List of enclaves and exclaves

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Main article: Enclave and exclave

In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory. An exclave is a piece of land which is politically attached to a larger piece but not physically conterminous with it because of surrounding foreign territory. Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves.

Enclaves which are also exclaves[edit]

National level[edit]

Name[1][2] Area (km2) Exclave of Enclaved by Coordinates Notes
Apipé Islands (4) 320~320  Argentina (Corrientes ProvinceItuzaingó Department)  Paraguay (Misiones Department – Ayolas District) 27°31′S 56°51′W / 27.517°S 56.850°W / -27.517; -56.850 Four adjacent islands (Isla Apipé Grande, Isla Apipé Chico, Isla Los Patos and Isla San Martín) with territorial water borders in the Río Paraná, 39 km east of Isla Entre Rios. Island areas are about 276, 23.8, 11.8 and 3.7 km², respectively.
Isla Entre Ríos 36~36  Argentina (Corrientes ProvinceBerón de Astrada Department)  Paraguay (Ñeembucú Department – Cerrito District) 27°25′S 57°30′W / 27.417°S 57.500°W / -27.417; -57.500 Uninhabited island with territorial water border in the Río Paraná, 39 km west of Isla Apipé.
Isla Martín García 2~2  Argentina (Buenos Aires ProvinceLa Plata Partido)  Uruguay 34°10′47″S 58°15′0″W / 34.17972°S 58.25000°W / -34.17972; -58.25000 Territorial water border on the Uruguay side of Río de la Plata. Designated as a nature reserve under the jurisdiction of Argentina in 1973.
Artchvašen (Bashkend) 40~40  Armenia (Gegharkunik Province)  Azerbaijan 40°38′N 45°30′E / 40.633°N 45.500°E / 40.633; 45.500 Controlled by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1992.
Torres Strait Islands (7) 220~220 (land area)  Australia (QueenslandShire of Torres and Torres Strait Island Region)  Papua New Guinea 9°25′23″S 142°32′10″E / 9.42306°S 142.53611°E / -9.42306; 142.53611 The islands of Anchor Cay, Aubusi Island, Black Rocks, Boigu Island (89.6 km²), Bramble Cay (0.036 km²), Dauan Island (4 km²), Deliverance Island, East Cay, Kaumag Island, Kerr Islet, Moimi Island, Saibai Island (107.9 km²), Turnagain Island (12 km²) and Turu Cay, along with their territorial seas, form seven enclaves within the maritime area of Papua New Guinea under a treaty effective in 1985. The territorial sea of each island does not extend beyond three nautical miles.[3][4] The mainland of Papua New Guinea is only 6 km from Boigu.
Yukhari Askipara 37~37  Azerbaijan (Qazakh District)  Armenia (Tavush Province) 41°03′58″N 45°01′24″E / 41.06611°N 45.02333°E / 41.06611; 45.02333 A destroyed village controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west of the town of Qazax.
Barkhudarli 22~22  Azerbaijan (Qazakh District)  Armenia (Tavush Province) 40°59′36″N 45°13′31″E / 40.99333°N 45.22528°E / 40.99333; 45.22528 Controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west-southwest of the town of Qazax.
Karki 10~10  Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Sadarak District)  Armenia (Ararat Province) 39°47.3′N 44°57′E / 39.7883°N 44.950°E / 39.7883; 44.950 Occupied by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; north of Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan.
"Yaradullu" (north and south) 0.180.12 and 0.06  Azerbaijan (Agstafa District)  Armenia (Tavush Province) 41°00′51.8″N 45°26′12.2″E / 41.014389°N 45.436722°E / 41.014389; 45.436722 Two farmland enclaves just across the border from the village of Yaradullu[5][6] (55 m at the closest point). They are 750 m and 1500 m southwest of the municipality of Tatli on the west bank of the Akhum River; approximately 300x400 m and 300x200 m. The surrounding Armenian territory has been occupied by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992, so that these two small pockets of land are de facto no longer exclaves.
Jungholz 7  Austria (Tyrol state – Reutte District)  Germany (Bavaria state – Swabia administrative region) 47°34.3′N 10°27.3′E / 47.5717°N 10.4550°E / 47.5717; 10.4550 Connected at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen (1636 m); accessible only through Germany.
Dahagram-Angarpota 25.95  Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionLalmonirhat district)  India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar district) 26°18′N 88°57′E / 26.300°N 88.950°E / 26.300; 88.950 Dahagram–Angarpota is a composite enclave of two adjoining chhits. It is separated from the contiguous area of Bangladesh at its closest point by 178 metres (584 ft). The enclave has an estimated population of 20,000. After the exchange of enclaves with India under the Land Boundary Agreement on 31 July 2015, Bangladesh retained it as an exclave. The Tin Bigha Corridor, a strip of Indian territory 85 metres (279 ft) wide running from the enclave to the Bangladesh mainland at its nearest approach, was leased to Bangladesh for 999 years for access to the enclave.[1][7][8]
Baarle-Hertog (22 parcels) 2.3448  Belgium (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality)  Netherlands (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality) 51°26′13″N 4°55′43″E / 51.43694°N 4.92861°E / 51.43694; 4.92861 (H1) A group of 22 Belgian enclaves in the southern Netherlands. Enclaves H1 and H2 are connected at a single point.
Međurječje 3.9584  Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika SrpskaRudo municipality)  Serbia (Zlatibor DistrictPriboj municipality) 43°33′30″N 19°25′30″E / 43.55833°N 19.42500°E / 43.55833; 19.42500 Home land of Bosnia-Herzegovina is 1130 meters to the north. Sastavci is the name of the neighboring village in Serbia.
Nunez Rocks (disputed)  Canada (British Columbia province)  United States (state of Alaska) 54°39′40.00″N 132°5′22.19″W / 54.6611111°N 132.0894972°W / 54.6611111; -132.0894972 The status of the waters around Nunez Rocks is disputed. Nunez Rocks is a low-tide elevation ("bare at half-tide"[9]) that is south of a line known as the "A-B" Line,[10] which was defined in a 1903 arbitration decision on the Alaska/Canada boundary.[11] The court specified the initial boundary point (Point "A") at the northern end of Dixon Entrance[12] and also designated Point "B" 72 NM to the east.[13] Canada relies on the "A-B" Line as rendering nearly all of Dixon Entrance as Canadian internal waters. The U.S. does not recognize the "A-B" Line as an official boundary, instead regarding it as allocating sovereignty over the land masses within the Dixon Entrance,[10] with Canada's land south of the line. The U.S. regards the waters as subject to international marine law, and in 1977 it defined an equidistant territorial sea throughout Dixon Entrance.[10] This territory, which surrounds Nunez Rocks, extends south of the "A-B" line for the most part.[10] Thus, from the U.S. point-of-view, Nunez Rocks is a Canadian exclave, while from Canada's perspective, it is an internal island.
Quitasueño 3577, including water area[14]  Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia Department)  Nicaragua 14°24′1″N 81°7′47″W / 14.40028°N 81.12972°W / 14.40028; -81.12972[15] (QS32)[14] On 19 November 2012, the International Court of Justice upheld Colombia's claim to Quitasueño, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, thus surrounding the island bank.[16] It deemed one of the bank's 54 features to be an island at high tide (elevation 70 cm, area 1 m²)[17] and created enclaves as an equitable solution.[18] The area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~290 km².[19]
Serrana 2500~2500, including water area  Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia Department)  Nicaragua 14°17′13″N 80°21′48″W / 14.28694°N 80.36333°W / 14.28694; -80.36333 (Southwest Cay) On 19 November 2012, ICJ upheld Colombia's claim to Serrana, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, surrounding the island bank.[16] The land area is ~0.11 km², and the area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~322 km².[19] Colombia decried the loss of maritime areas and creation of "'enclaves' around Quitasueño and Serrana that could restrict" access.[16]
Brezovica Žumberačka 0.0183  Croatia (Karlovac CountyOzalj town)  Slovenia (Metlika municipality) 45°41′22″N 15°18′12″E / 45.68944°N 15.30333°E / 45.68944; 15.30333 Contains four dwellings surrounded by agricultural land near the Slovenian village of Brezovica pri Metliki. About 437 m long and 60 m wide. Confirmed by both Croatian and Slovenian cadaster maps, although boundary lines slightly differ. About 100 meters away from the main border at the closest point.[5][6][20]
Ormidhia 1.694  Cyprus (Larnaca District)  Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 34°59′33″N 33°46′49″E / 34.99250°N 33.78028°E / 34.99250; 33.78028 One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory in southeastern Cyprus.
Xylotymbou 0.947  Cyprus (Larnaca District)  Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 35°01′03″N 33°44′37″E / 35.01750°N 33.74361°E / 35.01750; 33.74361 One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory.
"Electricity Authority of Cyprus" Refugee Settlement 0.28~0.28  Cyprus (Larnaca District)  Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 34°59′04″N 33°44′37″E / 34.98444°N 33.74361°E / 34.98444; 33.74361 North of Dhekelia Power Station from which it is separated by a British road; the closest point between the two exclaves is 21 meters.
Dhekelia Power Station 0.161~0.161  Cyprus (Larnaca District)  Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area 34°58′49″N 33°44′45″E / 34.98028°N 33.74583°E / 34.98028; 33.74583 Partially borders the coast but enclosed by UK waters and UK land elsewhere; the power station is owned by the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC); no permanent population.
Münsterbildchen 1.826  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen municipality)  Belgium (Liège province – Raeren municipality) 50°39′36″N 6°11′24″E / 50.66000°N 6.19000°E / 50.66000; 6.19000 West of Vennbahn trackbed; northernmost German enclave, mainly home to industrial and warehouse businesses.
Roetgener Wald 9.98  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen and Simmerath municipalities)  Belgium (Liège province) 50°38′12″N 6°14′32″E / 50.63667°N 6.24222°E / 50.63667; 6.24222 Western part of Lammersdorf, southern part of Roetgen, and intervening forest (Forst Rötgen); west and south of Vennbahn trackbed. From 1922 to 1958, the center portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory. Until 1949, the east-west road that connected the two outer (German) portions was also German territory; therefore, the German land formed one oddly-shaped enclave (that also included the road to Konzen). In 1949, it was split into two enclaves when Germany ceded the roads to Belgium;[21] in 1958, Belgium returned the east-west road and also ceded the center section of the current enclave to Germany.
Rückschlag 0.016  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)  Belgium (Liège province – Eupen municipality) 50°35′52″N 6°14′53″E / 50.59778°N 6.24806°E / 50.59778; 6.24806 Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; smallest German exclave, consisting of one inhabited house with a garden.
Mützenich 12.117  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)  Belgium (Liège province) 50°33′54″N 6°13′5″E / 50.56500°N 6.21806°E / 50.56500; 6.21806 West of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed.
Ruitzhof 0.937  Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)  Belgium (Liège province) 50°31′29″N 6°11′39″E / 50.52472°N 6.19417°E / 50.52472; 6.19417 Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; southernmost Vennbahn enclave after 1949 (when Belgium annexed the Hemmeres enclave).
Büsingen am Hochrhein 7.62  Germany (Baden-Württemberg state – Konstanz district)   Switzerland 47°42′N 8°42′E / 47.700°N 8.700°E / 47.700; 8.700 At its closest, less than 700 meters from Germany proper (to the east).
Campione d'Italia 1.6  Italy (Lombardy region – Province of Como)   Switzerland (Canton TicinoLugano District) 45°58′10″N 8°58′25″E / 45.96944°N 8.97361°E / 45.96944; 8.97361 Part of Swiss customs and uses the Swiss franc, but its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure. Separated by less than 1 km, at the shortest distance, from the rest of Italy by Lake Lugano and mountains, but the terrain requires a 14 km road journey to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi.
Barak (de facto) 2.07[22]  Kyrgyzstan (Kara-Suu DistrictOsh Province)  Uzbekistan (Andijan Province) 40°40′N 72°46′E / 40.667°N 72.767°E / 40.667; 72.767 Kyrgyzstan's 1991 pre-independence border is the de jure international border, but much of it is hotly disputed with its neighbors. In August 1999, the area around Barak was occupied by Uzbekistan, cutting it off from Kyrgyz territory. Uzbek forces dug up and blockaded the road to Ak-Tash[23] while also allegedly seizing large areas of Kyrgyz land that had been loaned in the Soviet era but never returned.[24] They entrenched themselves within much of Kyrgyz border territory and refused to leave.[25] Barak became a de facto enclave only 1.5 km from the shifted main border.[26] Four Uzbek enclaves and Barak are major sticking points in delimitation talks,[27] and disputes have centered on the areas of Barak, Sokh, Gava and Gavasay (stream).[28] (Map)
Likoma Island 130.0 (incl a territorial water area)  Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District)  Mozambique (Niassa ProvinceLago District) 12°04′S 34°44′E / 12.067°S 34.733°E / -12.067; 34.733 Lacustrine enclave, including smaller islets, with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); only ~5 kilometers from the Mozambique shore; combined land area of Likoma Is. and the smaller Chizumulu Is. is 18 km².
Chizumulu Island (incl Lundu Is., Papia Is., Ngkyvo Is.) 101.4 (incl 2-NM territorial water area)  Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District)  Mozambique (Niassa ProvinceLago District) 12°01′0″S 34°37′14″E / 12.01667°S 34.62056°E / -12.01667; 34.62056 Lacustrine enclave with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); Malawian mainland is 46 km away.
Baarle-Nassau (8 parcels) 0.150684  Netherlands (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality)  Belgium (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality) 51°24′43″N 4°52′16″E / 51.41194°N 4.87111°E / 51.41194; 4.87111 (N8) Seven of the eight Dutch enclaves are counter-enclaves inside two Belgian enclaves (H1 and H8); one is in the main body of Belgium (N8).
Madha 75~75  Oman (Musandam Governorate)  United Arab Emirates 25°17′N 56°17′E / 25.283°N 56.283°E / 25.283; 56.283 Halfway between the Omani fragment on the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman.
San'kovo-Medvezh'e 4.54  Russia (Bryansk OblastZlynkovsky District)  Belarus (Gomel RegionDobrush Raion) 52°28′48″N 31°33′51″E / 52.48000°N 31.56417°E / 52.48000; 31.56417 Contains two small villages which have been depopulated since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine.
Llívia 12.84  Spain (Catalonia autonomous community – Province of Girona/​Cerdanya comarca)  France (Languedoc-Roussillon region – Pyrénées-Orientales department) 42°28′N 1°59′E / 42.467°N 1.983°E / 42.467; 1.983 To the east of Andorra, separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 2 km wide containing the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.
Vorukh 96.7~96.7  Tajikistan (Sughd ProvinceIsfara District)  Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceBatken District) 39°51′04″N 70°38′00″E / 39.85111°N 70.63333°E / 39.85111; 70.63333 South of the mountain Ak-Tash; population is 95% Tajik and the rest Kyrgyz.
"Kayragach" 0.88~0.88  Tajikistan (Sughd ProvinceIsfara District)  Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceLeilek District) 40°04′05″N 69°32′41″E / 40.06806°N 69.54472°E / 40.06806; 69.54472 Near the railway station of Stantsiya Kayragach, next to the Kyrgyz-Tajik border; also referred to as "Western Qal'acha" due to proximity to the Tajik town of Qal'acha; apparently there is no named settlement.
Sarvan (also Sarvaksoi, Sarvaki-bolo) 8.4  Tajikistan (Sughd ProvinceAsht District)  Uzbekistan (Namangan Province – Pap district) 40°58′00″N 70°36′56″E / 40.96667°N 70.61556°E / 40.96667; 70.61556 Long, narrow territory located in the Fergana and Isfara valleys region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet.
Nahwa 5.2~5.2  United Arab Emirates (Sharjah emirate)  Oman (Musandam Governorate) 25°16′N 56°16′E / 25.267°N 56.267°E / 25.267; 56.267 A counter-enclave surrounded by Madha, reported to consist of around forty houses.[29]
Filomena Islands (5 islands) 23~23  Uruguay (Río Negro Department)  Argentina (Entre Ríos ProvinceGualeguaychú and Uruguay departments) 32°59′S 58°6′W / 32.983°S 58.100°W / -32.983; -58.100 Five adjacent islands (Isla Filomena Grande, Isla Filomena Chica, Isla Palma Chica, Isla Bassi, Isla Tres Cruces) with territorial water borders in the Uruguay River. Uninhabited islands that form part of the Esteros de Farrapos National Park.
Sokh 234~234  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district)  Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province) 40°02′39″N 71°05′39″E / 40.04417°N 71.09417°E / 40.04417; 71.09417 Large enclave with 99% Tajik population, the rest Kyrgyz and almost no ethnic Uzbeks.
Shakhimardan 38.2~38.2  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district)  Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceKadamjay District) 39°58′59″N 71°48′18″E / 39.98306°N 71.80500°E / 39.98306; 71.80500 Located in a narrow valley in the Alay Mountains where the rivers Ok-su and Kok-su meet to form the Shakhimardan-sai.[5][6][30]
Chon-Qora or Qalacha (the 2 Uzbek villages in the enclave) 3~3  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district)  Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province) 40°14′37″N 71°02′14″E / 40.24361°N 71.03722°E / 40.24361; 71.03722 Tiny enclave lying on the Sokh River, immediately north of Sokh; measures about 3 km long by 1 km wide, with the Uzbek villages of Chon-Qora (or Chongara 40°15′03″N 71°02′15″E / 40.25083°N 71.03750°E / 40.25083; 71.03750) and Qalacha (40°14′10″N 71°02′12″E / 40.23611°N 71.03667°E / 40.23611; 71.03667) at either end; the Kyrgyz village of Chong-Kara (or Chon-Kara 40°15′37″N 71°00′41″E / 40.26028°N 71.01139°E / 40.26028; 71.01139) lies 2 km northwest.[5][6][30] [Note: The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet contains three characters not present in the Uzbek alphabet. One of these characters is romanized from Kyrgyz as the digraph "ng," which is not present in romanized Uzbek words.][31]
Jani-Ayil (also Jangy-ayyl or Khalmion) 0.8~0.8  Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district)  Kyrgyzstan (Batken ProvinceKadamjay District) 40°12′01″N 71°39′43″E / 40.20028°N 71.66194°E / 40.20028; 71.66194 Tiny enclave north-northwest of the Shakhimardan enclave; within 1 km of the Uzbek main border; the Kyrgyz towns of Jani-Ayil (40°10′56″N 71°40′49″E / 40.18222°N 71.68028°E / 40.18222; 71.68028) and Kalmion (40°12′44″N 71°37′58″E / 40.21222°N 71.63278°E / 40.21222; 71.63278) lie outside opposite edges of this enclave.[5][6][30]
Peanut Hole,
High Seas[32]
30000~30,000  International waters  Russia 55°30′N 149°30′E / 55.500°N 149.500°E / 55.500; 149.500 Surrounded by Russia's EEZ in the Sea of Okhotsk; lies between the territorial zones of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island. (Note: EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.)
High Seas 170000~170,000  International waters  Japan 26°19′N 135°52′E / 26.317°N 135.867°E / 26.317; 135.867 Surrounded by Japan's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Honshu, Shikoku, the Bonin Islands, Okino-tori-shima and Okinawa Island
High Seas 1200~1200  International waters  New Zealand 44°19′S 178°12′E / 44.317°S 178.200°E / -44.317; 178.200 Surrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of the Chatham Islands, North Island and the Bounty Islands
High Seas 20000~20,000  International waters  New Zealand 49°32′S 173°6′E / 49.533°S 173.100°E / -49.533; 173.100 Surrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Campbell Island, South Island and the Antipodes Islands

