List of electoral systems by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This is a list of electoral systems by country in alphabetical order. An electoral system is used to elect national legislatures and heads of state.

Maps[edit]

Head of state Lower (or unicameral) house Upper house
Electoral systems for heads of state map.svg Electoral systems map.svg Electoral systems map for upper houses.svg

Single-winner system / single-member constituencies (non-proportional)

  First past the post/single member plurality (FPTP/SMP)

Multi-member constituencies, majoritarian (non-proportional)

  Block voting (BV) or mixed FPTP and BV
  Party block voting (PBV) or mixed FPTP and PBV

Multi-member constituencies, semi-proportional

  Single non-transferable vote (SNTV) or mixed FPTP and SNTV
  Modified Borda count

Multi-member constituencies, proportional

Mixed non-compensatory (semi-proportional)

  Mixed-member majoritarian (MMM): parallel voting (FPTP and list PR)
  Mixed-member majoritarian (MMM): parallel voting (TRS and list PR)
  Mixed-member majoritarian (MMM): parallel voting (BV/PBV and list PR)
  List PR with plurality bonus
(MBS)
  Parallel voting (SNTV and list PR)

Mixed compensatory (proportional or semi-proportional)

  Mixed-member majoritarian (MMM) with compensation / scorporo
  Additional member system / semi-proportional MMP
  Majority jackpot (majority of seats reserved for largest party/coalition)

Indirect election

  Election by legislature
  Election by electoral college or local legislatures
  Partly elected by electoral college or local legislatures, partly appointed by head of state

Other

  No election (e.g. Monarchy)
  Appointed by head of state
  Varies by federal states or constituencies
  No information/Unicameral legislature

Electoral systems by country[edit]

Country Body or office Type of body or office Type of electoral system Electoral system Seats per district
(if applicable)
Total seats Electoral threshold
(if applicable)
Notes
Afghanistan Leader of the Islamic Emirate Head of State Election by legislature Elected by the Leadership Council through consensus[1][2][3] Autocrat with life tenure[4]
Leadership Council Unicameral legislature No election Appointed by the leader[5] No fixed size, but approximately 30 members[5]
Albania President of the Republic Head of State indirect Elected by the Parliament through a secret vote.[6] A three-fifths majority of all members in the first three rounds, absolute majority (50% +1 vote) in the next two rounds If no candidate has attained the necessary majority in five rounds, the Parliament will be dissolved and a general election must occur within 60 days.[7]
Parliament (Kuvendi) Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists, D'Hondt method[8] 3–36 140[9] 1%
Algeria President of the Democratic Republic Head of State single winner Two-round system[10] (TRS)
Council of the Nation Upper chamber of legislature indirect Partly, indirect election (2/3), partly appointed by the president 96 (indirect election), 48 (appointed) 144
People's National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists, Largest remainder method (Hare quota)[10][11] 5–37, 2 (districts representing people abroad)[citation needed] 407[11] 5% of votes in respective district[11] Electoral districts correspond to wilayas (provinces)
Andorra Co-Princes Heads of State no election President of France (elected directly in France) and the Bishop of Urgell (appointed by the Holy See) 2
General Council of the Valleys Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: party block voting (local) + list PR (nationwide) 2 (local districts) / 14 (nationwide constituency) 28
Angola President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP) between the top candidates on party lists for National Assembly elections (Double simultaneous vote)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists, D'Hondt method 5 per province, 130 across country, + 3 representatives from abroad 233
Antigua and Barbuda King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature no election Appointed by the Governor-General 17 On advice: 11 (Prime Minister), 4 (leader of the opposition), 1 (Barbuda Council); At discretion: 1
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)[citation needed] 1 17
Argentina President Head of State and Government single winner Modified Two-round system To win in the 1st round, 45%, or 40% and a 10% lead over the second candidate is needed
Senate Upper chamber of legislature semi-proportional Limited voting with party-lists: 2 seats to most voted party or coalition in each province, 1 seat to second most voted party or coalition (limited vote with closed lists) 3 72
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists, D'Hondt method 5–70 (Renewed by halves) 257 3% of registered voters
Armenia President Head of State single winner Since 2018, the President is elected by members of parliament.
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR / optional runoff with majority jackpot or minority jackpot: Largest remainder. Nationwide Closed list and an Open list in each of 13 election districts. at least 101 5% (parties), 7% (blocs) Party lists run-off FPTP to ensure stable majority of 54% if it is not achieved either immediately or through building a coalition (majority jackpot) or a party wins more than 2/3 of seats (minority jackpot).[12][13]
Australia King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Single transferable vote (STV) 6 (12 per state, renewed by halves), 2 per territory [14] 76 In the event of a double dissolution, all 12 seats in each state are up for election.
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Instant runoff voting (IRV) 1 151
Austria President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Federal Council (Bundesrat) Upper chamber of legislature indirect Proportional to the distribution of seats in the state parliaments (indirect Party list PR) 3–12 votes 61 votes
National Council (Nationalrat) Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) at district and regional levels, D'Hondt method for remaining votes at national level 183 4%
Azerbaijan President Head of State single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 125
Bahamas King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature no election Appointed by the Governor-General 16 On advice: 9 (prime minister), 4 (leader of the opposition), 3 (prime minister after consultation with the leader of the opposition)
House of Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 39[citation needed]
Bahrain King Head of State and Government no election Hereditary monarchy
Consultative Council Upper chamber of legislature no election Appointed by the King 40
Council of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 40
Bangladesh President of the People's Republic Head of State indirect Elected by the Parliament
Parliament (Jatiyo Sangshad) Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 350 (300 directly elected + 50 seats reserved for women)
Barbados President Head of State indirect Elected by the Parliament A 2/3 majority of valid votes in each house is required
Senate Upper chamber of legislature no election Appointed by the President 21 On advice: 12 (Prime Minister), 2 (Leader of the Opposition); At discrection: 7
House of Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 30
Belarus President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system[note 1][15][16]
Council of Republic Upper chamber of legislature indirect Each oblast (six) and the city of Minsk (the national capital) are represented by eight members, and an additional eight members are appointed to the council via presidential quota 64
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 110
Belgium King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature indirect 50 Senators elected by the community/regional parliaments

