List of enclaves and exclaves
In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory. An exclave is a piece of land which is politically attached to a larger piece but not physically conterminous with it because of surrounding foreign territory. Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves.
- 1 Enclaves which are also exclaves
- 2 Enclaves which are not exclaves
- 3 Exclaves which are not enclaves
- 4 Pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts
- 5 Historic enclaves/exclaves
- 6 Potential exclaves pending international resolution
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
Enclaves which are also exclaves
|Name||Area (km2)||Exclave of||Enclaved by||Coordinates||Notes|
|Apipé Islands (4)||320~320||Argentina (Corrientes Province – Ituzaingó Department)||Paraguay (Misiones Department – Ayolas District)||Four adjacent islands (Isla Apipé Grande, Isla Apipé Chico, Isla Los Patos and Isla San Martín) with territorial water borders in the Río Paraná, 39 km east of Isla Entre Rios. Island areas are about 276, 23.8, 11.8 and 3.7 km², respectively.|
|Isla Entre Ríos||36~36||Argentina (Corrientes Province – Berón de Astrada Department)||Paraguay (Ñeembucú Department – Cerrito District)||Uninhabited island with territorial water border in the Río Paraná, 39 km west of Isla Apipé.|
|Isla Martín García||2~2||Argentina (Buenos Aires Province – La Plata Partido)||Uruguay||Territorial water border on the Uruguay side of Río de la Plata. Designated as a nature reserve under the jurisdiction of Argentina in 1973.|
|Artchvašen (Bashkend)||40~40||Armenia (Gegharkunik Province)||Azerbaijan||Controlled by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1992.|
|Torres Strait Islands (7)||220~220 (land area)||Australia (Queensland – Shire of Torres and Torres Strait Island Region)||Papua New Guinea||The islands of Anchor Cay, Aubusi Island, Black Rocks, Boigu Island (89.6 km²), Bramble Cay (0.036 km²), Dauan Island (4 km²), Deliverance Island, East Cay, Kaumag Island, Kerr Islet, Moimi Island, Saibai Island (107.9 km²), Turnagain Island (12 km²) and Turu Cay, along with their territorial seas, form seven enclaves within the maritime area of Papua New Guinea under a treaty effective in 1985. The territorial sea of each island does not extend beyond three nautical miles. The mainland of Papua New Guinea is only 6 km from Boigu.|
|Yukhari Askipara||37~37||Azerbaijan (Qazakh District)||Armenia (Tavush Province)||A destroyed village controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west of the town of Qazax.|
|Barkhudarli||22~22||Azerbaijan (Qazakh District)||Armenia (Tavush Province)||Controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; west-southwest of the town of Qazax.|
|Karki||10~10||Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Sadarak District)||Armenia (Ararat Province)||Occupied by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992; north of Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan.|
|"Yaradullu" (north and south)||0.180.12 and 0.06||Azerbaijan (Agstafa District)||Armenia (Tavush Province)||Two farmland enclaves just across the border from the village of Yaradullu (55 m at the closest point). They are 750 m and 1500 m southwest of the municipality of Tatli on the west bank of the Akhum River; approximately 300x400 m and 300x200 m. The surrounding Armenian territory has been occupied by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May 1992, so that these two small pockets of land are de facto no longer exclaves.|
|Jungholz||7||Austria (Tyrol state – Reutte District)||Germany (Bavaria state – Swabia administrative region)||Connected at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen (1636 m); accessible only through Germany.|
|Dahagram-Angarpota||25.95||Bangladesh (Rangpur Division – Lalmonirhat district)||India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar district)||Dahagram–Angarpota is a composite enclave of two adjoining chhits. It is separated from the contiguous area of Bangladesh at its closest point by 178 metres (584 ft). The enclave has an estimated population of 20,000. After the exchange of enclaves with India under the Land Boundary Agreement on 31 July 2015, Bangladesh retained it as an exclave. The Tin Bigha Corridor, a strip of Indian territory 85 metres (279 ft) wide running from the enclave to the Bangladesh mainland at its nearest approach, was leased to Bangladesh for 999 years for access to the enclave.|
|Baarle-Hertog (22 parcels)||2.3448||Belgium (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality)||Netherlands (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality)||(H1)||A group of 22 Belgian enclaves in the southern Netherlands. Enclaves H1 and H2 are connected at a single point.|
|Međurječje||3.9584||Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska – Rudo municipality)||Serbia (Zlatibor District – Priboj municipality)||Home land of Bosnia-Herzegovina is 1130 meters to the north. Sastavci is the name of the neighboring village in Serbia.|
|Nunez Rocks (disputed)||Canada (British Columbia province)||United States (state of Alaska)||The status of the waters around Nunez Rocks is disputed. Nunez Rocks is a low-tide elevation ("bare at half-tide") that is south of a line known as the "A-B" Line, which was defined in a 1903 arbitration decision on the Alaska/Canada boundary. The court specified the initial boundary point (Point "A") at the northern end of Dixon Entrance and also designated Point "B" 72 NM to the east. Canada relies on the "A-B" Line as rendering nearly all of Dixon Entrance as Canadian internal waters. The U.S. does not recognize the "A-B" Line as an official boundary, instead regarding it as allocating sovereignty over the land masses within the Dixon Entrance, with Canada's land south of the line. The U.S. regards the waters as subject to international marine law, and in 1977 it defined an equidistant territorial sea throughout Dixon Entrance. This territory, which surrounds Nunez Rocks, extends south of the "A-B" line for the most part. Thus, from the U.S. point-of-view, Nunez Rocks is a Canadian exclave, while from Canada's perspective, it is an internal island.|
|Quitasueño||3577, including water area||Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia Department)||Nicaragua|| (QS32)||On 19 November 2012, the International Court of Justice upheld Colombia's claim to Quitasueño, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, thus surrounding the island bank. It deemed one of the bank's 54 features to be an island at high tide (elevation 70 cm, area 1 m²) and created enclaves as an equitable solution. The area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~290 km².|
|Serrana||2500~2500, including water area||Colombia (San Andrés y Providencia Department)||Nicaragua||(Southwest Cay)||On 19 November 2012, ICJ upheld Colombia's claim to Serrana, plus a 12-NM territorial zone, and re-defined Nicaragua's EEZ, surrounding the island bank. The land area is ~0.11 km², and the area of the bank, excluding the 12-mile zone, is ~322 km². Colombia decried the loss of maritime areas and creation of "'enclaves' around Quitasueño and Serrana that could restrict" access.|
|Brezovica Žumberačka||0.0183||Croatia (Karlovac County – Ozalj town)||Slovenia (Metlika municipality)||Contains four dwellings surrounded by agricultural land near the Slovenian village of Brezovica pri Metliki. About 437 m long and 60 m wide. Confirmed by both Croatian and Slovenian cadaster maps, although boundary lines slightly differ. About 100 meters away from the main border at the closest point.|
|Ormidhia||1.694||Cyprus (Larnaca District)||Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area||One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory in southeastern Cyprus.|
|Xylotymbou||0.947||Cyprus (Larnaca District)||Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area||One of four small exclaves surrounded by Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory.|
|"Electricity Authority of Cyprus" Refugee Settlement||0.28~0.28||Cyprus (Larnaca District)||Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area||North of Dhekelia Power Station from which it is separated by a British road; the closest point between the two exclaves is 21 meters.|
|Dhekelia Power Station||0.161~0.161||Cyprus (Larnaca District)||Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area||Partially borders the coast but enclosed by UK waters and UK land elsewhere; the power station is owned by the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC); no permanent population.|
|Münsterbildchen||1.826||Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen municipality)||Belgium (Liège province – Raeren municipality)||West of Vennbahn trackbed; northernmost German enclave, mainly home to industrial and warehouse businesses.|
|Roetgener Wald||9.98||Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Roetgen and Simmerath municipalities)||Belgium (Liège province)||Western part of Lammersdorf, southern part of Roetgen, and intervening forest (Forst Rötgen); west and south of Vennbahn trackbed. From 1922 to 1958, the center portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory. Until 1949, the east-west road that connected the two outer (German) portions was also German territory; therefore, the German land formed one oddly-shaped enclave (that also included the road to Konzen). In 1949, it was split into two enclaves when Germany ceded the roads to Belgium; in 1958, Belgium returned the east-west road and also ceded the center section of the current enclave to Germany.|
|Rückschlag||0.016||Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)||Belgium (Liège province – Eupen municipality)||Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; smallest German exclave, consisting of one inhabited house with a garden.|
|Mützenich||12.117||Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)||Belgium (Liège province)||West of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed.|
|Ruitzhof||0.937||Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia state – Aachen district – Monschau town)||Belgium (Liège province)||Part of city of Monschau, west of Vennbahn trackbed; southernmost Vennbahn enclave after 1949 (when Belgium annexed the Hemmeres enclave).|
|Büsingen am Hochrhein||7.62||Germany (Baden-Württemberg state – Konstanz district)||Switzerland||At its closest, less than 700 meters from Germany proper (to the east).|
|Campione d'Italia||1.6||Italy (Lombardy region – Province of Como)||Switzerland (Canton Ticino – Lugano District)||Part of Swiss customs and uses the Swiss franc, but its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure. Separated by less than 1 km, at the shortest distance, from the rest of Italy by Lake Lugano and mountains, but the terrain requires a 14 km road journey to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi.|
|Barak (de facto)||2.07||Kyrgyzstan (Kara-Suu District – Osh Province)||Uzbekistan (Andijan Province)||Kyrgyzstan's 1991 pre-independence border is the de jure international border, but much of it is hotly disputed with its neighbors. In August 1999, the area around Barak was occupied by Uzbekistan, cutting it off from Kyrgyz territory. Uzbek forces dug up and blockaded the road to Ak-Tash while also allegedly seizing large areas of Kyrgyz land that had been loaned in the Soviet era but never returned. They entrenched themselves within much of Kyrgyz border territory and refused to leave. Barak became a de facto enclave only 1.5 km from the shifted main border. Four Uzbek enclaves and Barak are major sticking points in delimitation talks, and disputes have centered on the areas of Barak, Sokh, Gava and Gavasay (stream). (Map)|
|Likoma Island||130.0 (incl a territorial water area)||Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District)||Mozambique (Niassa Province – Lago District)||Lacustrine enclave, including smaller islets, with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); only ~5 kilometers from the Mozambique shore; combined land area of Likoma Is. and the smaller Chizumulu Is. is 18 km².|
|Chizumulu Island (incl Lundu Is., Papia Is., Ngkyvo Is.)||101.4 (incl 2-NM territorial water area)||Malawi (Northern Region - Likoma District)||Mozambique (Niassa Province – Lago District)||Lacustrine enclave with territorial water border in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa); Malawian mainland is 46 km away.|
|Baarle-Nassau (8 parcels)||0.150684||Netherlands (North Brabant province – Baarle-Nassau municipality)||Belgium (Antwerp province – Baarle-Hertog municipality)||(N8)||Seven of the eight Dutch enclaves are counter-enclaves inside two Belgian enclaves (H1 and H8); one is in the main body of Belgium (N8).|
|Madha||75~75||Oman (Musandam Governorate)||United Arab Emirates||Halfway between the Omani fragment on the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman.|
|San'kovo-Medvezh'e||4.54||Russia (Bryansk Oblast – Zlynkovsky District)||Belarus (Gomel Region – Dobrush Raion)||Contains two small villages which have been depopulated since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine.|
|Llívia||12.84||Spain (Catalonia autonomous community – Province of Girona/Cerdanya comarca)||France (Languedoc-Roussillon region – Pyrénées-Orientales department)||To the east of Andorra, separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 2 km wide containing the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.|
|Vorukh||96.7~96.7||Tajikistan (Sughd Province – Isfara District)||Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province – Batken District)||South of the mountain Ak-Tash; population is 95% Tajik and the rest Kyrgyz.|
|"Kayragach"||0.88~0.88||Tajikistan (Sughd Province – Isfara District)||Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province – Leilek District)||Near the railway station of Stantsiya Kayragach, next to the Kyrgyz-Tajik border; also referred to as "Western Qal'acha" due to proximity to the Tajik town of Qal'acha; apparently there is no named settlement.|
|Sarvan (also Sarvaksoi, Sarvaki-bolo)||8.4||Tajikistan (Sughd Province – Asht District)||Uzbekistan (Namangan Province – Pap district)||Long, narrow territory located in the Fergana and Isfara valleys region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet.|
|Nahwa||5.2~5.2||United Arab Emirates (Sharjah emirate)||Oman (Musandam Governorate)||A counter-enclave surrounded by Madha, reported to consist of around forty houses.|
|Filomena Islands (5 islands)||23~23||Uruguay (Río Negro Department)||Argentina (Entre Ríos Province – Gualeguaychú and Uruguay departments)||Five adjacent islands (Isla Filomena Grande, Isla Filomena Chica, Isla Palma Chica, Isla Bassi, Isla Tres Cruces) with territorial water borders in the Uruguay River. Uninhabited islands that form part of the Esteros de Farrapos National Park.|
|Sokh||234~234||Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district)||Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province)||Large enclave with 99% Tajik population, the rest Kyrgyz and almost no ethnic Uzbeks.|
|Shakhimardan||38.2~38.2||Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district)||Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province – Kadamjay District)||Located in a narrow valley in the Alay Mountains where the rivers Ok-su and Kok-su meet to form the Shakhimardan-sai.|
|Chon-Qora or Qalacha (the 2 Uzbek villages in the enclave)||3~3||Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Sokh district)||Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province)||Tiny enclave lying on the Sokh River, immediately north of Sokh; measures about 3 km long by 1 km wide, with the Uzbek villages of Chon-Qora (or Chongara ) and Qalacha ( ) at either end; the Kyrgyz village of Chong-Kara (or Chon-Kara ) lies 2 km northwest. [Note: The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet contains three characters not present in the Uzbek alphabet. One of these characters is romanized from Kyrgyz as the digraph "ng," which is not present in romanized Uzbek words.]|
|Jani-Ayil (also Jangy-ayyl or Khalmion)||0.8~0.8||Uzbekistan (Fergana Province – Fergana district)||Kyrgyzstan (Batken Province – Kadamjay District)||Tiny enclave north-northwest of the Shakhimardan enclave; within 1 km of the Uzbek main border; the Kyrgyz towns of Jani-Ayil (Kalmion ( ) lie outside opposite edges of this enclave.) and|
|30000~30,000||International waters||Russia||Surrounded by Russia's EEZ in the Sea of Okhotsk; lies between the territorial zones of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island. (Note: EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.)|
|High Seas||170000~170,000||International waters||Japan||Surrounded by Japan's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Honshu, Shikoku, the Bonin Islands, Okino-tori-shima and Okinawa Island|
|High Seas||1200~1200||International waters||New Zealand||Surrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of the Chatham Islands, North Island and the Bounty Islands|
|High Seas||20000~20,000||International waters||New Zealand||Surrounded by New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Campbell Island, South Island and the Antipodes Islands|
First-order subnational level
|Name||Area (km2)||Parent Country||Exclave of||Enclaved by||Coordinates||Notes|
|Qobu||Azerbaijan||Absheron Rayon||Baku||Map showing Absheron rayon and Qobu; another showing Çeyildağ also|
|Çeyildağ||Azerbaijan||Baku||Absheron Rayon||Çeyildağ at GEOnet Names Server|
|• (near Maçkalaşen) and • Yuxarı Veysəlli||Azerbaijan||Füzuli Rayon||Xocavənd Rayon||,||Xocavənd Rayon is a de facto part of the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which is unrecognized by any member states of the United Nations. Füzuli Rayon is partially occupied and controlled by its forces. (Yuxarı Veysəlli at GEOnet Names Server)|
|• (includes Aşağı Quşçular, Yuxarı Quşçular, Malıbəyli)||Azerbaijan||Şuşa Rayon||Xocalı Rayon||Located near Xankəndi (Stepanakert), capital of the de facto Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which includes Şuşa and Xocalı Rayons. (Aşağı Quşçular at GEOnet Names Server, Yuxarı Quşçular at GEOnet Names Server, Malıbəyli at GEOnet Names Server)|
|• (northeast of Deşdahat)||Azerbaijan||Xocavənd Rayon||Qubadlı Rayon||Qubadlı Rayon is occupied and controlled by forces of the breakaway Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which includes Xocavənd Rayon.|