First-order subnational level[edit]

Name Area (km2) Parent Country Exclave of Enclaved by Coordinates Notes
Qobu  Azerbaijan Absheron Rayon Baku 40°24′N 49°42′E / 40.400°N 49.700°E / 40.400; 49.700 Map showing Absheron rayon and Qobu; another showing Çeyildağ also
Çeyildağ[33]  Azerbaijan Baku Absheron Rayon 40°16′57″N 49°16′45″E / 40.28250°N 49.27917°E / 40.28250; 49.27917 Çeyildağ at GEOnet Names Server
• (near Maçkalaşen) and • Yuxarı Veysəlli[34][35][36]  Azerbaijan Füzuli Rayon Xocavənd Rayon 39°41′32.03″N 47°2′11.83″E / 39.6922306°N 47.0366194°E / 39.6922306; 47.0366194, 39°44′24.6″N 47°7′22.6″E / 39.740167°N 47.122944°E / 39.740167; 47.122944 Xocavənd Rayon is a de facto part of the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which is unrecognized by any member states of the United Nations. Füzuli Rayon is partially occupied and controlled by its forces. (Yuxarı Veysəlli at GEOnet Names Server)
• (includes Aşağı Quşçular, Yuxarı Quşçular, Malıbəyli)[36][37]  Azerbaijan Şuşa Rayon Xocalı Rayon 39°49′52.7″N 46°48′7.2″E / 39.831306°N 46.802000°E / 39.831306; 46.802000 Located near Xankəndi (Stepanakert), capital of the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which includes Şuşa and Xocalı Rayons. (Aşağı Quşçular at GEOnet Names Server, Yuxarı Quşçular at GEOnet Names Server, Malıbəyli at GEOnet Names Server)
• (northeast of Deşdahat)[36][38]  Azerbaijan Xocavənd Rayon Qubadlı Rayon 39°31′40″N 46°43′54″E / 39.52778°N 46.73167°E / 39.52778; 46.73167 Qubadlı Rayon is occupied and controlled by forces of the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which includes Xocavənd Rayon.
• (main part of the city)
• Minsk National Airport
• Sokol
409.5  Belarus Minsk Minsk Region (Minsk and Smalyavichy Raions) 53°54′N 27°34′E / 53.900°N 27.567°E / 53.900; 27.567, 53°53.5′N 28°2.8′E / 53.8917°N 28.0467°E / 53.8917; 28.0467, 53°52.6′N 27°53.9′E / 53.8767°N 27.8983°E / 53.8767; 27.8983
• (1 parcel)  Belarus Minsk Region (Minsk Raion) Minsk (Maskowski District) 53°50′24″N 27°28′17″E / 53.84000°N 27.47139°E / 53.84000; 27.47139
• (southeast of Jogir village), • (south of Arjo village) and • (northwest of Uke)  Ethiopia Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Kamashi ZoneBelo Jegonfoy) Oromia Region (Misraq Welega Zone) 8°56′N 36°7′E / 8.933°N 36.117°E / 8.933; 36.117, 8°57′N 36°17′E / 8.950°N 36.283°E / 8.950; 36.283, 9°26′N 36°25′E / 9.433°N 36.417°E / 9.433; 36.417 The first two of the three enclaves are close in distance and lie near or on the Highway 5 route between Jogir and Arjo.
• (includes Gardères, Luquet) and • (includes Séron, Escaunets, Villenave-près-Béarn) 42.02  France Midi-Pyrénées (Hautes-PyrénéesArrondissement of TarbesCanton d'Ossun and Canton de Vic-en-Bigorre) Aquitaine (Pyrénées-AtlantiquesArrondissement of Pau) 43°16′N 0°7′W / 43.267°N 0.117°W / 43.267; -0.117, 43°20′N 0°5′W / 43.333°N 0.083°W / 43.333; -0.083 Séron is less than 300 meters from the neighboring enclave to its south that includes Gardères and Luquet; they, along with Séron, are part of Canton d'Ossun. Escaunets and Villenave-près-Béarn are in the same enclave with Séron, but unlike Séron, they are part of Canton de Vic-en-Bigorre.
Canton of Valréas 124.91  France Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (VaucluseArrondissement of Avignon) Rhône-Alpes (DrômeArrondissement of Nyons) 44°21′N 4°58′E / 44.350°N 4.967°E / 44.350; 4.967 Known as the Enclave des Papes, it was part of the possessions of the Pope in France near Avignon;[39] it was attached to Vaucluse when annexed after the départements were created (see Comtat Venaissin).
• Hansestadt Bremen (south) and • Hansestadt Bremen (north) 408  Germany Freie Hansestadt Bremen Lower Saxony 53°7′N 8°45′E / 53.117°N 8.750°E / 53.117; 8.750 53°34.5′N 8°34′E / 53.5750°N 8.567°E / 53.5750; 8.567 Bremerhaven and Überseehafengebiet comprise Bremen's northern part, which is 60 km downstream of Bremen's larger southern part on the River Weser. Both parts of Hansestadt Bremen are enclaves within Lower Saxony, as well as exclaves of each other.
Fehrmoor (part)  Germany Freie Hansestadt Bremen (Bremerhaven Stadt – Nord StadtbezirkLeherheide Stadtteil – Fehrmoor) Lower Saxony (Cuxhaven) 53°36.4′N 8°39.1′E / 53.6067°N 8.6517°E / 53.6067; 8.6517 Fehrmoor is a part of Leherheide, which is a sub-division of Bremerhaven. Part of Fehrmoor is separated by a narrow strip of Lower Saxony from the rest of Bremerhaven, making it an exclave of the city and of the state.
Choto Pokalagi 0.549  India Assam (Dhubri district) West Bengal (Cooch Behar district) 26°18.5′N 89°44.1′E / 26.3083°N 89.7350°E / 26.3083; 89.7350 A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
Gobrarkuthi 0.149  India Assam (Dhubri district) West Bengal (Cooch Behar district) 26°14.5′N 89°42.5′E / 26.2417°N 89.7083°E / 26.2417; 89.7083 A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
Ramrayerkuthi 0.084  India Assam (Dhubri district) West Bengal (Cooch Behar district) 26°9.7′N 89°42.4′E / 26.1617°N 89.7067°E / 26.1617; 89.7067 A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
Dadra  India Dadra and Nagar Haveli Gujarat (Valsad district) 20°19′N 72°58′E / 20.317°N 72.967°E / 20.317; 72.967 Dadra was part of the former Portuguese India.
Maghval [40][41]  India Gujarat (Valsad district) Dadra and Nagar Haveli 20°13′N 73°2′E / 20.217°N 73.033°E / 20.217; 73.033 Formerly "Bombay Enclave," Maghval was a British counter-enclave within the Portuguese enclave within British India until independence.
Yanam district 20  India Puducherry Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari district) 16°43′N 82°16′E / 16.717°N 82.267°E / 16.717; 82.267 The four districts of Puducherry (Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam and Karaikal) were French colonies until 1954.
• Cherukallayi and • (includes Palloor, Chalakkara, Pandakkal)  India Puducherry (Mahe district) Kerala (Kannur district) 11°42′44″N 75°32′1″E / 11.71222°N 75.53361°E / 11.71222; 75.53361, 11°44′N 75°32.5′E / 11.733°N 75.5417°E / 11.733; 75.5417 Mahe district consists of these two true enclaves and Mahé municipality.
• Bahour PS-Karaiyambuthur OP (3 enclaves), • Dhanvantry Nagar PS-Alankuppam OP, • Thirubuvanai PS/Thirukkanur PS (part), • Kattery Kuppam PS/Thirukkanur PS (part), • Nettapakkam PS (west), • Mangalam PS (part), • Thirukkanur PS (part)[42]  India Puducherry (Pondicherry district) Tamil Nadu (Cuddalore and Viluppuram districts) 11°57′N 79°38′E / 11.950°N 79.633°E / 11.950; 79.633 (the largest part) These 9 parcels along with three coastal pene-exclaves comprise all of Pondicherry district.
Cuddalore Subdistrict  India Tamil Nadu (Cuddalore district) Puducherry (Pondicherry district) 11°53.3′N 79°47.3′E / 11.8883°N 79.7883°E / 11.8883; 79.7883 This enclave is surrounded by one of the three coastal pene-exclaves in Pondicherry district.
Bara Lowkuthi 5.47  India West Bengal (Cooch Behar district) Assam (Kokrajhar district) 26°20.5′N 89°48′E / 26.3417°N 89.800°E / 26.3417; 89.800 A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949
• (includes Ortale)  Italy Tuscany (Province of ArezzoBadia Tedalda) Emilia-Romagna (Province of Rimini) 43°47.4′N 12°12.2′E / 43.7900°N 12.2033°E / 43.7900; 12.2033 One enclave
Monte Ruperto 2.7  Italy Umbria (Province of PerugiaCittà di Castello) Marche (Province of Pesaro and Urbino) 43°36.1′N 12°25.4′E / 43.6017°N 12.4233°E / 43.6017; 12.4233 This enclave consists of hills, cropland and few structures.
• Lama and • Valle Inferiore  Italy Emilia Romagna (Province of PiacenzaCorte Brugnatella) Lombardy (Province of Pavia) 44°42′12″N 9°17′42″E / 44.70344°N 9.29495°E / 44.70344; 9.29495, 44°41′37″N 9°18′07″E / 44.69374°N 9.30190°E / 44.69374; 9.30190 Two tiny rural enclaves very close to each other. There is just one house in Valle Inferiore and none in Lama.
San Pellegrino in Alpe  Italy Emilia Romagna (Province of ModenaFrassinoro) Tuscany (Province of Lucca) 44°11′24″N 10°28′51″E / 44.18990°N 10.48074°E / 44.18990; 10.48074 Enclave including part of the village of San Pellegrino in Alpe. map
(1 parcel)  Italy Lombardy (Province of PaviaPieve del Cairo) Piedmont (Province of Alessandria) 45°01′07″N 8°48′47″E / 45.018488°N 8.813027°E / 45.018488; 8.813027 The enclave is a small plot of cropland
Wes  Liechtenstein Planken Schaan 47°11′3″N 9°32′1″E / 47.18417°N 9.53361°E / 47.18417; 9.53361 One of the 4 exclaves of Planken (map)
Brunnenegg  Liechtenstein Schaan Planken 47°10′44″N 9°33′1″E / 47.17889°N 9.55028°E / 47.17889; 9.55028 One of the 4 exclaves of Schaan (map)
Rüttistein  Liechtenstein Vaduz Planken 47°11′13″N 9°33′2″E / 47.18694°N 9.55056°E / 47.18694; 9.55056 One of the 6 exclaves of Vaduz (map)
Forst  Liechtenstein Vaduz Schaan 47°10′34″N 9°31′34″E / 47.17611°N 9.52611°E / 47.17611; 9.52611 One of the 6 exclaves of Vaduz (map)
(2 parcels)  Moldova Dubăsari District Transnistrian-controlled Dubăsari District 47°20.2′N 29°12.5′E / 47.3367°N 29.2083°E / 47.3367; 29.2083, 47°22′9″N 29°17′42″E / 47.36917°N 29.29500°E / 47.36917; 29.29500 Transnistria is de facto independent, but not recognized by any member states of the United Nations. Control of two highways (east of Roghi, west of Vasilievca) by Transnistria in this frozen conflict created these two neighboring enclaves.
Văduleni  Moldova Chișinău municipality Criuleni district 47°4′12″N 29°4′53″E / 47.07000°N 29.08139°E / 47.07000; 29.08139
• Central Ulaanbaatar and • Bagakhangai 4084.2  Mongolia Ulan Bator Töv Province 47°57′N 107°0′E / 47.950°N 107.000°E / 47.950; 107.000, 47°21′N 107°29′E / 47.350°N 107.483°E / 47.350; 107.483 Two enclaves
Jøsås farms (2 parcels)  Norway Sør-Trøndelag (Malvik) Nord-Trøndelag (Stjørdal) 63°20′52″N 10°52′37″E / 63.34778°N 10.87694°E / 63.34778; 10.87694, 63°20′48″N 10°51′44″E / 63.34667°N 10.86222°E / 63.34667; 10.86222 Three farmsteads, Øvre Jøsås, Store Jøsås and Lille Jøsås, that belong to Sør-Trøndelag county comprise two separate enclaves that are surrounded by Nord-Trøndelag county.[43] The eastern enclave consists of Øvre Jøsås and Store Jøsås, while the western enclave is Lille Jøsås. The closest distance between the two enclaves is only about 8 meters.
Sambú district 1296.4  Panama Comarca Emberá-Wounaan Darién Province (Chepigana District) 7°51′N 78°8′W / 7.850°N 78.133°W / 7.850; -78.133
El Bale  Panama Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Ñürüm) Veraguas Province (Cañazas District) 8°21′N 81°22′W / 8.350°N 81.367°W / 8.350; -81.367
• Cerro Pelado and • (near El Piro)  Panama Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna) Veraguas Province (Las Palmas District) 8°10′N 81°32′W / 8.167°N 81.533°W / 8.167; -81.533, 8°13′30″N 81°31′22.37″W / 8.22500°N 81.5228806°W / 8.22500; -81.5228806 The unnamed parcel is a crescent-shaped forested area bordered by streams.
• Bakama and • (includes Trinidad)  Panama Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna) Chiriquí Province (Tolé District) 8°15.5′N 81°36′W / 8.2583°N 81.600°W / 8.2583; -81.600, 8°13.9′N 81°34.7′W / 8.2317°N 81.5783°W / 8.2317; -81.5783 The village of Trinidad appears to be the only population center in the unnamed parcel.
Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug 37.22  Russia Moscow Moscow Oblast 55°59.3′N 37°11.7′E / 55.9883°N 37.1950°E / 55.9883; 37.1950
Vostochny (2 parcels)[44][45][46] 3.20  Russia Moscow (Eastern Administrative OkrugVostochny District) Moscow Oblast (Balashikha Urban Okrug) 55°48.9′N 37°52.1′E / 55.8150°N 37.8683°E / 55.8150; 37.8683 These two enclaves within Moscow Oblast are separated only by the width of the road between them.
Akulovo (2 parcels)[47][48]  Russia Moscow (Eastern Administrative OkrugVostochny District) Moscow Oblast 56°0.42′N 37°47.74′E / 56.00700°N 37.79567°E / 56.00700; 37.79567, 55°59.9′N 37°47.6′E / 55.9983°N 37.7933°E / 55.9983; 37.7933 Two small enclaves
Machikhino  Russia Moscow (Troitsky Administrative OkrugKiyevsky Settlement) Moscow Oblast (Naro-Fominsky DistrictNaro-Fominsky Urban Settlement) 55°19.2′N 36°54.9′E / 55.3200°N 36.9150°E / 55.3200; 36.9150 Machikhino became part of "New Moscow" on 1 July 2012.
Arkhangelsky 2.33[49]  Russia Moscow (Western Administrative OkrugKuntsevo District) Moscow Oblast (Krasnogorsky District) 55°48′N 37°17.9′E / 55.800°N 37.2983°E / 55.800; 37.2983 Arkhangelsky became part of "New Moscow" on 1 July 2012.
Konezavod, VTB (i.e., "Stud Farm, VTB") 27.18[49]  Russia Moscow (Western Administrative OkrugKuntsevo District) Moscow Oblast 55°43.8′N 37°0.8′E / 55.7300°N 37.0133°E / 55.7300; 37.0133 This enclave became part of "New Moscow" on 1 July 2012, with bizarrely twisting borders that touch Krasnogorsky and Odintsovsky Districts and Zvenigorod Urban Okrug. Two landowners, MKZ "Moscow Stud Farm N1" (about 1100 hectares) and VTB Bank with 1,082 hectares,[50] own nearly all of it.
(2 parcels)  Russia Tatarstan (Agryzsky District) Udmurtia (Kiyasovsky District) 56°11.574′N 53°4.29′E / 56.192900°N 53.07150°E / 56.192900; 53.07150, 56°11.826′N 53°5.418′E / 56.197100°N 53.090300°E / 56.197100; 53.090300 Two enclaves
Novaya Kokshan  Russia Tatarstan (Mendeleyevsky District) Udmurtia (Grakhovsky District) 56°3.6′N 52°12.96′E / 56.0600°N 52.21600°E / 56.0600; 52.21600 Lies on the Kokshanka River
(3 parcels)  Russia Tatarstan (Drozhzhanovsky District) Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District) 54°52.854′N 47°18.36′E / 54.880900°N 47.30600°E / 54.880900; 47.30600, 54°50.91′N 47°18.732′E / 54.84850°N 47.312200°E / 54.84850; 47.312200, 54°52.344′N 47°20.858′E / 54.872400°N 47.347633°E / 54.872400; 47.347633 Three enclaves
upper Inesh valley  Russia Tatarstan (Kaybitsky District) Chuvashia (Yantikovsky District) 55°22.908′N 47°43.11′E / 55.381800°N 47.71850°E / 55.381800; 47.71850
Novoye Bayderyakovo  Russia Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District) Tatarstan (Buinsky District) 55°0.972′N 48°6.18′E / 55.016200°N 48.10300°E / 55.016200; 48.10300
Chuvashskiye Entugany - Maksim Gorkiy  Russia Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District) Tatarstan (Buinsky District) 54°54.66′N 47°50.1′E / 54.91100°N 47.8350°E / 54.91100; 47.8350
west of Malaya Tsil'na (1 parcel)  Russia Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District) Tatarstan (Drozhzhanovsky District) 54°45.648′N 47°50.76′E / 54.760800°N 47.84600°E / 54.760800; 47.84600
(1 parcel)  Russia Chuvashia (Krasnochetaysky District) Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Pilninsky District) 55°34.104′N 46°8.178′E / 55.568400°N 46.136300°E / 55.568400; 46.136300 One enclave
(3 parcels)  Russia Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Pilninsky District) Chuvashia (Krasnochetaysky District) 55°31.584′N 46°8.55′E / 55.526400°N 46.14250°E / 55.526400; 46.14250, 55°33.102′N 46°8.922′E / 55.551700°N 46.148700°E / 55.551700; 46.148700, 55°32.484′N 46°7.4184′E / 55.541400°N 46.1236400°E / 55.541400; 46.1236400 Three enclaves
(3 parcels)  Russia Omsk Oblast (Krutinskiy District) Tyumen Oblast (Abatskiy District) 56°0′54.97″N 70°46′36.01″E / 56.0152694°N 70.7766694°E / 56.0152694; 70.7766694, 55°56′37.75″N 70°45′51.52″E / 55.9438194°N 70.7643111°E / 55.9438194; 70.7643111, 56°22′40.08″N 70°47′35.34″E / 56.3778000°N 70.7931500°E / 56.3778000; 70.7931500 Three enclaves
(2 parcels)  Russia Tyumen Oblast (Abatskiy District) Omsk Oblast (Krutinskiy District) 56°20′36.85″N 71°3′18.4″E / 56.3435694°N 71.055111°E / 56.3435694; 71.055111, 56°18′32.8″N 71°13′31.44″E / 56.309111°N 71.2254000°E / 56.309111; 71.2254000 Two enclaves
(1 parcel)  Russia Kemerovo Oblast (Novokuznetskiy District) Altai Krai (El'tsovskiy District) 53°18′37.33″N 86°44′30.73″E / 53.3103694°N 86.7418694°E / 53.3103694; 86.7418694 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Tatarstan (Arsky District – Shurabashkoye Urban Settlement) Mari El Republic (Morkinsky District) 56°29′32″N 49°32′29″E / 56.49222°N 49.54139°E / 56.49222; 49.54139 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Tyumen Oblast (Nizhnetavdinsky District) Sverdlovsk Oblast (Slobodo-Turinsky DistrictSlobodo-Turinskoye Rural Settlement) 57°35′22″N 64°55′07″E / 57.58944°N 64.91861°E / 57.58944; 64.91861 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Penza Oblast (Mokshansky District) Mordovia (Insarsky District) 53°41′09″N 44°28′12″E / 53.68583°N 44.47000°E / 53.68583; 44.47000 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Mordovia (Narovchatsky District) Penza Oblast (Narovchatsky District) 53°49′45.3″N 43°52′8.5″E / 53.829250°N 43.869028°E / 53.829250; 43.869028 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Mordovia (Tengushevsky DistrictDachnoye Rural Settlement) Ryazan Oblast (Kadomsky District) 54°31′57.6″N 42°36′8″E / 54.532667°N 42.60222°E / 54.532667; 42.60222 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Ryazan Oblast (Kadomsky District) Mordovia (Tengushevsky DistrictDachnoye Rural Settlement) 54°33′39.3″N 42°39′50″E / 54.560917°N 42.66389°E / 54.560917; 42.66389 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Kaluga Oblast (Mosalsky DistrictCelo Shakhovskiy Rural Settlement) Smolensk Oblast (Ugransky DistrictKlyuchikovskoye Rural Settlement) 54°41′7″N 34°25′24.5″E / 54.68528°N 34.423472°E / 54.68528; 34.423472 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Arkhangelsk Oblast (Kargopolsky DistrictUkhotskoye Rural Settlement) Vologda Oblast (Vytegorsky DistrictKemskoye Rural Settlement) 61°2′31″N 38°4′0″E / 61.04194°N 38.06667°E / 61.04194; 38.06667 One enclave
(1 parcel)  Russia Sverdlovsk Oblast (Achitsky District) Perm Krai (Suksunsky District) 57°4′0″N 57°52′3″E / 57.06667°N 57.86750°E / 57.06667; 57.86750 One enclave
Valle de Villaverde 19.53  Spain Cantabria Basque Country (Biscay) 43°14′N 3°17′W / 43.233°N 3.283°W / 43.233; -3.283
• Sajuela and • El Ternero 3.5  Spain Castile and León (Province of BurgosMiranda de Ebro) La Rioja 42°36.6′N 2°59.4′W / 42.6100°N 2.9900°W / 42.6100; -2.9900, 42°36.1′N 2°56.1′W / 42.6017°N 2.9350°W / 42.6017; -2.9350 Two enclaves
Enclave de Treviño 279.58  Spain Castile and León (Province of Burgos) Basque Country (Álava) 42°44′N 2°42′W / 42.733°N 2.700°W / 42.733; -2.700
• Cezura and • Lastrilla  Spain Castile and León (Province of PalenciaPomar de Valdivia) Cantabria (Valderredible) 42°49′N 4°10.2′W / 42.817°N 4.1700°W / 42.817; -4.1700, 42°48.7′N 4°5.9′W / 42.8117°N 4.0983°W / 42.8117; -4.0983 Two enclaves
La Canaleja  Spain Castile-La Mancha (Province of GuadalajaraTorrejón del Rey) Community of Madrid 40°38′N 3°22.3′W / 40.633°N 3.3717°W / 40.633; -3.3717
Dehesa de la Cepeda  Spain Community of Madrid (Santa María de la Alameda) Castile and León 40°39.8′N 4°17.3′W / 40.6633°N 4.2883°W / 40.6633; -4.2883 On the northern slopes of Sierra de Guadarrama
• Petilla de Aragón and • Los Bastanes 27.55  Spain Navarre Aragon (Province of Zaragoza) 42°27.5′N 1°5.5′W / 42.4583°N 1.0917°W / 42.4583; -1.0917, 42°25.3′N 1°10′W / 42.4217°N 1.167°W / 42.4217; -1.167 Petilla de Aragón is also a municipality in northern Spain formed by these two enclaves.
Fahr Abbey 0.0148   Switzerland Aargau (Baden DistrictWürenlos) Canton of Zurich (Dietikon DistrictUnterengstringen) 47°24′30″N 8°26′21″E / 47.40833°N 8.43917°E / 47.40833; 8.43917 From 1803 through 2007 this Benedictine convent was not part of a municipality.
Kloster Grimmenstein   Switzerland Appenzell Innerrhoden (Oberegg District) Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Walzenhausen) 47°26′36″N 9°36′46″E / 47.44333°N 9.61278°E / 47.44333; 9.61278
Kloster Wonnenstein   Switzerland Appenzell Innerrhoden (Schlatt-Haslen) Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Teufen) 47°23′11″N 9°21′45″E / 47.38639°N 9.36250°E / 47.38639; 9.36250
Münchenwiler 2.5   Switzerland Canton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland) Canton of Fribourg (See District) 46°54.7′N 7°7.5′E / 46.9117°N 7.1250°E / 46.9117; 7.1250
• Surpierre and • Vuissens 10.43   Switzerland Canton of Fribourg (Broye District) Vaud 46°44.7′N 6°50.5′E / 46.7450°N 6.8417°E / 46.7450; 6.8417, 46°44.1′N 6°46.2′E / 46.7350°N 6.7700°E / 46.7350; 6.7700 Surpierre includes the villages of Surpierre, Villeneuve, Cheiry and Prèvond-avaux.
Wallenbuch 1.4   Switzerland Canton of Fribourg (See DistrictGurmels) Canton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland) 46°55.9′N 7°13.5′E / 46.9317°N 7.2250°E / 46.9317; 7.2250
La Grande/La Petite Coudre (Céligny)   Switzerland Canton of Geneva (Céligny) Vaud (Nyon District) 46°20′54″N 6°10′24″E / 46.34833°N 6.17333°E / 46.34833; 6.17333 The municipality of Céligny consists of two exclaves of the Canton of Geneva within the Canton of Vaud. The smaller of the two is enclaved by Vaud. The larger one also has a water border with France and thus is not an enclave.
Steinhof 1.64   Switzerland Canton of Solothurn (Wasseramt DistrictAeschi) Canton of Bern (Oberaargau) 47°9.5′N 7°41.2′E / 47.1583°N 7.6867°E / 47.1583; 7.6867
Slavutych 2.53  Ukraine Kiev Oblast Chernihiv Oblast 51°31.8′N 30°43.5′E / 51.5300°N 30.7250°E / 51.5300; 30.7250
Kotsiubynske 0.87  Ukraine Kiev Oblast (Irpin) Kiev (Sviatoshyn) 50°29.3′N 30°20′E / 50.4883°N 30.333°E / 50.4883; 30.333
• the above-water part of Liberty Island and • the original portion of Ellis Island not created by landfill 0.0726  United States New York (New York CityManhattan) New Jersey (Hudson CountyJersey City) 40°41.4′N 74°2.7′W / 40.6900°N 74.0450°W / 40.6900; -74.0450, 40°41′59″N 74°2′22″W / 40.69972°N 74.03944°W / 40.69972; -74.03944 The size of the original portion of Ellis Island is 3.3 acres (0.013 km² ) of the overall area (together with Liberty Island) of 27.5 acres.[51][52][53] From a 1997 U.S. Supreme Court decision it follows that a seawall that was completed in 1914 made the original Ellis Island a true enclave within New Jersey.
• (main part of city), • Ulugbek 334.8  Uzbekistan Tashkent Tashkent Province 41°18′N 69°16′E / 41.300°N 69.267°E / 41.300; 69.267, 41°24′10″N 69°27′14″E / 41.40278°N 69.45389°E / 41.40278; 69.45389
• (includes Khanabad and others)  Uzbekistan Tashkent Province (Zangiota District) Tashkent 41°13′56″N 69°15′56″E / 41.23222°N 69.26556°E / 41.23222; 69.26556