10 Senators co-opted by the other senators

60
Chamber of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR (flexible lists): D'Hondt method 3–22 150 5%
Belize King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 31[citation needed]
Benin President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (24 districts) 2–5 (average 35) 83
Bhutan Head of State and Government
National Council Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 25 (20 directly elected + 5 apppointed)[citation needed]
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 47
Bolivia President Head of State and Government single winner Modified Two-round system (Double simultaneous)
(winner with 50% of votes or 40% and a 10% lead over the second)[17]
Both the senate, and the proportional part of the Chamber of Deputies is elected based on the vote for the presidential candidates.
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method[18] 4 36
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature mixed MMP:
FPTP (70 seats) /
Party-list proportional representation: Closed lists: D'Hondt method (60 seats)[18]
1 / 5–29[19] 130 3%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina Heads of State majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 3 (one each of the three major ethnic groups)
House of Peoples Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Sainte-Laguë method 14, 28 42
Botswana Head of State and Government
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 63 (57 directly elected + 4 members appointed by the governing party + 2 members ex officio: the President and the Attorney General)
Brazil President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian Plurality block voting (BV) and First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 or 2 (alternates each election) 81
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method 8–70 513 1.5%[20][21] (starting from 2022, will be 2%)[22]
Brunei Head of State and Government Absolute monarchy
Bulgaria President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method[23] 4–14[23] 240 4%
Burkina Faso President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly of Burkina Faso Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 2–16 127
Burundi President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 4–11 100 + 18–21 co-opted 2%
Cambodia Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP + Party list PR: D'Hondt method 1–18 123
Cameroon President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Mixed-member majoritarian representation

First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) in single-member constituencies, in multi-member constituencies party with over 50% of vote gets all seats (party block voting), otherwise highest party gets half, rest distributed by largest remainder (Hare quota)

1–7 180 5%
Canada King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
House of Commons Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 338
Cape Verde President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 2–15 72
Central African Republic President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 140[citation needed]
Chad President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Mixed-member majoritarian representation:

First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) party with over 50% of vote gets all seats in multi-member constituencies (party block voting), otherwise List PR (largest remainder, closed list)[24]

188
Chile President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[25][26] 2–5 50[25]
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[25][26] 3–8 155
China Head of State and Government
National People's Congress Unicameral legislature majoritarian Block approval voting: Direct election of local People's Congresses and indirect election of all higher levels of People's Congresses[citation needed] 2987 Voters may vote for or against each candidate.
Colombia President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 100 + 2 (indigenous) 102
Chamber of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 2–18 162
Comoros President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Assembly of the Union majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 33 (24 directly elected + 9 elected by lsland assemblies)
Democratic Republic of the Congo President Head of State single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)[27]
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature mixed Mixed-member majoritarian representation:

First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) in single-member districts and List PR in multi-member districts (Largest remainder)

1–17 500
Republic of the Congo President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)[28]
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 151[citation needed]
Costa Rica President Head of State and Government single winner Modified two-round system (TRS): 40% of votes needed to win in first round
Legislative Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder method 4–20 57
Croatia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Sabor Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, plus some reserved for minorities and Croatians living abroad 14 153 5%
Cuba Head of State and Government
National Assembly of People's Power Unicameral legislature majoritarian Two-round system, Endorsement of selected candidates 1 605[citation needed]
Cyprus President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
House of Representatives Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists (Hare quota): Largest remainder (with remainder allocated at national level) 3–20 80 (56 for Greek-Cypriots; 24 for Turkish-Cypriots (currently vacant)) and 3 observers from religious minorities 3.6% (parties), 10% (coalitions of 2 parties), 20% (coalitions of at least 3 parties), 7.2% (remaining seats distributed to parties after countrywide remainders are allocated proportionally) (lists which do not reach the threshold can receive seats in individual constituencies where they reach the quota)
Czech Republic President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 27[citation needed]
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists (Imperiali quota and Hagenbach-Bischoff quota) 5–25 200 5% (party), 8/11% (coalition of 2/3+ parties),
Denmark Folketinget Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method (135 regional seats), Sainte-Laguë method (40 leveling seats) 179 2%
Djibouti President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Fusion / majority jackpot:

80% of seats (rounded to the nearest integer) in each constituency are awarded to the party receiving the most votes (party block voting), remaining seats are allocated proportionally to other parties receiving over 10% (closed list, D'Hondt method)