|• (main part of the city)
• Minsk National Airport
|409.5||Belarus||Minsk||Minsk Region (Minsk and Smalyavichy Raions)||, ,|
|• (1 parcel)||Belarus||Minsk Region (Minsk Raion)||Minsk (Maskowski District)|
|• (southeast of Jogir village), • (south of Arjo village) and • (northwest of Uke)||Ethiopia||Benishangul-Gumuz Region (Kamashi Zone – Belo Jegonfoy)||Oromia Region (Misraq Welega Zone)||, ,||The first two of the three enclaves are close in distance and lie near or on the Highway 5 route between Jogir and Arjo.|
|• (includes Gardères, Luquet) and • (includes Séron, Escaunets, Villenave-près-Béarn)||42.02||France||Midi-Pyrénées (Hautes-Pyrénées – Arrondissement of Tarbes – Canton d'Ossun and Canton de Vic-en-Bigorre)||Aquitaine (Pyrénées-Atlantiques – Arrondissement of Pau)||,||Séron is less than 300 meters from the neighboring enclave to its south that includes Gardères and Luquet; they, along with Séron, are part of Canton d'Ossun. Escaunets and Villenave-près-Béarn are in the same enclave with Séron, but unlike Séron, they are part of Canton de Vic-en-Bigorre.|
|Canton of Valréas||124.91||France||Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (Vaucluse – Arrondissement of Avignon)||Rhône-Alpes (Drôme – Arrondissement of Nyons)||Known as the Enclave des Papes, it was part of the possessions of the Pope in France near Avignon; it was attached to Vaucluse when annexed after the départements were created (see Comtat Venaissin).|
|• Hansestadt Bremen (south) and • Hansestadt Bremen (north)||408||Germany||Freie Hansestadt Bremen||Lower Saxony||Bremerhaven and Überseehafengebiet comprise Bremen's northern part, which is 60 km downstream of Bremen's larger southern part on the River Weser. Both parts of Hansestadt Bremen are enclaves within Lower Saxony, as well as exclaves of each other.|
|Fehrmoor (part)||Germany||Freie Hansestadt Bremen (Bremerhaven Stadt – Nord Stadtbezirk – Leherheide Stadtteil – Fehrmoor)||Lower Saxony (Cuxhaven)||Fehrmoor is a part of Leherheide, which is a sub-division of Bremerhaven. Part of Fehrmoor is separated by a narrow strip of Lower Saxony from the rest of Bremerhaven, making it an exclave of the city and of the state.|
|Choto Pokalagi||0.549||India||Assam (Dhubri district)||West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)||A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949|
|Gobrarkuthi||0.149||India||Assam (Dhubri district)||West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)||A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949|
|Ramrayerkuthi||0.084||India||Assam (Dhubri district)||West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)||A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949|
|Dadra||India||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Gujarat (Valsad district)||Dadra was part of the former Portuguese India.|
|Maghval||India||Gujarat (Valsad district)||Dadra and Nagar Haveli||Formerly "Bombay Enclave," Maghval was a British counter-enclave within the Portuguese enclave within British India until independence.|
|Yanam district||20||India||Puducherry||Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari district)||The four districts of Puducherry (Pondicherry, Mahe, Yanam and Karaikal) were French colonies until 1954.|
|• Cherukallayi and • (includes Palloor, Chalakkara, Pandakkal)||India||Puducherry (Mahe district)||Kerala (Kannur district)||,||Mahe district consists of these two true enclaves and Mahé municipality.|
|• Bahour PS-Karaiyambuthur OP (3 enclaves), • Dhanvantry Nagar PS-Alankuppam OP, • Thirubuvanai PS/Thirukkanur PS (part), • Kattery Kuppam PS/Thirukkanur PS (part), • Nettapakkam PS (west), • Mangalam PS (part), • Thirukkanur PS (part)||India||Puducherry (Pondicherry district)||Tamil Nadu (Cuddalore and Viluppuram districts)||(the largest part)||These 9 parcels along with three coastal pene-exclaves comprise all of Pondicherry district.|
|Cuddalore Subdistrict||India||Tamil Nadu (Cuddalore district)||Puducherry (Pondicherry district)||This enclave is surrounded by one of the three coastal pene-exclaves in Pondicherry district.|
|Bara Lowkuthi||5.47||India||West Bengal (Cooch Behar district)||Assam (Kokrajhar district)||A national level enclave prior to the incorporation of Cooch Behar into India in 1949|
|• (includes Ortale)||Italy||Tuscany (Province of Arezzo – Badia Tedalda)||Emilia-Romagna (Province of Rimini)||One enclave|
|Monte Ruperto||2.7||Italy||Umbria (Province of Perugia – Città di Castello)||Marche (Province of Pesaro and Urbino)||This enclave consists of hills, cropland and few structures.|
|• Lama and • Valle Inferiore||Italy||Emilia Romagna (Province of Piacenza – Corte Brugnatella)||Lombardy (Province of Pavia)||,||Two tiny rural enclaves very close to each other. There is just one house in Valle Inferiore and none in Lama.|
|San Pellegrino in Alpe||Italy||Emilia Romagna (Province of Modena – Frassinoro)||Tuscany (Province of Lucca)||Enclave including part of the village of San Pellegrino in Alpe. map|
|(1 parcel)||Italy||Lombardy (Province of Pavia – Pieve del Cairo)||Piedmont (Province of Alessandria)||The enclave is a small plot of cropland|
|Wes||Liechtenstein||Planken||Schaan||One of the 4 exclaves of Planken (map)|
|Brunnenegg||Liechtenstein||Schaan||Planken||One of the 4 exclaves of Schaan (map)|
|Rüttistein||Liechtenstein||Vaduz||Planken||One of the 6 exclaves of Vaduz (map)|
|Forst||Liechtenstein||Vaduz||Schaan||One of the 6 exclaves of Vaduz (map)|
|(2 parcels)||Moldova||Dubăsari District||Transnistrian-controlled Dubăsari District||,||Transnistria is de facto independent, but not recognized by any member states of the United Nations. Control of two highways (east of Roghi, west of Vasilievca) by Transnistria in this frozen conflict created these two neighboring enclaves.|
|Văduleni||Moldova||Chișinău municipality||Criuleni district|
|• Central Ulaanbaatar and • Bagakhangai||4084.2||Mongolia||Ulan Bator||Töv Province||,||Two enclaves|
|Jøsås farms (2 parcels)||Norway||Sør-Trøndelag (Malvik)||Nord-Trøndelag (Stjørdal)||,||Three farmsteads, Øvre Jøsås, Store Jøsås and Lille Jøsås, that belong to Sør-Trøndelag county comprise two separate enclaves that are surrounded by Nord-Trøndelag county. The eastern enclave consists of Øvre Jøsås and Store Jøsås, while the western enclave is Lille Jøsås. The closest distance between the two enclaves is only about 8 meters.|
|Sambú district||1296.4||Panama||Comarca Emberá-Wounaan||Darién Province (Chepigana District)|
|El Bale||Panama||Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Ñürüm)||Veraguas Province (Cañazas District)|
|• Cerro Pelado and • (near El Piro)||Panama||Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna)||Veraguas Province (Las Palmas District)||,||The unnamed parcel is a crescent-shaped forested area bordered by streams.|
|• Bakama and • (includes Trinidad)||Panama||Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna)||Chiriquí Province (Tolé District)||,||The village of Trinidad appears to be the only population center in the unnamed parcel.|
|Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug||37.22||Russia||Moscow||Moscow Oblast|
|Vostochny (2 parcels)||3.20||Russia||Moscow (Eastern Administrative Okrug – Vostochny District)||Moscow Oblast (Balashikha Urban Okrug)||These two enclaves within Moscow Oblast are separated only by the width of the road between them.|
|Akulovo (2 parcels)||Russia||Moscow (Eastern Administrative Okrug – Vostochny District)||Moscow Oblast||,||Two small enclaves|
|Machikhino||Russia||Moscow (Troitsky Administrative Okrug – Kiyevsky Settlement)||Moscow Oblast (Naro-Fominsky District – Naro-Fominsky Urban Settlement)||Machikhino became part of "New Moscow" on 1 July 2012.|
|Arkhangelsky||2.33||Russia||Moscow (Western Administrative Okrug – Kuntsevo District)||Moscow Oblast (Krasnogorsky District)||Arkhangelsky became part of "New Moscow" on 1 July 2012.|
|Konezavod, VTB (i.e., "Stud Farm, VTB")||27.18||Russia||Moscow (Western Administrative Okrug – Kuntsevo District)||Moscow Oblast||This enclave became part of "New Moscow" on 1 July 2012, with bizarrely twisting borders that touch Krasnogorsky and Odintsovsky Districts and Zvenigorod Urban Okrug. Two landowners, MKZ "Moscow Stud Farm N1" (about 1100 hectares) and VTB Bank with 1,082 hectares, own nearly all of it.|
|(2 parcels)||Russia||Tatarstan (Agryzsky District)||Udmurtia (Kiyasovsky District)||,||Two enclaves|
|Novaya Kokshan||Russia||Tatarstan (Mendeleyevsky District)||Udmurtia (Grakhovsky District)||Lies on the Kokshanka River|
|(3 parcels)||Russia||Tatarstan (Drozhzhanovsky District)||Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)||, ,||Three enclaves|
|upper Inesh valley||Russia||Tatarstan (Kaybitsky District)||Chuvashia (Yantikovsky District)|
|Novoye Bayderyakovo||Russia||Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)||Tatarstan (Buinsky District)|
|Chuvashskiye Entugany - Maksim Gorkiy||Russia||Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)||Tatarstan (Buinsky District)|
|west of Malaya Tsil'na (1 parcel)||Russia||Chuvashia (Shemurshinsky District)||Tatarstan (Drozhzhanovsky District)|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Chuvashia (Krasnochetaysky District)||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Pilninsky District)||One enclave|
|(3 parcels)||Russia||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Pilninsky District)||Chuvashia (Krasnochetaysky District)||, ,||Three enclaves|
|(3 parcels)||Russia||Omsk Oblast (Krutinskiy District)||Tyumen Oblast (Abatskiy District)||, ,||Three enclaves|
|(2 parcels)||Russia||Tyumen Oblast (Abatskiy District)||Omsk Oblast (Krutinskiy District)||,||Two enclaves|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Kemerovo Oblast (Novokuznetskiy District)||Altai Krai (El'tsovskiy District)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Tatarstan (Arsky District – Shurabashkoye Urban Settlement)||Mari El Republic (Morkinsky District)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Tyumen Oblast (Nizhnetavdinsky District)||Sverdlovsk Oblast (Slobodo-Turinsky District – Slobodo-Turinskoye Rural Settlement)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Penza Oblast (Mokshansky District)||Mordovia (Insarsky District)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Mordovia (Narovchatsky District)||Penza Oblast (Narovchatsky District)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Mordovia (Tengushevsky District – Dachnoye Rural Settlement)||Ryazan Oblast (Kadomsky District)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Ryazan Oblast (Kadomsky District)||Mordovia (Tengushevsky District – Dachnoye Rural Settlement)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Kaluga Oblast (Mosalsky District – Celo Shakhovskiy Rural Settlement)||Smolensk Oblast (Ugransky District – Klyuchikovskoye Rural Settlement)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Arkhangelsk Oblast (Kargopolsky District – Ukhotskoye Rural Settlement)||Vologda Oblast (Vytegorsky District – Kemskoye Rural Settlement)||One enclave|
|(1 parcel)||Russia||Sverdlovsk Oblast (Achitsky District)||Perm Krai (Suksunsky District)||One enclave|
|Valle de Villaverde||19.53||Spain||Cantabria||Basque Country (Biscay)|
|• Sajuela and • El Ternero||3.5||Spain||Castile and León (Province of Burgos – Miranda de Ebro)||La Rioja||,||Two enclaves|
|Enclave de Treviño||279.58||Spain||Castile and León (Province of Burgos)||Basque Country (Álava)|
|• Cezura and • Lastrilla||Spain||Castile and León (Province of Palencia – Pomar de Valdivia)||Cantabria (Valderredible)||,||Two enclaves|
|La Canaleja||Spain||Castile-La Mancha (Province of Guadalajara – Torrejón del Rey)||Community of Madrid|
|Dehesa de la Cepeda||Spain||Community of Madrid (Santa María de la Alameda)||Castile and León||On the northern slopes of Sierra de Guadarrama|
|• Petilla de Aragón and • Los Bastanes||27.55||Spain||Navarre||Aragon (Province of Zaragoza)||,||Petilla de Aragón is also a municipality in northern Spain formed by these two enclaves.|
|Fahr Abbey||0.0148||Switzerland||Aargau (Baden District – Würenlos)||Canton of Zurich (Dietikon District – Unterengstringen)||From 1803 through 2007 this Benedictine convent was not part of a municipality.|
|Kloster Grimmenstein||Switzerland||Appenzell Innerrhoden (Oberegg District)||Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Walzenhausen)|
|Kloster Wonnenstein||Switzerland||Appenzell Innerrhoden (Schlatt-Haslen)||Appenzell Ausserrhoden (Teufen)|
|Münchenwiler||2.5||Switzerland||Canton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland)||Canton of Fribourg (See District)|
|• Surpierre and • Vuissens||10.43||Switzerland||Canton of Fribourg (Broye District)||Vaud||,||Surpierre includes the villages of Surpierre, Villeneuve, Cheiry and Prèvond-avaux.|
|Wallenbuch||1.4||Switzerland||Canton of Fribourg (See District – Gurmels)||Canton of Bern (Bern-Mittelland)|
|La Grande/La Petite Coudre (Céligny)||Switzerland||Canton of Geneva (Céligny)||Vaud (Nyon District)||The municipality of Céligny consists of two exclaves of the Canton of Geneva within the Canton of Vaud. The smaller of the two is enclaved by Vaud. The larger one also has a water border with France and thus is not an enclave.|
|Steinhof||1.64||Switzerland||Canton of Solothurn (Wasseramt District – Aeschi)||Canton of Bern (Oberaargau)|
|Slavutych||2.53||Ukraine||Kiev Oblast||Chernihiv Oblast|
|Kotsiubynske||0.87||Ukraine||Kiev Oblast (Irpin)||Kiev (Sviatoshyn)|
|• the above-water part of Liberty Island and • the original portion of Ellis Island not created by landfill||0.0726||United States||New York (New York City – Manhattan)||New Jersey (Hudson County – Jersey City)||,||The size of the original portion of Ellis Island is 3.3 acres (0.013 km² ) of the overall area (together with Liberty Island) of 27.5 acres. From a 1997 U.S. Supreme Court decision it follows that a seawall that was completed in 1914 made the original Ellis Island a true enclave within New Jersey.|
|• (main part of city), • Ulugbek||334.8||Uzbekistan||Tashkent||Tashkent Province||,|
|• (includes Khanabad and others)||Uzbekistan||Tashkent Province (Zangiota District)||Tashkent|
- In China:
- Chaoyang District has one exclave which comprises Terminals 1 and 2 of Beijing International Airport and the immediately surrounding service area. It is an enclave of Shunyi which used to be Shunyi Subdistrict of Chaoyang_District. The main reason for the existence of this exclave is because the financing for the building of these Terminals was largely carried by Chaoyang District and this political organization ensures that they continue to pay taxes to Chaoyang District. Note: Terminal 3 is *NOT* a part of this exclave as it was built for the 2008 Olympics and was built after the formation of Shunyi District. See a map of the exclave, not including Terminal 3, on Google Maps. 
- In Estonia:
- In Ida-Viru County, the municipality of Kohtla-Järve consists of seven separated areas within a distance of 30 km. Of these exclaves, Kukruse and Oru districts and Viivikonna subdistrict of Sirgala district are also enclaves, since they are surrounded by Kohtla Parish, Toila Parish and Vaivara Parish, respectively.
- Olgina district of Narva municipality is surrounded by Vaivara Parish.
- In France (départements):
- In Norway, the municipality of Sandefjord has one exclave, Himberg, inside the neighbouring municipality of Larvik.
- In Portugal, as a consequence of administrative reforms during the 19th century (in the 1830s, then again in the 1850s, and to a much lesser extent in the 1890s), as well as more recent legislation forbidding the creation of territorial discontinuities, there are almost no sub-national exclaves or enclaves, and the few that persist are on the municipal or civil parish level:
- Two civil parishes comprise the city of Estremoz. The parish of Santa Maria (the new town and its rural environs) surrounds an enclave, the walled old town of the parish of Santo Andre. The citadel inside Santo Andre is a counter-enclave that belongs to Santa Maria.
- In the Coimbra municipality, the civil parish of Taveiro has an exclave that is enclaved by the civil parish of Ribeira de Frades.
- In Spain:
- In Andalusia, Villar is an exclave of Córdoba province surrounded by Seville province.
- In Castile and León:
- In Catalonia, the province of Girona administers Solelles de les Rovires, which is surrounded by the province of Barcelona.
- In Sweden many municipalities have exclaves (most notably the municipalities of Dalarna County).
- In the United States of America:
- In Alaska, the community of Klukwan is surrounded by Haines Borough, even though the community is part of the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area, which is in turn part of the Unorganized Borough.
- In Colorado, Arapahoe County has two exclaves within the City and County of Denver, one of which is the city of Glendale. Additionally, Boulder and Weld counties both have an exclave within the City and County of Broomfield, and Broomfield has an exclave in Boulder County.
- In Georgia, Bibb County has an exclave within Monroe County. This boundary is disputed, however.
- In Kentucky, following the merger of the Louisville and Jefferson County governments in 2003, the new Louisville Metro has several disjoint parcels of land throughout the county, some of which are enclaves in other cities.
- In New Jersey, Middletown Township in Monmouth County has an exclave surrounded by the borough of Keansburg.
- In Ohio:
- In Montgomery County, there are several cities with enclaves and exclaves. Dayton has one exclave, consisting of Dayton International Airport. Dayton also surrounds several enclaves that belong to the cities of Trotwood and Riverside. Riverside also has several exclaves that border more than one city as well as additional parcels that are connected to the city only by a roadway. Clayton contains several enclaves surrounded by Englewood and one that is completely surrounded by Union. Other than Dayton's exclave, these enclaves and exclaves were formed by municipality-township mergers in the 1990s.
- In Summit County:
- The city of Cuyahoga Falls has four small enclave/exclaves along its border with the city of Akron. Several houses along Smith Road are legally in the Falls, while neighbors and municipal lands on all sides of the properties are legally within Akron.