Other subnational[edit]

Enclaves which are not exclaves[edit]

Lesotho (shown in green) is completely surrounded by South Africa.

National level[edit]

Some enclaves are sovereign states, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:

First-order subnational level[edit]

Name Area (km2) Parent Country Enclaved by Coordinates Notes
Australian Capital Territory  Australia New South Wales 35°30′S 149°00′E / 35.5°S 149°E / -35.5; 149
Vienna  Austria Lower Austria 48°13′N 16°24′E / 48.217°N 16.400°E / 48.217; 16.400 Vienna was the capital of Lower Austria until 1922, when it became a province of its own. Between 1922 and 1986, Lower Austria did not have its own capital, and the province's administration had its seat in Vienna.
Mingachevir  Azerbaijan Yevlakh District 40°45′N 46°59′E / 40.750°N 46.983°E / 40.750; 46.983
Naftalan  Azerbaijan Goranboy District 40°30.5′N 46°49′E / 40.5083°N 46.817°E / 40.5083; 46.817
Shaki  Azerbaijan Shaki District 41°12′N 47°10.1′E / 41.200°N 47.1683°E / 41.200; 47.1683
Khankendi/Stepanakert  Azerbaijan Khojaly District/Askeran Province 39°49.3′N 46°45.3′E / 39.8217°N 46.7550°E / 39.8217; 46.7550 in Nagorno-Karabakh
Yevlakh  Azerbaijan Yevlakh District 40°36.8′N 47°8.5′E / 40.6133°N 47.1417°E / 40.6133; 47.1417
Brussels  Belgium Flemish Region (Flemish Brabant) 50°50′N 4°22′E / 50.833°N 4.367°E / 50.833; 4.367
Phnom Penh  Cambodia Kandal Province 11°33.5′N 104°52.5′E / 11.5583°N 104.8750°E / 11.5583; 104.8750
Prague  Czech Republic Central Bohemian Region 50°4′N 14°28′E / 50.067°N 14.467°E / 50.067; 14.467 City serves as Region's capital
Frederiksberg  Denmark Copenhagen 55°40.9′N 12°31.5′E / 55.6817°N 12.5250°E / 55.6817; 12.5250
Addis Ababa  Ethiopia Oromia Region 8°59′N 38°47.5′E / 8.983°N 38.7917°E / 8.983; 38.7917
Harari Region  Ethiopia Oromia Region (East Hararghe Zone) 9°17′N 42°11′E / 9.283°N 42.183°E / 9.283; 42.183
Berlin  Germany Brandenburg 52°30′N 13°24′E / 52.5°N 13.4°E / 52.5; 13.4
Budapest  Hungary Pest County 47°30′N 19°06′E / 47.5°N 19.1°E / 47.5; 19.1 City serves as County's capital.
Almaty  Kazakhstan Almaty Province 43°17′N 76°56′E / 43.283°N 76.933°E / 43.283; 76.933
Astana  Kazakhstan Akmola Province 51°11.3′N 71°26.2′E / 51.1883°N 71.4367°E / 51.1883; 71.4367
Baikonur  Kazakhstan Kyzylorda Province 45°52′N 63°20′E / 45.867°N 63.333°E / 45.867; 63.333
Bishkek  Kyrgyzstan Chuy Province 42°53′N 74°36′E / 42.883°N 74.600°E / 42.883; 74.600
Daugavpils  Latvia Daugavpils Municipality 55°53.4′N 26°32.9′E / 55.8900°N 26.5483°E / 55.8900; 26.5483 City serves as Municipality's capital
Rēzekne  Latvia Rēzekne Municipality 56°30.6′N 27°20.5′E / 56.5100°N 27.3417°E / 56.5100; 27.3417 City serves as Municipality's capital
Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia Selangor 3°8.6′N 101°41′E / 3.1433°N 101.683°E / 3.1433; 101.683
Putrajaya  Malaysia Selangor (Sepang) 2°55.8′N 101°41.5′E / 2.9300°N 101.6917°E / 2.9300; 101.6917
Bamako  Mali Koulikoro Region (Kati Cercle) 12°37′N 7°59′W / 12.617°N 7.983°W / 12.617; -7.983
Darkhan-Uul Province  Mongolia Selenge Province 49°22′N 106°18′E / 49.367°N 106.300°E / 49.367; 106.300
Niamey  Niger Tillabéri Region 13°31.2′N 2°6.5′E / 13.5200°N 2.1083°E / 13.5200; 2.1083
Taipei  Taiwan New Taipei City 25°5′N 121°33′E / 25.083°N 121.550°E / 25.083; 121.550
Bucharest  Romania Ilfov County 44°26′N 26°6′E / 44.433°N 26.100°E / 44.433; 26.100
Adygea  Russia Krasnodar Krai 44°36′N 40°00′E / 44.6°N 40°E / 44.6; 40
Gwangju  South Korea South Jeolla Province 35°9′N 126°50′E / 35.150°N 126.833°E / 35.150; 126.833
Damascus Governorate  Syria Rif Dimashq Governorate 33°30′N 36°22′E / 33.500°N 36.367°E / 33.500; 36.367
Dushanbe  Tajikistan Districts of Republican Subordination 38°33.6′N 68°45.9′E / 38.5600°N 68.7650°E / 38.5600; 68.7650 City serves as Region's capital
Arima  Trinidad and Tobago Tunapuna-Piarco Regional Corporation 10°37.9′N 61°16.6′W / 10.6317°N 61.2767°W / 10.6317; -61.2767
Kiev  Ukraine Kiev Oblast 50°26′N 30°32′E / 50.433°N 30.533°E / 50.433; 30.533 City serves as Oblast's capital
Amanat Al Asimah Governorate  Yemen Sana'a Governorate 15°25′N 44°14′E / 15.417°N 44.233°E / 15.417; 44.233 City of Sana'a serves as capital of both Governorates