3–28[citation needed] 65
Dominica House of Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 21 + 9 appointed + Speaker + 1 ex officio[citation needed]
Dominican Republic President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 32 (21 directly elected, 9 appointed + Speaker + 1 ex officio)[citation needed]
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 2–36 150
East Timor President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Parliament Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder 65
Ecuador President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Congress Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 2–18 100
Egypt President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
House of Representatives Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting[citation needed]: Two-round system (TRS) (448 seats) + Party list PR (120 seats)[29] 596 (568 directly elected + 28 appointed)
El Salvador President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Legislative Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 3–20 84
Equatorial Guinea President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP[30]
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
Chamber of People's Representatives Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list 80
Eritrea Head of State and Government
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)[citation needed]
Estonia President Head of State single winner Elected by the parliament (Riigikogu) or by special electoral body
Riigikogu Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method (12 districts) 5–14 (average 8.4) 101 5%
Eswatini Head of State and Government
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)[citation needed]
Ethiopia House of Federation Upper chamber of legislature
House of People's Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 546[citation needed]
Fiji House of Representatives Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[31] 50 50 5%
Finland President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Eduskunta (and MEPs) Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method (12 districts + 1 seat Åland FPTP) 7–35 (average 16.6) (+1 seat Åland) 200
France President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature Elected indirectly by approximately 150,000 officials ("grands électeurs"), including regional councilors, department councilors, mayors, city councilors in large towns, and members of the National Assembly 1 348
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 577
Gabon President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 143[citation needed]
Gambia President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 58 (53 directly elected)[citation needed]
Georgia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Parliament Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting / superposition (MMM): Two-round system (TRS) + Party-list PR (closed list) 120 / 1 150 5%
Germany President Head of State single winner Federal Convention Half the member are the Bundestag, the other half is appointed by state legislatures
Federal Council (Bundesrat) Upper chamber of legislature appointed by the 16 State Governments respectively 3–6 votes 69 votes
Federal Diet (Bundestag) Lower chamber of legislature proportional MMP: Sainte-Laguë using regional fixed lists / FPTP 299 (lists) / 1 (district) 598 + levelling seats 5% or 3 district seats
Ghana President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Parliament Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 275[citation needed]
Gibraltar Parliament Unicameral legislature majoritarian Plurality block voting 17[32] 17
Greece President Head of State single winner Elected by the parliament
Hellenic Parliament Unicameral legislature semi-proportional Majority bonus system (MBS): 250 seats proportionally divided via several allocations; 50 bonus seats to the party placing first (until 2019)
Party-list proportional representation: all 300 seats proportionally divided via several allocations (after the 2019 elections)
1–18 (5 on average) 300 3%
Grenada King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP 1 15
Guatemala President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Congress of the Republic Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 29 / 1 158
Guinea President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: 38 FPTP + 76 [Party-list proportional representation|Party list PR]] (Hare quota) 76 / 1 114
Guinea-Bissau President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National People's Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list (closed lists) (27 districts) 3.7 (average) 100
Guyana President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP (Double simultaneous)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Mixed member party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 1-7 (districts) / 40 (national top-up) 65
Haiti President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature Two-round system (TRS) 1 99[citation needed]
Honduras President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP
National Congress Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 1–23 128
Hong Kong Legislative Council Unicameral legislature majoritarian Parallel voting 2 (Geographical constituencies) /
1–3 (Functional constituencies)/
40 (Election Committee)
90
Hungary President Head of State single winner Elected by the National Assembly
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Mixed-member majoritarian: 106 FPTP + 93 national list-PR (combination of partially compensatory system and mixed single vote)[33] 1 199 5% for parties (10% for two-party coalitions, 15% for larger coalitions), 0.27% for minority lists
Iceland President Head of State single winner FPTP
Alþing Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 8–13 63 5%
India President Head of State elected by an electoral college
Council of States (Rajya Sabha) Upper chamber of legislature not elected by direct vote of the people -- elected by each state Vidhan Sabha using STV
House of the People (Lok Sabha) Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP 1 545[citation needed]
Indonesia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Regional Representatives Council Upper chamber of legislature semi-proportional Single non-transferable vote (SNTV) 4 136
People's Representative Council Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Webster/Sainte-Laguë method 3–10 575 4% nationally
Iran President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Majlis of Iran majoritarian Two-round block voting (25% of votes in 1st round) 1–30[citation needed] 290
Assembly of Experts majoritarian Block voting 1–16 88
Iraq Council of Representatives Unicameral legislature semi-proportional Single non-transferable vote (SNTV) 2–5 329
Ireland President single winner Instant runoff voting (IRV)
Seanad Éireann Upper chamber of legislature Indirect election:
– 11 nominated by the Taoiseach
– 6 elected by the graduates of certain Irish universities:
3 by graduates of Dublin University
3 by graduates of the National University
– 43 elected from five special panels of nominees (known as vocational panels) by an electorate consisting of TDs (member of Dáil Éireann), outgoing senators and members of city and county councils
60
Dáil Éireann Lower chamber of legislature proportional Single transferable vote (STV) 3–5 158[34]
Israel President Head of State single winner Elected by the Knesset
Knesset Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 120 120 3.25%[35]
Italy President Head of State
Senate Upper chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: 116 FPTP seats + 199 (including citizens abroad) Party list PR seats (largest remainder and Hare quota), no panachage allowed in parallel voting 1/49 315 3%
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: 232 FPTP seats + 398 (including citizens abroad) Party list PR seats (largest remainder and Hare quota), no panachage allowed in parallel voting 2/8 630 3%
Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP 1 225
Jamaica King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP 1 60[citation needed]
Japan Emperor Head of State
House of Councillors Upper chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: SNTV (73 seats) + Party list PR (Open list) D'Hondt method (96 seats) 1-5 / 48 (Per election) 242 (Half of the seats are up each election.)
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (295 seats)[36] + Party list PR (Closed list) D'Hondt method (180 seats) 6-29 / 1 475
Jordan Head of State and Government
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: each voter has one vote for one candidate in one subdistrict of his choice in the district he lives in (like SNTV), one winner per subdistrict (like FPTP) (108 seats in 45 districts including 12 seats reserved for minorities) + 15 seats reserved for women (best losers) + Party list PR (closed lists) (27 seats) 2.4 (average) / 27 150
Kazakhstan President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
Assembly of People (Mazhilis) Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party-list 98 + 9 members elected by electoral college 7%
Kenya President Head of State and Government single winner Two round vote >50% in national tally + >25% votes in more than 24 counties
Senate Upper chamber of legislature Majoritarian Plurality: 47 FPTP + 20 List proportional to seats won 47 elected county senators + 16 nominated female senators + 2 youths + 2 PLWD[37]
National Assembly of Kenya Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Plurality: 337FPTP + 12 List proportional to seats won[38] 1 290 single member constituencies + 47 female representatives (1 per county) + 12 nominated by parties 5% to nominate additional members
