List of earthquakes in Colombia

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Seismic risk map of Colombia
Aviso del Terremoto, 1785
The subduction of the Malpelo Plate (left) below the North Andes Plate (right) causes most of the earthquakes in Colombia.

This is a list of earthquakes in Colombia. Colombia is a seismically active country and has a large seismic risk in many areas of its territory due to its location at the boundaries of the Malpelo, Panama, Caribbean, North Andes (where most earthquakes occurred) and South American Plates along the Pacific Ring of Fire.

The first historically registered earthquake felt in Colombia occurred on September 11, 1530, around 10:00 AM, probably with the epicentre near Cumaná, Venezuela. The earthquake was documented by Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés in his work La Historia general de las Indias and by friar Bartolomé de las Casas in his book Historia de Las Indias.[1] The first documented earthquake with its epicentre in present-day Colombia territory took place in 1566,[2] with the epicentre estimated around Santander in the department of Cauca.[3] Other important historical earthquakes have been documented by Luis Vargas Jurado, from 1703 until 1764 and Santiago Pérez Valencia between 1785 and 1843.[4]

The most devastating earthquake for Colombia happened on August 15 and 16, 1868 off the coast of Ecuador, leading to approximately 70,000 fatalities. The strongest earthquake, with an estimated moment magnitude of 8.8 also happened offshore Ecuador in 1906. Other major earthquakes were the 1875 Cúcuta earthquake with around 10,000 deaths and the 1999 Armenia earthquake with an intensity of X. The deepest registered earthquake happened in the department of Amazonas in 1970 at an estimated depth of almost 645 kilometres (2,116,000 ft). The 1785 Viceroyalty of New Granada earthquake sparked the birth of journalism in Colombia, initiated by Manuel del Socorro Rodríguez, six years after the publication of the Aviso del Terremoto about the earthquake with its epicentre in La Calera, Cundinamarca.

The main seismically active zone is the subduction zone of the Malpelo, formerly Nazca, Plate with strong earthquakes in 1906, 1947, 1958 and 1979. The most active onshore fault systems are the 674 kilometres (419 mi) Bucaramanga-Santa Marta Fault with earthquakes frequently occurring at the Bucaramanga Nest around Aratoca, Santander, the 697.4 kilometres (433.3 mi) Romeral Fault System in the Central Ranges (Popayán 1983 and Armenia 1999) and the 921.4 kilometres (572.5 mi) long Eastern Frontal Fault System in the Eastern Ranges. Other strong earthquakes are associated with the Murindó (Mw 7.2, 1992), Irlanda (Mw 6.8, 1994), Tucurá (Mw 6.7, 1952), Bahía Solano (Mw 6.5, 1970), and Mutatá Faults (Mw 6.0, 2016).

Major historical earthquakes[edit]

Note: out of many,[3] only earthquakes of Mw 6.0 and higher, deadly, important historical,[5] and unusual earthquakes are included in this list
Magnitudes - Mw Moment magnitude scale, ML Richter magnitude scale, Ms Surface wave magnitude, ? Unknown scale