Other subnational[edit]

County Enclaved borough Enclaved within County Enclaved borough Enclaved within
Burlington Fieldsboro Bordentown Township Monmouth Freehold Borough Freehold Township
Burlington Medford Lakes Medford Township Morris Morristown Morris Township
Burlington Pemberton Pemberton Township Morris Chester Borough Chester Township
Gloucester Swedesboro Woolwich Township Ocean Lakehurst Manchester Township
Hunterdon Flemington Raritan Township Ocean Lavallette Toms River Township
Hunterdon Lebanon Clinton Township Ocean Ocean Gate Berkeley Township
Mercer Hopewell Hopewell Township Ocean Tuckerton Little Egg Harbor Township
Mercer Pennington Hopewell Township Salem Woodstown Pilesgrove Township
Mercer Hightstown East Windsor Township Sussex Branchville Frankford Township
Middlesex Jamesburg Monroe Township Sussex Sussex[59] Wantage Township
Middlesex Metuchen Edison Township Warren Alpha Pohatcong Township
Monmouth Englishtown Manalapan Township Warren Washington Washington Township
Monmouth Farmingdale Howell Township

Exclaves which are not enclaves[edit]

National level[edit]

To be a true exclave, all potential paths of travel from the exclave to the main region must cross over the territory only of a different region or regions having the equivalent governmental administrative level.

  • Azerbaijan: The exclave of Nakhichivan is bounded by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
  • Croatia has a second exclave within 400 meters of its enclave of Brezovica Žumberačka (which is surrounded by Slovenia). This exclave would normally be an enclave also, except that neither Slovenia nor Croatia claims a small parcel of land with one building that adjoins the exclave.[20] If Slovenia were to claim the parcel, Croatia's exclave would become an enclave as well. As it is, the exclave is bordered by Slovenia and what may be considered to be "Terra nullius," (e.g., like Bir Tawil). Thus, it is not surrounded by only one other country.
  • Honduras: Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua border the Gulf of Fonseca, a closed sea under international law. Each enjoys a 3-nautical mile littoral zone of sovereignty along its shores and islands in the gulf. The remaining water area in the gulf comprises a tridominium that is shared in common among all three nations. The littoral zones abut each other in a way that forms two separate areas of tridominium waters in the gulf. The eastern area is bordered by the zones of all three countries. The larger western area (about 235 km2) is bordered only by the waters of El Salvador and Nicaragua and the closing line of the gulf, such that one cannot travel within the gulf from Honduras to the enclosed western area except by passing through El Salvadoran and Nicaraguan waters. Therefore, the western water area (13°5′N 87°46′W / 13.083°N 87.767°W / 13.083; -87.767) is a semi-exclave of Honduras by virtue of it being shared territorially with two other countries.[66][67][68] All three nations are "entitled outside the closing line to territorial sea, continental shelf and exclusive economic zone. Whether this situation should remain in being or be replaced by a division and delimitation into three separate zones is, as inside the Gulf also, a matter for the three States to decide."[67]
  • High Seas: There are 15 exclaves upon the high seas that consist of areas of international waters that are surrounded by the 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zones of various countries. (EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.) Four of the 15 are also enclaves (see above), and 11 are exclaves only. These 11 exclaves exist because, in their particular cases, the EEZs of several neighboring countries border on each other in a way that encloses an area of international waters, such that one cannot travel to the enclosed region except by passing through the waters of one of these EEZs. These 11 exclaves are created by the EEZs of the following countries:

Subnational exclaves that are not enclaves[edit]

St. Martin Parish in the U.S. state of Louisiana, shown here, is divided into two non-contiguous areas separated by Iberia Parish.
Ñürüm district of Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca, Panama, has several exclaves.
South Hackensack, New Jersey is divided into three non-contiguous areas.
Darby Township, Pennsylvania is divided into two non-contiguous areas.
Brownstown Charter Township, Michigan is divided into three non-contiguous areas.

Pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts[edit]

Like enclaves and exclaves, pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves are regions that are not conterminous with the main land region and have land access only through another region or regions having the equivalent governmental administrative level. Unlike enclaves and exclaves, they are not entirely surrounded by alien territory. Hence, they are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition.

Inaccessible districts are regions that are conterminous with the main land region but that are only easily accessible by going through a second country.

National level[edit]

Subnational pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts[edit]

Historic enclaves/exclaves[edit]

National level[edit]