Kiribati President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP
House of Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Modified runoff[citation needed] 40 + 1 delegate from Banaba Island and 1 ex officio
Kuwait Head of State and Government
National Assembly Unicameral legislature semi-proportional Single non-transferable vote (1 vote for 10 seats) 10 50
Kyrgyzstan President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Supreme Council Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: First-past-the-post (36 seats) + Party list PR (54 seats) 90 5%
Laos Head of State and Government
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Bloc voting 115[citation needed]
Latvia Saeima Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Sainte-Laguë method 14–28 100 5%
Lebanon Chamber of Deputies Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR (open list): D'Hondt method 5-13 128
Lesotho Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature proportional MMP using mixed single vote: (40 party list seats / 80 FPTP seats) 120 None
Liberia President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP 2 per county, 1 per election 30
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP 1 73
Liechtenstein Head of State and Government
Diet Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 10, 15 25 8%
Lithuania President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Seimas Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: Two-round system (71 seats) + Party list PR (70 seats, Largest remainder) 70 / 1 141 5% (parties), 7% (coalitions)
Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR:Open lists:D'Hondt method 7-23 60
Macau Legislative Council Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 12 29
Madagascar President Head of State single winner Two-round system[39] (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Paralle voting: FPTP (87 seats) + Party list PR (Closed list, highest averages method; 64 seats)[39][40] 1 / 2 151
Malawi President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 194[citation needed]
Malaysia Head of State
Senate (Dewan Negara) Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat) Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 222
Maldives President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Majlis Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 77[citation needed]
Mali President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 160[citation needed]
Malta House of Representatives Unicameral legislature proportional Single transferable vote (STV) modified with gender corrective seats 5 65 + up to 12 levelling seats (gender) Since the 2022 election, if the number of candidates elected from a gender (male/female) is less than 40%, up to 12 additional seats are added to achieve correction. Levelling seats are awarded on party-parity basis, 1-1 correction seats at a time for both parties. If more than 2 parties gain seats, the gender corrective mechanism is not used.[41]
Marshall Islands Head of State and Government
Legislature Unicameral legislature mixed [Parallel voting]]: FPTP (19 seats) + Bloc voting (14 seats) 1 / 2-5 33
Mauritania President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: 106 in 46 districts; in districts with 1-2 seats : Two-round system, in larger districts: List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) + twice 20 nationally (one set of 20 reserved for women): List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) 146
Mauritius National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Bloc voting 2–3 62 + 8 'best losers' appointed
Mexico President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: Largest remainder (Hare quota) + winner takes 2, second takes 1 (limited (party) block voting with closed lists) 32 / 3 128 2%
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (300 seats) + Largest remainder (Hare quota) (200 seats) 40 / 1 500 2%
Federated States of Micronesia Head of State and Government
Congress Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 14
Moldova President single winner Two-round system[42] (TRS)
Parliament Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 101 101 4%
Monaco Head of State and Government
National Council Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: Plurality-at-large voting in single nationwide constituency (16 seats) + D'Hondt method (8 seats)[43] 24 5% (For proportional seats)[43]
Mongolia President Head of State single winner Two-round system[44] (TRS)
State Great Khural Unicameral legislature majoritarian Plurality-at-large voting (76 seats, 1-3 per district) Candidates have to get at least 28% of the votes in a district to get elected. If there are unfilled seat, a runoff is held with twice the number of candidates as there are unfilled seats.[45] 1–3, 28 76
Montenegro President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Parliament Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 5, 76 81 3%
Montserrat Legislative Council Unicameral legislature 9 9
Morocco Head of State and Government
House of Councillors Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: Largest remainder (295 seats) + list of women (30 seats) 325
Mozambique President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Assembly of the Republic Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 250 250 5%
Myanmar (Burma) People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 12 per region or state 440 (25% appointed by military)
National Assembly (Amyotha Hluttaw) Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 per township 224 (25% appointed by military)
Namibia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Council Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Hare quota + 6 appointed 72 78
Nauru Head of State and Government
Parliament Unicameral legislature semi-proportional Modified Borda Count (Dowdall system, First ranked candidate gets 1 point, second 1/2, third 1/3 and so on.)[46] 2-4[46] 19[47]
Nepal House of Representatives(Pratinidhi Sabha) Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP(165 seats)[48][49] + Party list PR: Closed lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë method (110 seats) 1-10 165 FPTP and 110 PR (3% of total votes for PR or at least one seat in FPTP)
National Assembly (Rastriya Sabha) Upper chamber of legislature
Kingdom of the Netherlands Senate (Eerste Kamer) Upper chamber of legislature proportional Elected by members of states-provincial using Party list PR 75 75
House of Representatives(Tweede Kamer) Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method 150 150 0.67%
Aruba: Estates proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[50] 21[51] 21 4,76% (One quota)
New Zealand House of Representatives (Parliament) Unicameral legislature proportional MMP: Sainte-Laguë method (48+ seats) / FPTP (72 district seats which also includes 7 seats reserved for Maori) 120 + overhang seats 5% or 1 district seat
Nicaragua President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 1-20 90 + 2 (former president and presidential runner-up)
Niger President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list (105 seats) + 8 from FPTP 113
Nigeria President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature mixed First-past-the-post (FPTP) 3 per state (plus one for the federal capital) 109
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature mixed First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 per federal constituency (5 - 24 per state, plus 2 for the federal capital) 360
Niue Assembly mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (14 seats) + Bloc voting (6 seats) 1 / 6 20
North Korea Supreme People's Assembly Endorsement of candidate 687
North Macedonia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 20 120
Norway Storting proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë method[52] 4–19 150 + 19 leveling seats 4% for leveling seats
Oman Head of State and Government Absolute monarchy
Council of State (Majlis al-Dawla) Upper chamber of legislature
Consultative Assembly (Majlis al-Shura) Lower chamber of legislature
Pakistan President Head of State single winner Electoral college Electors consist of National Assembly, Senate and provincial assemblies
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP (272 seats) (+ 70 members appointed by parties proportional with seats already won) 1 272 elected + 70 appointed (60 women + 10 non-Muslim)
Palau President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 13
House of Delegates Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 16
Palestine President Head of State single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
Legislative Council Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: Bloc voting or FPTP (66 seats) + [Party-list proportional representation|Party list PR]] (Sainte-Laguë method; closed list; 66 seats) 66 / 1–9 132 2%
Panama President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Mixed-member majoritarian representation: Single-member constituencies: FPTP; multi-member: Saripolo or Sartori method (Largest remainder, but remainders only for those with no seats) 1–7 78
Papua New Guinea King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
National Parliament Unicameral legislature majoritarian Instant runoff voting (IRV) 1 109
Paraguay President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP[53]
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 45 45
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 1-19 80
Peru President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Congress of the Republic Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder 1-35 130
