List of chemical elements

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As of September 2018, 118 chemical elements are identified. A chemical element or element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, or Z).[1] Therefore, the elements can be listed by the number of protons in the atom of each element as listed below.

List[edit]

List of chemical elements
Z[I] Symbol Element Origin of name[2][3] Group Period Atomic weight[4][5] (u (±)) Density (g/cm3) Melt (K) [6] Boil (K) C[I] (J/g · K) χ[I] Abundance in Earth's crust[II] (mg/kg)
1 H Hydrogen composed of the Greek elements hydro- and -gen meaning 'water-forming' 1 1 1.008[III][IV][V][VI] 0.00008988 14.01 20.28 14.304 2.20 1400
2 He Helium the Greek helios, 'sun' 18 1 4.002602(2)[III][V] 0.0001785 [VII] 4.22 5.193 0.008
3 Li Lithium the Greek lithos, 'stone' 1 2 6.94[III][IV][V][VIII][VI] 0.534 453.69 1560 3.582 0.98 20
4 Be Beryllium beryl, a mineral 2 2 9.0121831(5) 1.85 1560 2742 1.825 1.57 2.8
5 B Boron borax, a mineral 13 2 10.81[III][IV][V][VI] 2.34 2349 4200 1.026 2.04 10
6 C Carbon the Latin carbo, 'coal' 14 2 12.011[III][V][VI] 2.267 3800 4300 0.709 2.55 200
7 N Nitrogen the Greek nitron and '-gen' meaning 'niter-forming' 15 2 14.007[III][V][VI] 0.0012506 63.15 77.36 1.04 3.04 19
8 O Oxygen from the Greek oxy-, both 'sharp' and 'acid', and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming' 16 2 15.999[III][V][VI] 0.001429 54.36 90.20 0.918 3.44 461000
9 F Fluorine the Latin fluere, 'to flow' 17 2 18.998403163(6) 0.001696 53.53 85.03 0.824 3.98 585
10 Ne Neon the Greek neos, meaning 'new' 18 2 20.1797(6)[III][IV] 0.0008999 24.56 27.07 1.03 0.005
11 Na Sodium the English word soda (natrium in Latin) 1 3 22.98976928(2) 0.971 370.87 1156 1.228 0.93 23600
12 Mg Magnesium Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece 2 3 24.305[VI] 1.738 923 1363 1.023 1.31 23300
13 Al Aluminium from alumina, a compound (originally alumium) 13 3 26.9815385(7) 2.698 933.47 2792 0.897 1.61 82300
14 Si Silicon from the Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium) 14 3 28.085[V][VI] 2.3296 1687 3538 0.705 1.9 282000
15 P Phosphorus the Greek phoosphoros, 'carrying light' 15 3 30.973761998(5) 1.82 317.30 550 0.769 2.19 1050
16 S Sulfur the Latin sulphur, 'fire and brimstone' 16 3 32.06[III][V][VI] 2.067 388.36 717.87 0.71 2.58 350
17 Cl Chlorine the Greek chloros, 'greenish yellow' 17 3 35.45[III][IV][V][VI] 0.003214 171.6 239.11 0.479 3.16 145
18 Ar Argon the Greek argos, 'idle' 18 3 39.948(1)[III][V] 0.0017837 83.80 87.30 0.52 3.5
19 K Potassium New Latin potassa, 'potash' (kalium in Latin) 1 4 39.0983(1) 0.862 336.53 1032 0.757 0.82 20900
20 Ca Calcium the Latin calx, 'lime' 2 4 40.078(4)[III] 1.54 1115 1757 0.647 1 41500
21 Sc Scandium Scandia, the Latin name for Scandinavia 3 4 44.955908(5) 2.989 1814 3109 0.568 1.36 22
22 Ti Titanium Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology 4 4 47.867(1) 4.54 1941 3560 0.523 1.54 5650
23 V Vanadium Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja 5 4 50.9415(1) 6.11 2183 3680 0.489 1.63 120
24 Cr Chromium the Greek chroma, 'colour' 6 4 51.9961(6) 7.15 2180 2944 0.449 1.66 102
25 Mn Manganese corrupted from magnesia negra, see Magnesium 7 4 54.938044(3) 7.44 1519 2334 0.479 1.55 950
26 Fe Iron English word (ferrum in Latin) 8 4 55.845(2) 7.874 1811 3134 0.449 1.83 56300
27 Co Cobalt the German word Kobold, 'goblin' 9 4 58.933194(4) 8.86 1768 3200 0.421 1.88 25
