List of Yuan emperors

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Emperor of the Great Yuan
大元皇帝
Imperial
Emperor Huizong of Yuan.jpg
Last to reign
Toghon Temür

1333–1368
Details
StyleHis Imperial Majesty (陛下)
Great Khan (大汗)
First monarchKublai Khan (Yuan dynasty)
Toghon Temür (Northern Yuan)
Last monarchToghon Temür (Yuan dynasty)
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür (Northern Yuan)
Formation1271 (Yuan dynasty)
1368 (Northern Yuan)
Abolition1368 (Yuan dynasty)
1388 (Northern Yuan)
ResidenceImperial Palace, Shangdu
Imperial Palace, Dadu
AppointerHereditary

The following is a list of emperors of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). It also contains early rulers (khagans-emperors and regents) of the Mongol Empire posthumously honored by Kublai Khan as Yuan emperors.

List of emperors[edit]

Portrait Name by which most commonly known Temple name Posthumous name Khan name Given name Lifespan Period of reign Era name and their according range of years
Convention: use first name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names for khans before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.
Notes:
1) Decades before Kublai Khan announced the dynastic name "Great Yuan" in 1271, Khagans (Great Khans) of the "Great Mongol State" (Yeke Mongγol Ulus) already started to use the Chinese title of Emperor (Chinese: 皇帝; pinyin: Huángdì) practically in the Chinese language since the enthronement of Genghis Emperor (成吉思皇帝; 'Chéngjísī Huángdì') in Spring 1206[1].
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur.
4) The clan name (surname) of all emperors is Borjigin (孛兒只斤 Bó'érjìjǐn). According to Mongolian tradition, clan names are not used together with given names, and Mongolian people are usually referred by their given names only. Therefore, only given names are shown in the following list.
YuanEmperorAlbumGenghisPortrait.jpg Genghis Khan Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu (法天啟運聖武皇帝) Genghis Khan (成吉思汗) Temüjin (鐵木真 Tiěmùzhēn) 1155/1162-1227 1206–1227 did not exist
Tolui Khan.jpg Tolui Ruizong (睿宗 Ruìzōng) Emperor Rensheng Jingxiang (仁聖景襄皇帝) None Tolui (拖雷 Tuōléi) 1191-1232 1227–1229 None
YuanEmperorAlbumOgedeiPortrait.jpg Ögedei Khan Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Emperor Yingwen (英文皇帝) None Ögedei (窩闊台 Wōkuòtái) 1186-1241 1229–1241 None
Guyuk.jpg Güyük Khan Dingzong (定宗 Dìngzōng) Emperor Jianping (簡平皇帝) None Güyük (貴由 Guìyóu) 1206-1248 1246–1248 None
Mongke.jpg Möngke Khan Xianzong (憲宗 Xiànzōng) Emperor Huansu (桓肅皇帝) None Möngke (蒙哥 Ménggē) 1209-1259 1251–1259 None
YuanEmperorAlbumKhubilaiPortrait.jpg Kublai Khan Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Emperor Shengde Shengong Wenwu (聖德神功文武皇帝) Setsen Khan (薛禪汗) Kublai (忽必烈 Hūbìliè) 1215-1294 1260–1294 Zhongtong (中統 Zhōngtǒng) 1260–1264

Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1264–1294

YuanEmperorAlbumTemurOljeituPortrait.jpg Temür Khan Chengzong (成宗 Chéngzōng) Emperor Qinming Guangxiao (欽明廣孝皇帝) Öljeytü Khan (完澤篤汗) Temür (鐵木耳 iěmù'ěr) 1265-1307 1294–1307 Yuanzhen (元貞 Yuánzhēn) 1295–1297