Philippines President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian Bloc voting 12 / 1 24
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (229 districts in 2010, 232 in 2013, 238 in 2016, 243 in 2019) + Party list (closed lists; modified Hare quota with 3-seat cap and no remainders; 57 seats in 2010, 58 in 2013, 59 in 2016, 61 in 2019) 57 / 1 (2010), 58 / 1 (2013), 59 / 1 (2016), 61 / 1 (2019) 286 (2010), 292 (2013), 297 (2016), 304 (2019) 2%; parties with less than 2% of the vote may win seats if the list seats haven't been completely distributed.
Poland President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 100
Diet (Sejm) Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 7–20 460 5% (8% for coalitions, 0% for national minorities)
Portugal President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Assembly of the Republic Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 2–47 230
Romania President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method[54] 2–13[55] 136 (out of which 2 seats for the Romanians living abroad)[55] 5% on national level or 20% in at least 4 constituencies (parties), 8-10% (coalitions)[56]
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method[54] 4–29[55] + 1 seat for each national minority 330 (out of which 18 seats for the national minorities, 4 for the Romanians living abroad)[55] 5% on national level or 20% in at least 4 constituencies (parties), 8-10% (coalitions)[56]
Russia President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Federation Council Upper chamber of legislature
State Duma Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (225 seats)[57][58] + Party list (225 seats) 1, 225 450 5%
Rwanda President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP[59]
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
Chamber of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder 53 53 + 24 elected by provincial councils + 3 appointed 5%
Saint Kitts and Nevis King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 11 + 3 appointed + 1 ex officio
Saint Lucia King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
House of Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 17
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
House of Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 15 + 6 appointed
Samoa Fono Unicameral legislature majoritarian Parallel voting: FPTP (35 seats) + Bloc voting (14 seats) 1 / 2 49
San Marino Head of State and Government
Grand and General Council Unicameral legislature proportional Party list using a D'Hondt method with, if no government is formed, second round with only 2 largest parties (national majority bonus/jackpot) 60
São Tomé and Príncipe President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list: closed lists (7 districts) 7.9 (average) 55
Senegal President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: 105 seats by First-past-the-post or Party Bloc vote + 60 seats by Proportional Representation 150
Serbia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 250 250 5% (0.4% for minorities)
Seychelles President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (25 seats) + Party list PR (Hare quota , 8 seats) 9 / 1 34
Sierra Leone President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system[60] (TRS)
Parliament Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 112 + 12 Paramount chiefs 12.5%
Singapore President Head of State single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
Parliament Unicameral legislature majoritarian Parallel voting: Party bloc voting (79 seats) + FPTP (14 seats)[61] 4 or 5 / 1 93 elected[62] + 11 appointed (9 NMP + 2 NCMP)
Slovakia President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Council of the Slovak Republic Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: flexible lists: Hagenbach-Bischoff 150 150 5% / 7% (coalitions of 2-3 parties) / 10% (coalitions of at least 4 parties)
Slovenia President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Council Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method (88 seats) + 2 seats by Borda Count 11/8 + 2 single-seat constituencies 90 4%
Solomon Islands King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
National Parliament Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 50
Somalia Senate Upper chamber of legislature
House of The People Lower chamber of legislature
Somaliland House of Elders Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature
South Africa Head of State and Government
National Council of Provinces Upper chamber of legislature
National Assembly Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: Droop quota 400 400
South Korea President Head of State and Government single winner FPTP
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Combination of parallel voting and additional member system: FPTP (253 seats) / AMS party list (30 seats) / parallel party list (closed lists: modified Hare quota largest remainder method) (17 seats) 300 PR: 5 FPTP seats / 3%
South Sudan President Head of State and Government South Sudan has never had a national election. See 2023 South Sudanese general election
Council of States Upper chamber of legislature
National Legislative Assembly Lower chamber of legislature
Spain Senate Upper chamber of legislature semi-proportional Limited vote (3 votes for 4 seats) (208 members), appointment by regional legislatures (variable) 2–4 208 + variable number
Congress of Deputies Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 1–35 350 3%
Sri Lanka President Head of State single winner Sri Lankan contingent vote
Parliament Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 4-20 225
Suriname Head of State and Government
National Assembly of Suriname Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: (10 districts) 2-17 51
Sweden Riksdag Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë 2-38 349 4% (or 12% in a constituency)
Switzerland Head of State and Government
Council of States Upper chamber of legislature varies Varies with canton (generally Two-round system) 1–2 46
National Council Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method 1-34 200
Syria President Head of State single winner Two-round system[63] (TRS)
People's Council
Taiwan (Republic of China) President Head of State single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
Legislative Yuan Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (73 seats) + Party-list PR (Hare quota) (34 seats)
Aboriginal seats: SNTV (6 seats)
1
Aboriginal constituencies: 3
113 5%
Tajikistan President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Upper chamber of legislature
Assembly of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: Two-round system single-member constituencies (41 seats) + Party list (22 seats) 63 5%
Tanzania President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system[64] (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (264 seats) + 5 Elected Indirectly by Zanzibar's Legislature + 5 Appointed by the President + 1 Ex-officio[65] + Party list (113 seats) 113/1/5/6 393
Thailand Head of State
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: 400 FPTP seats) [66] + MMP using mixed single vote: (100 party list seats 100/1 500 None[67]
Togo President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly of Togo Unicameral legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 81
Tonga Head of State and Government
Legislative Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 9 + 9 elected by nobles + 10 members of Privy Council + 2 governors
Trinidad and Tobago Head of State
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 41
Tunisia President Head of State single winner Two-round system[68][69] (TRS)
Assembly of the Representatives of the People Unicameral legislature proportional Party-list PR: Closed list: Largest remainder method (Hare Quota) [70][71] 4-10 (Seats in Tunisia), 1-5 (Seats for Tunisians abroad) 217
Turkey President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Grand National Assembly Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list 1-35 600 7%
Turkmenistan President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
People's Council Upper chamber of legislature
Assembly Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 50
Tuvalu King Head of State no election Hereditary monarchy
Parliament majoritarian Parallel voting: Bloc voting (14 seats) + FPTP (1 seat) 2 / 1 15
Uganda President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 214 + 78 from various groups
Ukraine President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS).[72]
Verkhovna Rada Unicameral legislature proportional Party list PR: open regional lists [73] 450 450 5%
United Kingdom King Head of State no election
House of Lords Upper chamber of legislature no election
House of Commons Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 650
Northern Ireland
Assembly
Devolved regional legislature proportional Single transferable vote (STV) 5 90
Scotland
Parliament
Devolved regional legislature mixed
Wales
Senedd
Devolved regional legislature mixed
Anguilla majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
Bermuda
House of Assembly
majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 36
Cayman Islands Parliament majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 18 + 2 ex officio[74]
United States President Head of State and Government single winner Electoral college members chosen in block on basis of state-wide plurality on a per state basis, except in Maine and Nebraska, where two electors are chosen on a statewide basis, and one elector is chosen from each Congressional district on a per district basis.