Year Date Time
UTC−05
Place
bold is fault
Name Plate Depth
(km)
Fatalities Mag. MMI Tsunami Map Notes
1646 April 3 02:00-03:00 Muzo-La Palma
Boyacá
Cundinamarca
1646 Muzo North Andes "dozens" IX No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[6][7]
1743 October 18 Chingaza Páramo, Cundinamarca 1743 Chingaza North Andes 20 "various" 6.30 ± 0.35 B&W97 IX No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[6][8]
[note 1]
1785 July 12 07:45 La Calera, Cundinamarca 1785 Viceroyalty of New Granada North Andes 20-30 9 6.9 Ms VIII No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[10][11]
1827 November 16 22:45 Timaná, Huila 1827 Timaná North Andes 10 250 7.7 Ms X No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[12][13]
1834 January 20 12:00 Sibundoy, Sibundoy, Putumayo 1834 Sibundoy North Andes 5 80 7.0 ? IX No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[6][14]
[15]
1868 August 15
August 16
14:30
01:30
Ecuador, Colombia 1868 Ecuador North Andes 20 70,000 6.3 and 6.7 Ms X No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[16]
1875 May 18 16:25 Cúcuta 1875 Cúcuta North Andes 20 10,000 7.5 ? IX No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[17]
1906 January 31 15:36 Esmeraldas (Ecuador) 1906 Ecuador–Colombia Malpelo 20.0 1,000~ 8.8 Mw 8.6 ML VIII Yes
5 m (16 ft)
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[18][19]
1917 August 31 11:36 Acacías, Meta 1917 Sumapaz North Andes 40 6 7.3 Ms VII No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[6][20]
[21]
1936 January 9 09:23 Túquerres 1936 Túquerres North Andes <30 250 7.0 ? VIII No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[22][23]
1952 February 14 16:02 Tucurá, Pavarandocito, Antioquia 1952 Pavarandocito North Andes 44 6.75 Mw No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[24][25]
1958 January 19 14:07 Ecuador, Colombia 1958 Ecuador–Colombia North Andes 40-60 111 7.8 Mw 7.6 ML VIII Yes
1.5 m (4.9 ft)
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[26]
1962 July 30 15:18 Aranzazu, Caldas 1962 Aranzazu North Andes 69 50~ 6.8 Mw VIII No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[27][28]
1967 February 9 15:24 Algeciras, Algeciras, Huila 1967 Neiva North Andes 55.0 98 7.2 Mw 6.8 ML VIII No
1967 Neiva earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[29][30]
[31]
1967 July 29 05:24 Bucaramanga, Aratoca, Santander 1967 Aratoca North Andes 161.2 6.8 Mw IV No
1967 Aratoca earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[32]
1970 July 31 17:08 Amazonas 1970 Colombia South American 644.8 1 8.0 Mw 7.7 ML IV No
1970 Bahía Solano earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[33]
1970 September 26 22:38 Bahía Solano, Bahía Solano, Chocó 1970 Bahía Solano North Andes 15.0 6.5 Mw VII
1970 Chocó earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[34][35]
1975 January 24 21:08 Chocó 1975 Chocó Panama 36.0 6.5 Ms VII
1975 Chocó earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[36]
1979 November 23 18:40 El Cairo 1979 El Cairo North Andes 108.0 44 7.2 Mw 6.7 ML VII No
1979 El Cairo earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[37]
1979 December 12 07:59 Tumaco 1979 Tumaco North Andes 33 600 7.7 Ms IX Yes
5 m (16 ft)
1979 Tumaco earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[38]
1983 March 31 08:15 Rosas-Julumito, Popayán 1983 Popayán North Andes 12.0 300 5.5 ML VIII No
List of earthquakes in Colombia is located in Colombia
List of earthquakes in Colombia
[39][40]
1987 March 5
March 6
20:54, 23:10
03:14
Ecuador, Colombia 1987 Ecuador-Colombia North Andes 8.5
14.1
1000 6.0-7.2 Mw VII No
1987 Ecuador-Colombia earthquakes ShakeMap.jpg
[41][42]
[43]
1991 November 19 17:28 Chocó 1991 Chocó North Andes 21.3 7.2 Mw IX
1991 Chocó earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[44]
1992 October 18 10:11 Murindó, Murindó, Antioquia 1992 Murindó North Andes 10.0 7.2 Mw VIII No
1992 Murindó earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[45][46]
1994 June 6 20:47 Irlanda, Páez 1994 Páez River North Andes 12 295 6.8 Mw VII No
1994 Páez River earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[47][48]
1995 January 19 10:05 Guaicáramo, Tauramena 1995 Tauramena North Andes 17.3 6 6.0 ML 6.5 Mw VII No
1995 Tauramena earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[49][50]
1995 February 8 13:40 Cali 1995 Cali North Andes 73.5 35 6.4 Mw V No
1995 Cali earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[51]
1996 November 4 12:24 Chocó 1996 Colombia-Panama Panama 14.0 6.3 Mw VIII No
1996 Colombia-Panama earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[52]
1999 January 25 18:19 Córdoba-Navarco, Armenia 1999 Armenia North Andes 17.0 1,185 6.1 Mw X No
1999 Armenia, Colombia earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[53][54]
2004 November 15 04:06 Bajo Baudó, Pacific Ocean, Chocó 2004 Bajo Baudó North Andes 15.0 0 6.7 ML 7.2 Mw VIII
2004 Bajo Baudó earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[55]
2007 September 9 20:49 Gorgona Island 2007 Gorgona Island North Andes 15.0 5 injured / 34 homes damaged 6.8 Mw VII
2007 Gorgona Island earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[56]
2008 May 24 19:20 El Calvario 2008 El Calvario North Andes 9 6 5.6 Mw V No
2008-Colombia earthquake intensity-map.jpg
[57]
2012 September 30 11:31 La Vega 2012 La Vega North Andes 170 0 7.3 Mw VII No
2012 La Vega earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[58]
2013 February 9 09:16 Yacuanquer, Nariño 2013 Nariño North Andes 145 0 6.9 Mw VI No
2013 Nariño earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[59][60]
2013 August 13 10:43 Chocó 2013 Chocó Coiba 12.0 0 6.7 Mw V
2013 Chocó earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[61]
2015 March 10 15:55 Bucaramanga, Aratoca, Santander 2015 Santander North Andes 155 0 6.2 Mw VI No
2015 Northern Colombia earthquake shakemap.jpg
