List of epidemics

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Plague panel with the triumph of death. 1607–35, Deutsches Historisches Museum Berlin

This article is a list of epidemics of infectious disease. Widespread and chronic complaints such as heart disease and allergy are not included if they are not thought to be infectious.

Pre-1500[edit]

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Article Disease Ref.
75,000–100,000 Greece 429–426 BC Plague of Athens unknown, possibly typhus [1]
5 million; 30% of population in some areas Europe, Western Asia, Northern Africa 165–180 Antonine Plague unknown, symptoms similar to smallpox [2]
Europe 250–266 Plague of Cyprian unknown, possibly smallpox [3]
25–50 million; 40% of population Europe 541–542 Plague of Justinian plague [4]
British Isles 664-668 Plague of 664 plague [5][page needed]
British Isles 680-686 plague [5][page needed]
Byzantine Empire 746-747 plague [6]
75–100 million; 30–60% of population Europe, Asia and North Africa 1346–1350 Black Death plague [7]

1500–1699[edit]

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Article Disease Ref.
5–15 million (80% of population) Mexico 1545–1548 Cocoliztli viral hemorrhagic fever [8][9][10]
2–2.5 million (50% of population) Mexico 1576 Cocoliztli epidemic of 1576 viral hemorrhagic fever [8][9][10]
Seneca nation 1592–1596 measles [11]
Spain 1596–1602 plague [12]
South America 1600–1650 malaria
England 1603 London plague
Egypt 1609 plague
30–90% of population Southern New England, especially the Wampanoag people 1616–1619 Unknown cause. Latest research suggests epidemic(s) of leptospirosis with Weil syndrome. Classic explanations include yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. ,[13][14]
280,000 Italy 1629–1631 Italian plague of 1629–1631 plague [15]
Wyandot people 1630 in Ontario smallpox
Thirteen Colonies 1633 Plymouth Colony smallpox
Thirteen Colonies 1634 Connecticut River area smallpox
England 1636 Newcastle plague
China 1641–1644 helped end the Ming Dynasty plague [16]
Spain 1647–1652 Great Plague of Seville plague
South America 1648 yellow fever
Italy 1656 Naples plague
Thirteen Colonies 1657 Boston, Massachusetts measles
24,148[17] Netherlands 1663–1664 Amsterdam plague
100,000[18] England 1665–1666 Great Plague of London plague [19]
40,000 France 1668 plague
Spain 1676–1685 plague
76,000 Austria 1679 Great Plague of Vienna plague
Thirteen Colonies 1687 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Thirteen Colonies 1690 New York City yellow fever

18th century[edit]

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Article Disease Ref.
Canada, New France 1702–1703 smallpox [20]
Sweden 1710–1711 Great Northern War plague outbreak plague
Thirteen Colonies 1713 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Thirteen Colonies 1713–1715 New England and the Great Lakes measles
Canada, New France 1714–1715 measles [21]
France 1720–1722 Great Plague of Marseille plague [22]
Thirteen Colonies 1721–1722 Boston, Massachusetts smallpox [23]
Thirteen Colonies 1729 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Spain 1730 Cadiz yellow fever
Thirteen Colonies 1732–1733 influenza [24]
Canada, New France 1733 smallpox [25]
>50,000 Balkans 1738 Great Plague of 1738 plague
Thirteen Colonies 1738 South Carolina smallpox
Thirteen Colonies 1739–1740 Boston, Massachusetts measles
Italy 1743 Messina plague
Thirteen Colonies 1747 CT, NY, PA, SC measles
North America 1755–1756 smallpox
North America 1759 measles
North America, West Indies 1761 influenza
North America, present Day Pittsburgh area. 1763 Native American victims of Biological warfare during the Siege of Fort Pitt, part of the French and Indian War. Smallpox
>50,000 Russia 1770–1772 Russian plague of 1770–1772 plague
Pacific Northwest natives 1770s smallpox [26]
North America 1772 measles
North America 1775 particularly in the northeast unknown cause
England 1775–1776 influenza [27]
Spain 1778 Cadiz dengue fever
Plains Indians 1780–1782 North American smallpox epidemic smallpox [28]
Pueblo Indians 1788 smallpox
United States 1788 Philadelphia and New York City measles
New South Wales, Australia 1789–1790 amongst the Aborigines smallpox [29]
United States 1793 Vermont influenza and epidemic typhus
United States 1793 Virginia influenza
United States 1793–1798 Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793, resurgences yellow fever [30]

