Contrasting and categorization of emotions
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The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Several proposals have been made for organizing them into groups:
- 1 Lists of emotions
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Lists of emotions
Humans experience emotion, with evidence used that they influence action, thoughts and behavior. Emotions are categorized into various affects, which correspond to the current situation. An affect is a term used to describe the range of feeling experienced.
- William James in 1890 proposed four basic emotions: fear, grief, love, and rage, based on bodily involvement.
- Paul Ekman identified six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. Wallace V. Friesen and Phoebe C. Ellsworth worked with him on the same basic structure.
- Richard and Bernice Lazarus in 1996 expanded the list to fifteen emotions: aesthetic experience, anger, anxiety, compassion, depression, envy, fright, gratitude, guilt, happiness, hope, jealousy, love, pride, relief, sadness, and shame, in the book Passion and Reason.
- Psychologists identify thirty-four categories of emotion: admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness, confusion, contempt, craving, disappointment, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, pride, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire, surprise, sympathy and triumph. This was based on 2185 short videos intended to elicit a certain emotion. These were then modelled onto a "map" of emotions.
Contrasting basic emotions
A 2009 review of theories of emotion identifies and contrasts fundamental emotions according to three key criteria for mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are a response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behavior.
The combination of these attributes distinguishes emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of emotion||Positive emotions||Negative emotions|
|Related to object properties||Interest, curiosity, enthusiasm||Indifference, habituation, boredom|
|Attraction, desire, admiration||Aversion, disgust, revulsion|
|Surprise, amusement||Alarm, panic|
|Future appraisal||Hope, excitement||Fear, anxiety, dread|
|Event-related||Gratitude, thankfulness||Anger, rage|
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation||Sorrow, grief|
|Self-appraisal||Humility, modesty||Pride, arrogance|
|Social||Charity||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy|
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
- Negative and forceful
- Negative and not in control
- Negative thoughts
- Negative and passive
- Positive and lively
- Positive thoughts
- Quiet positive
Parrott's emotions by groups
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
In 1980, Robert Plutchik constructed diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions: joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger and anticipation. The wheel was inspired by Plutchik's Ten Postulates Plutchik also theorized twenty-four "Primary", "Secondary", and "Tertiary" dyads (feelings composed of two emotions). The wheel emotions can be paired in four groups:
- Primary dyad = one petal apart = Love = Joy + Trust
- Secondary dyad = two petals apart = Envy = Sadness + Anger
- Tertiary dyad = three petals apart = Shame = Fear + Disgust
- Opposite emotions = four petals apart = Anticipation ≠ Surprise
Emotions can be mild or intense; for example, distraction is a mild form of surprise, and rage is an intense form of anger. The kinds of relation between each pair of emotions are:
|Mild emotion||Mild opposite||Basic emotion||Basic opposite||Intense emotion||Intense opposite|
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Optimism||Anticipation + Joy||Disapproval||Surprise + Sadness|
|Hope||Anticipation + Trust||Unbelief||Surprise + Disgust|
|Anxiety||Anticipation + Fear||Outrage||Surprise + Anger|
|Love||Joy + Trust||Remorse||Sadness + Disgust|
|Guilt||Joy + Fear||Envy||Sadness + Anger|
|Delight||Joy + Surprise||Pessimism||Sadness + Anticipation|
|Submission||Trust + Fear||Contempt||Disgust + Anger|
|Curiosity||Trust + Surprise||Cynicism||Disgust + Anticipation|
|Sentimentality||Trust + Sadness||Morbidness||Disgust + Joy|
|Awe||Fear + Surprise||Aggressiveness||Anger + Anticipation|
|Despair||Fear + Sadness||Pride||Anger + Joy|
|Shame||Fear + Disgust||Dominance||Anger + Trust|
Plutchik's wheel in Venn format
Jessica Hagy wrote on her blog that Plutchik's wheel of emotions gave a demonstration on emotions, but needed more levels of intensity in the emotion combinations. She observed that the wheel was a Venn diagram format, and expanded the primary dyads.
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Bemusement||Interest + Serenity||Dismay||Distraction + Pensiveness|
|Zeal||Vigilance + Ecstasy||Horror||Amazement + Grief|
|Acknowledgement||Serenity + Acceptance||Listlessness||Pensiveness + Boredom|
|Devotion||Ecstasy + Admiration||Shame||Grief + Loathing|
|Acquiescence||Acceptance + Apprehension||Impatience||Boredom + Annoyance|
|Subservience||Admiration + Terror||Hatred||Loathing + Rage|
|Wariness||Apprehension + Distraction||Disfavor||Annoyance + Interest|
|Petrification||Terror + Amazement||Domination||Rage + Vigilance|
The Hourglass of Emotions
The 2012 book The Hourglass of Emotions was based on Robert Plutchik's model, but categorised the emotions into four sentic dimensions. It contrasted anger, anticipation, joy, and trust as positive emotions, and fear, surprise, sadness and disgust as negative.
|Dimensions||High Sensitivity||Low Sensitivity||High Pleasantness||Low Pleasantness|
The Book of Human Emotions
Tiffany Watt Smith listed 154 different worldwide emotions and feelings.
Mapping facial expressions
- Affect (psychology)
- Basic emotions
- Emotion and memory
- Emotion classification
- Emotional mood
- List of virtues
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- Parrott, W. (2001). Emotions in Social Psychology. Key Readings in Social Psychology. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0863776830.
- Plutchik, Robert (16 September 1991). "The Emotions". University Press of America. p. 110. Retrieved 16 September 2017 – via Google Books.
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- Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist. Archived from the original on July 16, 2001. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- "Robert Plutchik's Psychoevolutionary Theory of Basic Emotions" (PDF). Adliterate.com. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
- Jonathan Turner (1 June 2000). On the Origins of Human Emotions: A Sociological Inquiry Into the Evolution of Human Affect. Stanford University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8047-6436-0.
- Atifa Athar; M. Saleem Khan; Khalil Ahmed; Aiesha Ahmed; Nida Anwar (June 2011). "A Fuzzy Inference System for Synergy Estimation of Simultaneous Emotion Dynamics in Agents". International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2 (6).
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- "LNCS 7403 – The Hourglass of Emotions" (PDF). Sentic.net. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
- Tiffany Watt Smith. "The Book of Human Emotions: An Encyclopedia of Feeling from Anger to Wanderlust" (PDF). Anarchiveforemotions.com. Retrieved 2017-05-28.
- "Invisibilia: A Man Finds An Explosive Emotion Locked In A Word". Retrieved 2017-12-29.
- "Happily disgusted? Scientists map facial expressions for 21 emotions | Science". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-07-16.
- Jacque Wilson (2014-04-04). "Happily disgusted? 15 new emotions ID'd". KSL.com. Retrieved 2017-07-16.
- "6 basic emotions".