List of edible seeds

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Cereals are edible seeds that are used to create many different food products.

An edible seed[n 1] is a seed that is suitable for human or animal consumption. Of the six major plant parts,[n 2] seeds are the dominant source of human calories and protein.[1] A wide variety of plant species provide edible seeds; most are angiosperms, while a few are gymnosperms. As a global food source, the most important edible seeds by weight are cereals, followed by legumes and then nuts.[2]

Cereals and legumes correspond with the botanical families Poaceae and Fabaceae, respectively, while nuts, pseudocereals, and other seeds form polyphylic groups based on their culinary roles.

Cereals[edit]

A cereal, also called a cereal grain or simply a grain, is the edible seed of a grass, a plant in the Poaceae family. Cereals can be consumed in a variety of ways, all of which require husking and cooking, including whole, rolled, puffed, or ground into flour. Many cereals are present or past staple foods, providing a large fraction of the calories in the places in which they are eaten. Today, cereals provide almost half of all calories consumed in the world.[3]

Cereals
Family Tribe Genus Species Seed name(s) Photo
Poaceae Andropogoneae Sorghum S. bicolor sorghum
Lalibela-Sorgho.jpg
Zea Z. mays maize, corn, corn kernel
GEM corn.jpg
Eragrostideae Eleusine E. coracana finger millet
Eragrostis E. teff teff
Oryzeae Oryza O. sativa Asian rice
Brown rice.jpg
O. glaberrima African rice
Reis - Sorte C voll.jpg
Zizania wild rice
Wildricecooked.jpg
Paniceae Digitaria D. exilis black fonio
D. iburua white fonio
Panicum P. miliaceum porso millet
P. sumatrense little millet
Pennisetum P. glaucum pearl millet
Setaria S. italica foxtail millet
Poeae Avena A. sativa oat, oat groat
Avena sativa 004.JPG
Triticeae Hordeum H. vulgare barley, barley groat
Barley grains 3.jpg
Secale S. cereale rye, rye berry
Secale cereale (roggekorrels).jpg
× Triticosecale triticale
Triticum T. aestivum wheat, wheat berry
Wheatberries.jpg
T. durum durum, durum wheat
Pates (blé dur) Cl1 J Weber (24056865996).jpg
T. monococcum einkorn
T. spelta spelt, spelt wheat
2009-06-20 Silvolde 02 dinkel.jpg
T. turanicum kamut
Les Plantes Cultivades. Cereals. Imatge 1857.jpg
T. turgidum emmer
Thinopyrum T. intermedium Kernza
Thinopyrum intermedium seeds 3.jpg

Other grasses with edible seeds include:

Pseudocereals[edit]

A pseudocereal, or pseudocereal grain, is the edible seed of a pseudocereal, one of a polyphylic group of plants that produce seeds that resemble those of cereals. Pseudocereals are used in many of the same ways as cereals.

Pseudocereals
Family Genus Species Seed name(s) Photo
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus amaranth, amaranth grain
Amaranthkorn.jpg
Chenopodium C. berlandieri pitseed goosefoot
Huauzontle2.jpg
C. pallidicaule kañiwa
Canihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule).jpg
C. quinoa quinoa
Colored quinoa Genebank INIA Juliaca.JPG
Capparaceae Boscia B. senegalensis hanza
Washed Boscia senegalensis seeds.JPG
Lamiaceae Salvia S. hispanica chia, chia seed
Chiasamen 07 (fcm).jpg
Linaceae Linum L. usitatissimum flax, flaxseed, linseed
Flax seeds.jpg
Moraceae Brosimum B. alicastrum breadnut
Ramon nuts 05.jpg
Pedaliaceae Sesamum S. indicum sesame, sesame seed
Chamkkae (sesame).jpg
Polygonaceae Fagopyrum F. esculentum buckwheat, buckwheat groat
Гречневая каша.jpg

Legumes[edit]

A legume, or pulse, is the edible seed of a legume, a plant in the Fabaceae family.[4] Legumes can be divided into grams, which do not split, and dals, which split.

Legumes
Family Tribe Genus Species Seed name(s) Photo
Fabaceae Dalbergieae Arachis A. hypogaea peanut
Arachis hypogaea 005.JPG
Cicereae Cicer C. arietinum chickpea, garbanzo bean, gram
Les Plantes Cultivades. Cereals. Imatge 1857.jpg
Fabeae Pisum P. sativum pea[n 3]
Pisum sativum green.jpg
Millettieae Millettia M. pinnata Indian beechnut
Millettia pinnata pods.jpg
Phaseoleae Cajanus C. Cajan pigeon pea
Glycine G. max soybean
Soybeanvarieties.jpg
Phaseolus P. lunatus lima bean
NCI lima beans.jpg
P. vulgaris common bean[n 4]
Bean market10 lo.jpg
Vigna V. angularis adzuki bean
Azuki Beans.jpg
V. mungo black gram
Black gram.jpg
V. radiata mung bean, green gram
Vigna radiata, groene mungboon.jpg
V. subterranea Bambara groundnut
Vigna subterranea (4350578751).jpg
V. unguiculata cowpea
BlackeyeBean.jpg
Vicieae Lens L. culinaris lentil
3 types of lentil.jpg
Vicia V. faba fava bean, broad bean
Vicia faba 01.jpg
Seeds of Atriplex nummularia, Australia

Although some beans can be consumed raw, some need to be heated before consumption. In certain cultures, beans that need heating are initially prepared as a seed cake. Beans that need heating include:[5]

Nuts[edit]

Roasted and salted cashew nuts
Roasted pistachios
A whole walnut kernel

According to the botanical definition, nuts are a particular kind of fruit.[6] Chestnuts, hazelnuts, and acorns are examples of nuts under this definition. In culinary terms, however, the term is used more broadly to include fruits that are not botanically qualified as nuts, but that have a similar appearance and culinary role. Examples of culinary nuts include almonds, coconuts, and cashews.[7][8]

Nut-like gymnosperm seeds[edit]

Edible gymnosperm seeds that resembles nuts include:

Other[edit]

Other edible seeds that do not neatly fit into the above categories include:

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Variously referred to as a bean, berry, grain, groat, kernel, nut, or pulse, among other names, depending on the plant from which it derives.
  2. ^ Seed, root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit.
  3. ^ Cultivars include the snap pea and snow pea (both fruits).
  4. ^ Cultivars include the black bean, green bean (fruit), kidney bean, navy bean, and pinto bean.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human Appropriation of the World's Food Supply". Global Change Curriculum. University of Michigan. 2006-01-04. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  2. ^ Desai, Babasaheb (2000). Handbook of Nutrition and Diet. CRC Press. p. 196.
  3. ^ FAO. "ProdSTAT". FAOSTAT. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  4. ^ "Pulses and derived products". Definition and Classification of Commodities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1994. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  5. ^ Isaacs, Jennifer. Bush food: Aboriginal food and herbal medicine.
  6. ^ "Nut". Biology Online Dictionary. October 3, 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  7. ^ "Nut". The Columbia Online Encyclopedia. 2003. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  8. ^ "Nuts and derived products". Definition and Classification of Commodities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 1996. Retrieved 2006-12-26.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bailey, L.H., Bailey, E.Z. and Bailey Hortorium Staff (1976). Hortus Third. New York: Macmillan.
  • Lewington, A. (1990). Plants for People. Cambridge, MA: Oxford University Press.