[62][63]
2016 April 16 18:58 Ecuador, Colombia 2016 Ecuador-Colombia North Andes 20.6 673 7.8 Mw IX No
Shakemap Ecuador April 2016.jpg
[64]
2016 September 13 20:58 Mutatá, Mutatá, Antioquia 2016 Mutatá North Andes 18.0 0 6.0 Mw VI No
2016 Mutatá earthquake ShakeMap.jpg
[65]
2018 June 12 04:35 Pasto, Nariño North Andes 10.0 2 4.9 Mw VI No [66][67]
2018 August 7 10:53 Mesa de Los Santos, Santander North Andes 166.5 5.6 Mw [68][69]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bakun & Wentworth 1997 scale[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ramírez, 1975, p.63
  2. ^ Ramírez, 1975, p.65
  3. ^ a b Ramírez, 1975, p.217
  4. ^ Espinosa Baquero, 2001, p.273
  5. ^ Various Authors, 2014, p.7
  6. ^ a b c d Various Authors, 2014, p.8
  7. ^ Espinosa Baquero, 1999, p.211
  8. ^ Salcedo & Gómez, 2013
  9. ^ Bakun & Wentworth, 1997
  10. ^ Gómez Capera et al., 2014, p.214
  11. ^ Sarabia Gómez et al., 2010a, p.154
  12. ^ Various Authors, 2008a, p.30
  13. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1827 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  14. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.46
  15. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1834 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  16. ^ Giesecke et al., 2004
  17. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1875 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  18. ^ Mendoza & Dewey, 1984
  19. ^ USGS. "M 8.8 - near the coast of Ecuador". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  20. ^ Sarabia Gómez et al., 2010a, p.160
  21. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1917 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  22. ^ Sarabia Gómez et al., 2010b
  23. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1936 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  24. ^ Ramírez, 1975, p.223
  25. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.13
  26. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1958 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  27. ^ Various Authors, 2014, p.9
  28. ^ Various Authors, 2008b, pp.83–94
  29. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1967 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  30. ^ USGS. "M 7.0 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  31. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.43
  32. ^ USGS. "M 6.8 - northern Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  33. ^ USGS. "M 8.0 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  34. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.16
  35. ^ USGS. "M 6.5 - near the west coast of Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  36. ^ USGS. "M 6.5 - Panama-Colombia border region". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  37. ^ USGS. "M 6.4 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  38. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1979 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  39. ^ Marín Arias et al., 2006, p.94
  40. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.24
  41. ^ USGS. "M 6.4 - Colombia-Ecuador border region". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  42. ^ USGS. "M 7.2 - Colombia-Ecuador border region". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  43. ^ USGS. "M 6.0 - Colombia-Ecuador border region". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  44. ^ USGS. "M 7.2 - near the west coast of Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  45. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.15
  46. ^ USGS. "M 7.2 - northern Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  47. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.58
  48. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 1994 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  49. ^ USGS. "M 6.5 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  50. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.38
  51. ^ USGS. "M 6.4 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  52. ^ USGS. "M 6.3 - Panama-Colombia border region". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  53. ^ USGS. "M 6.1 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  54. ^ Paris et al., 2000, p.25
  55. ^ USGS. "M 7.2 - near the west coast of Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  56. ^ USGS. "M 6.8 - near the west coast of Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  57. ^ NGDC. "Comments for the 2008 Earthquake". NGDC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  58. ^ USGS. "M 7.3 - Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  59. ^ EMSC. "M 7.0 - Colombia - 2013-02-09 14:16:07 UTC". EMSC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  60. ^ USGS. "M 6.9 - 2km N of Yacuanquer, Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  61. ^ USGS. "M 6.7 - 101km WSW of Mutis, Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  62. ^ EMSC. "M 6.2 - Northern Colombia - 2015-03-10 20:55:46 UTC". EMSC. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  63. ^ USGS. "M 6.2 - 9km NNE of Aratoca, Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  64. ^ USGS. "M 7.8 - 27km SSE of Muisne, Ecuador". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  65. ^ USGS. "M 6.0 - 32km ENE of Mutata, Colombia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  66. ^ USGS. "M 4.9 - 16km ESE of Tangua, Colombia". USGS. Retrieved 2018-06-12. 
  67. ^ "Tres sismos en Pasto deja dos muertos y varios heridos". 90minutos.co (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-06-12. 
  68. ^ USGS. "M 5.6 - 7km N of Aratoca, Colombia". USGS. Retrieved 2018-08-07. 
  69. ^ "Se registró temblor de magnitud 6,1 con epicentro en Santander". El Tiempo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-07. 

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]