28 Ni Nickel from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, Nickel 10 4 58.6934(4) 8.912 1728 3186 0.444 1.91 84
29 Cu Copper English word (Latin cuprum) 11 4 63.546(3)[V] 8.96 1357.77 2835 0.385 1.9 60
30 Zn Zinc German word Zinke (prong, tooth) 12 4 65.38(2) 7.134 692.88 1180 0.388 1.65 70
31 Ga Gallium Gallia, the Latin name for France 13 4 69.723(1) 5.907 302.9146 2673 0.371 1.81 19
32 Ge Germanium Germania, the Latin name for Germany 14 4 72.630(8) 5.323 1211.40 3106 0.32 2.01 1.5
33 As Arsenic English word (Latin arsenicum) 15 4 74.921595(6) 5.776 1090 [IX] 887 0.329 2.18 1.8
34 Se Selenium the Greek selene, 'moon' 16 4 78.971(8)[V] 4.809 453 958 0.321 2.55 0.05
35 Br Bromine the Greek bromos, 'stench' 17 4 79.904[VI] 3.122 265.8 332.0 0.474 2.96 2.4
36 Kr Krypton the Greek kryptos, 'hidden' 18 4 83.798(2)[III][IV] 0.003733 115.79 119.93 0.248 3 1×10−4
37 Rb Rubidium the Latin rubidus, 'deep red' 1 5 85.4678(3)[III] 1.532 312.46 961 0.363 0.82 90
38 Sr Strontium Strontian, a small town in Scotland 2 5 87.62(1)[III][V] 2.64 1050 1655 0.301 0.95 370
39 Y Yttrium Ytterby, Sweden 3 5 88.90584(2) 4.469 1799 3609 0.298 1.22 33
40 Zr Zirconium Persian Zargun, 'gold-colored'; German Zirkoon, 'jargoon' 4 5 91.224(2)[III] 6.506 2128 4682 0.278 1.33 165
41 Nb Niobium Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology 5 5 92.90637(2) 8.57 2750 5017 0.265 1.6 20
42 Mo Molybdenum the Greek molybdos meaning 'lead' 6 5 95.95(1)[III] 10.22 2896 4912 0.251 2.16 1.2
43 Tc Technetium the Greek tekhnètos meaning 'artificial' 7 5 [98][X] 11.5 2430 4538 1.9 ~ 3×10−9[XI]
44 Ru Ruthenium Ruthenia, the New Latin name for Russia 8 5 101.07(2)[III] 12.37 2607 4423 0.238 2.2 0.001
45 Rh Rhodium the Greek rhodos, meaning 'rose coloured' 9 5 102.90550(2) 12.41 2237 3968 0.243 2.28 0.001
46 Pd Palladium the then recently discovered asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time 10 5 106.42(1)[III] 12.02 1828.05 3236 0.244 2.2 0.015
47 Ag Silver English word (argentum in Latin) 11 5 107.8682(2)[III] 10.501 1234.93 2435 0.235 1.93 0.075
48 Cd Cadmium the New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos 12 5 112.414(4)[III] 8.69 594.22 1040 0.232 1.69 0.159
49 In Indium indigo 13 5 114.818(1) 7.31 429.75 2345 0.233 1.78 0.25
50 Sn Tin English word (stannum in Latin) 14 5 118.710(7)[III] 7.287 505.08 2875 0.228 1.96 2.3
51 Sb Antimony uncertain: perhaps from the Greek anti, 'against', and monos, 'alone', or the Old French antimoine, 'Monk's bane' (stibium in Latin) 15 5 121.760(1)[III] 6.685 903.78 1860 0.207 2.05 0.2
52 Te Tellurium Latin tellus, 'earth' 16 5 127.60(3)[III] 6.232 722.66 1261 0.202 2.1 0.001
53 I Iodine French iode (after the Greek ioeides, 'violet') 17 5 126.90447(3) 4.93 386.85 457.4 0.214 2.66 0.45
54 Xe Xenon the Greek xenos, 'strange' 18 5 131.293(6)[III][IV] 0.005887 161.4 165.03 0.158 2.6 3×10−5
55 Cs Caesium the Latin caesius, 'sky blue' 1 6 132.90545196(6) 1.873 301.59 944 0.242 0.79 3
56 Ba Barium the Greek barys, 'heavy' 2 6 137.327(7) 3.594 1000 2170 0.204 0.89 425
57 La Lanthanum the Greek lanthanein, 'to lie hidden' 3 6 138.90547(7)[III] 6.145 1193 3737 0.195 1.1 39
58 Ce Cerium the then recently discovered asteroid Ceres, considered a planet at the time 6 140.116(1)[III] 6.77 1068 3716 0.192 1.12 66.5
59 Pr Praseodymium the Greek praseios didymos meaning 'green twin' 6 140.90766(2) 6.773 1208 3793 0.193 1.13 9.2
60 Nd Neodymium the Greek neos didymos meaning 'new twin' 6 144.242(3)[III] 7.007 1297 3347 0.19 1.14 41.5