- Bath Township has four exclaves, one of which is an enclave of Akron.
- Springfield Township has six exclaves, two of which are enclaves in Akron.
- Coventry Township has six exclaves, five of which are enclaves in Akron. Two of these are joined at a quadripoint.
- Twinsburg Township has seven exclaves, four of which are enclaves in the city of Twinsburg. The city in turn has one piece connected by only a quadripoint, otherwise surrounded by the township.
- In Oregon, the location of several businesses, including the world headquarters of Nike, Inc., is surrounded by the city of Beaverton, but is within unincorporated Washington County.
- In Virginia, Fairfax County has an exclave within the City of Fairfax that houses the county courthouse and some other county governmental offices. Prince William County has an exclave within the City of Manassas that houses the county courthouse and some other county governmental offices. Montgomery County has a small exclave consisting of two houses inside the independent city of Radford. Note that in Virginia, communities that are incorporated as cities are completely separate from counties; see Political subdivisions of Virginia.
Enclaves which are not exclaves
Some enclaves are sovereign states, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:
- The Kingdom of Lesotho, embedded inside South Africa
- The republic of San Marino, enclaved within Italy
- Vatican City, within the city of Rome, in Italy
First-order subnational level
- In Australia:
- In New South Wales, the City of Broken Hill is surrounded by the Unincorporated Far West Region.
- In South Australia:
- In Queensland
- In Western Australia, the Town of Narrogin is surrounded by the Shire of Narrogin.
- In Victoria, a few unincorporated areas for ski resorts form enclaves within the surrounding shires: Falls Creek and Mount Hotham within Alpine Shire and Mount Baw Baw in Baw Baw Shire. In addition, Mount Buller and Mount Stirling share a border with each other, but are surrounded by Mansfield Shire.
- In Austria: In Tyrol, Innsbruck-Land District completely surrounds the district of Innsbruck.
- In Brazil:
- In Canada:
- In Quebec, the city of Westmount, the town of Mount Royal, and, collectively, the municipalities of Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc and Montreal West (Montréal-Ouest) are all enclaves in the city of Montreal. Similarly, the city of L'Ancienne-Lorette is an enclave in Quebec City after the demerger on 1 January 2006.
- In Saskatchewan, the city of Saskatoon is an enclave inside the rural municipality of Corman Park.
- In the People's Republic of China: In the Xinjiang autonomous region, the prefecture-level city of Karamay (which has two non-contiguous parts) and the county-level city of Kuytun (a part of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture) are completely surrounded by the Tacheng Prefecture (which is also technically part of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture).
- In Colombia, in the Capital District, La Candelaria municipality is an enclave of SantaFé.
- In Estonia, many urban municipalities are enclaves, when a town or a borough is surrounded by a single parish. Such cases include the towns of Jõgeva, Mõisaküla, Põltsamaa, Tõrva, Viljandi and Võru and the boroughs of Järvakandi and Vändra.
- In Ethiopia:
- The town and woreda of Debre Berhan is an enclave inside Basona Werana ("Baso and Werana") woreda, located in the Semien Shewa Zone in the Amhara Region.
- The city and separate woreda of Gambela is surrounded by Gambela Zuria ("Greater Gambela") woreda, located in the Anuak Zone in the Gambela Region.
- The city and special zone of Mek'ele (comprising two woredas) is an enclave within Enderta woreda, located in the Debub Misraqawi (Southeastern) Zone in the Tigray Region.
- The town and woreda of Weldiya is an enclave inside Guba Lafto woreda, located in the Semien Wollo Zone in the Amhara Region.
- The town and woreda of Debre Marqos is an enclave inside Guzamn woreda, located in the Misraq Gojjam Zone in the Amhara Region.
- In Finland, in Uusimaa region, the town of Kauniainen is enclosed by the city of Espoo. The two are located west of Helsinki, in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
- In France, in Côtes-d'Armor département, the commune of Plessix-Balisson is surrounded by the commune of Ploubalay.
- In Iceland, the municipality of Hveragerði is an enclave in Sveitarfélagið Ölfus.
- In Lithuania, a few city municipalities are enclaved in the district municipalities of the same names, including Šiauliai, Panevėžys, and Alytus.
- In Mexico, in the state of Nuevo León, the municipality of Hualahuises is surrounded by the municipality of Linares.
- In New Zealand, the Kawerau District territorial authority is completely surrounded by the Whakatane District.
- In North Korea, in South Pyongan province, Ch'ŏngnam district is an enclave in Mundŏk county.
- In the Republic of China: Chiayi City is an enclave of Chiayi County.
- In Romania, Bucureşti-Ilfov development region is enclaved by the Sud (South) development region.
- In Togo, in Centrale Region, the prefecture of Blitta is surrounded by the prefecture of Sotouboua.
- In the United Kingdom:
- The English unitary authorities of Nottingham, Derby, Stoke-on-Trent, and Leicester are enclaves in the administrative counties of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Leicestershire, respectively.
- In Cambridgeshire: the City of Cambridge is a local government district completely surrounded by the district of South Cambridgeshire.
- In Cheshire: the unpopulated civil parish of Chester Castle is completely surrounded by the unparished area of Chester. Both form part of the borough of Cheshire West and Chester.
- The City of London is an enclave within the ceremonial county of Greater London. It forms its own ceremonial county. Also, the rest of Greater London consists of London boroughs, whilst the City is not a London borough.
- In the United States of America:
- In Arizona:
- In Arkansas, the City of Cammack Village is an enclave of Little Rock.
- In California:
- In 1956, Newark withdrew from the incorporation of the communities of Washington Township as the city of Fremont and is now surrounded by Fremont.
- Piedmont incorporated in 1907 to avoid annexation by Oakland and is now surrounded by Oakland.
- The unincorporated area of Broadmoor is surrounded by Daly City.
- The unincorporated area of Fig Garden is surrounded by Fresno.
- The city of San Fernando is an enclave in the city of Los Angeles. Beverly Hills and West Hollywood together form another. Culver City and the unincorporated community of Ladera Heights form a third enclave.
- The city of Signal Hill is entirely surrounded by the city of Long Beach.
- The city of Villa Park is an enclave of the city of Orange.
- In Florida, the town of Baldwin is an enclave within the city of Jacksonville. The Village of Lazy Lake is contained entirely within the borders of the city of Wilton Manors.
- In Georgia, Payne City is an enclave within the city of Macon; similarly, Remerton is an enclave of Valdosta.
- In Idaho, Garden City is an enclave in the city of Boise.
- In Illinois, Norridge and Harwood Heights together form an enclave in the city of Chicago.
- In Indiana, after the creation of Unigov (the merged government of Indianapolis and Marion County) in 1970, three of the four communities that did not fully merge with Indianapolis – Beech Grove, Southport, and Speedway – became enclaves of Indianapolis.
- In Iowa, the city of University Heights is entirely surrounded by Iowa City.
- In Kansas, the city of Eastborough is entirely surrounded by Wichita.
- In Kentucky, when the governments of Louisville and Jefferson County merged in 2003, a bewildering array of enclaves was created, as all other incorporated cities in Jefferson County retained their status as separate cities. Note that the entire Ohio River between the northern and southern low-water marks is now part of Louisville Metro.
- Three other cities were, and still are, enclaved in cities other than Louisville:
- The merger created many other enclaves within the portion of Louisville Metro that includes pre-merger Louisville but excludes all other pre-existing cities, an entity defined by the United States Census Bureau as the "Louisville-Jefferson County balance". As municipalities, these enclaves are not parts of the "balance," but rather, they are surrounded by the "balance."
- These individual enclaves: Creekside, Fincastle, Glenview Hills, Hickory Hill, Hills and Dales, Hollow Creek, Hollyvilla, Lynnview, Minor Lane Heights, Shively, South Park View, Spring Mill, and Thornhill.
- The combination of Cambridge, Houston Acres, Lincolnshire, and St. Regis Park.
- The combination of Poplar Hills, Watterson Park, and West Buechel.
- The aforementioned cities of Middletown, Norbourne Estates, Richlawn, St. Matthews, and Woodland Hills, along with 46 other municipalities are part of a large composite enclave within the "balance."
- In Michigan:
- In Minnesota:
- In Missouri, the cities of Gladstone and North Kansas City are separately surrounded by Kansas City.
- In Montana, when the governments of Butte and Silver Bow County merged in 1977, the town of Walkerville voted not to join the consolidated government, thus becoming an enclave.
- In New Jersey:
- The city of Cortland, New York, seat of Cortland County, is entirely surrounded by the town of Cortlandville, from which it is legally separate.
- In North Dakota, the city of Prairie Rose is an enclave of Fargo.
- In Ohio:
- The cities of Minerva Park, Bexley, Whitehall, and Valleyview are all enclaves of Columbus. The cities of Worthington and Riverlea together form another enclave of Columbus.
- The city of Norwood is an enclave of Cincinnati. The cities of Elmwood Place, to the north, and St. Bernard, to the south, together form another enclave of Cincinnati.
- In Stark County, the village of Hills & Dales is enclaved by Jackson Township.
- In Summit County, the village of Lakemore is surrounded by Springfield Township.
- In Oregon, the city of Maywood Park is surrounded by Portland, which annexed the surrounding lands after Maywood Park incorporated.
- In Pennsylvania, every county in the state other than the counties of Fulton, Philadelphia, Pike and Union contains at least one municipality in another municipality. There are at least 338 enclaves in the state comprising incorporated places and census-designated places within other county subdivisions. Usually, the enclave takes the form of a borough that is surrounded by the township of which it was originally a part, but other scenarios are possible (e.g., the Borough of Mount Oliver is an enclave of Pittsburgh; Pitcairn borough, of Monroeville; Dale borough, of Johnstown; and the Lackawanna County township of Elmhurst, of Roaring Brook Township). While Pennsylvania's urban counties contain few enclaves due to municipal fragmentation, rural areas feature numerous enclaved municipalities. Many resulted from small town centers separating from their rural surrounding areas.
- In Tennessee, the cities of Red Bank and Ridgeside are enclaves in the city of Chattanooga.
- In Texas:
- The cities of Alamo Heights, Balcones Heights, Castle Hills, Hill Country Village, Hollywood Park, Kirby, Leon Valley, Olmos Park, Shavano Park, and Terrell Hills are all enclaves of San Antonio.
- The cities of Bellaire, West University Place, and Southside Place together form an enclave of Houston. The cities of Bunker Hill Village, Hedwig Village, Hilshire Village, Hunters Creek Village, Piney Point Village, and Spring Valley Village together form another enclave of Houston.
- The cities of Highland Park and University Park, collectively known locally as the "Park Cities", together form an enclave of Dallas. In addition, the city of Cockrell Hill is also an enclave of Dallas.
- The city of Sunset Valley is enclave of Austin.
- The city of Beverly Hills is an enclave of Waco.
- The cities of Dalworthington Gardens and Pantego together form an enclave of Arlington.
- In Vermont:
- In Virginia, under Virginia law, all municipalities that are incorporated as cities are legally independent of any county. Fifteen such enclaves — thirteen individual cities, plus two pairs of adjoining cities — exist within the state; some of the cities that form these enclaves serve as county seat of the surrounding county:
- Bedford, enclaved within and the county seat of Bedford County
- Buena Vista, enclaved within Rockbridge County
- Charlottesville, enclaved within and the county seat of Albemarle County
- Covington, enclaved within and the county seat of Alleghany County
- Emporia, enclaved within and the county seat of Greensville County
- Fairfax, enclaved within and the county seat of Fairfax County. As noted above, the county courthouse is located in an unincorporated portion of Fairfax County that is completely surrounded by the city.
- Harrisonburg, enclaved within and the county seat of Rockingham County
- Lexington, enclaved within and the county seat of Rockbridge County
- Manassas and Manassas Park together form an enclave within Prince William County. Manassas is the county seat; as noted above, the county courthouse is located in an unincorporated portion of Prince William County that is completely surrounded by the city.
- Martinsville, enclaved within and the county seat of Henry County
- Norton, enclaved within Wise County
- Roanoke and Salem together form an enclave within Roanoke County. The Roanoke County Courthouse is located in Salem, but the rest of the county government is located in the unincorporated community of Cave Spring.
- Staunton, enclaved within and the county seat of Augusta County
- Waynesboro, enclaved within Augusta County
- Winchester, enclaved within and the county seat of Frederick County
- In Wisconsin, the village of Thiensville is an enclave of the city of Mequon in Ozaukee County.
Exclaves which are not enclaves
To be a true exclave, all potential paths of travel from the exclave to the main region must cross over the territory only of a different region or regions having the equivalent governmental administrative level.
- Azerbaijan: The exclave of Nakhichivan is bounded by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
- Croatia has a second exclave within 400 meters of its enclave of Brezovica Žumberačka (which is surrounded by Slovenia). This exclave would normally be an enclave also, except that neither Slovenia nor Croatia claims a small parcel of land with one building that adjoins the exclave. If Slovenia were to claim the parcel, Croatia's exclave would become an enclave as well. As it is, the exclave is bordered by Slovenia and what may be considered to be "Terra nullius," (e.g., like Bir Tawil). Thus, it is not surrounded by only one other country.
- Honduras: Honduras, El Salvador and Nicaragua border the Gulf of Fonseca, a closed sea under international law. Each enjoys a 3-nautical mile littoral zone of sovereignty along its shores and islands in the gulf. The remaining water area in the gulf comprises a tridominium that is shared in common among all three nations. The littoral zones abut each other in a way that forms two separate areas of tridominium waters in the gulf. The eastern area is bordered by the zones of all three countries. The larger western area (about 235 km2) is bordered only by the waters of El Salvador and Nicaragua and the closing line of the gulf, such that one cannot travel within the gulf from Honduras to the enclosed western area except by passing through El Salvadoran and Nicaraguan waters. Therefore, the western water area ( ) is a semi-exclave of Honduras by virtue of it being shared territorially with two other countries. All three nations are "entitled outside the closing line to territorial sea, continental shelf and exclusive economic zone. Whether this situation should remain in being or be replaced by a division and delimitation into three separate zones is, as inside the Gulf also, a matter for the three States to decide."
- High Seas: There are 15 exclaves upon the high seas that consist of areas of international waters that are surrounded by the 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zones of various countries. (EEZs are not areas of sovereignty, but rather of sovereign rights and functional jurisdiction.) Four of the 15 are also enclaves (see above), and 11 are exclaves only. These 11 exclaves exist because, in their particular cases, the EEZs of several neighboring countries border on each other in a way that encloses an area of international waters, such that one cannot travel to the enclosed region except by passing through the waters of one of these EEZs. These 11 exclaves are created by the EEZs of the following countries:
- Russia and United States (Alaska) ( ) – approx. 168,000 km2
- Norway (including Svalbard), Faeroe Islands, Greenland, Jan Mayen (Norway) and Iceland ( )
- Mexico (EEZ defined by Cape Catoche and Scorpion Reef in the Gulf of Mexico), USA (EEZ defined by Loggerhead Key and the Gulf coast) and Cuba (EEZ extends northwest from Cayo Ines de Soto) ( ), the "Eastern Gap" – approx. 20,000 km2
- Mauritius (Agalega Islands), Tromelin Island (France), Madagascar and Seychelles (Farquhar Atoll) ( )
- In the South China Sea, the EEZs that are defined by Taiwan (Pratas Reef), the Philippines (Luzon Island and Cabra I.), the Spratly Islands of Dao Dinh Ba and Flat Island, and the Paracel Island of Dao Hoang Sa enclose an exclave centered at . National sovereignty over many of the Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea is disputed. Hence, depending upon the claims involved, this exclave may be considered as being created by the EEZs of Taiwan and the Philippines, or by the EEZs of Taiwan, the Philippines and Viet Nam, or by the EEZs of Taiwan and mainland China, or by the EEZ of mainland China alone.
- French Polynesia, Cook Islands and Kiribati ( )
- Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Fiji ( )
- Palau, Micronesia, Indonesia and Papua-New Guinea ( )
- Japan (outer islands, including Okino-tori-shima), Palau, the Philippines, Northern Marianas Islands and Micronesia ( )
- Nauru, Tuvalu, Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Papua-New Guinea, Fiji, Kiribati and the Solomon Islands ( )
- Mexico (EEZ defined by Scorpion Reef and Cayo Arenas in the Gulf of Mexico) and United States (EEZ defined by the Gulf of Mexico coast, including Wolf Island (south of Freeport, Texas, and Raccoon Island, Louisiana) at ), the "Western Gap" – This exclave no longer exists per se. In areas with natural resource deposits on the continental shelf, the UNCLOS allows nations to claim territory beyond the EEZ to a maximum of 350 NM. On 9 June 2000, the U.S. and Mexico divided the Western Gap by a line equidistant from both countries' coastlines. The gap covered 17,467 km2. The new boundary divided the Western Gap, giving 38% of the area (6562 km2) to the U.S. and 62% to Mexico (10,905 km2).
Subnational exclaves that are not enclaves
- In Australia, the state of Victoria's Murrindindi Shire has an exclave along the border with Shire of Yarra Ranges. It is separated from the rest of Murrindindi Shire by the Lake Mountain unincorporated area, which was originally a part of the shire.
- In Austria, the transfer of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol to Italy after World War I left the county of Tyrol in two parts.
- In Azerbaijan,
- Two exclaves of Quba Rayon are surrounded by Şabran Rayon and Siyəzən Rayon. One is located north of the village of Zöhrabkənd at . The other, which includes Yalavanc, is at .