19th century[edit]

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Article Disease Ref.
Spain 1800–1803 yellow fever [31]
Ottoman Empire, Egypt 1801 bubonic plague [32]
United States 1803 New York yellow fever
Egypt 1812 plague
Ottoman Empire 1812 Istanbul plague
Malta 1813 plague
Romania 1813 Bucharest plague
Ireland 1816–1819 typhus
>>100,000 Asia, Europe 1816–1826 first cholera pandemic cholera [33]
United States 1820–1823 arising near Schuylkill River fever[ambiguous]
Spain 1821 Barcelona yellow fever [34]
New South Wales, Australia 1828 amongst the Aborigines smallpox [35]
Netherlands 1829 Groningen epidemic malaria
South Australia 1829 smallpox [36]
Iran 1829–1835 bubonic plague [37]
>>100,000 Asia, Europe, North America 1829–1851 second cholera pandemic cholera [33]
Egypt 1831 cholera [38][39]
Plains Indians 1831–1834 smallpox
England, France 1832 London, Paris cholera
North America 1832 New York City, Montreal other cities cholera
United States 1833 Columbus, Ohio cholera
United States 1834 New York City cholera
Egypt 1834–1836 bubonic plague [38][39]
United States 1837 Philadelphia typhus
Great Plains 1837–1838 1837-38 smallpox epidemic smallpox [40]
Dalmatia 1840 plague
South Africa 1840 Cape Town smallpox
United States 1841 especially severe in the South yellow fever
20,000+ Canada 1847–1848 Typhus epidemic of 1847 epidemic typhus [41]
United States 1847 New Orleans yellow fever
worldwide 1847–1848 influenza [42]
Egypt 1848 cholera [38][39]
North America 1848–1849 cholera
United States 1850 yellow fever
North America 1850–1851 influenza
United States 1851 Illinois, the Great Plains, and Missouri cholera
United States 1852 New Orleans yellow fever
1,000,000 Russia 1852–1860 third cholera pandemic cholera [33]
Ottoman Empire 1853 what is now Yemen plague [43]
4,737 Copenhagen, Denmark 1853 Cholera epidemic of Copenhagen 1853 cholera [44]
616 England 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak cholera [45]
United States 1855 yellow fever
worldwide 1855–1950 Third plague pandemic bubonic plague [46]
Portugal 1857 Lisbon yellow fever
Victoria, Australia 1857 smallpox [47]
Europe, North America, South America 1857–1859 influenza [48]
Middle East 1863–1879 fourth cholera pandemic cholera [33]
Egypt 1865 cholera [38][39]
Russia, Germany 1866–1867 cholera
Australia 1867 Sydney measles
Iraq 1867 plague [49]
Argentina 1852–1871 Buenos Aires yellow fever [50]
Germany 1870–1871 smallpox
40,000 Fiji 1875 Fiji measles [51]
Russian Empire 1877 Baku, now part of Azerbaijan plague [52]
Egypt 1881 cholera [38][39]
>>9,000 India, Germany 1881–1896 fifth cholera pandemic cholera [33]
3,164 Montreal 1885 smallpox timeline
1,000,000 worldwide 1889–1890 1889–1890 flu pandemic influenza [53]

20th century[edit]

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Article Disease Ref.
Congo Basin 1896–1906 trypanosomiasis [54]
>>800,000 Europe, Asia, Africa 1899–1923 sixth cholera pandemic cholera [33]
113 San Francisco 1900–1904 Third plague pandemic bubonic plague [55]
West Africa 1900 yellow fever
Uganda 1900–1920 trypanosomiasis [56]
Egypt 1902 cholera [38][39]
India 1903 plague [57]
40,000 China 1910–1912 Harbin, Shenyang bubonic plague [58]
75,000,000 worldwide 1918–1920 1918 flu pandemic influenza [59]
Russia 1918–1922 typhus
Egypt 1942–1944 malaria [38][39]
China 1946 Harbin bubonic plague
Egypt 1946 relapsing fever [38][39]
Egypt 1947 cholera [38][39]
2,000,000 worldwide 1957–1958 Asian flu influenza [60]
worldwide 1961–1975 seventh cholera pandemic cholera [33]
1,000,000 worldwide 1968–1969 Hong Kong flu influenza [60]
5 Netherlands 1971 Staphorst, Elspeet and Uddel Poliomyelitis [61]
35 Yugoslavia 1972 1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia smallpox
United States 1972–1973 London flu influenza [62]
15,000 India 1974 1974 smallpox epidemic of India smallpox
>30,000,000 Congo Basin 1960–present HIV/AIDS pandemic HIV/AIDS [63]
South America 1990s cholera
52 India 1994 1994 plague epidemic in Surat plague [64]
West Africa 1996 meningitis