61 Pm Promethium Prometheus of Greek mythology who stole fire from the Gods and gave it to humans 6 [145][X] 7.26 1315 3273 1.13 2×10−19[XI]
62 Sm Samarium Samarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated 6 150.36(2)[III] 7.52 1345 2067 0.197 1.17 7.05
63 Eu Europium Europe 6 151.964(1)[III] 5.243 1099 1802 0.182 1.2 2
64 Gd Gadolinium Johan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist 6 157.25(3)[III] 7.895 1585 3546 0.236 1.2 6.2
65 Tb Terbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 158.92535(2) 8.229 1629 3503 0.182 1.2 1.2
66 Dy Dysprosium the Greek dysprositos, 'hard to get' 6 162.500(1)[III] 8.55 1680 2840 0.17 1.22 5.2
67 Ho Holmium Holmia, the New Latin name for Stockholm 6 164.93033(2) 8.795 1734 2993 0.165 1.23 1.3
68 Er Erbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 167.259(3)[III] 9.066 1802 3141 0.168 1.24 3.5
69 Tm Thulium Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia 6 168.93422(2) 9.321 1818 2223 0.16 1.25 0.52
70 Yb Ytterbium Ytterby, Sweden 6 173.045(10)[III] 6.965 1097 1469 0.155 1.1 3.2
71 Lu Lutetium Lutetia, the Latin name for Paris 6 174.9668(1)[III] 9.84 1925 3675 0.154 1.27 0.8
72 Hf Hafnium Hafnia, the New Latin name for Copenhagen 4 6 178.49(2) 13.31 2506 4876 0.144 1.3 3
73 Ta Tantalum King Tantalus, father of Niobe from Greek mythology 5 6 180.94788(2) 16.654 3290 5731 0.14 1.5 2
74 W Tungsten the Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite) 6 6 183.84(1) 19.25 3695 5828 0.132 2.36 1.3
75 Re Rhenium Rhenus, the Latin name for the river Rhine 7 6 186.207(1) 21.02 3459 5869 0.137 1.9 7×10−4
76 Os Osmium the Greek osmè, meaning 'smell' 8 6 190.23(3)[III] 22.61 3306 5285 0.13 2.2 0.002
77 Ir Iridium Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow 9 6 192.217(3) 22.56 2719 4701 0.131 2.2 0.001
78 Pt Platinum the Spanish platina, meaning 'little silver' 10 6 195.084(9) 21.46 2041.4 4098 0.133 2.28 0.005
79 Au Gold English word (aurum in Latin) 11 6 196.966569(5) 19.282 1337.33 3129 0.129 2.54 0.004
80 Hg Mercury the New Latin name mercurius, named after the Roman god (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr-, 'water', and argyros, 'silver') 12 6 200.592(3) 13.5336 234.43 629.88 0.14 2 0.085
81 Tl Thallium the Greek thallos, 'green twig' 13 6 204.38[VI] 11.85 577 1746 0.129 1.62 0.85
82 Pb Lead English word (plumbum in Latin) 14 6 207.2(1)[III][V] 11.342 600.61 2022 0.129 1.87 14
83 Bi Bismuth Uncertain, possibly Arabic or German 15 6 208.98040(1)[X] 9.807 544.7 1837 0.122 2.02 0.009
84 Po Polonium Named after the home country of Marie Curie (Polonia, Latin for Poland), who is also the discoverer of Radium 16 6 [209][X] 9.32 527 1235 2.0 2×10−10[XI]
85 At Astatine the Greek astatos, 'unstable' 17 6 [210][X] 7 575 610 2.2 3×10−20[XI]
86 Rn Radon From radium, as it was first detected as an emission from radium during radioactive decay 18 6 [222][X] 0.00973 202 211.3 0.094 2.2 4×10−13[XI]
87 Fr Francium Francia, the New Latin name for France 1 7 [223][X] 1.87 300 950 0.7 ~ 1×10−18[XI]
88 Ra Radium the Latin radius, 'ray' 2 7 [226][X] 5.5 973 2010 0.094 0.9 9×10−7[XI]
89 Ac Actinium the Greek aktis, 'ray' 3 7 [227][X] 10.07 1323 3471 0.12 1.1 5.5×10−10[XI]
90 Th Thorium Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder 7 232.0377(4)[X][III] 11.72 2115 5061 0.113 1.3 9.6
91 Pa Protactinium the Greek protos, 'first', and actinium, which is produced through the radioactive decay of protactinium 7 231.03588(2)[X] 15.37 1841 4300 1.5 1.4×10−6[XI]