- An exclave of Oğuz Rayon, located at , is surrounded by Şəki Rayon, Ağdaş Rayon and Qəbələ Rayon. It includes the villages of Vladimirovka and Astarxanovka.
- In Belgium:
- The province of Limburg (and the Flemish Region) has an exclave, the municipality of Voeren (Fourons).
- The province of Hainaut, in the Wallonia (French-speaking community) region, has an exclave, the municipality of Comines-Warneton (Komen-Waasten).
- The territory of the German-speaking Community of Belgium is also composed of two parts, separated by a part of the French Community.
- Apart from Baarle-Hertog, there are three municipalities consisting of non-contiguous parts: Ixelles/Elsene and Sint-Gillis  in the Brussels Capital Region and Mesen in West-Flanders.
- The nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of two "halves" – Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republika Srpska – that share and administer the Brčko District as a condominium. To its north, Brčko District borders Orašje, one of the three municipalities that form Posavina Canton, which comprises two non-contiguous areas that belong to the FBiH. One of the areas, Odžak, is sandwiched between Republika Srpska and Croatia and therefore is an exclave of the FBiH. The other area contains the neighboring municipalities of Domaljevac and Orašje, which combined form a "semi-exclave" of the FBiH by virtue of bordering only Republika Srpska, Croatia and the shared Brčko District.
- In Brazil:
- In Goiás: Sítio d'Abadia was cut in two as a result of the expansion of Alvorada do Norte.
- In Mato Grosso: Barra do Bugres was cut in two as a result of the expansion of Salto do Céu and Reserva do Cabaçal.
- In Pará: the town of Senador José Porfírio was cut in two as a result of the formation of Anapu.
- In Canada, the Caniapiscau Regional County Municipality in Quebec is separated into multiple sections.
- In China:
- In Hebei province, Xianghe County, Sanhe City, and Dachang Hui Autonomous County, lodged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, together make up an exclave of the prefecture-level city of Langfang.
- In Qinghai province, Tanggulashan town is an exclave of the city of Golmud and the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture which Golmud is part of, separated from the rest of the prefecture by a "panhandle" of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.
- In Estonia:
- In Harju County, Harku small borough is an exclave of Harku Parish.
- In Hiiu County, Kärdla is an exclave of Hiiu Parish.
- In Ida-Viru County:
- In Finland, in Ostrobothnia, the former municipality of Vähäkyrö is now an exclave of the city of Vaasa.
- In France, the commune of Ménessaire is an exclave of the department of Côte-d'Or between Nièvre and Saône-et-Loire.
- In Germany:
- The Samtgemeinde Baddeckenstedt is separated from the greater part of the district Wolfenbüttel by the urban district of Salzgitter.
- Ober-Laudenbach, a town on the outskirts of the city of Heppenheim in southern Hesse on the boundary with Baden-Württemberg, surrounds two enclaves belonging to Baden-Württemberg. One of them contains a counter-enclave belonging to Hesse.
- In Hong Kong:
- In Iceland:
- The municipality of Ásahreppur has one exclave.
- The municipality of Kópavogur is divided into three parts.
- In Italy:
- In Japan, Kitayama Village and Kumanogawa Town of Wakayama prefecture are located in the border between Mie and Nara prefectures.
- In South Korea, Dalseong in Daegu and Wanju in North Jeolla Province both have exclaves.
- In Latvia, Olaine and Rauna municipalities are divided into two sections apiece.
- In Liechtenstein, seven of the eleven municipalities are in two or more pieces. In addition to the enclaves mentioned above, Vaduz also has four exclaves;Planken and Schaan each have three; Balzers and Eschen each have two; and Triesenberg and Gamprin each have one.
- In Moldova:
- In the Netherlands, Amsterdam Zuidoost is cut from other parts of the municipality of Amsterdam by land that belongs to the municipalities of Ouder-Amstel and Diemen.
- In Panama:
- Viguí corregimiento is an exclave of the Las Palmas District of Veraguas Province. It is surrounded by Müna and Ñürüm districts of Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca, Tolé District of Chiriquí Province, and Cañazas District of Veraguas Province.
- Justo Fidel Palacios corregimiento is an exclave of Chiriquí Province (Tolé District) and is bounded by Ngöbe-Buglé Comarca (Müna) and Veraguas Province (Las Palmas District).
- In the Philippines:
- In Poland:
- Sławków is an exclave of Będzin County. Sławków is separated from the rest of the county by the cities of Dąbrowa Górnicza and Sosnowiec. All of these are within the Silesian Voivodeship (province).
- Rybnik County is split into three disjoint parts, separated by the city of Rybnik. The three parts are the municipalities of Czerwionka-Leszczyny, Świerklany, and the combined area of Lyski, Gaszowice and Jejkowice. All of these are within the Silesian Voivodeship.
- In Portugal, as a consequence of administrative reforms during the 19th century (in the 1830s, then again in the 1850s, and to a much lesser extent in the 1890s), as well as more recent legislation forbidding the creation of territorial discontinuities, there are almost no subnational exclaves or enclaves, and the few that persist are on the municipal or civil parish level:
- Municipalities with exclave civil parishes (at least one civil parish is separated from the main body): Montijo and Oliveira de Frades.
- Municipalities with sub-civil parish level exclaves (at least one civil parish is itself territorially discontinuous, creating an exclave also at the municipal level): Soure.
- Exclaves that are sub-parts of civil parishes and that yet remain within the municipal-level boundary are located in the following municipalities: Ansião, Belmonte, Coimbra, Oliveira de Frades, Penela.
- In Russia:
- In Spain:
- Rincón de Ademuz is an exclave of Valencia province in Valencia autonomous community, between the provinces of Teruel in Aragon and Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha.
- In Castile-La Mancha, Anchuras is an exclave of the Ciudad Real province between Toledo province and the Extremadura province of Badajoz.
- Between the provinces of Zamora and León there is an exclave with the cities of Roales de Campos and Quintanilla del Molar belonging to the province of Valladolid.
- The province of Palencia possesses an exclave Berzosilla between the provinces of Cantabria and Burgos.
- Orduña is an exclave of the province of Biscay located between the provinces of Álava and Burgos.
- In Switzerland:
- Appenzell Innerrhoden has four exclaves, two of which are parts of the district of Oberegg and are bounded by Appenzell Ausserrhoden and St. Gallen.
- Bern – Clavaleyres is an exclave of Bern surrounded by Fribourg and Vaud's exclave. (The secession of the new canton of Jura in 1979 left Bern temporarily with another exclave, Laufental, bounded by Jura, Solothurn, Basel-Landschaft and France. Laufental joined Basel-Landschaft in 1994.)
- Obwalden – Engelberg is a large piece of this canton and is separated by Nidwalden and Bern.
- Schaffhausen, the only canton lying mostly on the north bank of the Rhine, is cut into three parts by German corridors to the Rhine. The middle part is the largest and embraces the German enclave of Büsingen. The upper and middle parts border on Thurgau, the middle and lower parts on Zürich.
- Solothurn has two exclaves, Dorneck and Thierstein, both bounded on the south by Basel-Landschaft and on the north by France.
- Vaud – Avenches district is separated from Vaud by the canton of Fribourg.
- In Turkey, İstanbul Maslak is an exclave of Şişli county.
- In the United Arab Emirates, four emirates have five true exclaves: Dubai (Hatta), Ajmān (Masfut and Manama), Ras al-Khaimah (the southerly of the emirate's two non-contiguous sections), and Sharjah (Nahwa, also a true national-level enclave).
- In the United States of America:
- In Alaska, the Unorganized Borough is separated into multiple sections; however, the only true exclave that is not an enclave is the town of Hyder, which belongs to Prince of Wales – Hyder Census Area.
- Kentucky – The westernmost part of Fulton County is a piece of land known as the Kentucky Bend, located inside a loop of the Mississippi River, detached from its mother state. The only road in the area goes south into Tennessee. This exclave exists because the Mississippi, which forms the boundary between Missouri (right bank) and Kentucky/Tennessee (left bank), crosses latitude 36°30', which defines part of the border between Kentucky and Tennessee, three times.
- In Louisiana, a portion of St. Martin Parish is separated by Iberia Parish. A portion of West Feliciana Parish is separated by Concordia Parish. A portion of Madison Parish is separated by Warren County, Mississippi.
- In Massachusetts, Norfolk County has two exclaves: Brookline between Middlesex and Suffolk counties, and Cohasset on the coast of Plymouth County.
- In Michigan:
- In Houghton County: The city of Houghton divides Portage and Adams townships into two sections apiece, and the city of Hancock divides Quincy Township in two as well.
- Brownstown Township, Wayne County is separated into three parts. The two smaller parts are separated from the main portion of the township by Woodhaven. Both smaller parts are further separated by Rockwood and Gibraltar.
- In New Jersey:
- In Atlantic County, Egg Harbor Township is split into three parts.
- In Bergen County, the township of South Hackensack is divided into three separate parts as a result of other municipalities withdrawing from it.
- In Burlington County, the borough of Wrightstown has two sections.
- In Camden County, Haddon Township is split into three parts, two of which are joined at a quadripoint.
- In Monmouth County, Aberdeen Township is divided into two pieces.
- In Morris County, the township of Randolph has a tiny exclave, and Rockaway Township has a small portion that is joined by only a quadripoint.
- In New Mexico, Sandoval County has an exclave. During World War II, Los Alamos County was created out of parts of Sandoval and Santa Fe Counties, for the convenience of the Manhattan Project. That portion of Sandoval County which is within the San Ildefonso Indian Reservation, about 3 km², became an exclave bounded by Los Alamos County on the southwest, Santa Fe County on the east and Rio Arriba County on the north.
- In New York: In Westchester County, Rye Town has an exclave separated by Harrison and Rye City.
- In Pennsylvania:
- Three municipalities in Delaware County have exclaves. Springfield Township has an exclave separated from the main body of the township by the village of Swarthmore; Darby Township consists of two non-contiguous areas; and part of Upper Darby is separated from the main body of the township by Aldan and Lansdowne.
- In Allegheny County, O'Hara Township consists of five non-contiguous areas, with Sharpsburg, Aspinwall and Fox Chapel separating them.
- In Lackawanna County, South Abington Township has an isolated section along Glenburn Road surrounded by Clarks Summit borough and Waverly Township. The township also has several virtual exclaves as it is oddly shaped and surrounds Clarks Summit, Clarks Green, and Waverly Township collectively on three sides.
- The lands within numerous Indian reservations have been fragmented, with privately owned real estate intermixed with tribal, city, county, state, and federal authorities in a bewildering array of jurisdictional geographies.
Pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts
Like enclaves and exclaves, pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves are regions that are not conterminous with the main land region and have land access only through another region or regions having the equivalent governmental administrative level. Unlike enclaves and exclaves, they are not entirely surrounded by alien territory. Hence, they are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition.
Inaccessible districts are regions that are conterminous with the main land region but that are only easily accessible by going through a second country.
- Angola: Cabinda is bounded by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, and the Atlantic Ocean.
- Argentina/Chile: Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego is a shared island; the eastern section is part of Argentina's Tierra del Fuego province and the western is part of Chile. The island is surrounded by the Beagle Channel, the Strait of Magellan, and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
- The municipality of Jungholz is connected to the rest of Austria at a quadripoint at the summit of the mountain Sorgschrofen (1636 m). Road access is only via German land. **Sorgschrofen (1636 m); accessible only through Germany.
- The Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, can only be reached by road from Oberstdorf, Germany.
- Hinterriß and Eng (parts of the communes of Vomp and Eben am Achensee in Tyrol, Austria) are functional exclaves accessible by road only from Germany.
- Bahrain/Saudi Arabia: Middle East Causeway Embankment No. 4 is an island situated on the King Fahd Causeway in the Persian Gulf. On this small hourglass-shaped island is the border between the two nations, each connected to the island by a bridge. The border station was designed as two connected islands, with the west side designated as Saudi Arabian and the east as Bahraini.
- Belarus and Latvia's international border divides an island in Lake Rychy; hence, each has a pene-exclave there.
- Adutiškis railway station straddles the Lithuania/Belarus border. Trains pass through Lithuanian territory while traveling to and from Belarus, and platforms are in both Belarus and Lithuania. The station is now mainly used for freight.
- Sosnovec Island and another nameless island in Lake Drūkšiai are each divided by the two nations; hence, they are pene-exclaves.
- Belize: Ambergris Caye, is an island in Belize located southeastern in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It is completely separated from the rest of country. It can only be reached by travelling through Mexico in land.
- Bolivia: Copacabana and the surrounding promontory are separated from the rest of Bolivia by Lake Titicaca, only joining by land to Peruvian territory. Access to Bolivia is only available via ferry.
- Brunei: Temburong District is bounded by Malaysia and Brunei Bay. Territorial waters are contiguous, however.
- Cambodia: Prasat Preah Vihear can only be reached by traveling through Thailand.
- St. Regis, Quebec: Part of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, it has a land border with St. Regis Mohawk Reservation in New York State; road access to the rest of Canada is only available through New York State.
- Campobello Island, New Brunswick can be reached by road only by driving through the United States, across the border bridge to Maine. Connection with the rest of Canada is by ferry.
- The Haskell Free Library and Opera House is on the border between the United States and Canada. The Canadian part of the building is a practical exclave of Canada, as most of the building is physically in Stanstead, Quebec, but the only public access to the building is via the front door on Caswell Avenue in Derby Line, Vermont, in the United States. (Emergency exits from the second floor open to Canada.) People in Canada may not enter or exit the building except by travelling into the U.S. A special exception allows library and opera house patrons to cross the border to enter and move about in the building, but they must return to their home country (or see the Customs office) to avoid being charged with illegally entering the other country.
- Croatia: The southern portion of Dubrovnik-Neretva County, including the historic city of Dubrovnik, is bounded by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and the Adriatic Sea. Territorial waters are contiguous, however. Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina's only sea access, is sandwiched between the two portions of this county.
- Cyprus (de facto): In addition to the enclaves mentioned above, Strovilia is an exclave of the Greek Republic of Cyprus that borders the British Sovereign Base Area (SBA) of Dhekelia and the de facto independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which is unrecognized internationally. The TRNC has occupied and controlled the exclave; on 30 June 2000 the TRNC unilaterally absorbed it, despite United Nations condemnation and lack of recognition. The TRNC also has an exclave in the island's Northwest, Kokkina/Erenköy, which is bounded by the U.N. buffer zone and the Mediterranean Sea.
- Denmark/Germany: Several farms on the border.[further explanation needed]
- Djibouti and Ethiopia each have a pene-exclave on an island off Cape Aleilou in Lake Abbe. Only the eastern tip of the island belongs to Djibouti.
- East Timor: Oecussi-Ambeno is bounded by Indonesia and the Savu Sea.
- Equatorial Guinea: continental Rio Muni is surrounded by Gabon, Cameroon and the Atlantic Ocean and can only be accessed from the capital by boat or plane.
- Finland and Norway each have pene-exclaves on two divided lake islands and one divided river islet on their international border.
- The Finnish municipality of Tornio has one pene-enclave unreachable directly by land from Finnish territory, although connected to the rest of the city by a pair of bridges. The neighboring Swedish municipality of Haparanda has two similar pene-enclaves unreachable directly from Swedish territory. One is an islet crossed by the international border at a golf course on the line between Tornio and Haparanda.
- Märket is a small 3.3-hectare (8.2-acre) uninhabited island in the Baltic Sea, which has been divided between the two nations since the Treaty of Fredrikshamn of 1809. The unusual border consists of eight line segments and takes the form of an inverted 'S', with the island's lighthouse connected to the rest of Finland only by a short stretch of land.
- Kataja Island (Inakari in Finnish) is divided into two pene-exclaves, one of each nation. It was formed by the merger of two smaller islands due to post-glacial rebound.
- French Guiana (an Overseas Department), in South America, is bounded by Suriname, Brazil, and the Atlantic Ocean.
- The territorial water of Canada completely surrounds that of the French territorial collectivity of St Pierre and Miquelon except for a corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
- A minor part of the German city of Konstanz lies to the south of the Rhine and has no land border with Germany, being otherwise surrounded by Switzerland; it is linked to the rest of Konstanz, and by extension to the rest of Germany, by a bridge.
- The Swiss town of Stein am Rhein has only a bridge over the Rhine connecting it to the rest of Switzerland, which it does not border on land, and is otherwise surrounded by Germany.
- In the river of El Cabuz, two nations have pene-exclaves in the river.
- On the island of New Guinea, West Papua is surrounded by Papua New Guinea, the Arafura Sea and the Pacific Ocean;
- Borneo's subdivisions include a part of Malaysia (the states of Sabah and Sarawak) and a part of Indonesia that are conterminous; thus, each part is a pene-exclave of its home country.
- Sebatik Island, a satellite island of Borneo, is divided between Indonesia and Malaysia.
- West Timor is surrounded by East Timor, the Timor Sea and the Savu Sea.
- Ireland/United Kingdom:
- The western-most region of County Monaghan in Ireland contains a pene-enclave jutting into County Fermanagh, United Kingdom, known as the Drummully Polyp or Salient (also locally as Coleman Island after the name of its northernmost townland, Coleman). There are two inaccessible districts: Drumard in the 'polyp' itself, belongs to Ireland and is inaccessible directly by road from any other part of Ireland; the village of Summerhill, County Fermanagh in the United Kingdom is similarly inaccessible from the rest of the United Kingdom. The A3 (UK) and N54 (Ireland) road, known as the Concession Road, crosses the border here 4 times in a short distance.
