (unofficial)
2021-08-16 2021 Luxian earthquake 29°11′38″N 105°22′26″E / 29.194°N 105.374°E / 29.194; 105.374 Lu, Sichuan 5.4 Mw 3 146 injured, 60k evacuated
2022-01-07 2022 Qinghai earthquake 37°48′40″N 101°16′30″E / 37.811°N 101.275°E / 37.811; 101.275 Menyuan, Qinghai 6.6 Mw 0 Limited damage, 9 injured
2022-06-01 2022 Ya'an earthquake 30°24′58″N 102°59′20″E / 30.416°N 102.989°E / 30.416; 102.989 Lushan County, Sichuan 5.9 Mw 4
Note: The inclusion criteria for adding events are based on WikiProject Earthquakes' notability guideline that was developed for stand alone articles. The principles described also apply to lists. In summary, only damaging, injurious, or deadly events should be recorded.

ML  = Richter magnitude scale
Mw  = Moment magnitude
mb  = Body wave magnitude
Ms  = Surface wave magnitude

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b 王瓒玮 (28 July 2016). "唐山大地震40年:从死亡人数到天灾还是人祸仍是一地鸡毛". Jiemian. Archived from the original on 15 January 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2019. 若按唐山地区实际震亡人口统计,遇难者大致应有260000人左右;但若考虑北京、天津等其他受灾地区情况,及伤员陆续死亡、失踪者等不明信息条件,唐山大地震中死亡者数字或如民间所言,至少达到300000
  2. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the Significant Earthquake". Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  3. ^ Science Museums of China. "Ruins of the Hongdong Earthquake(1303)". smc.kisti.re.kr. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  4. ^ 徐岳仁; 何宏林; 李文巧; 张伟恒; 田勤俭 (2018). "1303 年洪洞地震宏观震中修订的新证据" [New evidences for amendment of macro-epicenter location of 1303AD Hongtong earthquake] (PDF). 地震地质. 40 (5): 948.
  5. ^ Y-X. Hu; S-C. Liu; W. Dong (1996). Earthquake Engineering. CRC Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-419-20590-6.
  6. ^ a b China Earthquake Administration, ed. (2008). 地震知识百问百答 [100 Q&As on Earthquakes]. 地震出版社. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. 实则直接死于地震的只有十数万人,其余70余万人均死于瘟疫和饥荒 [Actually, direct deaths from earthquake amount to 100,000-odd, the remaining 700,000-odd died from plagues and famine]
  7. ^ Zhou, C., Diao, G., Geng, J. et al. Fault plane parameters of Tancheng M8½ earthquake on the basis of present-day seismological data. Earthq Sci 23, 567–576 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11589-010-0756-0
  8. ^ Schuster, R.L. and G. F. Wieczorek, "Landslide triggers and types" in Landslides: Proceedings of the First European Conference on Landslides 2002 A.A. Balkema Publishers. p.66 [1]
  9. ^ "The 1786 earthquake-triggered landslide dam and subsequent dam-break flood on the Dadu River, southwestern China" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2009.
  10. ^ 张思源 (2013). "1920年海原大地震死亡人数考析". 西夏研究 (1): 119.
  11. ^ Magnitude 8 and Greater Earthquakes Since 1900 by USGS.gov Archived 12 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  12. ^ "Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900". Archived from the original on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2016
  13. ^ "10 Greatest Earthquakes in China in 20th Century". Ningxia Daily website (in Chinese). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
  14. ^ USGS. "M 7.1 – Westren Sichuan, China". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
  15. ^ "Major earthquakes on Chinese mainland since 1966". houston.china-consulate.org.
  16. ^ Zhou, H.; Allen, C. R.; Kanamori, H. (1983). "Rupture complexity of the 1970 Tonghai and 1973 Luhuo earthquakes, China, from P-wave inversion, and relationship to surface faulting" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 73 (4): 1585–1597. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2010.
  17. ^ "Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths 1900–2014". usgs.gov. Archived from the original on 14 January 2013.
  18. ^ Wyss, M.; Wu, Z. L. (2014). "How Many Lives Were Saved by the Evacuation Before the M7.3 Haicheng Earthquake of 1975?". Seismological Research Letters. 85 (85): 126–129. doi:10.1785/0220130089.
  19. ^ "M 5.6 - western Sichuan, China". USGS. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  20. ^ "我省雅安市芦山县发生7.0级地震(续七)". 四川省民政厅. 21 April 2013. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  21. ^ "12 injured in SW China quake". Shanghai Daily. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  22. ^ "Magnitude-6.1 earthquake hits China's Yunnan province, at least 367 dead". news.com.au. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.