21st century[edit]

Death toll (estimate) Location Date Article Disease Ref.
Central America 2000 dengue fever [65]
Nigeria 2001 cholera [66]
South Africa 2001 cholera [67]
775 Asia, Canada 2002–2003 SARS SARS coronavirus
Algeria 2003 plague [68]
Afghanistan 2004 leishmaniasis [69]
Bangladesh 2004 cholera [70]
Indonesia 2004 dengue fever
Senegal 2004 cholera [71]
Sudan 2004 Ebola
Mali 2005 yellow fever [72]
19 Singapore 2005 2005 dengue outbreak in Singapore dengue fever [73]
Angola 2006 Luanda cholera [74]
Congo 2006 Ituri Province plague
India 2006 malaria [75]
50+ India 2006 2006 dengue outbreak in India dengue fever [76]
India 2006 Chikungunya outbreaks Chikungunya virus [77]
50+ Pakistan 2006 2006 dengue outbreak in Pakistan dengue fever [78]
Philippines 2006 dengue fever
Congo 2007 Mweka Ebola [79]
Ethiopia 2007 cholera [80]
49 India 2008 cholera [81]
10 Iraq 2007 2007 Iraq cholera outbreak cholera [82]
Nigeria 2007 Poliomyelitis [83]
Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Mexico 2007 dengue fever [84]
Somalia 2007 cholera [85]
Uganda 2007 Ebola
Vietnam 2007 cholera [86]
Brazil 2008 dengue fever
Cambodia 2008 dengue fever [87]
Chad 2008 cholera [88]
China 2008 hand, foot and mouth disease
Madagascar 2008 bubonic plague [89]
Philippines 2008 dengue fever [90]
Vietnam 2008 cholera [91]
4,293 Zimbabwe 2008–2009 2008–2009 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak cholera
18 Bolivia 2009 2009 Bolivian dengue fever epidemic dengue fever
49 India 2009 2009 Gujarat hepatitis outbreak hepatitis B
Queensland, Australia 2009 dengue fever [92]
worldwide 2009 Mumps outbreaks in the 2000s mumps
931 West Africa 2009–2010 2009-2010 West African meningitis outbreak meningitis [93]
14,286 worldwide 2009 2009 flu pandemic influenza [94][95]
8,500+ (March 2014) Hispaniola 2010–present Haiti cholera outbreak cholera [96][97]
4,500+ (February 2014) Congo 2011–present measles [98][99]
170 Vietnam 2011–present hand, foot and mouth disease [100][101]
350+ Pakistan 2011–present 2011 dengue outbreak in Pakistan dengue fever
847 (As of 10 January 2013) Darfur Sudan 2012 2012 yellow fever outbreak in Darfur, Sudan yellow fever [102]
449 (As of 11 June 2015) Worldwide 2012–present 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak Middle East respiratory syndrome [103]
>11,300 West Africa 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa Ebola virus disease [104][105]
183 Americas 2013–2015 2013–14 chikungunya outbreak Chikungunya [106]
40 Madagascar 2014–present 2014 Madagascar plague outbreak Bubonic plague [107]
36 India 2014–present 2014 Odisha jaundice outbreak primarily Hepatitis E, but also Hepatitis A [108]
2,035 India 2015–present 2015 Indian swine flu outbreak Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 [109][110][111]
worldwide 2015–present 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic Zika virus
Hundreds (as of 1 April 2016) Africa 2016 2016 yellow fever outbreak in Angola yellow fever [112]

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Further reading[edit]