List of electoral systems by country
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This table deals with voting to select candidates for office, not for the passing of legislation.
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (July 2014)
|Head of state||Lower (or unicameral) house||Upper house|
Voting systems by country
- Seats per district
- Most elections are split into a number of electoral districts. In some elections, there is one person elected per district. In others, there are many people elected per district. Electoral districts can have different names, see list of electoral districts by nation.
- Total number of seats
- the number of representatives elected to the body in total.
- Election threshold
- see Election threshold
- Using the system of First Past The Post voting to pick a single winner per district
- Party list
- One of many Party-list proportional representation systems. Where possible, this has been replaced by the allocation system used within the party-list (e.g. D'Hondt method)
- Parallel voting
- This means that two simultaneous systems are used to elect representatives to the same body. If there is interchange between the two systems (e.g. the number elected in one system affects the number elected in the other) then this is called the additional member system.
- For a round to be declared valid, the turnout must be at least 50% of voters in the electoral register.
- For the first round of elections to be declared valid, at least 50% of voters in the electoral register must have voted. For the runoff round between the top two candidates, the requirement is 25%.
- Louisiana uses a variant of the blanket primary with the primary at the day of the general election, with a runoff if no candidate receives a majority, while California and Washington has a primary before the general election with the top-two candidates facing off in the general election regardless of whether one has a majority or not. Several states use runoff voting in the partisan primaries.
- Elections in the United States commonly feature partisan primary elections run by the state (as opposed to by the parties), see Primary election#Primaries in the United States
- The constitution specifies the extra 60 seats for women only for the two first parliaments. The first parliament elected with this constitution was in 2013
- "Part XII. Allocation of Seats". The Electoral Code of the Republic of Albania (English translation by OSCE) (pdf). p. 140. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Part V. Electoral Zone and Number of Seats for Each Zone". =The Electoral Code of the Republic of Albania (English translation by OSCE) (pdf). p. 62. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Code Electoral 2012" (pdf) (in French). pp. 14, 20.
- "FINAL REPORT ON ALGERIA'S LEGISLATIVE ELECTIONS" (pdf). ACE Project. National Democratic Institute. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "IPU PARLINE database: ALGERIA (Al-Majlis Al-Chaabi Al-Watani), Electoral system". INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
- "LANDSVERORDENING, houdende regelen betreffende het kies- recht en de verkiezingen van de leden van de Staten van Aruba". Article 91-94, Act No. AB 1987 no. 110, AB 1994 no. 30, AB 1997 no. 34, AB 2001 no. 100 AB 2009 no. 83 of 18 of 18 September 2013 (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution of Aruba (1987)
- "FAQs - Parliament of Australia". Retrieved 22 September 2014.
- "Electoral Code of the Republic of Belarus". Act No. No. 370-Z of 6 October 2006 (PDF). United States Department of Justice. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- "BELARUS Palata Predstaviteley (House of Representatives), Electoral System". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
- "Segunda Parte, Título II, Capítulo Primero, Sección II". Nueva Constitución Política del Estado (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 40. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-05-21. Retrieved 2009-02-12.
Artículo 167: I. [...] Será proclamada a la Presidencia y a la Vicepresidencia la candidatura que haya reunido el cincuenta por ciento más uno de los votos válidos; o que haya obtenido un mínimo del cuarenta por ciento de los votos válidos, con una diferencia de al menos diez por ciento en relación con la segunda candidatura. II. En caso de que ninguna de las candidaturas cumpla estas condiciones se realizará una segunda vuelta electoral entre las dos candidaturas más votadas, en el plazo de sesenta días computables a partir de la votación anterior. Será proclamada [...] la candidatura que haya obtenido la mayoría de los votos.
- "Bolivia: Ley del Régimen Electoral, 30 de junio de 2010". Lexivox. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- "Bolivia: Ley de distribución de escaños entre departamentos, 7 de octubre de 2013". Retrieved 10 February 2015.
- Determined for the 2005 parliamentary elections based on the 2001 census data. Independent candidates need to gather votes equal to the total number of votes cast in the constituency divided by the number of local seats. The remaining seats are distributed among parties by the D'Hondt method applied to the total number of votes for each. Party lists are one per constituency, the seats each party wins are further distributed among its local lists again by D'Hondt applied to local numbers of votes for the party, and a mechanism of shifting seats from one local Party list to another, to adjust the total seats for all parties for each constituency to the allocated local number of seats (minus the number of successful local independent candidates).
