List of emperors of the Tang dynasty

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Emperor of the Tang dynasty
唐朝皇帝
Imperial
TangGaozu.jpg
First to reign
Emperor Gaozu

618–626
Details
StyleHis Imperial Majesty (陛下)
Zhaijia (宅家)
Shengren (聖人)
Khan of Heaven (天可汗)
(Taizong → Daizong)
First monarchEmperor Gaozu
Last monarchEmperor Ai
Formation618 (first establishment)
705 (restoration)
Abolition690 (usurpation by Wu Zhou dynasty)
907 (final collapse)
ResidenceTaiji Palace, Chang'an
Daming Palace, Chang'an
AppointerHereditary

This is a list of emperors of the Tang dynasty (618–690, 705–907) of China.

List of emperors[edit]

The Chinese naming conventions is "Tang" (唐)+ temple name (e.g. Tang Gaozu), except for Emperors Shang and Ai, who are better known by their posthumous name.

Image Temple name Personal name[1] Reigned from[2] Reigned until[1][a] Posthumous name[b] Era name and years[4]
Tang gao zu.jpg Gaozu
高祖
Li Yuan
李渊
18 June 618 4 September 626
 abdicated[5]
Emperor Shenyao
神堯皇帝
  • Wude (武德) 618–626
TangTaizongP.jpg Taizong
太宗
Li Shimin
李世民
4 September 626 10 July 649[6] Emperor Wenwu
文武皇帝
  • Zhenguan (貞觀) 627–649
Gaozong of Tang.jpg Gaozong[c]
高宗
Li Zhi
李治
15 July 649 27 December 683[7] Emperor Tianhuang
天皇大帝
  • Yonghui (永徽) 650–655
  • Xianqing (顯慶) 656–661
  • Longshuo (龍朔) 661–663
  • Linde (麟德) 664–665
  • Qianfeng (乾封) 666–668
  • Zongzhang (總章) 668–670
  • Xianheng (咸亨) 670–674
  • Shangyuan (上元) 674–676
  • Yifeng (儀鳳) 676–679
  • Tiaolu (調露) 679–680
  • Yonglong (永隆) 680–681
  • Kaiyao (開耀) 681–682
  • Yongchun (永淳) 682–683
  • Hongdao (弘道) 683
Tang Zhongzong2.png Zhongzong[d]
中宗
Li Xian
李显
3 January 684 26 February 684[7]
 deposed[5]
  • Sisheng (嗣聖) 23 January–27 February 684
Tang Ruizong.png Ruizong[e]
睿宗
Li Dan
李旦
27 February 684 16 October 690[8]
 deposed[5]
  • Wenming (文明) 684
  • Guangzhai (光宅) 684
  • Chuigong (垂拱) 685–688
  • Yongchang (永昌) 689
  • Zaichu (載初) 690
Interregnum (Wu Zhou dynasty)
Tang Zhongzong2.png Zhongzong
(second reign)
Li Xian
李显
23 February 705 3 July 710 Emperor Xiaohe
孝和皇帝
  • Shenlong (神龍) 705–707
  • Jinglong (景龍) 707–710
none[f] Li Chongmao
李重茂
5 July 710 25 July 710[g] Emperor Shang
殤皇帝
  • Tanglong (唐隆) 5 July–
    19 August 710
Tang Ruizong.png Ruizong
(second reign)
Li Dan
李旦
25 July 710 8 September 712
 abdicated[5]
Emperor Xuanzhen
玄真皇帝
  • Jingyun (景雲) 710–711
  • Taiji (太極) 712
  • Yanhe (延和) 712
Tang XianZong.jpg Xuánzong
玄宗
Li Longji
李隆基
8 September 712 12 August 756
 abdicated[5]
Emperor Zhidao
至道皇帝
  • Xiantian (先天) 712–713
  • Kaiyuan (開元) 713–741
  • Tianbao (天寶) 742–756
TangSuzong.jpg Suzong
肅宗
Li Heng
李亨
12 August 756 16 May 762 Emperor Wenming
文明皇帝
  • Zhide (至德) 756–758
  • Qianyuan (乾元) 758–760
  • Shangyuan (上元) 760–761
Tang Daizong.jpg Daizong
代宗
Li Yu
李豫
18 May 762 23 May 779 Emperor Ruiwen
睿文皇帝
  • Baoying (寶應) 762–763
  • Guangde (廣德) 763–764
  • Yongtai (永泰) 765–766
  • Dali (大曆 lì) 766–779
Tang Dezong.jpg Dezong
德宗
Li Gua
李适
12 June 779 25 February 805 Emperor Shenwu
神武皇帝
  • Jianzhong (建中) 780–783
  • Xingyuan (興元) 784
  • Zhenyuan (貞元) 785–805
Shunzong
順宗
Li Song
李誦
28 February 805 28 August 805
 killed[5]
Emperor Zhide
至德皇帝
  • Yongzhen (永貞) 805
TangXianzong.jpg Xianzong
憲宗
Li Chu
李純
5 September 805 14 February 820
 killed[5]
Emperor Zhaowen
昭文皇帝
  • Yuanhe (元和) 806–820
Muzong.jpg Muzong
穆宗
Li Heng
李恆
20 February 820 25 February 824 Emperor Ruisheng
睿聖皇帝
  • Changqing (長慶) 821–824
Jingzong
敬宗
Li Zhan
李湛
29 February 824 9 January 827
 killed[5]
Emperor Ruiwu
睿武皇帝
  • Baoli (寶曆) 824–826
TangWenzongAlt.jpg Wenzong
文宗
Li Ang
李昂
13 January 827 10 February 840 Emperor Yuansheng
元聖皇帝
  • Baoli (寶曆) 826
  • Taihe (太和) 827–835
  • Kaicheng (開成) 836–840
Tang Wuzong.jpg Wuzong
武宗
Li Yan
李炎
20 February 840 22 April 846 Emperor Zhidao
至道皇帝
  • Huichang (會昌) 841–846
Tangxuanzong.jpg Xuānzong
宣宗
Li Chen
李忱
25 April 846 7 September 859 Emperor Yuansheng
元聖皇帝
  • Dachong (大中) 847–859
TangYizong.jpg Yizong
懿宗
Li Cui
李漼
13 September 859 15 August 873 Emperor Zhaosheng
昭聖皇帝
  • Dazhong (大中) 859
  • Xiantong (咸通) 860–873
TangXizong.jpg Xizong
僖宗
Li Xuan
李儇
15 August 873 20 April 888 Emperor Huisheng
惠聖皇帝
  • Xiantong (咸通) 873–874
  • Qianfu (乾符) 874–879
  • Guangming (廣明) 880–881
  • Zhonghe (中和) 881–885
  • Guangqi (光啟) 885–888
  • Wende (文德) 888
Zhaozong.jpg Zhaozong
昭宗
Li Ye
李曄
22 April 888 22 September 904 Emperor Shengmu
聖穆皇帝
  • Longji (龍紀) 889
  • Dashun (大順) 890–891
  • Jingfu (景福) 892–893
  • Qianning (乾寧) 894–898
  • Guanghua (光化) 898–901
  • Tianfu (天復) 901–904
  • Tianyou (天佑) 904
Jingzong
景宗
Li Zhu
李柷
26 September 904 12 May 907
 deposed[5]
Emperor Ai
哀皇帝
  • Tianyou (天佑) 904–907