92 U Uranium Uranus, the seventh planet in the Solar System 7 238.02891(3)[X] 18.95 1405.3 4404 0.116 1.38 2.7
93 Np Neptunium Neptune, the eighth planet in the Solar System 7 [237][X] 20.45 917 4273 1.36 ≤ 3×10−12[XI]
94 Pu Plutonium Pluto, a dwarf planet in the Solar System (then considered the ninth planet) 7 [244][X] 19.84 912.5 3501 1.28 ≤ 3×10−11[XI]
95 Am Americium The Americas, as the element was first synthesised on the continent, by analogy with europium 7 [243][X] 13.69 1449 2880 1.13 0[XII]
96 Cm Curium Pierre Curie, a physicist, and Marie Curie, a physicist and chemist, named after great scientists by analogy with gadolinium 7 [247][X] 13.51 1613 3383 1.28 0[XII]
97 Bk Berkelium Berkeley, California, where the element was first synthesised, by analogy with terbium 7 [247][X] 14.79 1259 2900 1.3 0[XII]
98 Cf Californium California, where the element was first synthesised 7 [251][X] 15.1 1173 (1743)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
99 Es Einsteinium Albert Einstein, physicist 7 [252][X] 8.84 1133 (1269)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
100 Fm Fermium Enrico Fermi, physicist 7 [257][X] (9.7)[XIII] (1125)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
101 Md Mendelevium Dmitri Mendeleev, chemist and inventor 7 [258][X] (10.3)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
102 No Nobelium Alfred Nobel, chemist, engineer, inventor of dynamite 7 [259][X] (9.9)[XIII] (1100)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
103 Lr Lawrencium Ernest O. Lawrence, physicist 7 [266][X] (15.6)[XIII] (1900)[XIII] 1.3 0[XII]
104 Rf Rutherfordium Ernest Rutherford, chemist and physicist 4 7 [267][X] (23.2)[XIII] (2400)[XIII] (5800)[XIII] 0[XII]
105 Db Dubnium Dubna, Russia 5 7 [268][X] (29.3)[XIII] 0[XII]
106 Sg Seaborgium Glenn T. Seaborg, scientist 6 7 [269][X] (35.0)[XIII] 0[XII]
107 Bh Bohrium Niels Bohr, physicist 7 7 [270][X] (37.1)[XIII] 0[XII]
108 Hs Hassium Hesse, Germany, where the element was first synthesised 8 7 [277][X] (40.7)[XIII] 0[XII]
109 Mt Meitnerium Lise Meitner, physicist 9 7 [278][X] (37.4)[XIII] 0[XII]
110 Ds Darmstadtium Darmstadt, Germany, where the element was first synthesised 10 7 [281][X] (34.8)[XIII] 0[XII]
111 Rg Roentgenium Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, physicist 11 7 [282][X] (28.7)[XIII] 0[XII]
112 Cn Copernicium Nicolaus Copernicus, astronomer 12 7 [285][X] (23.7)[XIII] ~357[XIV] 0[XII]
113 Nh Nihonium the Japanese name for Japan, Nihon, where the element was first synthesised 13 7 [286][X] (16)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1400)[XIII] 0[XII]
114 Fl Flerovium Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, part of JINR where the element was synthesised; itself named for Georgy Flyorov, physicist 14 7 [289][X] (14)[XIII] ~210 0[XII]
115 Mc Moscovium Moscow Oblast, Russia, where the element was first synthesised 15 7 [290][X] (13.5)[XIII] (700)[XIII] (1400)[XIII] 0[XII]
116 Lv Livermorium Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, California) which collaborated with JINR on its synthesis 16 7 [293][X] (12.9)[XIII] (709)[XIII] (1085)[XIII] 0[XII]
117 Ts Tennessine Tennessee, United States 17 7 [294][X] (7.2)[XIII] (723)[XIII] (883)[XIII] 0[XII]
118 Og Oganesson Yuri Oganessian, physicist 18 7 [294][X] (5.0)[XIII][XV] (350)[XIII] 0[XII]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Z is the standard symbol for atomic number; C is the standard symbol for heat capacity; and χ is the standard symbol for electronegativity on the Pauling scale.