- The islet of Pollatawny  lies on the international border; hence, each nation has a pene-exclave there. in Lough Vearty
- Israel: Ein Gev is located on the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee in northern Israel, whose occupation of the Golan Heights is unrecognized internationally. Thus one must travel through Syria to reach it on land.
- The Livigno valley near the Swiss border was at one time accessible only from Switzerland and was exempt from Italian customs, an exemption that continues today even though road access to the rest of Italy has been established. It is therefore excluded from EU VAT area.
- The village of Bagni di Craveggia can only be reached by travelling through the Canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The village never became part of Switzerland, as the pastures surrounding it were owned by the people of Vigezzo Valley, rather than the people of the Swiss Onsernone Valley, at the end of which the village is situated. Consequently, the Swiss franc is commonly used.
- On the San Marino/Italy border, there is Italian land east of the River San Marino that does not join to any other part of 'dry' Italian territory. This area is only a few metres wide, and follows the river's course for around 500 metres, and is close to the Strada del Lavoro.
- Laos: Many places, usually restaurants or markets, can only be accessed from Thailand by boat and do not require passports to enter.
- Mexico/United States of America: Shifts in the meandering course of the lower Rio Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) have created numerous pene-exclaves. Under the Boundary Treaty of 1970 and earlier treaties, the two nations have maintained the actual course of the river as the international boundary, but both must approve proposed changes. From 1989 to 2009, there were 128 locations where the river changed course, causing land that had been on one side of the river to then occupy the opposite bank. Until the boundary is officially changed, there are 60 small pene-exclaves of the state of Texas now lying on the southern side of the river, as well as 68 such pene-exclaves of Mexico on the northern side of the river. The last such exchange (of pre-1989 river cuts) occurred in 2009, after languishing as a proposal for 20 years.
- Malaysia: In the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo, the Limbang Division is completely cut off from the rest of the state's road network. The Limbang District in the division is only accessible by road through Brunei, as it is located between Brunei's main portion and the Temburong District. The Lawas District, on the other hand, lies between Temburong and the state of Sabah. As Sabah and Sarawak have autonomy in immigration affairs, immigration checks are required when traveling into or out of the Limbang Division by road.
- Myanmar: The town of Payathonzu can be accessed from Kanchanaburi, Thailand by road. It cannot be reached by road from other locations in the country.
- Namibia: Mpalila Island can only be reached from the rest of the country by travelling through Botswana.
- Netherlands: Part of the province of Zeeland, namely Zeeuws Vlaanderen is accessible by land only through the country of Belgium, although it is accessible by sea from the rest of the province of Zeeland. There is a tunnel, the Westerscheldetunnel, which also links Zeeuws Vlaanderen to the rest of the province.
- North Korea:
- Norway and Russia each have pene-exclaves on two divided islands and one divided islet in two lakes on their international border.
- Properties 79/3 and 79/4 at Trosterud in the Norwegian municipality of Rømskog are only accessible by a road that follows the Norwegian–Swedish boundary.
- Close to Narvik, a road enters Swedish territory. It does not connect with any other Swedish road before it enters Norwegian land once more.
- On their international border, Norway and Sweden divide 16 lake islands and one river islet into pene-exclaves of each nation.
- Oman: Musandam is bounded by the United Arab Emirates and the Strait of Hormuz. A province of Musandam, Dibba Al-Baya, is a practical exclave bounded by UAE and the Arabian Sea.
- Poland and Germany divide Usedom Island, in the northern part of the Szczecin Lagoon.
- Portugal: An area north of Tourém is cut off from the rest of Portuguese territory by the lake Encoro de Salas, being surrounded by Spanish territory. It is accessible by a road bridge, but otherwise does not border the rest of Portugal.
- St. Martin/Sint Maarten in the Caribbean Sea are pene-exclaves of France and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, respectively.
- Senegal: An area of marshy land, approximately 1-mile (1.6 km) south of Tiong, Mauritania is owned by Senegal, but is inaccessible from any other part of Senegal. Coastal waters, however, are contiguous.
- The European section of Turkey is bounded by Greece and Bulgaria. Despite that the European section and the Asian sections of Turkey are not geographically conterminous and are separated by international waters, there are two connecting bridges in Istanbul.
- The tripoint junction (Maritsa River known as Kavak Ada or Évros Alpha. Thus it contains three pene-exclaves. ) of the borders of Turkey, Greece and Bulgaria is on an island in the
- The valley of Macahel, which includes five villages in northeastern Turkey, can only be reached by vehicle via Batumi in Georgia. In winter, as the snow shuts the paths that are completely within the borders of Turkey, the road via Batumi is the only way to travel there.
- Turkey has a pene-exclave west of the Maritsa River opposite Edirne (Adrianople), with a land boundary of 10.8 km with Greece.
- Turkey and Greece divide an island in the Maritsa River known as island Q located at  , thus each nation has a pene-exclave there.
- Uganda: The extreme tip of Tanzania’s Kanyiragwa peninsula is a very small pene-exclave of Uganda on the shore of Lake Victoria, created by the parallel of latitude that defines most of the border between Uganda and Tanzania.
- United Kingdom:
- United States of America/Canada:
- Alaska is bounded by Canada's Yukon Territory, the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. Alaska is the world's largest pene-exclave.
- Although Alaska is itself a pene-exclave (road access is primarily via the Alaska Highway), the town of Hyder, Alaska, can only be reached by road from Stewart, British Columbia. There is no road from Hyder to any other point in Alaska. Additionally, much of the Alaska Panhandle consists of mountainous peninsulas; many communities along the coast lack road connection to other parts of Alaska directly, such as the state capital, Juneau.
- Point Roberts, Washington, is bounded by British Columbia, Canada, the Strait of Georgia, and Boundary Bay. It can be reached from the rest of Washington State only via road through two border crossings.
- The Northwest Angle – the northernmost part of Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota, and the northernmost part of the contiguous 48 states – is bounded by Manitoba, Canada and Lake of the Woods. Access to the rest of Minnesota is only via boat or by a pair of vehicular border crossings.
- Elm Point, Minnesota, and a small piece of uninhabited land just to its west are also bounded by Manitoba and Lake of the Woods.
- The Alburgh Tongue in Lake Champlain, location of the town of Alburgh, Vermont, is bounded by Quebec, Canada to the north. The community can be reached via road bridges from Vermont or New York.
- Province Point, the small end of a peninsula east of Alburgh, Vermont, is bounded by Quebec and Lake Champlain.
- Estcourt Station, Maine, does not have public road access to the rest of Maine. Instead, Estcourt Station's houses, store and gas station access Rue Frontiere, a street on the Canadian side of the border in Pohenegamook, Quebec.
- The two nations share extremely long borders defined by two meridians of longitude and the 49th parallel of north latitude, crossing many lakes and rivers and, in at least 44 locations, dividing many islands. Each divided island contains a pene-exclave of each nation:
- Canada and the U.S. divide an island in the Columbia River at near the Waneta border crossing of Washington and British Columbia.
- Salt Lake in northeastern Montana, which is known as Alkali Lake in Saskatchewan, contains an island that is crossed by the international border at its southern tip ( ). When the lake is not dry, the island forms pene-exclaves of each nation.
- The two nations also divide two islands on their international border in Boundary Lake, North Dakota and Manitoba. The larger eastern island lies at ; the tiny western island is at .
- Each nation has a pene-exclave on the 77-acre Province Island at in Lake Memphremagog, Vermont and Quebec. The small southern tip is on the U.S. side; the remaining 90% of the island is Canadian.
- In addition to the above, the two nations share a border on approximately 16 other lake islands (5 of which are in Alaska/Yukon) and approximately 51 other river islands (37 in Alaska/Yukon, including at least 18 among greatly bifurcated flows). The 15 river islands outside of Alaska and Yukon border the states of Washington, Montana, North Dakota and Maine (1, 7, 2 and 5, respectively) and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec and New Brunswick (1, 5, 2, 2, 1 and 4, respectively). The 15 lake islands at lower latitudes are shared by the states of Washington, Montana, North Dakota, Vermont and Maine (2, 2, 9, 1 and 1, respectively), and the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec and New Brunswick (2, 1, 2, 8, 1 and 1, respectively).
Subnational pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts
- In Australia:
- Although the Jervis Bay Territory, which occupies a coastal peninsula, is not part of the Australian Capital Territory, the laws of the ACT apply to it. It is administered by a department of the ACT government as an exclave of the ACT.
- A strip of land around the southern edge of the Beecroft Peninsula is a pene-exclave of the Australian Capital Territory. This area on the northern side of Jervis Bay, opposite the Jervis Bay Territory, is part of the ACT. At the tip of the peninsula, this pene-exclave surrounds most of the grounds of the Point Perpendicular lighthouse, making those grounds a pene-exclave of the State of New South Wales.
- In Canada:
- The village of Atlin, British Columbia is only accessible by road through the Yukon.
- The village of Tungsten, Northwest Territories is only accessible by road through the Yukon.
- Similarly, to reach the towns of Fort McPherson, Tsiigehtchic and Inuvik in the Inuvik Region by road from elsewhere in the the Northwest Territories, it is necessary to drive into Yukon and take the Dempster Highway.
- Cold Lake, a large C-shaped lake, straddles the border between Alberta and Saskatchewan in such a way that a peninsula in Alberta territory can only be reached overland by passing through Saskatchewan's Meadow Lake Provincial Park.
- In China:
- Most of Chongming Island at the mouth of the Yangtze is administered as Chongming County of Shanghai municipality. However, a long swath of the northern side of the island was added to the island in the 1970s from the formerly separate island of Yonglongsha. It is divided between Haiyong and Qilong townships, which are administered as pene-exclaves of Nantong's county-level cities of Haimen and Qidong, respectively. Formerly connected only by ferry, they joined the mainland's road network with the completion of the Chongqi Bridge, although all routes now pass through Shanghai's territory.
- The northern part of Hong Kong's Sai Kung Peninsula is a part of Tai Po District, not Sai Kung District. There is no direct road link between two areas.
- In Germany, the North Sea tidal island of Neuwerk off the Lower Saxon coast is a pene-exclave of the federal state of Hamburg during low tide, when one can reach it on foot or by horse carriages.
- In Iceland:
- Hafnarfjörður municipality is divided into two sections, on opposite sides of a peninsula.
- Skagabyggð municipality has two non-contiguous pieces with sea access.
- The municipality of Grímsnes- og Grafningshreppur has three sections. Two sections are connected at a quadripoint, and the third is effectively separate, although administrative boundaries are undetermined. If this section is in fact connected, then the municipality of Bláskógabyggð would be divided in two (although still connected at the aforementioned quadripoint).
- In India:
- The Union Territory of Daman and Diu consists of two coastal exclaves in the state of Gujarat. Of these, Diu Island is far away from Daman, which is much closer to another former Portuguese colony, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. However, for historical reasons these territories are separately administered.
- In Tamil Nadu State, the Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve contains 27 exclaves of the two districts of Kanyakumari and Tirunelveli.
- In Indonesia, the province of Yogyakarta is a coastal enclave of Central Java province with access to Indian Ocean in the south.
- In Italy, the southern part of the Province of Venice, Veneto, can be reached by land only by traveling through the Province of Padua.
- In Malaysia:
- In Mexico: Calica and Xel-Há in the municipality of Cozumel in Quintana Roo State have two polygons of land bounded by the Solidaridad Municipality but with a coast.
- In Moldova, Tiraspol, the capital city of the breakaway territory of Transnistria, lies on the left bank of the Dniester River but has two pene-exclaves on the right bank inside an oxbow bend, which must be accessed on land through the Căuşeni district.
- In the Netherlands, the province of Overijssel has two pene-exclaves on the Gelderland bank of the IJssel river opposite the towns of Olst and Wijhe, in which the villages of Marle (northerly), Welsum and Welsumerveld (southerly) are situated. There are cable ferries between Olst and Welsum and between Wijhe and Vorchten in the municipality of Heerde (there is no direct connection between Marle and the rest of Overijssel).
- In Norway, the municipalities Asker and Bærum are separated from the rest of the county of Akershus by land that belongs to the counties of Oslo, Oppland and Buskerud and Oslofjorden. However, these municipalities border on the bay of Oslofjord.
- In the Philippines:
- Cotabato City is an exclave of Region XII SOCCSKSARGEN found within the boundaries of Maguindanao province of ARMM (Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao). It is however the regional center of ARMM.
- In SoCCSKSarGen, Sarangani province is divided by General Santos City and Sarangani Bay.
- In Zamboanga Peninsula:
- In Romblon Province, the exclave of the municipality of Looc is separated by the Looc Bay forming a peninsula with neighboring municipality of Santa Fe.
- In Portugal, Vila Real de Santo António is divided into 3 freguesias, one of which is a few kilometers west of the other two. The "main," eastern part of its territory (where the municipal seat stands and where most of its inhabitants live) is more than three times smaller than the "secondary" part. To go from the eastern part to the western, one must pass through territory belonging to the municipality of Castro Marim, or go by sea, as all 3 freguesias face the Atlantic Ocean to the South.
- In the Republic of China (Taiwan), Keelung City (part of Taiwan Province) faces East China Sea on one side and borders New Taipei City (a special municipality not a part of Taiwan Province) on all other sides.
- In Romania, the village of Nămoloasa (Galaţi county) can be accessed only through Vrancea County (where there is a bridge over the Siret River) because it is separated by the Siret River from the rest of Galaţi county.
- In Russia:
- St. Petersburg, the administrative center of Leningrad Oblast, is a pene-enclave of it, as it has a shoreline on the Baltic Sea.
- Adjacent to the northwestern boundary of Moscow, there is a small exclave of the Krasnogorsk administrative district located at the 65-km mark outside of the 137-km Moscow Ring Road (Moskovskaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga or MKAD), within which the administrative center and regional court are located. This area lacks access to the nearby Moscow River.
- In Samoa, A'ana, Palauli, Satupa'itea, and Va'a-o-Fonoti districts each have one exclave, and Gaga'emauga district has two. All parts of each district have sea access.
- In South Korea:
- Incheon Metropolitan City: Ganghwa Island is administered by Incheon, but is connected by bridges to Gyeonggi Province.
- Yeongjong Island, where Incheon International Airport is located, is administered by Jung-gu, but is connected by bridge to Seo-gu. (A "gu" is a geo-political subdivision of S. Korea's metropolitan cities).
- In Switzerland:
- Lucerne has two pieces separated from the main territory by Lake Lucerne; one borders Schwyz, the other Nidwalden.
- Nidwalden's district of Hergiswil is separated by an arm of Lake Lucerne.
- One of the pieces of Fribourg is a large exclave bounded by Vaud and Lake Neuchâtel.
- Vaud has one exclave, Avenches, bordered by Lake Neuchâtel, Fribourg and the tiny Bernese exclave of Clavaleyres. The coast of Lake Neuchâtel is thus in seven pieces belonging to four cantons: clockwise from the north they are Neuchâtel, Bern (main), Vaud (Avenches exclave), Fribourg (main), Vaud (main), Fribourg (exclave), Vaud (main).
- Within Vaud, Geneva has a pene-exclave on the shoreline on Lake Geneva. It is one of the two separate parts of the commune of Céligny.
- In the United Arab Emirates:
- The emirate of Sharjah has three pene-exclaves on the Gulf of Oman: Dibba Al-Hisn, Khor Fakkan and Kalbā. Kalbā has two separate parts (east and west) connected by a middle zone that is administered jointly with Fujairah. Al ‘Ayn al Ghumūr, Samāḩ and Waḩlah are located in this middle zone. Western Kalbā contains Zārūb, Maskūnah, Falaj, Ḩarrah, Mazārī’, Fayyāᶁ, Wādī La’ili, Wādī Muᶁayq, Minazif and Dhabābiḩah.
- The emirate of Fujairah comprises two non-contiguous sections on the Gulf of Oman. The southerly of these two sections itself has two separate parts (north and south) connected by the aforementioned middle zone that is administered jointly with Sharjah. Wādī Umm al Ghāt, Wādī al Qūr and Wādī ‘Abd al ‘Aram are in the southernmost part.
- In the United Kingdom:
- The village of Pentreheyling in Shropshire, near the Welsh border and south-east of Montgomery, is disconnected from the rest of England by road. (see map).
- The hamlet/township of Newtown in Theale in Somerset forms a postal pene-exclave of post code area BA5 1, being accessible by road only through post code are BS28 4.
- On the English side of the English/Scottish border, the hamlet of High Cocklaw is not accessible directly from any other part of England except via footpath.
- Newmarket is part of the County of Suffolk, but has only a small strip of land connecting it to the rest of the county and is otherwise entirely surrounded by Cambridgeshire.
- Scotland: There are two parts inaccessible from anywhere else other than travelling through England; these are Edrington Castle and the village of Cawderstanes, which is accessible to the rest of Scotland by footbridge only. There is also a small area of land adjacent to a weir on the River Tweed, north of the B6350 road, due south of Coldstream and due south west of Cornhill on Tweed, from which one can reach the rest of Scotland directly only by crossing the weir.
- In Flintshire, on the Dee estuary, there are several bits of marshland that are separated from other bits of Wales.
