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contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions [ edit ]
The following table,
based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include: 1) mental experiences that have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain; 2) mental experiences that are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined; 3) mental experiences that motivate particular kinds of behaviour. The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods. [1 ]
Kind of Emotion
Related to Object Properties
Attraction, desire, admiration
Aversion, disgust, revulsion
Indifference, familiarity, habituation
Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation
Frustration, disappointment, dreadfulness
Pride in achievement, self-confidence, sociability
Embarrassment, shame, guilt, remorse
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language) [ edit ]
emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions. [2 ]
Parrott's emotions by groups [ edit ]
tree-structured list of emotions was described in Shaver et al. (1987), and also featured in Parrott (2001). [3 ] [4 ] [5 ]
Plutchik's wheel of emotions [ edit ]
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions
Robert Plutchik created a wheel of emotions in 1980 which consisted of eight basic emotions and eight advanced emotions each composed of two basic ones. [6 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality" 64. The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.
^ "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net . Retrieved . June 30, 2006
^ Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061.
^ "Basic Emotions". Changingminds.org . Retrieved . 2015-02-26
^ Parrott, W. (2001), "Emotions in Social Psychology", Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
^ Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist . Retrieved . 14 April 2011
External links [ edit ]