Dade (大德 Dàdé) 1297–1307

YuanEmperorAlbumQaishanKulugPortrait.jpg Külüg Khan Wuzong (武宗 Wǔzōng) Emperor Renhui Xuanxiao (仁惠宣孝皇帝) Külüg Khan (曲律汗) Qayshan (海山 Hǎishān) 1281-1311 1307–1311 Zhida (至大 Zhìdà) 1308–1311
YuanEmperorAlbumAyurbarvadaBuyantuPortrait.jpg Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Renzong (仁宗 Rénzōng) Emperor Shengwen Qinxiao (聖文欽孝皇帝) Buyantu Khan (普顏篤汗) Ayurparibhadra (愛育黎拔力八達 Àiyùlíbálìbādá) 1285-1320 1311–1320 Huangqing (皇慶 Huángqìng) 1312–1313

Yanyou (延祐 Yányòu) 1314–1320

Gegeen.jpg Gegeen Khan Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng) Emperor Ruisheng Wenxiao (睿聖文孝皇帝) Gegeen Khan (格堅汗) Suddhipala (碩德八剌 Shuòdébālá) 1302-1323 1320–1323 Zhizhi (至治 Zhìzhì) 1321–1323
Yesun.jpg Yesün Temür None None None Yesün-Temür (也孫鐵木兒 Yěsūntiěmùér) 1293-1328 1323–1328 Taiding (泰定 Tàidìng) 1321–1328

Zhihe (致和 Zhìhé) 1328

Ragibagh.jpg Ragibagh Khan None None None Arigaba (阿剌吉八 Ālàjíbā) 1320-1328 1328 Tianshun (天順 Tiānshùn) 1328
YuanEmperorAlbumTughTemurPortrait.jpg Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Wenzong (文宗 Wénzōng) Emperor Shengming Yuanxiao (聖明元孝皇帝) Jayaatu Khan (札牙篤汗) Toq-Temür (圖鐵木兒 Tútiěmùér) 1304-1332 1328–1329 and 1329–1332 Tianli (天曆 Tiānlì) 1328–1330

Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1330–1332

YuanEmperor Kusala.jpg

Khutughtu Khan Kusala Mingzong (明宗 Míngzōng) Emperor Yixian Jingxiao (翼獻景孝皇帝) Khutughtu Khan (忽都篤汗) Qoshila (和世剌 Héshìlà) 1300-1329 1329 None
YuanEmperorAlbumIrinchinbalPortrait.jpg Rinchinbal Khan Ningzong (寧宗 Níngzōng) Emperor Chongsheng Sixiao (沖聖嗣孝皇帝) None Irinchibal (懿璘質班 Yìlínzhìbān) 1326-1332 1332 Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1332
Toghon.jpg Toghon Temür Huizong (惠宗 Huìzōng) Emperor Xuanren Puxiao (宣仁普孝皇帝)
or
Emperor Shun (順皇帝)
Ukhaghatu Khan (烏哈噶圖汗) Toghan-Temür (妥懽貼睦爾 Tuǒhuān Tiēmù'ěr) 1320-1370 1333–1368 Zhishun (至順 Zhìshùn) 1333

Yuantong (元統 Yuántǒng) 1333–1335
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhìyuán) 1335–1340
Zhizheng (至正 Zhìzhèng) 1341–1368

Timeline[edit]

Uskhal Khan Tögüs TemürBiligtü Khan AyushiridaraToghon TemürToghon TemürRinchinbal KhanJayaatu Khan Tugh TemürKhutughtu Khan KusalaJayaatu Khan Tugh TemürRagibagh KhanYesün Temür (Yuan dynasty)Gegeen KhanAyurbarwada Buyantu KhanKülüg KhanTemür KhanKublai KhanKublai KhanMöngke KhanGüyük KhanÖgedei KhanToluiGenghis Khan

Legend:

References[edit]

  1. ^ "太祖本纪 [Chronicle of Taizu]". 元史 [History of Yuan] (in Classical Chinese). 元年丙寅,大会诸王群臣,建九斿白旗,即皇帝位于斡难河之源,诸王群臣共上尊号曰成吉思皇帝["Genghis Huangdi”]。

External links[edit]

See also[edit]