List of equipment of the Vietnam People's Ground Forces
During the Vietnam War (1965–1975) and the Cambodian–Vietnamese War (1977–1989), the Vietnam People's Ground Forces relied almost entirely on Soviet-derived weapons and equipment systems. With the end of the Cold War in 1992 Soviet military equipment subsidies ended and Vietnam began the use of hard currency and barter to buy weapons and equipment.
Vietnam prioritises economic development and growth while maintaining defense spending. The government does not conduct procurement phases or major upgrades of weapons. From the end of the 1990s the Government of Vietnam has announced the acquisition of a number of strategic systems equipped with modern weapons. Accordingly, Vietnam has been slow to develop naval and air forces to control shallow waters and its exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Currently most defence procurement programs focus on remedying this priority. For example, Vietnam has purchased a number of combat aircraft and warships with the capability to operate in high seas. Vietnam also plans to develop its defence industry, with priority placed on the Navy, combined with assistance from its former communist allies, India, and Japan.
Since 2015, Vietnam has begun exploring purchases of U.S. and European weapons while facing numerous political, historical, and financial barriers, as they cannot continue to rely on Soviet and Chinese weapons especially due to the increasing tensions in the South China Sea dispute.
|PASGT Helmet||Combat Helmet||United States Vietnam||Standard Issue. Domestically made. Most helmets are a Vietnamese-made version of the PASGT Helmet. Earlier models were imported from Israel.|
|A2 Helmet||Combat Helmet||Vietnam||Standard Issue. Mainly used for training.|
|Vietnamese Pith Helmet||Helmet||Vietnam||Replaced by the A2 Helmet. Some are still used only for training.|
|SSh-68||Combat Helmet||Soviet Union||Limited use.|
|SSh-40||Combat Helmet||Soviet Union||Limited use.|
|M1 Helmet||Combat Helmet||United States||Limited use.|
|K-07 Woodland||Camouflage Pattern||Vietnam||Standard camo for ground forces. There are multiple variants of this Woodland camo in terms of slight differences in colors. The Army is aiming to replace this with a more modern camouflage pattern in the future. |
|K-17 Woodland||Camouflage Pattern||Vietnam||Limited use for testing. Would possibly replace the current K-07 Woodland camo.|
|K-18 Digital Woodland||Camouflage Pattern||Vietnam||Developed after K-17 testing. It is being tested and is aimed to also replace the K-07 camo.|
|Dac Cong Leopard||Camouflage Pattern||Vietnam||Used by the Vietnamese Special Forces.|
|U.S. Woodland||Camouflage Pattern||United States||Limited use.|
|TT-33||Semi-automatic pistol||7.62×25mm Tokarev|| Soviet Union
|Standard issue service pistol. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory as the K14-VN. The locally produced version is improved with a longer barrel, and a double-stack magazine that holds an increased capacity of 13 rounds.|
|PM||Semi-automatic pistol||9×18mm Makarov|| Soviet Union
|Used by police officers. Limited use in the army. Manufactured locally as the K59.|
|CZ-82||Semi-automatic pistol||9×18mm Makarov||Czech Republic||Used by police officers. Limited use in the army.|
|M1911A1||Semi-automatic pistol||.45 ACP||United States||Limited use|
|Browning Hi-Power||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19mm Parabellum||Belgium||Stored in reserves for shooting ranges.|
|CornerShot||Weapon accessory||Israel||Used by the Special Forces and Mobile Police Force.|
|IWI ACE 31/32||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm|| Israel
|Standard issue rifle. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory, all domestically produced versions of these rifles have their charging handle located on the right side.|
|STL-1A||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm||Vietnam||Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory. Limited use in the army.|
|AKM||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm M43|| Soviet Union
|No longer manufactured, old models are being converted to the domestically made STL-1A and STL-1B rifles. Replaced as the standard issue rifle by the ACE 31/32.|
|AK-47||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm M43|| Soviet Union
|No longer manufactured, some converted to non-firing training rifles. Replaced as the standard issue rifle by the ACE 31/32.|
|Type 56||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm M43|| China
|Type 56 and Type 56-1. Replaced as the standard issue rifle by the ACE 31/32.|
|AK-74M||Assault rifle||5.45×39mm|| Soviet Union
