List of ecoregions in Indonesia
The following is a list of ecoregions in Indonesia. An ecoregion is defined by the WWF as a "large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities". There are terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions. Ecoregions classified into biomes or major habitat types.
Indonesia straddles two of the Earth's terrestrial ecozones, large-scale divisions of the Earth's surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. Ecozones are subdivided into bioregions, which are in turn made up of multiple ecoregions. Indomalaya ecozone extends across the western half of the archipelago, and the eastern half is in Australasia. The Wallace Line, which runs between Borneo and Sulawesi, Bali and Lombok, is the dividing line.
The portion of Indonesia west of the Wallace Line is known as Sundaland bioregion, which also includes Malaysia and Brunei. When sea levels fell during the Ice Ages, the shallow Sunda Shelf was exposed, linking the Islands of Sundaland to the Asian continent. Sundaland has many large mammals of Asian origin, including rhinoceros, Asian Elephant, and apes.
East of the Wallace Line lies the Wallacea bioregion, made up of islands that were never linked to a continent, but were instead pushed up by the Australian continent's northward movement. Wallacea is a transitional region between Asia and Australia. It has a flora of mostly Indomalayan origin, with elements from Australasia, with a reptile and bird fauna of mainly Australian origin and no large mammal fauna.
The Aru Islands and the Indonesian portion of New Guinea are connected by the shallow Sahul Shelf to the Australian continent, and were connected by land during the Ice Ages. New Guinea has a flora of chiefly Asian origin with many Australasian elements, and a fauna similar to that of Australia.
- 1 Terrestrial
- 1.1 Sundaland bioregion
- 1.2 Wallacea bioregion
- 1.3 New Guinea bioregion
- 2 References
- Borneo lowland rain forests (Borneo)
- Borneo montane rain forests (Borneo)
- Borneo peat swamp forests (Borneo)
- Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests (Bali, Java)
- Eastern Java-Bali rain forests (Bali, Java)
- Mentawai Islands rain forests (Mentawai Islands)
- Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests (Malay peninsula)
- Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests (Malay peninsula)
- Peninsular Malaysian rain forests (Anambas Islands, Malay peninsula)
- Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests (Borneo)
- Sumatran freshwater swamp forests (Sumatra)
- Sumatran lowland rain forests (Sumatra, Nias, Bangka Island)
- Sumatran montane rain forests (Sumatra)
- Sumatran peat swamp forests (Sumatra)
- Sundaland heath forests (Indonesia)
- Western Java montane rain forests (Java)
- Western Java rain forests (Java)
- Banda Sea Islands moist broadleaf forests (Kai Islands, Tanimbar Islands)
- Buru rain forests (Buru)
- Halmahera rain forests (Halmahera, Morotai, Obi Islands, Bacan Island)
- Seram rain forests (Seram, Ambon Island, Saparua)
- Sulawesi lowland rain forests (Sulawesi, Banggai Islands, Sula Islands, Sangihe Islands, Talaud Islands)
- Sulawesi montane rain forests (Sulawesi)
- Lesser Sundas deciduous forests (Lombok, Sumbawa, Komodo, Flores, Alor)
- Sumba deciduous forests (Sumba)
- Timor and Wetar deciduous forests (Timor, Barat Daya Islands, Banda Islands, Babar Island, Leti Islands)
New Guinea bioregion
- Biak-Numfoor rain forests
- Central Range montane rain forests
- Japen rain forests
- Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests
- Northern New Guinea montane rain forests
- Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests
- Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests
- Vogelkop montane rain forests
- Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests
- Wikramanayake, Eric; Eric Dinerstein; Colby J. Loucks; et al. (2002). Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: a Conservation Assessment. Island Press; Washington, DC.