- There is also a small area of land south of Wyastone Leys that is inaccessible from any other area of Wales directly by road, being separated by land and the River Wye.
- Several small uninhabited areas near the hamlet of Part-Y-Seal or Pant-Y-Seal near Grosmont, Monmouthshire are inaccessible from Wales directly; these include one farm, two river banks and a small island in the River Monnow. These appear to be due to shifts in the course of the river.
- National rail services connecting north and south Wales must pass through England.
- In the United States of America:
- Shifts in the meandering course of the lower Mississippi River have created numerous pene-exclaves.
- In California:
- The City and County of San Francisco has an exclave on Alameda Island, across San Francisco Bay and adjoining Alameda County. The exclave came into being as artificial fill on the border between the two counties to build the Naval Air Station Alameda, now decommissioned. This small piece of open space cannot be reached from San Francisco (except by boat) without passing through Oakland and Alameda.
- Coast Guard Island in the Oakland estuary is part of the city of Alameda but is accessible only via a bridge from Oakland.
- Also in San Francisco Bay, there are two small (5.37 acres) pieces of land on the eastern end of Angel Island (Quarry Point and the tip of Point Blunt) that belong to the City and County of San Francisco. The rest (99.3%) of Angel Island lies in the town of Tiburon, which is in Marin County. In addition, San Francisco and Contra Costa County share Red Rock Island.
- The port community of San Pedro is part of the city of Los Angeles but is connected to the rest of the city only by a narrow strip of land known as the Harbor Gateway, four city blocks wide and several miles long.
- Santa Monica borders the Pacific Ocean on one side but it is otherwise completely surrounded by the City of Los Angeles.
- The City of San Diego has a significantly large exclave. It Includes the communities of San Ysidro, Otay Mesa, Palm, and other neighborhoods considered a part of San Diego. This piece of San Diego is separated from the main portion of San Diego by 7 miles, divided by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. Technically, it is connected to the rest of San Diego by a 7-mile, 2 inch wide strip of land below San Diego Bay. But it is essentially an exclave. It is commonly referred to as "South San Diego".
- The city of Coronado, nearly encircled by San Diego Bay, can be reached by land only via a narrow isthmus connected to Imperial Beach. A bridge also connects it to San Diego. Four other small pene-exclaves occupy the same peninsula. Coastal lands that are north of Wright Ave., at the northern end of First St., part of Coronado Ferry Landing Park and that surround most of Naval Air Station North Island (island before 1945) are part of the city of San Diego and are accessible on land only through the city of Coronado. A large portion of the famous Coronado beach is in the City of San Diego.
- Redwood Shores on the San Francisco Peninsula is part of Redwood City, California, but is only connected with the rest of the city by an area of wetland in San Francisco Bay. It is accessible only via the cities of San Carlos and Belmont.
- Devils Postpile National Monument in eastern Madera County, California, is inaccessible from the remainder of the county due to wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. It can be reached only via Mono County near Mammoth Lakes.
- General Grant Grove is an isolated, non-contiguous section of Kings Canyon National Park.
- Some privately owned land within Mariposa County is surrounded by Yosemite National Park in the area of Wawona, as it was grandfathered at the park's formation to remain private.
- Delaware – At least two parcels of land on the east (New Jersey) side of the Delaware River belong to the state of Delaware (the bulk of which is west of the river) and not to New Jersey. This is because within the "Twelve Mile Circle", the entire Delaware River, to the low water mark, is the territory of Delaware and not New Jersey (unlike many other river borders where the border is at some intermediate point in the river itself). As a result, certain areas (including the Killcohook National Wildlife Refuge and a portion of the Salem Nuclear Power Plant) on the New Jersey side of the river that have been expanded by adding fill into areas that were historically below the low water mark are considered part of New Castle County, Delaware, and not Salem County, New Jersey. Both of these areas are accessible by land only by traveling through New Jersey.
- Kentucky – Ellis Park Racecourse, a Thoroughbred horse racing track in Henderson, Kentucky, actually lies to the north of the Ohio River that forms the border between Kentucky and Indiana. The border is based on the river's course when Kentucky achieved statehood in 1792; a change in course to the south left the land that would later house Ellis Park cut off from the rest of Kentucky by the river. A pair of bridges across the Ohio connect the track to the rest of Kentucky.
- Iowa – The town of Carter Lake, Iowa, occupied a meander on the left bank of the Missouri River, until 1877 when flooding caused the river to jump its banks, shortening the main stream. The meander became an oxbow lake and Carter Lake now found itself on the right bank, attached to Nebraska. A lengthy court case ensued; the Supreme Court of the United States held that the sudden change in the river's course did not change the original boundary, and Carter Lake was still part of Iowa. (Nebraska v. Iowa, 143 U.S. 359 (1892)). The Court delayed a final decree to allow Nebraska and Iowa to reach an agreement consistent with its holding, which they did. (145 U.S. 519 (1892)). All roads into Carter Lake run through Omaha, Nebraska. For similar geographic reasons there are many slices of Mississippi River states that are now on the "wrong" side of the waterway.
- Louisiana – The island of Grand Isle is part of Jefferson Parish but can be reached on land only via a bridge from Lafourche Parish.
- In Massachusetts:
- Humarock, legally part of Scituate, was separated from the rest of the town in the Blizzard of 1898, in which the mouth of the North River shifted. The village is only accessible via a bridge which connects it to Marshfield, but has a peninsular connection to the mainland to the south at the old mouth of the North River, now Rexhame Beach.
- Long Island, situated in Boston Harbor, is part of the City of Boston (Suffolk County) yet remains accessible by road only from Quincy (Norfolk County).
- The town of Sandwich is partially separated in its northern portion by the Cape Cod Canal and is only accessible by road through the neighboring town of Bourne.
- Michigan –
- Missouri – St. Joseph Rosecrans Memorial Airport is separated from St. Joseph and Buchanan County by the Missouri River; the airport lies on the west bank of the river, with the remainder of the city and county on the east bank. The only land access to the airport from Missouri is via Kansas Route 238 through Elwood.
- In New Jersey: In Ocean County, Long Beach Township is split into four parts, each with sea access.
- New Jersey and New York share Shooter's Island, a bird sanctuary located in the south end of Newark Bay off the north shore of Staten Island. (The small portion in New Jersey is further divided between two counties).
- In New York:
- The construction in 1895 of the Harlem River Ship Canal isolated Marble Hill, a small portion of the northern tip of Manhattan (New York County). Initially an island, it was later physically connected to the Bronx by the filling of Spuyten Duyvil Creek. It remains politically part of Manhattan, to which it is connected by the Broadway Bridge. Thus, it is part of the Borough of Manhattan and New York County, but not the island of Manhattan.
- Rockaway Peninsula, part of Queens, is connected to the rest of New York City only by two causeways across Jamaica Bay, or through Nassau County.
- Riker's Island, the jail complex of the City of New York, is considered to be in the borough of The Bronx, but is only accessible via the Riker's Island Bridge, which terminates in the Borough of Queens.
- Manhattan's borders often extend to the shorelines of the other boroughs so that, for example, certain piers extending from the Brooklyn waterfront are part of Manhattan but accessible only from Brooklyn. Manhattan (New York County) claims the entire East River bed.
- A small part of the Bronx is separated from the rest of the borough by Pelham Bay Park. The only residential street in this pene-exclave, Park Drive, is accessible by car only via the town of Pelham, in Westchester County.
- A small part of the city of Mount Vernon is cut off from the rest of the city by the Cross County Parkway. The three streets of Alta Drive, Alta Parkway and Labelle Road can only be accessed by car via the town of Eastchester.
- The geography of the Catskill Mountains in upstate New York creates pene-exclaves in two counties. Halcott, at the southwestern corner of Greene County, and Hardenburgh, at the western corner of Ulster County, have extensive borders with neighboring towns in their respective counties. But those are along mountain ridgelines directly crossed only by hiking trails, or (in Halcott's case) poor-quality unpaved roads, and vehicles traveling to those towns from the rest of the county must take roads through neighboring counties to do so.
- The town of Hardenbergh is also an exclave of itself. The only road directly connecting its southern half, along the upper Beaver Kill, and the northern half along Dry Brook, now runs through state-owned Forest Preserve lands and is closed to vehicle traffic. To get between those two halves, cars must travel through neighboring Delaware County.
- Both cities in Dutchess County are pene-enclaves on the Hudson River. Beacon is otherwise surrounded by the Town of Fishkill, and Poughkeepsie by the town of the same name. While A bridge connects the city of Poughkeepsie to neighboring Highland, in Ulster County, the only connection to Beacon that does not require going through Fishkill is a passenger-only ferry between the city and Newburgh, in Orange County.
- In North Carolina:
- Knotts Island in Currituck County is only accessible by road through Virginia Beach, Virginia via a narrow strip of land from the west. A 45-minute ferry connects the island to the rest of Currituck.
- On the north shore of Lake Gaston lie several small areas connected only by land to Virginia. Most of these have road and bridge connections to North Carolina, but one small area south of Joyceville, Virginia has road connections only to Virginia.
- In Pennsylvania, the westernmost section of the city of Allentown is a pene-en(ex)clave connected at a quadripoint with the rest of the city; it is surrounded by South Whitehall Township.
- In Rhode Island, the city of Warwick has an exclave called Potowomut separated from the main body of the city by Greenwich Bay on the north and the town of East Greenwich on the west.
- In Tennessee, over a period of about 24 hours on 7 March 1876, the Mississippi River abandoned its former channel that defined the Tennessee-Arkansas border, and established a new channel east of the town of Reverie, Tennessee. This places Reverie on the Arkansas side, while most of the area of Tipton County is located east of the Mississippi River, the Tennessee side. The direct distance between Reverie and the county seat, Covington, Tennessee, is only 18 miles (29 km), but the road trip to Covington requires the driver to cross the Mississippi River at Memphis, and is longer than 83 miles (134 km).
- In South Carolina, small parts of Horry County lie on the north shore of the Little River or the nearby Intracoastal Waterway and can only be reached by land connection from neighboring North Carolina. The land is unpopulated and no roads exist in the area.
- Grand Isle County, Vermont, in that state's northwest corner, consists of the Alburgh Tongue (see above) and several islands in Lake Champlain. It is only connected to the rest of the state via bridges.
- In Virginia:
- The Eastern Shore, comprising Accomack County and Northampton County, is located at the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula, conterminous only with Maryland on its north. It is connected to the rest of Virginia by the 23-mile-long (37 km) Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel.
- Several pieces of land along the shores of Kerr Lake and Lake Gaston can only be accessed by land from North Carolina. Some areas are undeveloped, but others, especially along the south shore of Kerr Lake, have state highways and settlement.
- An 0.8-mile (1.3 km) section of Minnesota State Highway 23 runs through Superior, Wisconsin, in that state's northwest corner. Several local dead-end roads run off it; there is no way to reach this part of the city or state by vehicle from anywhere else in Wisconsin.
- Washington, D.C. – Theodore Roosevelt Island in the Potomac River is part of Washington, D.C., but only accessible by a footbridge from Virginia. Although the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge from Washington to Virginia passes over the island, one cannot exit from the bridge onto the island.
|Name||Area (km2)||Exclave of||Enclaved by||Coordinates||Notes|
|Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (91 parcels)||21.8||Bangladesh (Rangpur Division – Panchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts)||India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts)||approx.||All parcels were both enclaves and exclaves. 21 of the 91 former Bangladeshi exclaves were counter-enclaves. These 91 Bangladeshi enclaves were extinguished on 31 July 2015, when the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement with India was implemented, leaving Dahagram-Angarpota as the only extant enclave. |
|Indo-Bangladesh enclaves (106 parcels)||69.5||India (West Bengal state – Cooch Behar and Jalpaiguri districts)||Bangladesh (Rangpur Division – Panchagarh, Nilphamari, Lalmonirhat, and Kurigram districts)||(former third-order enclave)||All parcels were both enclaves and exclaves. Three of the 106 former Indian exclaves were counter-enclaves and one was the world's only counter-counter enclave. The 106 Indian exclaves were extinguished on 31 July 2015, when the long-delayed Land Boundary Agreement with Bangladesh was implemented.|
- Altona was a Danish exclave within Germany from 1640 to 1864.
- Bhutan – Tarchen, Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar and Zuthulphuk were exclaves of Bhutan within Tibet from the 1640s until 1959.
- Bophuthatswana was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1977 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It consisted of a scattered patchwork of individual enclaves, six that were true enclaves within South Africa and two that bordered Botswana and South Africa.
- Cheikh Saïd is a rocky peninsula in present-day Yemen between the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Although as late as 1970, the Petit Larousse described it as having been a "French colony from 1868 to 1936," France never claimed formal jurisdiction or sovereignty over it.
- within China –
- Forbidden City – The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi, acceded to the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out, and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and along with other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City, mainly for management of the Forbidden City, other palaces, imperial families, etc. The Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty remained hoisted inside the Forbidden City. In 1924, the 1911 treaty was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
- Unlike Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories that were added later constituted a pene-exclave of Great Britain from 1860/1898 until 1997. Kowloon south of Boundary Street was ceded in perpetuity, whereas the New Territories was turned over under a 99-year lease.
- Kowloon Walled City was a counter-enclave belonging to China on the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong from 1898 to 1993. The question of jurisdiction led to a hands-off approach by Chinese and British authorities over the years until the quality of life became intolerable. A mutual decision to demolish the 2.6 hectares of structures was announced in 1987 and completed in 1994.
- Kwang-Chou-Wan was a pene-exclave of France on the south coast of China from 1898, upon its lease to France by Qing China, until its return by France in 1946; its territory included the islands in the bay and land on both banks of the Maxie River, covering 1300 km² of land.
- Kwantung was a pene-exclave of Russia and later Japan in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945 and included the ports of Port Arthur (or Ryojun) and Dal'niy (or Dairen), the latter founded in 1899. It was leased to Russia from 1898 until 1905, when Japan replaced Russia as leaseholder. After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory in 1945, jointly administering it with the Chinese before turning it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955.
- Jinzhou walled central city remained an enclave of Chinese territory within Kwantung under the lease with Russia. This provision was substantially ignored by Japan after it replaced Russia.
- Macao was a pene-exclave of Portugal on the coast of the South China Sea from 1557 until 1999.
- Zhongshan Dao island in the Pearl River Delta was divided between China and Macao as a pair of pene-exclaves dating from ratification of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1862 through the 1999 return of Macao to China.
- Qingdao, with an area of 552 km², was a pene-exclave of Germany (also known as the Kiautschou Bay concession), and later Japan, from 1898 to 1922, adjacent to Jiaozhou Bay on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in East China. The village of Qingdao became the German colony of Tsingtau. In 1914, with the outbreak of World War I, the Republic of China canceled the lease with Germany. Japan then occupied the city and province until December 1922, when it reverted to Chinese rule.
- Shanghai was the location of British (from 1846) and American (from 1848) Concessions (later Shanghai International Settlement from 1863–1943) and the Shanghai French Concession from 1849–1946. Unlike the British sovereign colonies of Hong Kong Island and Wei-hai-wei, these foreign concessions always remained Chinese sovereign territory.
- Wei-hai-wei was a pene-exclave of Great Britain that bordered the Yellow Sea in eastern Shandong province of China. The city was a British colony, known also as the Weihai Garrison and sometimes as Port Edward, from 1898 to 1 October 1930, when it was returned to China. Its current name is Weihai.
- Wei-hai-wei walled central city was excluded from the leased territory and remained an enclave of Chinese territory within Wei-hai-wei.
See also: List of former foreign enclaves in China
- Comtat Venaissin was an exclave of Papal territory within France from 1348–1791. It contained an enclave of another Papal territory, the city of Avignon and had a small exclave around the nearby town of Valréas.
- Despotate of the Morea on the Peloponnesos peninsula of present-day Greece was a geographically detached province of the Byzantine Empire from 1349–1460; during much of that time, in addition to the Mediterranean Sea, it was surrounded by "states under Latin rule."
- East Pakistan (1947–1971), now Bangladesh, was a pene-exclave of Pakistan (if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital, Islamabad, as the main land) that bordered the Bay of Bengal, India and Burma. East Pakistan, with a distance of 1600 km separating it from West Pakistan, accounted for 70% of the country's exports and was more populous than West Pakistan.
- Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá was a Portuguese exclave (initially around 1 km² in area and reduced to only 2 ha by 1961) within Dahomey/Benin from 1680 until 1961 (de facto annexation by Dahomey) or 1975 (Portuguese recognition).
- France – The island of Mont Saint-Michel at the mouth of the Couesnon River prior to 1879 was a pene-exclave of Normandy, but only during low tide, when it was connected by a tidal causeway to the neighbouring coast. The raised causeway that was then built is currently scheduled to be removed and replaced with a light bridge, thus making Mont Saint-Michel an island again.
- Germany –
- East Prussia (1919–1939), a German pene-exclave during the Weimar Republic, was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). The territory of East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania.
- Hemmeres, (1922–1949), surrounded by Belgian territory, was the sixth and southernmost of the Vennbahn enclaves created in 1922; it contained five households. The railway suffered severe damage during World War II and was not rebuilt. It ceased being an enclave when Belgium annexed the entirety in 1949. Hemmeres was reintegrated into West Germany on 28 August 1958, by an agreement with Belgium.