  2. ^ Unless otherwise indicated, elements are primordial – they occur naturally, and not through decay.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al The isotopic composition of this element varies in some geological specimens, and the variation may exceed the uncertainty stated in the table.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g The isotopic composition of the element can vary in commercial materials, which can cause the atomic weight to deviate significantly from the given value.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o The isotopic composition varies in terrestrial material such that a more precise atomic weight can not be given.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The value listed is the conventional atomic-weight value suitable for trade and commerce. The actual value may differ depending on the isotopic composition of the sample. Since 2009, IUPAC provides the standard atomic-weight values for these elements using the interval notation. The corresponding standard atomic weights are:
    • Hydrogen: [1.00784, 1.00811]
    • Lithium: [6.938, 6.997]
    • Boron: [10.806, 10.821]
    • Carbon: [12.0096, 12.0116]
    • Nitrogen: [14.00643, 14.00728]
    • Oxygen: [15.99903, 15.99977]
    • Magnesium: [24.304, 24.307]
    • Silicon: [28.084, 28.086]
    • Sulfur: [32.059, 32.076]
    • Chlorine: [35.446, 35.457]
    • Bromine: [79.901, 79.907]
    • Thallium: [204.382, 204.385]
  7. ^ Helium does not solidify at a pressure of one atmosphere. Helium can only solidify at pressures above 25 atmospheres, which corresponds to a melting point of absolute zero.
  8. ^ The atomic weight of commercial lithium can vary between 6.939 and 6.996—analysis of the specific material is necessary to find a more accurate value.
  9. ^ This element sublimes at one atmosphere of pressure.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al The element does not have any stable nuclides, and a value in brackets, e.g. [209], indicates the mass number of the longest-lived isotope of the element. However, four such elements, bismuth, thorium, protactinium, and uranium, have characteristic terrestrial isotopic compositions, and thus their standard atomic weights are given.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k This element is transient – it occurs only through decay.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x This element is synthetic – the transuranic elements 95 and above do not occur naturally, but they can all be produced artificially.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj The value has not been precisely measured, usually because of the element's short half-life; the value given in parentheses is a prediction.
  14. ^ With error bars: 357+112
    −108
     K.
  15. ^ This predicted value is for liquid oganesson, not gaseous oganesson.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ IUPAC (ed.). "chemical element". International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. doi:10.1351/goldbook.C01022.
  2. ^ "Periodic Table – Royal Society of Chemistry". www.rsc.org.
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  4. ^ Wieser, Michael E.; et al. (2013). "Atomic weights of the elements 2011 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure Appl. Chem. IUPAC. 85 (5): 1047–1078. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-13-03-02. (for standard atomic weights of elements)
  5. ^ Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06. (for atomic weights of elements with atomic numbers 103–118)
  6. ^ Holman, S. W.; Lawrence, R. R.; Barr, L. (1 January 1895). "Melting Points of Aluminum, Silver, Gold, Copper, and Platinum". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 31: 218–233. doi:10.2307/20020628. JSTOR 20020628.

External links[edit]

  • Atoms made thinkable, an interactive visualisation of the elements allowing physical and chemical properties to be compared