|Limited use. Manufactured locally.|
|AK-103||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm M43||Russia||Limited use.|
|Type 58||Assault rifle||7.62x39mm||North Korea||Limited use. Sent as Military aid by North Korea during the Vietnam War.|
|CAR-15||Carbine||5.56×45mm NATO||United States||Used by Special Forces and Marines. Manufactured locally as the M18 at the Z111 Factory. (Vietnam's locally produced version of the XM177E2).|
|IWI Tavor TAR-21||Assault rifle||5.56×45mm NATO||Israel||Used by Special Forces and Marines.|
|vz. 58||Assault rifle||7.62×39mm||Czechoslovakia||Limited use.|
|CZ 805 BREN||Assault rifle||5.56×45mm NATO||Czech Republic||Only a small number of testing.|
|FN FNC||Assault rifle||5.56×45mm NATO||Belgium||Limited use in Military Marksman Demonstration Team.|
|M16||Assault rifle||5.56×45mm NATO||United States||M16A1 and XM16E1. M16A2 used by Coast Guard in small numbers.|
|M14||Battle rifle||7.62×51mm NATO||United States||Stored in reserves.|
|SKS (CKC)||Carbine||7.62×39mm M43||Soviet Union||Used by honour guards and militia forces.|
|PP-19 Bizon||Submachine gun||9×19mm Parabellum|| Russia
|Used by special forces. Manufactured locally as the SN9P at the Z111 Factory. The locally produced version comes with a galil-style stock, and is chambered in 9×19mm. |
|Micro Uzi||Submachine gun||9×19mm Parabellum||Israel||Used by special forces. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|Uzi Pro||Submachine gun||9×19mm Parabellum||Israel||Used by special forces. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|FN P90||Submachine gun||FN 5.7×28mm||Belgium||Used by special forces.|
|MP5||Submachine gun||9×19mm Parabellum||West Germany||Used by police SWAT teams and military special forces.|
|PM-63||Machine Pistol / Submachine gun||9×18mm Makarov||Poland||Used by special forces and guard police.|
|Dragunov SVD||Sniper rifle||7.62×54mmR||Soviet Union||Standard issue sniper rifle.|
|IWI Galatz||Sniper rifle||7.62×51mm||Israel||Used by special forces and Marine Infantry. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|Orsis Т-5000M||Sniper rifle||.338LM||Russia||Used by police forces.|
|PSR-90||Sniper rifle||7.62×51mm||West Germany||Used by police forces.|
|CZ-750 S1M2||Sniper rifle||7.62×51mm||Czech Republic||Used by police forces.|
|OSV-96||Anti-materiel rifle||12.7×108mm|| Russia
|Used by special forces. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|KSVK||Anti-materiel rifle||12.7×108mm|| Russia
|Used by special forces. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|WKW Wilk||Anti-material rifle||.50 BMG||Poland||+50 examples were bought.|
|PKM||General-purpose machine gun||7.62×54mmR|| Soviet Union
|Standard issue machine gun. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|RPK||Light machine gun||7.62×39mm|| Soviet Union
|Standard issue machine gun. Manufactured locally.|
|RPD||Light machine gun||7.62×39mm|| Soviet Union
|Standard issue machine gun. Manufactured locally.|
|IWI Negev||Light machine gun||5.56×45mm NATO||Israel||Limited use. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|Type 67||General-purpose machine gun||7.62×54mmR||China||Limited use.|
|FN MAG||General-purpose machine gun||7.62×51mm NATO||Belgium||Limited use.|
|M240B||General-purpose machine gun||7.62×51mm NATO||United States||Limited use by Military Marksman Demonstration Team.|
|M60||General-purpose machine gun||7.62×51mm NATO||United States||Limited use.|
|FN Minimi Mk3||Light machine gun||5.56×45mm NATO||Belgium||Limited use in special forces and Military Marksman Demonstration Team.|
|NSV||Heavy machine gun||12.7×108mm|| Soviet Union
|Standard issue tank-mounted machine gun. Manufactured locally at the Z111 Factory.|
|DShK||Heavy machine gun||12.7×108mm|| Soviet Union
|Mounted on T-55 tanks. Currently being phased out by the NSV.|
|M1919 Browning machine gun||Medium machine gun||7.62×51mm NATO||United States||Limited use.|
|M2 Browning||Heavy machine gun||12.7×99mm (.50)||United States||Limited use.|
|AGS-17||Grenade launcher||30mm grenade|| Soviet Union
|Standard issue. Manufactured locally.|
|M203||Grenade launcher||40mm grenade|| United States
|Manufactured locally as the T-40 at the Z111 Factory. Replaces the trigger for a lever. Mounts on the IWI ACE 32, STL-1A, M18，M16A2 and IWI Tavor TAR-21.|
|M79||Grenade launcher||40mm grenade|| United States
|Standard issue. Manufactured locally.|
|MGL Mk-1||Grenade launcher||40mm grenade||South Africa Vietnam||Used by special forces. Manufactured locally.|
|82-PM-41||Mortar||82mm mortar||Soviet Union|
|M1938||Mortar||107mm mortar||Soviet Union|
|PM-43||Mortar||120mm mortar||Soviet Union|
|M1943||Mortar||160mm mortar||Soviet Union|
|Portable anti-materiel weapons|