- "Part IV. The Legislature". The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009 (pdf). p. 35. Retrieved 12 September 2014.
60.—(1) The Legislative Assembly shall consist of—(a) the Speaker; (b) eighteen elected members, who shall be persons qualified for election in accordance with this Constitution and elected in the manner provided for in a law enacted for the purposes of section 93; and (c) the Deputy Governor and the Attorney General, ex officio.
- "Senado - República de Chile - Fin al binominal: en ardua y extensa sesión despachan nueva composición del Congreso y sistema electoral proporcional". Senate of Chile. 14 January 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- "Electoral reform in Chile: Tie breaker | The Economist". The Economist. 14 February 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
- Constitution of the Republic of the Congo, Article 69, paragraph (1): "The President of the Republic shall be elected by an absolute majority of the votes cast. If this is not obtained in the first round of balloting, it shall be followed, the second following Sunday, by a second round. Only the two candidates having received the largest number of votes in the first round shall be presented."
- Previously, a presidential candidate required an absolute majority of votes in order to be elected, but a 2011 constitutional amendment reduced this requirement to a simple majority. source Archived 2013-04-06 at the Wayback Machine
- 2015 Egyptian parliamentary election
- Constitution of Equatorial Guinea, Item 31: (Constitutional law No. 1/1995 of 17 January): "The President of the Republic shall be the Head of State; he shall be the symbol of national unity and shall represent the Nation. He shall be elected by a relative majority of the votes cast through direct, equal and secret universal suffrage. The law shall determine the conditions of the electoral process."
- Fijan elections office. "Electoral decree 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- The Ceann Comhairle or Speaker of Dáil Éireann is returned automatically for whichever constituency s/he was elected if they wish to seek re-election, reducing the number of seats contested in that constituency by one. (In that case, should the Ceann Comhairle be from a three-seater, only two seats are contested in the general election from there.) As a result, if the Ceann Comhairle wishes to be in the next Dáil, only 165 seats are actually contested in a general election.
- Lis, Jonathan (12 March 2014). "Israel raises electoral threshold to 3.25 percent". Haaretz. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- "総務省｜衆議院小選挙区の区割りの改定等について" (in Japanese). Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "Legislative and Second Round of Presidential Elections in Madagascar" (pdf). Carter Center. 18 December 2013. pp. 20–22. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "IPU PARLINE database: MADAGASCAR (Antenimierampirenena), Electoral system". INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- "DECIS: Şeful statului va fi ales de popor; Modificarea din 2000 a Constituţiei privind alegerea preşedintelui de Parlament, NECONSTITUŢIONALĂ". Jurnal.md (in Romanian). 4 March 2016.
- Monaco, Inter-Parliamentary Union
- "Mongolian presidential election starts". 26 June 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- LAW ON THE ELECTION OF THE STATE GREAT HURAL OF MONGOLIA
PROCEDURE FOR OBSERVATION AND REPORTING ON THE ELECTION OF THE STATE GREAT HURAL OF MONGOLIA (PDF). 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- "26A, 26B". REPUBLIC OF NAURU Electoral Act 1965 (PDF). 12 July 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Who comprises Parliament? - The Government of the Republic of Nauru". Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- Lokhandwala, Zainab (5 January 2014). "Nepal: The Long Road Ahead - Fair Observer". Fair Observer. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- "Election to the Members of Constituent Assembly Act, 2064 (2007)". Nepal Law Commission. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Valgloven §6, §7 and §11 (in Norwegian)
- Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay, 1992, Article 230: "The president and vice president of the Republic will be elected jointly and directly by the people, by a simple majority of voters, in general elections held between 90 and 120 days prior to the expiration of the ongoing constitutional term."
- Filimon, Paul (20 July 2015). "Legea Alegerilor Parlamentare pe Liste, promulgată de Iohannis". România Liberă (in Romanian).
- "Anexa 1. Denumirea, numerotarea şi numărul de mandate aferent circumscripţiilor electorale" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
- "Legea nr. 208 din 20 iulie 2015 privind alegerea Senatului şi a Camerei Deputaţilor, precum şi pentru organizarea şi funcţionarea Autorităţii Electorale Permanente" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian Permanent Electoral Authority. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- "Putin Orders New System for Russian Parliamentary Elections - NYTimes.com". 3 January 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Putin signs into law Duma mixed electoral system - News - Russia - The Voice of Russia: News, Breaking news, Politics, Economics, Business, Russia, International current events, Expert opinion, podcasts, Video". 24 February 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- Constitution of Rwanda, Article 100: "The election of the President of the Republic shall be by universal suffrage through a direct and secret ballot with a simple majority of the votes cast. The Supreme Court proclaims the final results of the election."