48 states, including Nebraska, use plurality basis to choose electoral college members for presidential general elections. Alaska and Maine use IRV.

Party nominees chosen by delegates allocated in state primaries with varying methods by state and party.

Senate Upper chamber of legislature majoritarian 2 per state, 1 per election 100
House of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian FPTP for all seats in 41 states. Elsewhere: Two-round system in Georgia, Mississippi[75][76][77] and Texas,[note 2][78] Nonpartisan blanket primary in Alaska, California, Louisiana[79] and Washington,[note 3][note 4] and IRV in Alaska and Maine.[80][81][82][83] 1 435 + 6 non-voting members
Uruguay President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS) Double simultaneous vote
Chamber of Senators Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list 30 31 (30 directly elected + the vice-president)
Chamber of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list 2-42 99
Uzbekistan President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature
Legislative Chamber Lower chamber of legislature
Vanuatu Parliament semi-proportional Mixed Single non-transferable vote (SNTV)/First past the post 8 one-seat districts; ten districts with 2-7 seats 52
Vatican City Pope Head of State and Government election by unelected body Elected by the College of Cardinals: Exhaustive ballot (2/3 majority required)
Venezuela President Head of State and Government single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP or bloc voting, and FPTP in districts reserved for indigenous peoples (113 seats) + Regional party list (closed list; D'Hondt method) (52 seats) 2 (20 states)-3 (4) / 1 (68 districts), 2 (15), and 3 (4); at least 1 district per state. The three indigenous' districts comprise some whole states 165
Vietnam Head of State and Government
National Assembly 498
Yemen President Head of State single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Shura Council Upper chamber of legislature
Assembly of Representatives Lower chamber of legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 301
Zambia President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system[84] (TRS)
National Assembly Unicameral legislature majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP) 1 150
Zimbabwe President Head of State and Government single winner Two-round system[85] (TRS)
Senate Upper chamber of legislature proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (60 seats, 6 for each province, based on vote for national assembly). Additionally the senate consists of 2 seats for each non-metropolitan district of Zimbabwe elected by each provincial assembly of chiefs using SNTV,[86] 1 seat each for the president and deputy president of the National Council of Chiefs, 1 male and 1 female seat for people with disabilities elected on separate ballots using FPTP by an electoral college designated by the National Disability Board.[87][88] 6 (directly elected seats) 60 directly elected + 20
National Assembly of Zimbabwe Lower chamber of legislature mixed Parallel voting: FPTP (210 seats) + Party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (60 seats, 6 for each province, reserved for women, and based on vote in the districts)[87][88][note 5] 1, 6 (Women's lists) 210 + 60 reserved for women

Key[edit]

Type of system

type of representation: single winner (single office, e.g. FPTP, TRS), majoritarian (body elected in winner-take-all districts e.g. FPTP, TRS, block voting), proportional (body elected by STV/party-list PR), mixed (combination of majoritarian+proportional), semi-proportional (e.g. SNTV, LV), indirect (by legislature(s) and/or electoral college), no election (chosen by a single person, or other rules e.g. hereditary)

Seats per district
Most elections are split into a number of electoral districts. In some elections, there is one person elected per district. In others, there are many people elected per district. Electoral districts can have different names, see list of electoral districts by nation.
Total number of seats
the number of representatives elected to the body in total.
Electoral threshold
see Electoral threshold