Timeline[edit]

Emperor Ai of TangEmperor Zhaozong of TangLi Yu, Prince of DeEmperor Zhaozong of TangEmperor Xizong of TangEmperor Yizong of TangEmperor Xuanzong of Tang (9th century)Emperor Wuzong of TangEmperor Wenzong of TangEmperor Jingzong of TangEmperor Muzong of TangEmperor Xianzong of TangEmperor Shunzong of TangEmperor Dezong of TangEmperor Daizong of TangEmperor Suzong of TangEmperor Xuanzong of TangEmperor Ruizong of TangEmperor Shang of TangEmperor Zhongzong of TangEmperor Ruizong of TangEmperor Zhongzong of TangEmperor Gaozong of TangEmperor Taizong of TangEmperor Gaozu of Tang

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Heng 1999, p. ix; Cotterell 2008, p. 283.
  2. ^ Kroll 2019, pp. xi–xiii.
  3. ^ Old Book of Tang Vol 4
  4. ^ Twitchett 1979, p. viii; Kroll 2019, pp. xi–xiii.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Twitchett 1979, p. xviii; Cotterell 2008, p. 283.
  6. ^ Kang-i Sun Chang, ed. (2010). The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature. Vol. 1. p. 293. ISBN 9780521855587.
  7. ^ a b Jinhua Chen (2007). The Many Lives of Fazang (643-712). Brill. p. 168. ISBN 9789047420002.
  8. ^ Kroll 2019, p. 3.
  9. ^ Jinhua Chen (2016). The Middle Kingdom and the Dharma Wheel. Brill. pp. 141–142. ISBN 9789004322585.
  10. ^ Xiong, Victor Cunrui (2000). Sui-Tang Changʻan. University of Michigan. p. 68. ISBN 9780892641376.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Exact dates are extracted from the Old Book of Tang and converted to Western dates using the Calendar converter of Academia Sinica.
  2. ^ These are just the shortened versions of the names. Gaozu's full posthumous name, for example, was actually Shényáo Dàshèng Dàguāng Xiào Huángdì (神堯大聖大光孝皇帝, "Emperor Yao the Divine, the Great Sage, the Most Radiantly Filial").[3]
  3. ^ In the late years of his reign he was influenced by Empress Wu
  4. ^ Under the rule of his mother Wu Zetian
  5. ^ Under the rule of his mother Wu Zetian
  6. ^ Better known for his porthumous name, Emperor Shang, or as Emperor Shao ("young").
  7. ^ Some sources give the period of his reign as 5–18 July,[9] while others give 8–25 July.[10]

Sources[edit]