- THE CONSTITUTION OF SIERRA LEONE, 1991 (Act No. 6 of 1991), section 42(2)(e): "no person shall be elected as President of Sierra Leone unless at the Presidential election he has polled not less than fifty-five per cent of the valid votes in his favour; and", section 42(2)(f): "in default of a candidate being duly elected under paragraph (e), the two candidates with the highest number or numbers of votes shall go forward to a second election which shall be held within fourteen days of the announcement of the result of the previous election, and the candidate polling the higher number of votes cast in his favour shall be declared President."
- "2015 PARLIAMENTARY ELECTION RESULTS". Elections Department Singapore. Government of Singapore. Archived from the original on 14 September 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Singapore Votes 2015". ChannelNews Asia. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic, 2012, Article 86 (2): "The candidate who obtains the absolute majority of votes shall be elected President. If none of the candidates obtains this absolute majority, the two candidates with the highest number of votes shall stand for election within two weeks."
- "Art. 41, Constitution of Tanzania". Constitute Project.
- "Art. 66, Constitution of Tanzania". Constitute Project.
- "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre" (in French). Jeune Afrique. 25 June 2014.
- THE CONSTITUTION OF THE TUNISIAN REPUBLIC (Unofficial english translation) (PDF). UNDP and International IDEA. 26 January 2014. pp. 16–23. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Constituante tunisienne | La Tunisie adopte enfin sa nouvelle loi électorale". Jeuneafrique.com (in French). Jeune Afrique. 2 June 2014.
- "2". Proposed Basic Law on Elections and Referendums - Tunisia (Non-official translation to English). International IDEA. 26 January 2014. p. 25. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Ukraine talks set to open without pro-Russian separatists". The Washington Post. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
"Ukraine elections: Runners and risks". BBC News. 22 May 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
"Q&A: Ukraine presidential election". BBC News. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
"Poroshenko wins presidential election with 54.7% of vote – CEC". Radio Ukraine International. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
Внеочередные выборы Президента Украины [Results election of Ukrainian president] (in Russian). Телеграф. 29 May 2014. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "Ukraine: The Law on Election of the People's Deputies (Unofficial translation by IFES), 2011". Article 98-99, Act No. 4061-VI of 17 November 2011 (PDF). Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- Hood III, M.V. (19 July 2014). "Hood: Georgia is one of few states with primary runoff balloting". Athens Banner-Herald. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
- Barrow, Bill (8 February 2011). "Department of Justice gives approval to Louisiana's open primaries". Nola.com. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- "Maine became the first state in the country Tuesday to pass ranked choice voting". 10 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Ranked Choice Voting | Maine Voters Rank Candidates". Maine Uses Ranked Choice Voting. Retrieved 2018-04-08.
- Eric Russell (12 June 2018). "Mainers vote to keep ranked-choice voting, with supporters holding commanding lead". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "Part XVII, Section 110". ELECTORAL ACT (pdf). Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 63. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "3, 4". Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment (No. 20) (PDF). pp. 52–54. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2014-09-10.
- "Electoral Amendment Act 2014 [Act 6-2014]" (doc). Veritas Zimbabwe. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
- "Zimbabwe's Mugabe signs new constitution – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- "Part X, Section 44". ELECTORAL ACT (pdf). Zimbabwe Electoral Commission. p. 35. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
Much of the data on Bulgaria from Central electoral committee - "Methods for determining the number of mandates in constituencies and the results of the vote" (in Bulgarian); A mathematical analysis of the system
Much of the data regarding which voting system is used is drawn from this 2002 report from the International Insititute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).
Much of the data regarding the size of the parliaments comes from this 1997 report from the same Institute.
Some of the data has been updated since then.
- ACE Electoral Knowledge Network Expert site providing encyclopedia on Electoral Systems and Management, country by country data, a library of electoral materials, latest election news, the opportunity to submit questions to a network of electoral experts, and a forum to discuss all of the above.
- A Handbook of Electoral System Design from International IDEA
- Electoral Design Reference Materials from the ACE Project
- PARLINE database from the Inter-Parliamentary Union
- Political Database of the Americas - Georgetown University
- Project for Global Democracy and Human Rights This page links to a table and a world map that is color-coded by the primary electoral system used by each country.