List of ethnic enclaves in North American cities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ethnic enclaves in North American cities
Brooklyn Chinatown.png
New York City is home to the largest overseas Chinese population of any city proper in the Western Hemisphere, with over half million. Multiple large Chinatowns in Manhattan, Brooklyn (above), and Queens are thriving as traditionally urban ethnic enclaves, as large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York,[1][2][3][4] with the largest metropolitan Chinese population outside of Asia.[5]
Broad Avenue, Koreatown (팰리세이즈 파크 코리아타운) in Palisades Park, Bergen County, New Jersey, USA,[6] where Koreans comprise the majority (52%) of the population.[7]
India Square in Jersey City, New Jersey, United States, is one of at least 24 Indian American enclaves characterized as a Little India which have emerged within the New York City Metropolitan Area, with the largest metropolitan Indian population outside Asia, as large-scale immigration from India continues into New York.[1][2][3][8]

This is a list of ethnic enclaves in various countries of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds to the native population. An ethnic enclave in this context denotes an area primarily populated by a population with similar ethnic or racial background. This list also includes concentrations rather than enclaves, and historic examples which may no longer be an ethnic enclave.[9]

Contents

List by world region and national origin[edit]

African Americans[edit]

List of African-American neighborhoods - Thousands of African-American neighborhoods exist today. However, many of these communities are now less populated by African Americans than they were during the earlier, sometimes mid and late parts of the 20th century.

Africa[edit]

Asia (East, South and Southeast)[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Burma/Myanmar[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

Manhattan's Chinatown, home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere,[14][15][16][17][18] is the oldest of at least 9 Chinatowns in the New York City Metropolitan Area.

China[edit]

Chinatown, San Francisco
Toronto's downtown Chinatown

Canada-

Mexico-

Hmong[edit]

India[edit]

Iran[edit]

Japan[edit]

Original Japantown ceased to exist after WW2, now known as "Railtown".

Korea[edit]

Laos[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Pakistani and other South Asian shops in Gerrard Street, Toronto

Philippines[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

Thailand[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Main Articles: List of U.S. cities with large Vietnamese-American populations, Little Saigon and Little Vietnam

Little Saigon, Orange County, California

Australia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Albania[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

12 Largest Bulgarian-American communities.

  • Birmingham, Alabama.
  • Boston.
  • Chicago.
  • Cleveland.
  • Detroit.
  • Los Angeles - since the 1960s, the largest in USA.
  • Montgomery, Alabama.
  • New Jersey (many Jews, Romanians, Hungarians and Ukrainians mixed in).
  • New York City - older established community.
  • Philadelphia.
  • Pittsburgh.
  • San Francisco.

Croatia[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Eastern European Jewish[edit]

Finland[edit]

France or Franco-American[edit]

Mexico -

  • Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico - French along with Anglo-Americans.
  • La Merced in Mexico City, many French families migrated to Mexico City and became peddlers but soon opened many shops and the first department stores in Mexico. In La Merced they formed French communities depending on their region of origin, such as the Bretons, Alpines (Barcelonettes), the Pyrenees, French Basques, Alsatians, and Burgundy.
  • Mexico City Barrio de San Juan was were most workers with some money lived in Mexico City, especially those working in El Buen Tono Cigar Company and has a distinct French flair. Those who left La Merced or the immigrant hotels bought their first homes in Barrio de San Juan forming a small French Quarter here.
  • Mexico City in Colonia San Rafael, many French families who had gained much wealth built their first homes here, especially Barcelonettes from the Alpine region of France in the mid 20th Century. Later on, with more wealth and as the city grew, the French families moved to southern neighbourhoods and suburbs away from the cramped streets. La Condesa neighbourhood has a very distinct French stamp as well as the Juarez Neighbourhood with Parisian style buildings.
  • Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico - the state itself has many French and British descendants.
  • San Rafael, Veracruz, Veracruz one of the largest French agricultural colonies with most of the settlers coming from Burgundy region. Today, the town has a very French flair as the cuisine, architecture and most families are of French background. The town of Jicaltepec was the first French colony and as it grew they formed San Rafael and other towns along the Rio Bobos (Bobos River) forming a unique French identity that prospered because of the vanilla production and links to French ports in Le Havre connecting France and Mexico.
  • Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Mexico - product of French immigration during Napoleon III's rule of Mexico (1860s).