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For a round to be declared valid, the turnout must be at least 50% of voters in the electoral register.
  2. ^ U.S. House and Senate general and special elections in Texas require majority votes.
  3. ^ Louisiana uses a variant of the blanket primary with the primary at the day of the general election, with a runoff if no candidate receives a majority, while California and Washington has a primary before the general election with the top-two candidates facing off in the general election regardless of whether one has a majority or not. Similarly, Alaska has a variant where instead of having two candidates being the finalists, it has four candidates to be its finalists to facing off. Several states use runoff voting in the partisan primaries.
  4. ^ Elections in the United States commonly feature partisan primary elections run by the state (as opposed to by the parties); see Primary election#Primaries in the United States.
  5. ^ The constitution specifies the extra 60 seats for women only for the two first parliaments. The first parliament elected with this constitution was in 2013[89]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Taliban sources – Afghan Taliban appoint Mansour as leader". Reuters. Peshawar, Pakistan. 30 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2022. The shura held outside Quetta unanimously elected Mullah Mansour as the new emir of the Taliban
  2. ^ Ramachandran, Sudha (10 September 2021). "What Role Will the Taliban's 'Supreme Leader' Play in the New Government?". The Diplomat. Retrieved 7 July 2022. At the time of his appointment as Taliban chief by the Rahbari Shura (leadership council)
  3. ^ Jones, Seth G. (December 2020). "Afghanistan's Future Emirate? The Taliban and the Struggle for Afghanistan". CTC Sentinel. Combating Terrorism Center. 13 (11). Retrieved 7 July 2022. the Taliban rules by consensus among members of its Rahbari Shura
  4. ^ Jones, Seth G. (December 2020). "Afghanistan's Future Emirate? The Taliban and the Struggle for Afghanistan". CTC Sentinel. Combating Terrorism Center. 13 (11). Retrieved 7 July 2022. an autocratic political system that eschews democracy
  5. ^ a b Sayed, Abdul (8 September 2021). "Analysis: How Are the Taliban Organized?". Voice of America. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  6. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). p. Article 88.1.
  7. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). p. Article 86.1.
  8. ^ Instituti i Studimeve Politike, Albanian Helsinki Committee, Civil Rights Defenders, European Union (2020). "Broshurë Informative mbi proceset zgjedhore Parlamentare dhe Lokale në Shqipëri, mbi partitë politike, legjislacionin, rekomandimet e OSBE/ODIHR (1991-2020)" [Information Booklet on Parliamentary and Local Electoral Processes in Albania, on Political Parties, Legislation, OSCE / ODIHR Recommendations (1991-2020)] (PDF) (in Albanian). Instituti i Studimeve Politike (ISP). Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ "Part V. Electoral Zone and Number of Seats for Each Zone". The Electoral Code of the Republic of Albania (English translation by OSCE) (pdf). p. 62. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  10. ^ a b "Code Electoral 2012" (pdf) (in French). pp. 14, 20.
  11. ^ a b c "FINAL REPORT ON ALGERIA'S LEGISLATIVE ELECTIONS" (pdf). ACE Project. National Democratic Institute. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  12. ^ http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/armenia/293546?download=true[bare URL]
  13. ^ "DocumentView". www.arlis.am.
  14. ^ "FAQs - Parliament of Australia". Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  15. ^ "Electoral Code of the Republic of Belarus". Act No. No. 370-Z of 6 October 2006 (PDF). United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  16. ^ "BELARUS Palata Predstaviteley (House of Representatives), Electoral System". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  17. ^ "Segunda Parte, Título II, Capítulo Primero, Sección II". Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009. Artículo 167: I. [...] Será proclamada a la Presidencia y a la Vicepresidencia la candidatura que haya reunido el cincuenta por ciento más uno de los votos válidos; o que haya obtenido un mínimo del cuarenta por ciento de los votos válidos, con una diferencia de al menos diez por ciento en relación con la segunda candidatura. II. En caso de que ninguna de las candidaturas cumpla estas condiciones se realizará una segunda vuelta electoral entre las dos candidaturas más votadas, en el plazo de sesenta días computables a partir de la votación anterior. Será proclamada [...] la candidatura que haya obtenido la mayoría de los votos.
  18. ^ a b "Bolivia: Ley del Régimen Electoral, 30 de junio de 2010". Lexivox. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  19. ^ "Bolivia: Ley de distribución de escaños entre departamentos, 7 de octubre de 2013". Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  20. ^ Oliveira, José Carlos (30 June 2018). "Eleições deste ano trazem cláusulas de desempenho para candidatos e partidos". Chamber of Deputies of Brazil (in Brazilian Portuguese). Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  21. ^ "Sem votação mínima, 14 partidos ficarão sem recursos públicos". R7 (in Brazilian Portuguese). 9 October 2018. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  22. ^ "Com dura cláusula de barreira, metade das siglas corre risco de acabar". O Tempo (in Brazilian Portuguese). 12 July 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  23. ^ a b Determined for the 2005 parliamentary elections based on the 2001 census data. Independent candidates need to gather votes equal to the total number of votes cast in the constituency divided by the number of local seats. The remaining seats are distributed among parties by the D'Hondt method applied to the total number of votes for each. Party lists are one per constituency, the seats each party wins are further distributed among its local lists again by D'Hondt applied to local numbers of votes for the party, and a mechanism of shifting seats from one local Party list to another, to adjust the total seats for all parties for each constituency to the allocated local number of seats (minus the number of successful local independent candidates).
  24. ^ "Le système électoral au Tchad - Comité de Suivi de l'Appel à la Paix et à la Réconciliation" (in French). 23 September 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  25. ^ a b c "Senado - República de Chile - Fin al binominal: en ardua y extensa sesión despachan nueva composición del Congreso y sistema electoral proporcional". Senate of Chile. 14 January 2015. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  26. ^ a b "Electoral reform in Chile: Tie breaker | The Economist". The Economist. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  27. ^ Previously, a presidential candidate required an absolute majority of votes in order to be elected, but a 2011 constitutional amendment reduced this requirement to a simple majority. source Archived 6 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Constitution of the Republic of the Congo, Article 69, paragraph (1): "The President of the Republic shall be elected by an absolute majority of the votes cast. If this is not obtained in the first round of balloting, it shall be followed, the second following Sunday, by a second round. Only the two candidates having received the largest number of votes in the first round shall be presented."
  29. ^ 2015 Egyptian parliamentary election
  30. ^ Constitution of Equatorial Guinea, Item 31: (Constitutional law No. 1/1995 of 17 January): "The President of the Republic shall be the Head of State; he shall be the symbol of national unity and shall represent the Nation. He shall be elected by a relative majority of the votes cast through direct, equal and secret universal suffrage. The law shall determine the conditions of the electoral process."
  31. ^ Fijan elections office. "Electoral decree 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  32. ^ "Official text of the Gibraltar Constitution Order 2006". Laws of Gibraltar. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  33. ^ "2011. évi CCIII. Törvény az országgyűlési képviselők választásáról - Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye" (in Hungarian).
  34. ^ The Ceann Comhairle or Speaker of Dáil Éireann is returned automatically for whichever constituency s/he was elected if they wish to seek re-election, reducing the number of seats contested in that constituency by one. (In that case, should the Ceann Comhairle be from a three-seater, only two seats are contested in the general election from there.) As a result, if the Ceann Comhairle wishes to be in the next Dáil, only 165 seats are actually contested in a general election.
  35. ^ Lis, Jonathan (12 March 2014). "Israel raises electoral threshold to 3.25 percent". Haaretz. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  36. ^ "総務省|衆議院小選挙区の区割りの改定等について" (in Japanese). Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  37. ^ "Membership of the Senate". Kenya Law Reports. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  38. ^ "Membership of the National Assembly". Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  39. ^ a b "Legislative and Second Round of Presidential Elections in Madagascar" (PDF). Carter Center. 18 December 2013. pp. 20–22. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  40. ^ "IPU PARLINE database: MADAGASCAR (Antenimierampirenena), Electoral system". INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  41. ^ "Parliament could grow by 12 seats as gender corrective mechanism comes into force - The Malta Independent". www.independent.com.mt. Retrieved 2022-03-27.