Name[1] Area (km2) Exclave of Enclaved by Coordinates Notes
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (91 parcels) 21.8  Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionPanchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts)  India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts) approx. 26°18′N 88°57′E / 26.300°N 88.950°E / 26.300; 88.950 All parcels were both enclaves and exclaves. 21 of the 91 former Bangladeshi exclaves were counter-enclaves. These 91 Bangladeshi enclaves were extinguished on 31 July 2015, when the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement with India was implemented, leaving Dahagram-Angarpota as the only extant enclave.[92]
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (106 parcels) 69.5  India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts)  Bangladesh (Rangpur DivisionPanchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts) 26°9′0″N 88°45′44″E / 26.15000°N 88.76222°E / 26.15000; 88.76222 (former third-order enclave) All parcels were both enclaves and exclaves. Three of the 106 former Indian exclaves were counter-enclaves and one was the world's only counter-counter enclave. The 106 Indian exclaves were extinguished on 31 July 2015, when the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement with Bangladesh was implemented.[92]
  • Altona was a Danish exclave within Germany from 1640 to 1864.
  • BhutanTarchen, Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar and Zuthulphuk were exclaves of Bhutan within Tibet from the 1640s until 1959.[93][94]
  • Bophuthatswana was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1977 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It consisted of a scattered patchwork of individual enclaves, six that were true enclaves within South Africa and two that bordered Botswana and South Africa.
  • Cheikh Saïd is a rocky peninsula in present-day Yemen between the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Although as late as 1970, the Petit Larousse described it as having been a "French colony from 1868 to 1936," France never claimed formal jurisdiction or sovereignty over it.
  • within China
  • Forbidden City – The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi, acceded to the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out, and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and along with other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City, mainly for management of the Forbidden City, other palaces, imperial families, etc. The Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty remained hoisted inside the Forbidden City. In 1924, the 1911 treaty was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
  • Unlike Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories that were added later constituted a pene-exclave of Great Britain from 1860/1898 until 1997. Kowloon south of Boundary Street was ceded in perpetuity, whereas the New Territories was turned over under a 99-year lease.
  • Kowloon Walled City was a counter-enclave belonging to China on the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong from 1898 to 1993. The question of jurisdiction led to a hands-off approach by Chinese and British authorities over the years until the quality of life became intolerable. A mutual decision to demolish the 2.6 hectares of structures was announced in 1987 and completed in 1994.
  • Kwang-Chou-Wan was a pene-exclave of France on the south coast of China from 1898, upon its lease to France by Qing China, until its return by France in 1946; its territory included the islands in the bay and land on both banks of the Maxie River, covering 1300 km² of land.
  • Kwantung was a pene-exclave of Russia and later Japan in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945 and included the ports of Port Arthur (or Ryojun) and Dal'niy (or Dairen), the latter founded in 1899. It was leased to Russia from 1898 until 1905, when Japan replaced Russia as leaseholder. After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory in 1945, jointly administering it with the Chinese before turning it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955.
  • Jinzhou walled central city remained an enclave of Chinese territory within Kwantung under the lease with Russia. This provision was substantially ignored by Japan after it replaced Russia.[95]
  • Macao was a pene-exclave of Portugal on the coast of the South China Sea from 1557 until 1999.
  • Zhongshan Dao island in the Pearl River Delta was divided between China and Macao as a pair of pene-exclaves dating from ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1862 through the 1999 return of Macao to China.
  • Qingdao, with an area of 552 km², was a pene-exclave of Germany (also known as the Kiautschou Bay concession), and later Japan, from 1898 to 1922, adjacent to Jiaozhou Bay on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in East China. The village of Qingdao became the German colony of Tsingtau. In 1914, with the outbreak of World War I, the Republic of China canceled the lease with Germany. Japan then occupied the city and province until December 1922, when it reverted to Chinese rule.
  • Shanghai was the location of British (from 1846) and American (from 1848) Concessions (later Shanghai International Settlement from 1863–1943) and the Shanghai French Concession from 1849–1946. Unlike the British sovereign colonies of Hong Kong Island and Wei-hai-wei, these foreign concessions always remained Chinese sovereign territory.
  • Wei-hai-wei was a pene-exclave of Great Britain that bordered the Yellow Sea in eastern Shandong province of China. The city was a British colony, known also as the Weihai Garrison and sometimes as Port Edward, from 1898 to 1 October 1930, when it was returned to China. Its current name is Weihai.
  • Wei-hai-wei walled central city was excluded from the leased territory and remained an enclave of Chinese territory within Wei-hai-wei.[96]
  • Comtat Venaissin was an exclave of Papal territory within France from 1348–1791. It contained an enclave of another Papal territory, the city of Avignon and had a small exclave around the nearby town of Valréas.
  • Despotate of the Morea on the Peloponnesos peninsula of present-day Greece was a geographically detached province of the Byzantine Empire from 1349–1460; during much of that time, in addition to the Mediterranean Sea, it was surrounded by "states under Latin rule."
  • East Pakistan (1947–1971), now Bangladesh, was a pene-exclave of Pakistan (if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital, Islamabad, as the main land) that bordered the Bay of Bengal, India and Burma. East Pakistan, with a distance of 1600 km separating it from West Pakistan, accounted for 70% of the country's exports and was more populous than West Pakistan.
  • Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá was a Portuguese exclave (initially around 1 km² in area and reduced to only 2 ha by 1961) within Dahomey/Benin from 1680 until 1961 (de facto annexation by Dahomey) or 1975 (Portuguese recognition).
  • France – The island of Mont-Saint-Michel at the mouth of the Couesnon River prior to 1879 was a pene-exclave of Normandy, but only during low tide, when it was connected by a tidal causeway to the neighbouring coast. The raised causeway that was then built is currently scheduled to be removed and replaced with a light bridge, thus making Mont-Saint-Michel an island again.
  • Germany
  • East Prussia (1919–1939), a German pene-exclave during the Weimar Republic, was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). The territory of East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania.
  • Hemmeres, (1922–1949), surrounded by Belgian territory, was the sixth and southernmost of the Vennbahn enclaves created in 1922; it contained five households.[97] The railway suffered severe damage during World War II and was not rebuilt. It ceased being an enclave when Belgium annexed the entirety in 1949. Hemmeres was reintegrated into West Germany on 28 August 1958, by an agreement with Belgium.
  • Jestetten is a German town in the district of Waldshut in Baden-Württemberg that was inaccessible except by traveling through Switzerland, until a connecting road was constructed.
  • Roetgener Wald was two enclaves from 1949 to 1958. Unlike its present configuration, the German enclave in 1922 was smaller in area because the central portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory.[98] Because the road connecting the two outer German portions (Highways 258/399) was German territory until 1949, the German land formed one enclave. The intersecting north-south road from Fringshaus to Konzen (now Highway B258, which has no connection to the Belgian road network[99]) was also part of the oddly shaped enclave. In 1949 Belgium annexed these roads, thus separating the enclave into two enclaves for the next nine years. In 1958 Belgium ceded the center section of territory to West Germany, in addition to returning the adjacent east-west connecting road.[100] This created one larger enclave in its present form. Highway B258 is the only portion of land that, once having been a part of the Roetgener Wald enclave, is now not within the enclave.
  • Belgium had a counter-enclave located near Fringshaus from 6 November 1922 until 23 April 1949, while Germany owned the connecting roads that were part of the Roetgener Wald enclave. These roads met at a traffic island north of Fringshaus, with the 2279 m2 island itself being a part of Belgium. This counter-enclave was extinguished in 1949 when Belgium annexed the German roads that intersected at the traffic island. In 1958, when Belgium returned the east-west road to Germany, this traffic island also became part of the Roetgener Wald enclave.
  • Verenahof was a German exclave within Switzerland until 1967, when it was re-attached to Germany by treaty through a land swap of a total of just under 1.06 km² in equal shares.[101]
  • West Berlin, upon the division of Berlin after World War II and before the reunification of Germany in 1990, was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany. Twelve small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main body of West Berlin, some by only a few meters. In addition, there were several small areas of East Berlin that were surrounded by West Berlin. All of Berlin was ruled "de jure" by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament and that its citizens were exempt from conscription.
West Berlin exclaves:
East Berlin exclaves:[102]
  • Eiskeller (E) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
  • Eiskeller (N) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
  • Eiskeller (S) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
  • West-Staakende jure part of Soviet sector but de facto administered by Spandau Borough in the British sector; seized by East Germany in 1951 and made an exclave of East Berlin's Borough of Mitte, which it remained officially until being incorporated in 1961 by the neighboring town of Falkensee in non-Berlin East Germany.
  • Gwadar was an Omani pene-exclave on the Arabian Sea coast of present-day Pakistan from 1784 until 1958.
  • Ifni was a pene-exclave of Spain on the Atlantic coast of Morocco from 1859 to 1969.
  • within India
  • Dadra and Nagar Haveli were enclaves inland from the Arabian Sea coast covering an area of 487 km². After invasion by pro-Indian Union forces in 1954, they achieved de facto independence from Portugal. They and three Portuguese pene-exclaves, the city of Goa and the two small coastal exclaves of Daman and Diu, were the last remnants of Portuguese India, which existed from 1505 until military conquest by India on 19 December 1961. (A 1956 map also shows a counter-enclave within Nagar Haveli belonging to Bombay.)
  • French India – Pondicherry and the other exclaves of Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon were absorbed into India de facto in 1954 and de jure in 1962 after the Algerian War. In 1761 the British captured all of them from the French (and also Chandannagar), but the Treaty of Paris (1763) returned them to France. Those possessions passed again to British control before finally being handed over to the French in 1816/1817 under the 1814 Treaty of Paris. Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon came to be administered as the Union Territory of Puducherry in 1963. All four are now sub-national ex(en)claves within India.