Germany[edit]

A German-style home, now a restaurant, in the San Angel neighborhood, Mexico City

Mexico -

Greece[edit]

Iceland[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Main Article: List of Irish-American communities

Italy[edit]

Canada -

Mexico -

  • La Merced thousands of Italians settled in La Merced neighbourhood during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many were from Northern Italy (Veneto, Lombardians, Piedmontese, Trentinos, Ligurians and Tuscans) while others were from Calabria, Sicily, Abruzzo, and Basilicata or the "undesired" Italians but who later gained fortune and moved to wealthier parts of the city.
  • La Aldana agricultural colony in Azcapotzalco, Mexico City settled hundreds of Lombardian and Trentino families from northern Italy. The colony was absorbed by Mexico City but still retains many of the original Italian families.
  • Chipilo, Puebla, Mexico. Outside of the city of Puebla and near Cholula, this town retains a distinc Venetian identity and their language from the Veneto region.
  • Gutierrez Zamora, Veracruz the first agricultural colony made of Italians knows as the "Model Colony" consisted of Ligurian, Sardinian and Piedmontese immigrants who first settled around Papantla, but moved closer to the coast and formed Gutierrez Zamora gaining fortunes with the vanilla plantations.
  • Guadalajara, Jalisco.
  • Lombardía (Michoacán), Michoacán.
  • Nueva Italia, Michoacán.
  • Zentla, Veracruz.
  • Huatusco, Veracruz a colony formed mainly of Trentino, Venetian and Lombardian families in La Colonia Manuel Gonzalez who have spread out around the mountainous region between Cordoba, Orizaba and the port of Veracruz. To this day it is the largest Italian region within Mexico.
  • Colonia Diez Gutierrez in San Luis Potosi near Ciudad del Maiz is a colony known as "La Colonia Italiana" and it is formed by Trentino families from what became both Austria and Italy or the Südtirol creating the only Austro-Italian colony in the world.
  • Monterrey, Nuevo Leon when the industry grew in northern Mexico, many families from all over Italy migrated here and prospered.
  • Tijuana in Baja California many southern Italians made their home in Tijuana especially during the American Prohibition Era running bars, casinos and links with the Mafia. Many Italians fled the United States and Canada during the persecutions of the crime families to Tijuana and during WWII and made Tijuana their home as well. The Caesar Salad was created here by an Italian immigrant gaining much fame.
  • Ensenada in Baja California thousands of Italian families migrated here for the Gold Rush and stayed for the wine country in the Guadalupe Valley. Most families are of northern and central Italian background and one of the largest communities of the last hundred plus years. Many of the largest Winemakers are of Italian background today.

USA -

Lithuania[edit]

Louisiana Creoles[edit]

The states' coastal sections of Louisiana and Mississippi, southernmost Alabama, westernmost Florida and southeast Texas. The region in southern Louisiana is known as Acadiana. Other nicknames for this French-descent group originally from New Brunswick, Canada are Cajuns a misnomer of "Acadian".

Luxembourg[edit]

Malta[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

Russia[edit]

Scandinavia[edit]

7% of the population in Saskatoon in Canada is of Norwegian ancestry.

Serbia[edit]

Slovenia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Switzerland[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

(England) Also persons of mainly English American ancestry, and consists of many affluent communities. See White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs).

