List of endangered languages in South America

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1]

  • Vulnerable
  • Definitely endangered
  • Severely endangered
  • Critically endangered

South America is a continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest.

Argentina[edit]

Argentina
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Chiriguano language 15,000 Red Book
Chorote language see also Matacoan languages Red Book
Guarani Correntino language Red Book
Gununa Yajich language Red Book
Mapuche language Red Book
Mbya language Red Book
Mocovi language 4,500 Red Book
Nivacle language Red Book
Ona language 1 to 3 (1991 Adelaar)
Pilaga language 4,000 Red Book
Quichua Santiagueno language 60,000 Red Book
Tapiete language Red Book
Toba Sur language Red Book
Vilela language 20 (1981 Buckwalter)
Wichi language Red Book
Yaghan language Red Book

Bolivia[edit]

Bolivia
Language Comments Speakers Source
Araona language 110 Red Book
Ayoreo language Red Book
Baure language 13 (2000 Adelaar)
Bororo language Red Book
Callahuaya language Red Book
Cavinena language 1,700 Red Book
Chacobo language 550 Red Book
Chimane language 5,300 Red Book
Chipaya language 1,200 Red Book
Chiquitano language Red Book
Chorote language Red Book
Chulupi-Ashlushlay language Red Book
Esse Ejja language Red Book
Guarani Chiriguano language 33,670 Red Book
Guarayo language Red Book
Ignaciano language see also Moxos language Red Book
Itonama language 5
Leco language 20 (2001 Simon van de Kerke)
Machineri language Red Book
Mataco language Red Book
Moseten language Red Book
Movima language 1,400 Red Book
Pacahuara language 17 (2000 W Adelaar) 18 (2000 Adelaar)
Paunaca language Red Book
Pauserna-Guarasugwe language Red Book
Reyesano language Possibly a few speakers (2000 W Adelaar)
Siriono language Red Book
Tacana language Red Book
Tapiete language Red Book
Toba language Red Book
Toromona language Red Book
Trinitario language Red Book
Uru language 2
Yaminahua language Red Book
Yuqui language 120 Red Book
Yuracare language 2,700 Red Book

Brazil[edit]

Brazil
Language Comments Speakers Source
Anambe language 7 (1991 SIL) 77 (1993 SIL)
Apiaca language 2 (1986 Rodrigues)
Arikapu language 6 (1998 SIL).
Arua language 12 (1990).
Arutani language 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL)Population total all countries: 19.
Cafundo Creole language 40 (1978 M Gnerre, U Estadual de Campinas).
Guato language 40 (1993 SIL) 382 (1993 SIL).
Himarima language 40.
Jabuti language 5 (1990).
Juma language 4 (1998)There were 300 in 1940.
Karahawyana language 40 (1995 SIL).
Karipuna language 12 to 15 (2000 SIL).
Katawixi language 10 (1986 SIL).
Katukina language 1 (1976 SIL) 360.
Kreye language 30 (1995 SIL).
Mapidian language 50 in Brazil (1986 Howard).
Monde language 30 (1995 AMTB).
Ofaye language 15 (2002) 37 (1995 AMTB).
Omagua language There may be none left in Brazil (1995).
Oro Win language 5 (1996 SIL) 55 (1998).
Piraha language 150 speakers in 2004. Ethnic population: 200.  
Purubora language 2 (2002 SIL).
Sikiana language 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL)Population total all countries: 48.
Tariano language 100 in Brazil (1996 A Aikhenvald) 1,500 in Brazil (1985 Rodrigues).
Torá language 40 (1990) 120 (1990 YWAM).
Xeta language 3 (1990 SIL) 100 to 250 (1986 SIL).
Xipaya language 2 (2000 SIL).

Chile[edit]

Chile
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Kunza language Red Book
Aymara language Red Book
Huilliche language Red Book
Kawesqar language Alacaluf Red Book
Mapuche language Red Book
Ona language Red Book
Qawasqar language 20 (1996 Oscar Aguilera)Population includes 10 in Puerto Edin.
Yaghan language 1 (2003) 100 (2000 W Adelaar).

Colombia[edit]

Ecuador[edit]

Ecuador
Language Comments Speakers Source
Achuar-Shiwiar language Red Book
Awapit language Red Book
Chachi language Red Book
Cofan language Red Book
Epera language Red Book
Huaorani language Red Book
Secoya language Red Book
Shuar language Red Book
Siona language Red Book
Tsafiqui language Red Book
Zaparo language 1 (2000 SIL) 170 (2000 M R Wise SIL).