|SPG-9||Anti-tank recoilless rifle||73mm HEAT|| Soviet Union
|B-10||Anti-tank recoilless rifle||82mm HEAT|| Soviet Union
|M72 LAW||Anti-tank weapon||66mm HEAT||United States|
|9M14 Malyutka||Guided anti-tank missile||125mm HEAT||Soviet Union|
|9M113 Konkurs||Guided anti-tank missile||135mm HEAT||Soviet Union|
|9K111 Fagot||Guided anti-tank missile||120mm HEAT||Soviet Union|
|MATADOR||Anti-armour||90mm anti-armour||Israel||Used by Marines.|
|RPG-7V||Rocket-propelled grenade||40mm HEAT|| Soviet Union
|RPG-29||Rocket-propelled grenade||105mm HEAT||Soviet Union Vietnam||Manufactured locally.|
|RPO-A Shmel||Thermobaric rocket-propelled||93mm FAE||Russia||Only for chemical forces.|
|T-90S||Main battle tank||Russia||64||Will be delivered from now through 2019[clarification needed]|
|T-62||Main battle tank||Soviet Union||220||Currently undergo refits and upgrades, complementing some of the older T-54/T-55s|
|T-54/55||Main battle tank||Soviet Union||850||T-55M3 - 300 Tanks,T-55AM - 200 Tanks|
|Type-59||Main battle tank||China||350|
|PT-76||Light tank||Soviet Union||300|
|Type 62||Light tank||China||320|
|M41 Walker Bulldog||Light tank||United States||50–100||In storage due to lack of replenishments.|
|T-34-85||Medium tank||Soviet Union||50–100||Deployed on Spratly Islands as artilleries and some were used for tank training|
|M48 Patton||Medium tank||United States||unknown||In storage due to lack of replenishments.|
|M113||Armoured personnel carrier||United States||200||Equipped with DShK machine gun and sometimes with the SPG-9.|
|Type 63||Armoured personnel carrier||China||80|
|BTR-50PK||Armoured personnel carrier||Soviet Union||400|
|BMP-1||Infantry fighting vehicle||Soviet Union||150|
|BMP-2||Infantry fighting vehicle||Soviet Union||150|
|BTR-60||Wheeled armoured personnel carrier||Soviet Union||500|
|BTR-152||Wheeled armoured personnel carrier||Soviet Union||400||One is converted to an armored ambulance to support the field hospital in Bentiu, South Sudan, as a part of the UN peacekeeping mission in South Sudan|
|V-150||Wheeled armoured personnel carrier||United States||200|
|BRDM-1||Reconnaissance vehicle||Soviet Union||150|
|BRDM-2||Reconnaissance vehicle||Soviet Union||150|
|RAM–2000||Light armoured vehicle||Israel||150|
|EXTRA||306mm rocket artillery||Israel||20||150km range, used for coastal defence.|
|SS-1 Scud B/C/D||Tactical ballistic missile||Soviet Union||24 launchers|
|BM-14||140mm multiple rocket launcher||Soviet Union||unknown|
|BM-21||122mm multiple rocket launcher||Soviet Union||unknown|
|2S1 Gvozdika||122mm self-propelled artillery||Soviet Union||unknown|
|2S3 Akatsiya||152mm self-propelled artillery||Soviet Union||30|
|SU-100||100mm tank destroyer||Soviet Union||unknown||Used by coastal defence forces of PNVN.|
|ASU-85||85mm self-propelled artillery||Soviet Union||unknown|
|M101||105mm towed artillery||United States||unknown|
|M114||155mm towed artillery||United States||unknown|
|2A18 (D-30) towed howitzer||122mm towed artillery||Soviet Union||unknown|
|M-30 towed howitzer||122mm towed artillery||Soviet Union||unknown|
|D-74 towed howitzer||122mm towed artillery|| Soviet Union
|unknown||Name of Chinese version is "Type 60".|
|M1954 (M-46) towed field gun||130mm towed artillery||Soviet Union||519|
|M1955 (D-20) towed gun-howitzer||152mm towed artillery||Soviet Union||unknown|
In 2006, Israel reported to the United Nations Register Organisation of Conventional Arms (UNROCA) that two of its light armoured vehicles had been sold to Vietnam. A number of Israeli companies won a bid to modernise and upgrade T-54/55 tanks as well as establishing factories in the country. Israel's program includes upgrading armour, night vision system and a fire control system upgrade (produced in Poland). In May 2002, Vietnam and Ukraine reached an agreement of military technical co-operation which extended to 2005. Accordingly, Ukraine will support Vietnam primarily to upgrade its armour and artillery, and improve weapons co-production and repair facilities. In February 2005, the Ministry of Defence of Finland ceded to Vietnam about 70 T-54 and T-55 tanks from the Soviet era. In early March 2005, Poland signed a contract to sell to Vietnam 150 T-72 tanks which would have been used to support training, ammunition, equipment maintenance, and repair, but this contract was cancelled in 2006 because Vietnam wanted to focus more on its Navy and Air Force. In addition to upgrading tanks, the Ministry of Defence of Vietnam signed a military co-operation agreement with Russia. The Vietnamese have also developed the capacity to produce their own equipment and repair existing equipment.
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