- Outside USA/Canada -

(Cornwall)[edit]

(Northern Ireland - since 1919)[edit]

(Scotland)[edit]

(Wales)[edit]

Middle East, Caucasus, and Central Asia[edit]

Largest Arab-American and Middle eastern enclaves. Main Article: List of Arabic neighborhoods:

Afghanistan[edit]

Arab World/Near East (also Assyrians and Chaldeans)[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

Chechnya (Caucasus)[edit]

An estimated 50,000 Chechens live in the US, here are the top communities (#1 is Washington, D.C. area).

Iran[edit]

Iraq (includes Assyrians and Chaldeans)[edit]

Israel (Jews and Arabs)[edit]

Kurds (Kurdistan)[edit]

Turkey[edit]

South/Latin America and Caribbean[edit]

Argentina/Uruguay (South American nations)[edit]

Brazil[edit]

Central and South America[edit]

Dominican Republic[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Except Puerto Ricans (4th as a nationality, 2nd in ancestry among Hispanics and Latinos), Salvadorans are the 2nd largest Hispanic/Latino ethnicity in the US, close to Dominicans who are third. Large Salvadoran communities developed in the late 20th–early 21st century period as a result of civil war, economic conditions, political turmoil and gang violence in the country, the country El Salvador is among the smallest in size in the Western Hemisphere. The largest Salvadoran population is in Central parts of Los Angeles[78] and throughout California (i.e. the Coachella Valley/Riverside county) along with Central American groups like Guatemalans, Hondurans and Nicaraguans.[79] Recent census data shows that for the first time, there are more Salvadorans living on Long Island than Puerto Ricans, with Salvadorans now numbering nearly 100,000,[80] representing nearly a quarter of all Hispanics in the region, making them the largest Latino group in Long Island (New York State). They tend to live in suburban towns like Hempstead and Uniondale. And a large Salvadoran presence in North Carolina like Charlotte, Greensboro and Raleigh.

  • City of Los Angeles - largest Salvadoran city outside El Salvador.
    • Alameda Street/East Side/Southeast.
    • Boyle Heights.
    • Broadway Plaza (esp 7th street).
    • Echo Park/Elysian Park/Silver Lake.
    • El Barrio Salvador (along with other Central Americans).
    • Koreatown (Largest Salvadoran community, now outnumbers Koreans).
    • Little Salvador/Westlake.
    • Main Street/12th Place.
    • Mid-City.
    • Pico-Union (also Guatemalans and Hondurans).
    • Silver Lake/Los Feliz (also a large Mexican population).
    • South-Central/Florence.
    • University area (Latino Quarter).
  • Greater Los Angeles
    • Anaheim - Large Central American population.
    • Bell/Bell Gardens.
    • Compton/Rancho Dominguez.
    • East Los Angeles/Commerce.
    • Garden Grove (also Palestinian, Armenian, Indian, Japanese and Vietnamese sections)- extends into Santa Ana (Downtown).
    • Lomita/Harbor City/Torrance (also Nicaraguans and Costa Ricans).
    • Long Beach (Little Salvador).
    • Orange/El Modena.
    • San Fernando/Pacoima.
    • San Gabriel Valley.
    • Santa Ana (Little Delhi - also many Indians, and Little Salvador - with other Central Americans)
    • Santa Monica (Pico District) extends into West Los Angeles.
    • Westminster - also has many Mexican-Americans and immigrants.
  • Southern California
    • Bakersfield/Kern county.
    • Cathedral City (Ramon road)/Palm Springs.
    • Coachella (Cesar Chavez street)/Indio.
    • Colton (North side).
    • El Cajon.
    • Fontana/Rialto.
    • Guadalupe/Santa Maria.
    • Lancaster/Palmdale.
    • Moreno Valley (Sunnymead).
    • Oxnard/Ventura.
    • Riverside (East side - one of US' largest Salvadoran blocks).
    • San Bernardino (Downtown - similarly like above).
    • San Diego (City Heights and East side).
    • Victorville, esp Eagle Ranch, Baldy Mesa and Hook Loop.
  • Central California
    • Firebaugh/Mendota.
    • Fresno/Clovis.
    • Salinas and its valley - farm labor migration.
    • San Joaquin (Fresno county).
    • Watsonville/Santa Cruz county.
  • Northern California
    • Colma/Daly City.
    • Napa.
    • Oakland (south, west and downtown).
    • Richmond/San Pablo.
    • Sacramento.
    • San Francisco (goes back to the 1910s), mainly the Dolores and Mission Districts.
    • San Jose/Santa Clara (large settlement of Salvadoran war refugees since 1975).
    • San Rafael (downtown).
    • Sonoma valley area.
    • Stockton.
    • Vallejo/Fairfield.
  • Elsewhere Salvadoran communities in the USA