French Guyana[edit]

French Guyana
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Arawak language Red Book
Emerillon language 400 Red Book
Galibi language Red Book
Palikur language Red Book
Wayana language Red Book
Wayapi language Red Book

Guyana[edit]

Guyana
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Akawaio language Red Book
Arekuna language Red Book
Karina language Red Book
Lokono language Red Book
Makushi language Red Book
Mapidian language
Mawayana language 50 (1986 Howard).
Patamona language Red Book
Wapishana language Red Book
Warao language Red Book

Paraguay[edit]

Paraguay
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Ache language Red Book
Angaite language Red Book
Ava-Guarani language Red Book
Ayoreo language Red Book
Enlhet language Red Book
Guana language Red Book
Guarani-Nandeva language Red Book
Guarayo language Red Book
Ishir language Red Book
Maka language Red Book
Manjui language Red Book
Mbya language Red Book
Nivacle language Red Book
Pai-Tavytera language Red Book
Sanapana language Red Book
Toba-Maskoy language Red Book
Toba-Qom language Red Book

Peru[edit]

Peru
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Achuar-Shiwiar language Red Book
Aguaruna language Red Book
Amahuaca language Red Book
Andoa-Shimigae language Red Book
Arabela language Red Book
Bora language Red Book
Cahuarano language 5 (1976 SIL).
Campa Ashaninca language Red Book
Campa Asheninca language Red Book
Campa Caquinte language Red Book
Campa Nomatsiguenga language Red Book
Candoshi-Shapra language Red Book
Capanahua language Red Book
Cashibo-Cacataibo language Red Book
Cashinahua language Red Book
Chamicuro language 2 (2000 Adelaar) 10 to 20 (2000 Adelaar).
Chayahuita language Red Book
Cocama-Cocamilla language Red Book
Culina language Madija 1300[2] Red Book
Ese Eja language Red Book
Harakmbut language Red Book
Huambisa language Red Book
Huitoto language Red Book
Inapari language 4 (1999 SIL).
Iquito language 35 (2002 SIL)1 monolingual 500.
Isconahua language 82 (2000 WCD).
Jaqaru language Red Book
Jebero language 2,000 to 3,000 (2000 W Adelaar).
Machiguenga language Red Book
Mashco Piro language 20 to 100 (1976 SIL)All are completely monolingual.
Matses-Mayoruna language Red Book
Ocaina language Red Book
Omagua language 10 to 100 in Peru (1976 SIL)Population total all countries: 10 to 100 627 (1976).
Orejon language Red Book
Piro language 20 to 100 in 1976 Red Book
Resigaro language 14 (1976 SIL).
Secoya language Red Book
Sharanahua language Red Book
Shipibo-Conibo language Red Book
Taushiro language 1 (2002 SIL) 20.
Ticuna language Red Book
Urarina language Red Book
Wariapano language Red Book
Yagua language Red Book
Yaminahua language Red Book
Yanesha language Red Book
Yora language Red Book

Suriname[edit]

Suriname
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Akurio language 10 (2000 E.B. Carlin)
Carib language Red Book
Lokono language Red Book
Mawayana language Red Book
Sikiana language 15 in Suriname (2001 Carlin) 50
Trio language Red Book
Tunayana language Red Book
Wayana language Red Book

Venezuela[edit]

Venezuela
Language Comments No. Speakers Source
Akawaio language Red Book
Anun language Red Book
Arutani language 2 in Venezuela (2002 SIL) Eth: 39 (2002 SIL)
Baniva language Red Book
Bari language Red Book
Cuiba language Red Book
Guahibo language Red Book
Guajiro language Red Book
Hoti language Red Book
Karina language Red Book
Kurripako language Red Book
Lokono language Red Book
Mako language Red Book
Makushi language Red Book
Mandahuaca language Red Book
Mapoyo language 3 (2000 Muller) 120
Nengatu language Red Book
Panare language Red Book
Patamona language Red Book
Pemono language 1 (2000 M-C Mattei Muller)
Pepojivi language Red Book
Piapoko language Red Book
Piaroa language Red Book
Puinave language Red Book
Sape language 5 (1977 E Migliazza) 25 or fewer (1977 Migliazza).
Saliva language Red Book
Sanema language Red Book
Sikiana language
Tunebo language Red Book
Uruak language Red Book
Warao language Red Book
Warekena language Red Book
Yabarana language 20 to 50 (1977 Migliazza)
Yanam language Red Book
Yanomam language Red Book
Yanomami language Red Book
Yaruro language Red Book
Yekuana language Red Book
Yukpa language Red Book

References[edit]