- Jestetten is a German town in the district of Waldshut in Baden-Württemberg that was inaccessible except by traveling through Switzerland, until a connecting road was constructed.
- Roetgener Wald was two enclaves from 1949 to 1958. Unlike its present configuration, the German enclave in 1922 was smaller in area because the central portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach stream) was Belgian territory. Because the road connecting the two outer German portions (Highways 258/399) was German territory until 1949, the German land formed one enclave. The intersecting north-south road from Fringshaus to Konzen (now Highway B258, which has no connection to the Belgian road network) was also part of the oddly shaped enclave. In 1949 Belgium annexed these roads, thus separating the enclave into two enclaves for the next nine years. In 1958 Belgium ceded the center section of territory to West Germany, in addition to returning the adjacent east-west connecting road. This created one larger enclave in its present form. Highway B258 is the only portion of land that, once having been a part of the Roetgener Wald enclave, is now not within the enclave.
- Belgium had a counter-enclave located near Fringshaus from 6 November 1922 until 23 April 1949, while Germany owned the connecting roads that were part of the Roetgener Wald enclave. These roads met at a traffic island north of Fringshaus, with the 2279 m2 island itself being a part of Belgium. This counter-enclave was extinguished in 1949 when Belgium annexed the German roads that intersected at the traffic island. In 1958, when Belgium returned the east-west road to Germany, this traffic island also became part of the Roetgener Wald enclave.
- Verenahof was a German exclave within Switzerland until 1967, when it was re-attached to Germany by treaty through a land swap of a total of just under 1.06 km² in equal shares.
- West Berlin, upon the division of Berlin after World War II and before the reunification of Germany in 1990, was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany. Twelve small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main body of West Berlin, some by only a few meters. In addition, there were several small areas of East Berlin that were surrounded by West Berlin. All of Berlin was ruled "de jure" by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament and that its citizens were exempt from conscription.
- West Berlin exclaves:
- Böttcherberg (N) (1949–1971) to East Germany
- Böttcherberg (SE) (1949–1971) to East Germany
- Böttcherberg (SW) (1949–1971) to East Germany
- Erlengrund (1949–1988) land connection to West Berlin established
- Falkenhagener Wiese (1949–1971) to East Germany
- Fichtewiese (1949–1988) land connection to West Berlin established
- Finkenkrug (1949–1971) inhabited, to East Germany
- Große Kuhlake (1949–1971) to East Germany
- Laßzins-Wiesen (1949–1988) to East Germany
- Nuthewiesen (1949–1971) to East Germany
- Steinstücken (1949–1971) inhabited, land connection to West Berlin established
- Wüste Mark (1949–1988) to East Germany
- East Berlin exclaves:
- Eiskeller (E) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
- Eiskeller (N) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
- Eiskeller (S) (1949–1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
- West-Staaken – de jure part of Soviet sector but de facto administered by Spandau Borough in the British sector; seized by East Germany in 1951 and made an exclave of East Berlin's Borough of Mitte, which it remained officially until being incorporated in 1961 by the neighboring town of Falkensee in non-Berlin East Germany.
- Gwadar was an Omani pene-exclave on the Arabian Sea coast of present-day Pakistan from 1784 until 1958.
- Ifni was a pene-exclave of Spain on the Atlantic coast of Morocco from 1859 to 1969.
- within India –
- Dadra and Nagar Haveli were enclaves inland from the Arabian Sea coast covering an area of 487 km². After invasion by pro-Indian Union forces in 1954, they achieved de facto independence from Portugal. They and three Portuguese pene-exclaves, the city of Goa and the two small coastal exclaves of Daman and Diu, were the last remnants of Portuguese India, which existed from 1505 until military conquest by India on 19 December 1961. (A 1956 map also shows a counter-enclave within Nagar Haveli belonging to Bombay.)
- French India – Pondicherry and the other exclaves of Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon were absorbed into India de facto in 1954 and de jure in 1962 after the Algerian War. In 1761 the British captured all of them from the French (and also Chandannagar), but the Treaty of Paris (1763) returned them to France. Those possessions passed again to British control before finally being handed over to the French in 1816/1817 under the 1814 Treaty of Paris. Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon came to be administered as the Union Territory of Puducherry in 1963. All four are now sub-national ex(en)claves within India.
- Pondicherry, was the site of a trading center set up by the French East India Company in 1674, which eventually became the chief French settlement in India, after passing several times between Dutch, British and French control. It comprised 12 non-contiguous parts: three pene-exclaves on the Bay of Bengal and nine nearby true enclaves. Inside the main Pondicherry exclave was a small counter-enclave belonging to India straddling the Chunnambar River.
- Mahé (or Mayyazhi), a small (9 km²) town, was a pene-exclave on the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea from 1721. Mahé was composed of three non-contiguous parts, including Mahé town and two true enclaves: Cherukallayi and one consisting of Palloor, Chalakkara and Pandakkal.
- Yanaon (or Yanam), a 30 km² pene-exclave in the delta of Godavari River, nine kilometers from the Coromandel Coast and Bay of Bengal. It was a Dutch colony before France overtook it in 1723 and made it a French colony.
- Karaikal was a small coastal pene-exclave on the Bay of Bengal acquired by France in 1739 from the regime of Raja Pratap Singh of Tanjore. By 1760 it included 81 villages around Karaikal town.
- Chandannagar was a small true enclave established as a French colony in 1673, located on the right bank of the Hooghly River 30 kilometers north of Kolkata. Bengal was then a province of the Mughal Empire. The British returned the city to France in 1816, along with a 7.8 km² nearby enclave. In May 1950, with French approval, India assumed de facto control, with the de jure transfer in June 1952. In 1955 it was integrated into West Bengal state.
- Trincomalee was in present-day Sri Lanka (then a part of India) located on the Indian Ocean east coast of the island. By September 1782 it was occupied by the French after the Battle of Trincomalee with the British, only to be ceded back to the British in 1783.
- The Lado Enclave was a 39,000 km² exclave of the Congo Free State and later of Belgian Congo that existed from 1894 until 1910, situated on the west bank of the Upper Nile in present-day South Sudan and northwest Uganda.
- Mount Scopus (in Jerusalem) was an Israeli exclave in Jordan between 1948 and 1967, before being reunited with West Jerusalem following the Six Day War. It is still an exclave on a political level, as Israel's annexation of the connecting territory is unrecognized internationally.
- Panama –
- Colón, an exclave of Panama from 1903 to July 27, 1939, was surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone, until a treaty provision connected it to the main part of Panama via a corridor.
- Panama City and the tip of Paitilla Point from 1903 to February 11, 1915, were pene-enclaves surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone and the Pacific Ocean. Maps of the Canal Zone dated before 1923 clearly show these borders. Maps dated 1924 and later show a changed border that re-connected Panama City with eastern Panama.
- When Madden Road was ceded to the U.S. by treaty on July 27, 1939, a Vennbahn-type Panamanian enclave was created that was bounded by Madden Road, the main Canal Zone boundary, and a contour line above Rio Chagres and Rio Chilibre. Another treaty that took effect on April 11, 1955, de-enclaved it.
- Under the 1977 Panama Canal Treaty, when the U.S. transferred the Chiva Chiva Training Area to Panama, it existed as an enclave from 1993 to November 30, 1999.
- Panama had a water enclave in Limon Bay from 1979 to December 31, 1999.
- Pogiriai (Pogiry) was a Lithuanian exclave of 1.7 km² that was ceded to Belarus in 1996.
- The southern section of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah was a national-level exclave surrounded by other emirates of the UAE and Oman for three months after UAE independence in 1971 until it joined the UAE in 1972.
- Between 1991 and 2003, Russia had three tiny pene-exclaves on tips of the lakeshore that bordered the Lithuanian side of Lake Vištytis. Before a new border treaty went into force on 12 August 2003, the border ran along most of the waterline of the beaches on the Lithuanian side, so anyone paddling in the water was technically crossing into Russia.
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon, a French territorial collectivity, was completely surrounded by the territorial waters of Canada from 1763 until 1992, when an EEZ corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide was created, stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
- Schirgiswalde – In accordance with terms of the 1635 Peace Treaty of Prague, Austria transferred land (Ober- and Niederlausitz) to Saxony. However, because of religious affiliation with Austria, Schirgiswalde and five other towns (Güntersdorf, Gerlachsheim, Winkel, Taubentränke and Neuleutersdorf) within the transferred land remained with Austria, becoming Austrian enclaves within Saxony. 174 years later, to address problems as states began to consolidate, the 1809 Peace Treaty of Vienna mandated the transfer of these six enclaves from Austria to Saxony. However, the transfer did not occur until 1845 because of the need to correct mistakes in the names of the villages stated in the treaty and subsequent neglect. During that time, Schirgiswalde was de facto independent until economic reasons compelled the final transfer of the enclaves, thus extinguishing them.
- Sikkim – Dopta and Chumbi were exclaves of Sikkim within Tibet until China occupied them in 1958.
- Sweden – The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted certain possessions of the Holy Roman Empire to the Swedish Empire (extant 1611–1721) to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire:
- Bremen-Verden – states of the Holy Roman Empire bordering the North Sea; in "personal union with Sweden" until 1712, when they fell under Danish occupation in wartime.
- Swedish Pomerania – a state on the Baltic coast in present-day Germany and Poland; a small part was ceded to Prussia following war in 1720 and the entirety in 1815 during the Congress of Vienna.
- town of Wismar – town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea; transferred to Germany in 1903 when Sweden renounced its claim.
- Syria was a pene-exclave of the United Arab Republic from 1958–1961 (if one considers Egypt as the UAR main land), bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey, Iraq, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.
- Transkei was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1976 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It had two exclaves within South Africa that were true enclaves.
- Turkey –
- The tomb of Suleyman Shah (b. ca. 1178–d. 1236) was located in or near Qal'at Ja'bar in modern-day Syria; in accordance with the 1921 Treaty of Ankara, the tomb "shall remain, with its appurtenances, the property of Turkey, who may appoint guardians for it and may hoist the Turkish flag there." The treaty is silent regarding sovereignty of the 6.3 hectares of land on which the tomb rests. The tomb was relocated in 1973 prior to the creation of Lake Assad.
- Ada Kaleh – Prior to the creation of modern Turkey, the Ottoman Empire held a small island in the Danube River surrounded by the waters of Romania, from at least the Berlin Treaty of 1878 until 1923 when, under the Treaty of Lausanne, Romania obtained sovereignty over it. It was submerged in 1970 by the construction of a hydroelectric plant, displacing up to 1000 residents.
- Horseshoe Reef (1850–1908) in Lake Erie consisted of underwater ledges of sunken rock near Buffalo, New York. Great Britain ceded a fraction of an acre of underwater land that was entirely surrounded by Canadian waters to the United States to construct a lighthouse. A 1908 treaty mandated a new survey in order to shift the boundary to include the reef in U.S. waters.
- The Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Bay and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it in Hawaii, United States, the place where James Cook was killed in 1779, is owned by the United Kingdom. An historian on the occasion of the 50th anniversary recorded in 1928 that the white stone "obelisk monument [was] erected to the memory of Captain Cook, about 1876, and on land deeded outright to the British Government by Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, about the same year, so that that square is absolute British Territory." Hawaii was a sovereign nation at the time. According to a recent writer, "The land under the monument was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877 and is considered as sovereign non-embassy land owned by the British Embassy in Washington DC. ... the Hawaiian State Parks agency maintained that as sovereign British territory it was the responsibility of the UK to maintain the site."
- Lake of the Woods – the American border with present-day Canada as defined under the 1783 Treaty of Paris and the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 inadvertently created two small maritime exclaves of the U.S. in Angle Inlet. The border depended on determining the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods. Johann Tiarks' survey in 1825 placed its location at the edge of a pond on the Angle Inlet. (A 1940 academic study documented the location of Tiarks' point, which is in the immediate vicinity of (NAD83).) In accordance with the 1818 treaty, the border ran south from this point to the 49th parallel. However, this line was "intersected at five points by the winding course of the boundary in the channel of the Northwest Angle Inlet; thus there were anomalously left two small areas of waters totaling two and a half acres belonging to the United States, yet entirely surrounded by Canadian waters." They were centered at and . By treaty in 1925, the southernmost of these five intersecting points, 4785 ft. farther south than Tiarks' point, was adopted instead, which eliminated these exclaves.
- Panama Canal Zone, surrounded by Panama, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, was an American pene-exclave from 1903 to December 31, 1999, when it was transferred to Panama. Its area was considerably reduced on October 1, 1979, by treaty with Panama.
- Also in the Canal Zone, within Colón city, the lighthouse location on Manzanilla Island and a 30-foot radius around it became part of the Canal Zone in 1904, a counter-enclave in an exclave of Panama.
- When the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977 took effect on October 1, 1979, it created at least 12 U.S. enclaves that were gradually transferred to Panama over the next 20 years in the following order: Curundu Antenna Farm, Curundu Heights, Coco Solo Hospital, Curundu Military Customs Warehouse, Semaphore Hill, Gorgas Army Hospital Complex, Quarry Heights, Howard AFB/Ft. Kobbe Complex, and upon treaty expiration on December 31, 1999, Madden Dam, Sosa Hill, Panama Canal Company Administration Building, and the Army Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Chambers.
- The Val d'Aran is a valley in the Pyrenees mountains and a comarca in northwestern Catalonia, northern Spain. Most of it comprises the only part of Catalonia that is on the northern side of the Pyrenees. The Val d'Aran had been without direct access to the south side of the mountains, until the Vielha tunnel was opened in 1948.
- Venda was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1979 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It was an enclave that was not an exclave, bordering only South Africa and separated narrowly from Zimbabwe by the Madimbo corridor to the north. Venda itself also had a small exclave that was a true enclave in South Africa.
- Walvis Bay was a South African pene-exclave bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and Namibia, before being incorporated with Namibia in 1994, four years after that country's independence.
- Zadar (Zara) was a 104 km² pene-exclave of Italy, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia, from 1920 to 1944 (de facto due to abandonment by the Italian civilian administration) or 1947 (de jure under treaty).
- Various other historical foreign concessions
- Innumerable medieval enclaves within Europe
Subnational historic enclaves/exclaves
- Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch formed an exclave at county level, as a part of the Scottish county of Dunbartonshire sandwiched between Stirlingshire and Lanarkshire. The exclave was dissolved after the municipal reforms of 1975.
- Ardnamurchan, Morvern and the surrounding area also formed an exclave at county level, as a part of the Scottish county of Argyllshire bordered by Inverness-shire, separated from the rest of Argyllshire by Loch Linnhe. The exclave was dissolved in 1975 following the municipal reforms of that year.
- Dudley in the West Midlands, England, was an exclave at municipal level, being in a part of the county of Worcestershire surrounded by Staffordshire. Upon the local government reforms of 1974, the exclave was dissolved.
- Furness in England was an exclave of the county of Lancashire, known as "Lancashire-beyond-the-Sands" until 1974, when it became part of Cumbria.
- Maelor Rural District was an exclave of the Welsh county of Flintshire, bounded on three sides by England and on the west by the Welsh county of Denbighshire, until 1974 when the local administrative system was altered. It is now part of Wrexham.
- The counties of Scotland before reorganisation in 1889 included dozens of exclaves. This was especially notable in the case of Cromartyshire, which was split into at least nine parts spread across Ross-shire.
- Before 1974, and especially before 1844, there were many exclaves of counties in England and Wales.
- In Canada, East York became an exclave of York in 1922, when the township of North York was established, causing East York to be sandwiched between North York, Leaside, and Old Toronto. East York became its own township in 1924, ending its status as an exclave. All of these municipalities are part of Toronto since the 1998 amalgamation.
- In Central Finland, the former municipality of Säynätsalo was an exclave of Jyväskylä municipality from 1993 to 2009.
- Germany –
- The former municipality of Hinterhermsdorf in Saxony was an exclave of the town of Sebnitz, being separated from it by the municipality of Kirnitzschtal, until Kirnitzschtal also became a part of Sebnitz.
- Königsberg, located in the Lower Franconia region of present-day Bavaria, Germany, was an enclave within Bavaria, along with two small nearby enclaves, belonging to the Ernestine Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (which after 1825 also had five exclaves in Thuringia). In 1918 the post-monarchy duchy was split into two states, making Königsberg an exclave of the Free State of Saxe-Coburg. In 1920, the residents of that state voted to merge with the Free State of Bavaria, thus eliminating the three Bavarian enclaves.
- Schmalkalden/Suhl – Just after World War I, this Prussian enclave within Thuringia was divided between the two Prussian provinces of Saxony and Hesse-Nassau (thus it was a composite enclave). The two entities of Schmalkalden and Suhl separately were exclaves of their respective Prussian provinces.
- Innumerable medieval enclaves
- In India, until 1952, France maintained Chandannagar, which reported to the Governor of Pondichéry, and which was an enclave in Bengal, just upriver from Calcutta.
- Korea –
- Siheung County, South Korea, was an enclave within Gyeonggi Province. In 1986, the incorporated cities of Anyang, Gwacheon, and Ansan were formed from Hwaseong County. In 1989, the old county of Siheung was divided into the cities of Gunpo, Uiwang, and Siheung, thereby dissolving the enclave.
- The southwest coast of South Jeolla Province in Korea was an exclave of Taebong, Goryeo, between 903 to 936.
- Seoul was an enclave of Gyeonggi Province until neighbouring Incheon was declared a special city in 1981.