  42. ^ "DECIS: Şeful statului va fi ales de popor; Modificarea din 2000 a Constituţiei privind alegerea preşedintelui de Parlament, NECONSTITUŢIONALĂ". Jurnal.md (in Romanian). 4 March 2016.
  43. ^ a b Monaco, Inter-Parliamentary Union
  44. ^ "Mongolian presidential election starts". 26 June 2013. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  45. ^ LAW ON THE ELECTION OF THE STATE GREAT HURAL OF MONGOLIA
    PROCEDURE FOR OBSERVATION AND REPORTING ON THE ELECTION OF THE STATE GREAT HURAL OF MONGOLIA
    (PDF). 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  46. ^ a b "26A, 26B". REPUBLIC OF NAURU Electoral Act 1965 (PDF). 12 July 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  47. ^ "Who comprises Parliament? - The Government of the Republic of Nauru". Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  48. ^ Lokhandwala, Zainab (5 January 2014). "Nepal: The Long Road Ahead - Fair Observer". Fair Observer. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  49. ^ "Election to the Members of Constituent Assembly Act, 2064 (2007)". Nepal Law Commission. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
  50. ^ "LANDSVERORDENING, houdende regelen betreffende het kies- recht en de verkiezingen van de leden van de Staten van Aruba". Article 91-94, Act No. AB 1987 no. 110, AB 1994 no. 30, AB 1997 no. 34, AB 2001 no. 100 AB 2009 no. 83 of 18 of 18 September 2013 (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  51. ^ Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution of Aruba (1987)
  52. ^ "Lov om valg til Stortinget, fylkesting og kommunestyrer (valgloven) - Lovdata". lovdata.no.
  53. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay, 1992, Article 230: "The president and vice president of the Republic will be elected jointly and directly by the people, by a simple majority of voters, in general elections held between 90 and 120 days prior to the expiration of the ongoing constitutional term."
  54. ^ a b Filimon, Paul (20 July 2015). "Legea Alegerilor Parlamentare pe Liste, promulgată de Iohannis". România Liberă (in Romanian).
  55. ^ a b c d "Anexa 1. Denumirea, numerotarea şi numărul de mandate aferent circumscripţiilor electorale" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  56. ^ a b "Legea nr. 208 din 20 iulie 2015 privind alegerea Senatului şi a Camerei Deputaţilor, precum şi pentru organizarea şi funcţionarea Autorităţii Electorale Permanente" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  57. ^ "Putin Orders New System for Russian Parliamentary Elections - NYTimes.com". 3 January 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  58. ^ "Putin signs into law Duma mixed electoral system - News - Russia - The Voice of Russia: News, Breaking news, Politics, Economics, Business, Russia, International current events, Expert opinion, podcasts, Video". 24 February 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  59. ^ Constitution of Rwanda[permanent dead link], Article 100: "The election of the President of the Republic shall be by universal suffrage through a direct and secret ballot with a simple majority of the votes cast. The Supreme Court proclaims the final results of the election."
  60. ^ THE CONSTITUTION OF SIERRA LEONE, 1991 (Act No. 6 of 1991), section 42(2)(e): "no person shall be elected as President of Sierra Leone unless at the Presidential election he has polled not less than fifty-five per cent of the valid votes in his favour; and", section 42(2)(f): "in default of a candidate being duly elected under paragraph (e), the two candidates with the highest number or numbers of votes shall go forward to a second election which shall be held within fourteen days of the announcement of the result of the previous election, and the candidate polling the higher number of votes cast in his favour shall be declared President."
  61. ^ "2020 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION RESULTS". Elections Department Singapore. Government of Singapore. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  62. ^ "Singapore GE 2020 Live Results". Straits Times. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  63. ^ Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic, 2012, Article 86 (2): "The candidate who obtains the absolute majority of votes shall be elected President. If none of the candidates obtains this absolute majority, the two candidates with the highest number of votes shall stand for election within two weeks."
  64. ^ "Art. 41, Constitution of Tanzania". Constitute Project.
  65. ^ "Art. 66, Constitution of Tanzania". Constitute Project.
  66. ^ With Eye to Next Election, Thai Government Tweaks Voting Rules
  67. ^ Thailand's New Electoral System
  68. ^ "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre" (in French). Jeune Afrique. 25 June 2014.
  69. ^ THE CONSTITUTION OF THE TUNISIAN REPUBLIC (Unofficial english translation) (PDF). UNDP and International IDEA. 26 January 2014. pp. 16–23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  70. ^ "Constituante tunisienne | La Tunisie adopte enfin sa nouvelle loi électorale". Jeuneafrique.com (in French). Jeune Afrique. 2 June 2014.
  71. ^ "2". Proposed Basic Law on Elections and Referendums - Tunisia (Non-official translation to English). International IDEA. 26 January 2014. p. 25. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  72. ^ "Ukraine talks set to open without pro-Russian separatists". The Washington Post. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
    "Ukraine elections: Runners and risks". BBC News. 22 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
    "Q&A: Ukraine presidential election". BBC News. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
    "Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote – CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
    Внеочередные выборы Президента Украины [Results election of Ukrainian president] (in Russian). Телеграф. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  73. ^ Electoral Code becomes effective in Ukraine
  74. ^ "Part IV. The Legislature". The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009 (PDF). p. 35. Retrieved 12 September 2014. 60.—(1) The Legislative Assembly shall consist of—(a) the Speaker; (b) eighteen elected members, who shall be persons qualified for election in accordance with this Constitution and elected in the manner provided for in a law enacted for the purposes of section 93; and (c) the Deputy Governor and the Attorney General, ex officio.
  75. ^ Hood III, M.V. (19 July 2014). "Hood: Georgia is one of few states with primary runoff balloting". Athens Banner-Herald. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
  76. ^ "Mississippi Remove Electoral Vote Requirement and Establish Runoffs for Gubernatorial and State Office Elections (2020)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  77. ^ Pettus, Emily (4 July 2020). "Mississippi could drop Jim Crow-era statewide voting process". ABC news. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  78. ^ "Title 1, Chapter 2, Subchapter B, Sec. 2.021". Election Code. Texas State Government.
  79. ^ Barrow, Bill (8 February 2011). "Department of Justice gives approval to Louisiana's open primaries". Nola.com. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  80. ^ "Maine became the first state in the country Tuesday to pass ranked choice voting". 10 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  81. ^ "Ranked Choice Voting | Maine Voters Rank Candidates". Maine Uses Ranked Choice Voting. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  82. ^ Eric Russell (12 June 2018). "Mainers vote to keep ranked-choice voting, with supporters holding commanding lead". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  83. ^ "Alaska Ballot Measure 2, Top-Four Ranked-Choice Voting and Campaign Finance Laws Initiative (2020)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
  84. ^ Constitution of Zambia Act 1991, Article 41 (1): "Elections to the office of President shall be conducted directly, under a majoritarian electoral system, where the winning candidate must receive more than fifty percent of the valid votes cast, and in accordance with Article 101."
  85. ^ "Part XVII, Section 110". ELECTORAL ACT. Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 63. Archived from the original (pdf) on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  86. ^ "Part X, Section 44". ELECTORAL ACT. Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 35. Archived from the original (pdf) on 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  87. ^ a b "3, 4". Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) (PDF). pp. 52–54. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2014.
  88. ^ a b "Electoral Amendment Act 2014 [Act 6-2014]" (doc). Veritas Zimbabwe. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  89. ^ "Zimbabwe's Mugabe signs new constitution – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 July 2013.

Much of the data on Bulgaria from Central electoral committee - "Methods for determining the number of mandates in constituencies and the results of the vote" (in Bulgarian); A mathematical analysis of the system

Much of the data regarding which voting system is used is drawn from this 2002 report from the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).

Much of the data regarding the size of the parliaments comes from this 1997 report from the same Institute.

Some of the data has been updated since then.

External links[edit]