  • Pondicherry, was the site of a trading center set up by the French East India Company in 1674, which eventually became the chief French settlement in India, after passing several times between Dutch, British and French control. It comprised 12 non-contiguous parts: three pene-exclaves on the Bay of Bengal and nine nearby true enclaves. Inside the main Pondicherry exclave was a small counter-enclave belonging to India straddling the Chunnambar River.
  • Mahé (or Mayyazhi), a small (9 km²) town, was a pene-exclave on the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea from 1721. Mahé was composed of three non-contiguous parts, including Mahé town and two true enclaves: Cherukallayi and one consisting of Palloor, Chalakkara and Pandakkal.
  • Yanaon (or Yanam), a 30 km² pene-exclave in the delta of Godavari River, nine kilometers from the Coromandel Coast and Bay of Bengal. It was a Dutch colony before France overtook it in 1723 and made it a French colony.
  • Karaikal was a small coastal pene-exclave on the Bay of Bengal acquired by France in 1739 from the regime of Raja Pratap Singh of Tanjore. By 1760 it included 81 villages around Karaikal town.
  • Chandannagar was a small true enclave established as a French colony in 1673, located on the right bank of the Hooghly River 30 kilometers north of Kolkata. Bengal was then a province of the Mughal Empire. The British returned the city to France in 1816, along with a 7.8 km² nearby enclave. In May 1950, with French approval, India assumed de facto control, with the de jure transfer in June 1952. In 1955 it was integrated into West Bengal state.
  • Trincomalee was in present-day Sri Lanka (then a part of India) located on the Indian Ocean east coast of the island. By September 1782 it was occupied by the French after the Battle of Trincomalee with the British, only to be ceded back to the British in 1783.
  • Colón, an exclave of Panama from 1903 to July 27, 1939, was surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone, until a treaty provision connected it to the main part of Panama via a corridor.[97]
  • Panama City and the tip of Paitilla Point from 1903 to February 11, 1915, were pene-enclaves surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone and the Pacific Ocean. Maps of the Canal Zone dated before 1923 clearly show these borders.[103][104][105][106] Maps dated 1924 and later show a changed border that re-connected Panama City with eastern Panama.[107]
  • When Madden Road was ceded to the U.S. by treaty on July 27, 1939, a Vennbahn-type Panamanian enclave was created that was bounded by Madden Road, the main Canal Zone boundary, and a contour line above Rio Chagres and Rio Chilibre. Another treaty that took effect on April 11, 1955, de-enclaved it.
  • Panama had a water enclave in Limon Bay from 1979 to December 31, 1999. It also had jurisdiction over one building within the U.S. Summit Naval Station from October 1991 until the transfer of the station to Panama on December 31, 1999.[108]
  • Pogiriai (Pogiry) was a Lithuanian exclave of 1.7 km² that was ceded to Belarus in 1996.
  • The southern section of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah was a national-level exclave surrounded by other emirates of the UAE and Oman for three months after UAE independence in 1971 until it joined the UAE in 1972.
  • Between 1991 and 2003, Russia had three tiny pene-exclaves on tips of the lakeshore that bordered the Lithuanian side of Lake Vištytis. Before a new border treaty went into force on 12 August 2003, the border ran along most of the waterline of the beaches on the Lithuanian side, so anyone paddling in the water was technically crossing into Russia.
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon, a French territorial collectivity, was completely surrounded by the territorial waters of Canada from 1763 until 1992, when an EEZ corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide was created, stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
  • Schirgiswalde – In accordance with terms of the 1635 Peace Treaty of Prague, Austria transferred land (Ober- and Niederlausitz) to Saxony. However, because of religious affiliation with Austria, Schirgiswalde and five other towns (Güntersdorf, Gerlachsheim, Winkel, Taubentränke and Neuleutersdorf) within the transferred land remained with Austria, becoming Austrian enclaves within Saxony. 174 years later, to address problems as states began to consolidate, the 1809 Peace Treaty of Vienna mandated the transfer of these six enclaves from Austria to Saxony. However, the transfer did not occur until 1845 because of the need to correct mistakes in the names of the villages stated in the treaty and subsequent neglect. During that time, Schirgiswalde was de facto independent until economic reasons compelled the final transfer of the enclaves, thus extinguishing them.[97]
  • Sikkim – Dopta and Chumbi were exclaves of Sikkim within Tibet until China occupied them in 1958.
  • Sweden – The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted certain possessions of the Holy Roman Empire to the Swedish Empire (extant 1611–1721) to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire:
  • Bremen-Verdenstates of the Holy Roman Empire bordering the North Sea; in "personal union with Sweden" until 1712, when they fell under Danish occupation in wartime.
  • Swedish Pomerania – a state on the Baltic coast in present-day Germany and Poland; a small part was ceded to Prussia following war in 1720 and the entirety in 1815 during the Congress of Vienna.
  • town of Wismar – town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea; transferred to Germany in 1903 when Sweden renounced its claim.
  • The tomb of Suleyman Shah (b. ca. 1178–d. 1236) was located in or near Qal'at Ja'bar in modern-day Syria; in accordance with the 1921 Treaty of Ankara, the tomb "shall remain, with its appurtenances, the property of Turkey, who may appoint guardians for it and may hoist the Turkish flag there." The treaty is silent regarding sovereignty of the 6.3 hectares of land on which the tomb rests. The tomb was relocated in 1973 prior to the creation of Lake Assad.
  • Ada Kaleh – Prior to the creation of modern Turkey, the Ottoman Empire held a small island in the Danube River surrounded by the waters of Romania, from at least the Berlin Treaty of 1878 until 1923 when, under the Treaty of Lausanne, Romania obtained sovereignty over it. It was submerged in 1970 by the construction of a hydroelectric plant, displacing up to 1000 residents.
  • Horseshoe Reef (1850–1908) in Lake Erie consisted of underwater ledges of sunken rock near Buffalo, New York. Great Britain ceded a fraction of an acre of underwater land that was entirely surrounded by Canadian waters to the United States to construct a lighthouse.[110] A 1908 treaty mandated a new survey in order to shift the boundary to include the reef in U.S. waters.
  • The Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Bay and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it in Hawaii, United States, the place where James Cook was killed in 1779, is owned by the United Kingdom.[111][112][113][114] An historian on the occasion of the 50th anniversary recorded in 1928 that the white stone "obelisk monument [was] erected to the memory of Captain Cook, about 1876, and on land deeded outright to the British Government by Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, about the same year, so that that square is absolute British Territory."[115] Hawaii was a sovereign nation at the time. According to a recent writer, "The land under the monument was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877 and is considered as sovereign non-embassy land owned by the British Embassy in Washington DC. ... the Hawaiian State Parks agency maintained that as sovereign British territory it was the responsibility of the UK to maintain the site."[116]
  • Lake of the Woods – the American border with present-day Canada as defined under the 1783 Treaty of Paris and the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 inadvertently created two small maritime exclaves of the U.S. in Angle Inlet. The border depended on determining the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods. Johann Tiarks' survey in 1825 placed its location at the edge of a pond on the Angle Inlet.[117] (A 1940 academic study documented the location of Tiarks' point, which is in the immediate vicinity of 49°23′51.324″N 95°9′12.20783″W / 49.39759000°N 95.1533910639°W / 49.39759000; -95.1533910639 (NAD83).[110]) In accordance with the 1818 treaty, the border ran south from this point to the 49th parallel. However, this line was "intersected at five points by the winding course of the boundary in the channel of the Northwest Angle Inlet; thus there were anomalously left two small areas of waters totaling two and a half acres belonging to the United States, yet entirely surrounded by Canadian waters."[110] They were centered at 49°23′10.7514″N 95°09′10.8″W / 49.386319833°N 95.153000°W / 49.386319833; -95.153000 and 49°23′17.5914″N 95°09′11.6994″W / 49.388219833°N 95.153249833°W / 49.388219833; -95.153249833. By treaty in 1925, the southernmost of these five intersecting points, 4785 ft. farther south than Tiarks' point, was adopted instead, which eliminated these exclaves.[110]
  • Panama Canal Zone, surrounded by Panama, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, was an American pene-exclave from 1903 to December 31, 1999, when it was transferred to Panama. Its area was considerably reduced on October 1, 1979, by treaty with Panama.
  • Also in the Canal Zone, within Colón city, the lighthouse location on Manzanilla Island and a 30-foot radius around it became part of the Canal Zone in 1904, a counter-enclave in an exclave of Panama.
  • On 1 October 1979, the day the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 took effect, most of the land within the former Canal Zone transferred to Panama. However, the treaty set aside many Canal Zone areas and facilities for transfer during the following 20 years. The treaty specifically categorized areas and facilities by name as “Military Areas of Coordination”, "Defense Sites" and "Areas Subject to Separate Bilateral Agreement". These were to be transferred by the U.S. to Panama during certain time windows or simply by the end of the 243-month treaty period. On 1 October 1979, among the many such parcels so designated in the treaty, 35 emerged as true enclaves (surrounded entirely by land solely under Panamanian jurisdiction). In later years as other areas were turned over to Panama, nine more true enclaves emerged. Of these 44 true enclaves, 14 were related to military logistics, 7 were military communications sites, 5 Federal Aviation Administration facilities,[118] 5 military housing enclaves, 3 military base areas, 2 military research facilities, 2 parts of a bombing range, 4 secondary school parcels, 1 elementary school, and 1 hospital. At least 13 other parcels each were enclosed partly by land under the absolute jurisdiction of Panama and partly by an “Area of Civil Coordination" (housing), which under the treaty was subject to elements of both U.S. and Panamanian public law. In addition, the 1977 treaty designated numerous areas and individual facilities as “Canal Operating Areas” for joint U.S.-Panama ongoing operations by a commission. On the effective date of the treaty, many of these, including Madden Dam, became newly surrounded by the territory of Panama. Just after noon local time on 31 December 1999, all former Canal Zone parcels of all types had come under the exclusive jurisdiction of Panama.[108][119][120][121][122][123]
  • The Val d'Aran is a valley in the Pyrenees mountains and a comarca in northwestern Catalonia, northern Spain. Most of it comprises the only part of Catalonia that is on the northern side of the Pyrenees. The Val d'Aran had been without direct access to the south side of the mountains, until the Vielha tunnel was opened in 1948.
  • Venda was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1979 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It was an enclave that was not an exclave, bordering only South Africa and separated narrowly from Zimbabwe by the Madimbo corridor to the north. Venda itself also had a small exclave that was a true enclave in South Africa.
  • Walvis Bay was a South African pene-exclave bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and Namibia, before being incorporated with Namibia in 1994, four years after that country's independence.
  • Zadar (Zara) was a 104 km² pene-exclave of Italy, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia, from 1920 to 1944 (de facto due to abandonment by the Italian civilian administration) or 1947 (de jure under treaty).
  • Various other historical foreign concessions
  • Innumerable medieval enclaves within Europe