- In Russia –
- Sheremetyevo is the location of the primary airport for Moscow. From 1995 to 2011 it was officially an enclave of the city of Moscow, but there was ambiguity regarding its association with Moscow Oblast. In 2011, the enclave was returned to Moscow Oblast, thus extinguishing it.
- Vnukovo consisted of two enclaves of the city of Moscow to its southwest. On 1 July 2012, "New Moscow" was created by annexing additional land to the city, including the land that surrounded Vnukovo. The two are now exclaves of a Moscow city subdivision, and one is also an enclave.
- Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug was an enclave (not exclave) within Irkutsk Oblast and was merged into it on 1 January 2008.
- Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug was an enclave (not exclave) within Zabaykalsky Krai and was merged into it on 3 January 2008.
- In South Africa, the Eastern Cape Province had an exclave that was surrounded by KwaZulu-Natal Province, containing the town of Umzimkulu. KwaZulu-Natal had an exclave, Mount Currie, that was surrounded by the Eastern Cape. Both were extinguished in 2006.
- Switzerland –
- The village of Samnaun could initially only be reached by road from Austria. Thus, in 1892 the village was excluded from the Swiss customs territory. The exemption was maintained even when a road was built to the Engadin valley in 1907-1912.
- Before 1597, the two present-day cantons of Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden were one canton, Appenzell, which was an enclave completely surrounded by the Canton of St. Gallen.
- Turkey –
- Maine was a pene-exclave of Massachusetts between 1652 and 1820.
- The Western Reserve in present-day Ohio was a pene-exclave of Connecticut from 13 September 1786 to 1800, when it reverted to the Northwest Territory.
- The following from pre-merger Louisville, Kentucky, no longer exist as enclaves: Audubon Park, Meadowview Estates, Parkway Village, Seneca Gardens, Wellington, and the combination of Kingsley, Strathmoor Manor, and Strathmoor Village.
- District of Columbia – Washington National Airport was built on reclaimed land on the south side of the Potomac River, at which the river's high-water line marked the District's boundary with Virginia. Therefore, until 1945, the site was a pene-exclave of the District. Since then, the airport has been officially deemed a part of Arlington County, Virginia, but it is under exclusive federal jurisdiction and is administered as if still part of the District.
- Princeton Township surrounded the Borough of Princeton, home of Princeton University, until the two municipalities merged in 2013 to form Princeton, New Jersey.
- Town Line, New York voted 85 to 40 to secede from the United States in 1861, with no legal effect and no well-defined borders, to become an exclave of the Confederate States of America, unrecognized by either side (there are no written records); ceremonially voted to "rejoin" the Union in 1946.
Temporary enclaves or exclaves
Sometimes land is ceded temporarily to another country as a form of legal fiction.
- Suite 212 at Claridges Hotel in London was ceded by the United Kingdom to Yugoslavia on 17 June 1945 to allow Crown Prince Alexander, whose parents were in exile, to be born on Yugoslav soil.
- Camp Zeist, a former United States Air Force base in the Netherlands, was, in 2000, temporarily declared sovereign territory of the United Kingdom, in order to allow the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial to take place.
- In 1943, the maternity ward at the Ottawa Civic Hospital in Canada was temporarily extraterritorial so that Princess Juliana's daughter Princess Margriet would only have Dutch (by parents' nationality) and not dual nationality, because of her potential birth on Canadian soil. Dual nationality would have excluded her from the royal succession.
- In 1979, at Sender Zehlendorf, East Germany, an area of 300 meters in radius around a radio tower construction site was made an exclave of the Soviet Union. After a Soviet fighter plane had earlier collided with a radio transmission mast at the facility, causing it to collapse, the Soviet Union agreed to rebuild the mast. So that the stricter German safety regulations would not slow the construction progress, the area was declared a Soviet exclave for the duration of the work.
Potential exclaves pending international resolution
- Hans Island – Two pene-exclaves would be created by a land border between Canada and Denmark (on behalf of Greenland). Negotiations in 2012 between Canada and Denmark, not yet finalized, call for either a condominium or splitting the sovereignty over the disputed island. If the island were to be split by a boundary, it would create both Canada's and Denmark's second land border.
- Palanca Marshes – potential Vennbahn-type enclave of Moldova surrounded by Ukraine: Under a 2001 treaty between the two nations, Moldova is to transfer to Ukraine not only the asphalt (as it has already done), but also the real property under 7.7 kilometers of road (which is a portion of the 300 km road between Odessa and Reni), and to clarify the sovereignty of that land, which under that treaty is to be transferred to Ukraine.
- Croatian maritime exclave within Adriatic Sea waters of Italy and Slovenia – The Drnovšek-Račan agreement of 20 July 2001 defined the entire border between the countries, including the maritime border. According to this agreement, Croatia would get approximately one third of the Gulf of Piran and a maritime border with Italy, while Slovenia would get a corridor to international waters. This solution included a Croatian maritime exclave. However, such a solution could run afoul of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, which prohibits sovereignty over parts of the sea unconnected to land. Article 4 states, "... the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters," and "... baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas the territorial sea of another State."
- Whyte, Brendan (2004). "En Territoire Belge et à Quarante Centimètres de la Frontière" An historical and documentary study of the Belgian and Dutch enclaves of Baarle-Hertog and Baarle-Nassau. The University of Melbourne, School of Anthropology, Geography and Environmental Studies. ISBN 0-7340-3032-0.
- Krogh, Jan. "Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: Enclaves and Exclaves". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
- "Treaty between Australia and the Independent State of Papua New Guinea concerning Sovereignty and Maritime Boundaries in the area between the two Countries, including the area known as Torres Strait, and Related Matters". Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra. 1985. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
- "Australian Enclaves off Papua, New Guinea (map)". Association of Canada Lands Surveyors. Retrieved 2013-08-20.
- "Complete Files of Geographic Names for Geopolitical Areas from GNS". Toponymic information is based on the Geographic Names Database, containing official standard names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. More information is available at the Maps and Geodata link at http://www.nga.mil. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency name, initials, and seal are protected by 10 United States Code Section 425. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
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- "Tin Bigha corridor to remain open 24 hours". Bangla News 24. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "Transit tumbles into Teesta abyss". bdnews24.com. 7 September 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- U.S. National Geodetic Survey. "NOAA Shoreline Data Explorer". Retrieved 2015-04-10.
- Gray, David H. (Autumn 1997). "Canada's Unresolved Maritime Boundaries" (PDF). IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin. p. 61. Retrieved 2015-03-21.
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- Davidson, George (1903). The Alaska Boundary. Alaska Packers Association. pp. 79–81, 129–134, 177–179, 229.
- "Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia), Rejoinder, Republic of Colombia" (PDF) 1. International Court of Justice. 18 June 2010. pp. 99–102. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- Official Nautical Chart: Cayo Quitasueño
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- Bekker, Pieter (15 January 2013). "The World Court Awards Sovereignty Over Several Islands in the Caribbean Sea to Colombia and Fixes a Single Maritime Boundary between Colombia and Nicaragua" (PDF). Insight (American Society of International Law) 17 (3). Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- Cortes, Jorge (2003). Latin American Coral Reefs. Gulf Professional Publishing. p. 283. ISBN 978-0444540256. Retrieved 2013-08-16.
- Krogh, Jan. "Jan S. Krogh's Geosite: Enclave/exclave of Brezovica". Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- Bartholomew, John (1955). The Times Atlas of the World. Belgium, Plate 61, V. III (Map). Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston London. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- Area based on this map using Google Maps area calculator tool 
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Portion of Navsari, Sheet NF 43-13, Series U502, U.S. Army Map Service compiled in 1954 and printed in 1956 (Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection, University of Texas Libraries)
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- Richard G. Castagna; Lawrence L. Thornton, John M. Tyrawski. GIS and Coastal Boundary Disputes: Where is Ellis Island?. ESRI. Retrieved 2013-11-16. "The New York portion of Ellis Island is landlocked, enclaved within New Jersey's territory."
- Google Maps, showing Beijing International airport. https://goo.gl/maps/bWh86. The red-line highlights the exclave including Terminals 1 and 2. Terminal 3 is to the southeast of the exclave at the north end of the road loop seen there.
- Art. 4, № 5 of Law № 142/85, from 18 November (law on the creation of municipalities)
- Art. 6, № 1 of Law № 8/93, from 5 March (law on the creation of civil parishes)
- Bibb-Monroe County Line dispute
- Georgia Supreme Court hears arguments in Bibb-Monroe border war
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- "Urban Neighborhoods, Municipalities & Census-Designated Places: Jefferson County, Kentucky" (PDF). Louisville/Jefferson County Information Consortium. 2007-06-24. Retrieved 2007-06-28. Note that this map clearly marks the pre-merger boundaries of Louisville.
- U.S. Census Bureau (2000). "Pennsylvania County Subdivision Outline Maps" (PDF).
- "USGS National Map Viewer". Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- "Browse San Antonio".
- "Sunset Valley, Texas".
- Gómez Cruz, Ricardo Alonso (October 2004). Elementos Jurídicos para la Construcción de una Propuesta Tendente a la Recuperación Material y la Soberanía de la Isla Conejo en el Golfo de Fonseca (Legal Elements for the Construction of a Proposal to the Material Recovery and Sovereignty of Isla Conejo in the Gulf of Fonseca) (PDF) (Thesis). Universidad de El Salvador, Ciudad Universitaria, San Salvador, El Salvador. p. 33, 36, 46, 49 and 50. Retrieved 2013-07-04.
- Case Concerning Land, Island, and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador/Honduras, Nicaragua Intervening) (International Court of Justice 1992). Text
- Huezo Urquilla, Luis Salvador (July 1993). La controversia fronteriza terrestre, insular y maritima entre El Salvador y Honduras, y Nicaragua como país interviniente (Thesis). Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado, San Salvador, El Salvador. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
- "Mapping the Benefits of the Law of the Sea" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- Soler, Tomas et al. (May 2001). "Parting the Waters" (PDF). GPS World: 28–33. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan Republic. "GoMap Online Navigator". Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan Republic. "GoMap Online Navigator". Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Azerbaijan Republic. "GoMap Online Navigator". Retrieved 2013-11-25.
- "Question from ages ago: solved...". Retrieved 2013-10-19.
- "Śląskie administracja". Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- "King Fahd Causeway: Border Station".
- "Statutory Instruments, S.I. No. 187 Of 2006, Roads Act 1993 (Classification Of National Roads), Order 2006" (PDF). The Stationery Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin, Ireland. 2006. p. 16.
- "Lough Vearty". Retrieved 2013-05-28.
- Jan S. Krogh's Geosite on the Trosterud farms
- Jan S. Krogh's Geosite on Sørdalen valley
- "International Boundary Study No. 41, Greece – Turkey Boundary". U.S. Department of State, Office of the Geographer. 23 November 1964. p. 7. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
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- "Jervis Bay Territory Governance and Administration". Although the Jervis Bay Territory is not part of the Australian Capital Territory, the laws of the ACT apply, in so far as they are applicable and, providing they are not inconsistent with an Ordinance, in the Territory by virtue of the Jervis Bay Acceptance Act 1915. The Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
- The area of ACT land on the Beecroft Peninsula is clearly shown in the New South Wales Roads Directory (Map 177, grid ref. S 2), which is published by the National Roads and Motoring Association and is based on NSW Department of Lands maps. A good online GIS map showing the Beecroft Peninsula, and those areas which are part of the ACT, can be found at the website of the City of Shoalhaven, the adjacent NSW municipality.
- "Thingvellir National Park" (PDF).
- Ali, Rauf (29 January 2001). "Enclaves In Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve". p. 3. Retrieved 2013-09-21.
- "USGS National Map Viewer". Retrieved 2013-08-19.
- Say goodbye to the weirdest border dispute in the world, Washington Post, August 1,2015.
- Bray, J. (1997). "Ladakhi and Bhutanese enclaves in Tibet". Recent Research on Ladakh (Ulmer Kulturantropologische Schriften. Universität Ulm). Proceedings of the 7th Colloquium of the International Association for Ladakh Studies. Bonn/St. Augustin, 12–15 June 1995.
- Pranavananda, F.R.G.S. Swami (1950). Exploration in Tibet. University of Calcutta, Calcutta, India. p. 146.
- "Enclave of Chinese territory in the Guandong: Jinzhou Castle Walled City (English translation)". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- "Enclave of Chinese territory in the Weihaiwei: Weihaiwei Castle Walled City (English translation)". Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- Vinokurov, Evgeny (2007). The Theory of Enclaves. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.
- Bartholomew, John (1955). "The Times Atlas of the World. Belgium, Plate 61, V. III". Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston London. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- "Vennbahn: Bahnhof Konzen/Fringshaus". Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- U.S. Department of State (30 June 1961). "International Boundary Study, Belgium-Germany Boundary" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- Contract between the Swiss Confederation and the Federal Republic of Germany
- "Berlin Exclaves". Retrieved 2013-05-02.
- Johnston, T.B. (1912). "The Royal Atlas Of Modern Geography Exhibiting, In A Series Of Entirely Original And Authentic Maps, The Present Condition Of Geographical Discovery And Research In The Several Countries, Empires, And States Of The World By The Late Alexander Keith Johnston ... With Additions And Corrections To The Present Date ... With A Special Index To Each Map. A New Edition.". W. & A.K. Johnston, Limited, Edinburgh & London. p. 58. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "Atlas Of The Mexican Conflict Containing Detailed Maps Showing the Territory Involved, Pertinent Statistics of Mexico and the United States, Summary of Recent Events in Mexico". Rand McNally & Company, Publishers, Chicago - New York, U.S.A. 1914. p. 11. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "London atlas series. Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, also Panama. (with Panama Canal Zone). (with) Galapagos Islands, Colon". Edward Stanford, Ltd. Stanford's Geographical Establishment, Long Acre, W.C. London. 1922. pp. 12–14. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "Times survey atlas of the world. The West Indies. (with) Panama Canal. (with) Kingston. (with) Havana. (with) Jamaica. (with) Porto Rico. (with) Trinidad.". The Edinburgh Geographical Institute, John Bartholomew & Co., London. 1922. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- "Rand McNally & Co.'s Commercial Atlas Of America. Fifty-Fifth Edition". Rand McNally & Company, Chicago, U.S.A. 1924. pp. 592–593. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Boggs, Samuel Whittemore (1940). International boundaries: a study of boundary functions and problems. Columbia University Press. pp. 48–49. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- Horwitz, Tony. Oct. 2003, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before, Bloomsbury, ISBN 0-7475-6455-8
- Erickson, Lt Clayton, RCN (2012). "Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Cleaned and Repaired". Cook's Log 35 (4). p. 38. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- "Canadian Crew Cleans Cook Monument". 30 August 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Harris, Francis (22 Jul 2006). "Don't mention the murder - how Hawaii forgot Capt. Cook". Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Taylor, Albert P. "HOW HAWAII HONORED CAPTAIN COOK, R.N., IN 1928". p. 29. Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- MacFarlane, John M. (2012). "The Captain Cook Memorial at Kealakakua Bay Hawaii". Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- William E. Lass (1980). Minnesota's Boundary with Canada: Its Evolution Since 1783. Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-87351-153-0. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Panama Canal Treaty: Implementation of Article IV (TIAS 10032). United States Treaties and Other International Agreements 33 (United States Department of State). 1987. p. 307-432.
- Ormsbee, William H. "PANAMA CANAL TREATY TRANSITION (OCTOBER 1979 - DECEMBER 1999).". Retrieved 2015-07-11.
- Ormsbee, William H. "PANAMA CANAL TREATY TRANSITION - MILITARY. SUMMARY OF MILITARY PROPERTY TRANSFERS AND MILITARY FORCES DRAWDOWN.". Retrieved 2015-07-11.
- "Canal Zone Map Section. Curundu 1.". Retrieved 2015-07-23.
- Christopher Long (25 October 1991). "A Regal Bid Too Far?". Retrieved 2006-12-15.
- Sherwell, Philip (11 March 2001). "Crown prince receives Yugoslav citizenship after 55-year exile". Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- Strauss, Julius (16 Oct 2000). "Warm welcome as prince goes back to Belgrade". Retrieved 2013-11-05.
- Warum die Baustelle eines Sendemasten exterritoriales Gebiet wurde.
- "As It Happens - Hans Island Settlement". 11 April 2012. Retrieved 2013-05-04.
- Moldova-Ukraine relations, interview with Andrei Popov
- Arnaut, Damir (2004). "Stormy Waters on the Way to the High Seas: The Case of the Territorial Sea Delimitation between Croatia and Slovenia". In Caron, David; Scheiber, Harry. Bringing New Law to Ocean Waters. Klüwer. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008.
- Turkalj, Kristian. "Razgraničenje teritorijalnog mora između Hrvatske i Slovenije u sjevernom Jadranu (Piranski zaljev)" (PDF) (in Croatian). Retrieved 20 September 2008.
- "Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone" (PDF). UN. p. 1.
Article 4: ... baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas the territorial sea of another State.
Nies, Susanne, Sand in the works. Enclaves challenging metropolitan states.219 p. Paris 2004
- Whyte, Brendan R. (2002). WAITING FOR THE ESQUIMO: An historical and documentary study of the Cooch Behar enclaves of India and Bangladesh (revised 2004). Melbourne: University of Melbourne (doctoral dissertation). ISBN 0-7340-2208-5.
- Jan S. Krogh's Geosite
- Puducherry Map