Subnational historic enclaves/exclaves[edit]

  • The former municipality of Hinterhermsdorf in Saxony was an exclave of the town of Sebnitz, being separated from it by the municipality of Kirnitzschtal, until Kirnitzschtal also became a part of Sebnitz.
  • Königsberg, located in the Lower Franconia region of present-day Bavaria, Germany, was an enclave within Bavaria, along with two small nearby enclaves, belonging to the Ernestine Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (which after 1825 also had five exclaves in Thuringia). In 1918 the post-monarchy duchy was split into two states, making Königsberg an exclave of the Free State of Saxe-Coburg. In 1920, the residents of that state voted to merge with the Free State of Bavaria, thus eliminating the three Bavarian enclaves.
  • Schmalkalden/Suhl – Just after World War I, this Prussian enclave within Thuringia was divided between the two Prussian provinces of Saxony and Hesse-Nassau (thus it was a composite enclave). The two entities of Schmalkalden and Suhl separately were exclaves of their respective Prussian provinces.[2]
  • Innumerable medieval enclaves
  • Yalova was an exclave of İstanbul until it gained provincial status in 1995.

Temporary enclaves or exclaves[edit]

Sometimes land is ceded temporarily to another country as a form of legal fiction.

  • Suite 212 at Claridges Hotel in London was ceded by the United Kingdom to Yugoslavia on 17 June 1945 to allow Crown Prince Alexander, whose parents were in exile, to be born on Yugoslav soil.[124][125][126]
  • Camp Zeist, a former United States Air Force base in the Netherlands, was, in 2000, temporarily declared sovereign territory of the United Kingdom, in order to allow the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial to take place.
  • In 1943, the maternity ward at the Ottawa Civic Hospital in Canada was temporarily extraterritorial so that Princess Juliana's daughter Princess Margriet would only have Dutch (by parents' nationality) and not dual nationality, because of her potential birth on Canadian soil. Dual nationality would have excluded her from the royal succession.
  • In 1979, at Sender Zehlendorf, East Germany, an area of 300 meters in radius around a radio tower construction site was made an exclave of the Soviet Union. After a Soviet fighter plane had earlier collided with a radio transmission mast at the facility, causing it to collapse, the Soviet Union agreed to rebuild the mast. So that the stricter German safety regulations would not slow the construction progress, the area was declared a Soviet exclave for the duration of the work.[127]

Potential exclaves pending international resolution[edit]

The maritime borders in the Gulf of Piran, according to the Drnovšek-Račan agreement, would grant the disputed area to Slovenia and provide a corridor to international waters.
  • Hans Island – Two pene-exclaves would be created by a land border between Canada and Denmark (on behalf of Greenland). Negotiations in 2012 between Canada and Denmark, not yet finalized, call for either a condominium or splitting the sovereignty over the disputed island. If the island were to be split by a boundary, it would create both Canada's and Denmark's second land border.[128]
  • Palanca Marshes – potential Vennbahn-type enclave of Moldova surrounded by Ukraine: Under a 2001 treaty between the two nations, Moldova is to transfer to Ukraine not only the asphalt (as it has already done), but also the real property under 7.7 kilometers of road (which is a portion of the 300 km road between Odessa and Reni), and to clarify the sovereignty of that land, which under that treaty is to be transferred to Ukraine.[129]
  • Croatian maritime exclave within Adriatic Sea waters of Italy and Slovenia – The Drnovšek-Račan agreement of 20 July 2001 defined the entire border between the countries, including the maritime border.[130] According to this agreement, Croatia would get approximately one third of the Gulf of Piran and a maritime border with Italy, while Slovenia would get a corridor to international waters. This solution included a Croatian maritime exclave. However, such a solution could run afoul of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, which prohibits sovereignty over parts of the sea unconnected to land.[131][132] Article 4 states, "... the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters," and "... baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas the territorial sea of another State."[131]


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