Mexico[edit]

Mural in Chicano Park, San Diego stating "All the way to the Bay"

Puerto Rican (see also Nuyorican)[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

West Indies and Caribbean[edit]

All are largest Belizean, Cuban and Puerto Rican communities in California, respectively, all in Los Angeles area.

Others[edit]

Afro Caribbeans (Caribbean Americans)[edit]

Americans (US)[edit]

Ethnic enclaves of Americans

- Mexico - (one to 3.5 million Americans, expatriates and by descent)

Ajijic and the Lake Chapala region, Jalisco; Ciudad Juarez; Mexico City; Mexico (state); Cancun; Puerto Vallarta; Guerrero Negro and Los Cabos, Baja California Sur; San Felipe, Baja California; Tijuana; Mexicali; and many others (see Americans in Mexico).

- Canada - (500,000 to a million Americans, expatriates and by descent)

Alberta, esp. cities of Calgary and Edmonton; the Windsor, Ontario and Niagara Falls, Ontario areas facing the border; and Vancouver, British Columbia. In the 1960s-70s, about 50,000 Vietnam war draft dodgers from the USA settled in Canada, esp. Toronto.

Australians[edit]

Canadians[edit]

Anglophones[edit]

Seasonal residents known as "Snowbirds" are in Florida (esp. Hollywood near Miami in the South Florida metro area), the Carolinas, Gulf Coast of the United States, South Texas, Arizona (the Phoenix metro area), Las Vegas, Nevada; and Southern California (the largest concentrations in the Coachella Valley).

French Canadians[edit]

- Canada (they form a majority of population in Quebec) -

- USA -

The communities of Huot, Minnesota; Roseau, Minnesota; St. Hilaire, Minnesota and Terrebonne, Minnesota are also places of historical significance for French-Canadian immigration.

Central Asians (Kazakhs)[edit]

Jews (of many nationalities)[edit]

Arizona, California,[109] Colorado, South Florida, Oregon and Texas have large Jewish communities, many are seasonal or retirement.[citation needed]

Louisiana Creole/Cajun/Louisiana People (European- and African-Americans)[edit]

Native Americans[edit]

The highest concentration of Urban Indians is believed to be in Anchorage, Alaska where over 10 percent of the population identify themselves in the census as having some Native ancestry, with 7.3 percent identifying that as their only ancestry. In the mainland USA, Indian Alley in downtown Los Angeles, California may be the most dense Native American population of any major city.[110]

Some moderate-sized cities and suburbs lie adjacent to Indian Reservations, examples being Asheville, North Carolina; Auburn, New York (nearby Iroquois Nation); Bartlesville, Oklahoma (Osage Indian Reservation); Billings, Montana; Bismarck, North Dakota; Claremore, Oklahoma (historically Cherokee Nation); Grand Coulee, Washington; Hardin, Montana; Henderson County, Kentucky; Henderson County, North Carolina; Jackson County, North Carolina; Kanosh, Utah; Lake Forest, California (Juaneno); Madras, Oregon; Middletown, Rhode Island; Muskogee, Oklahoma; Oneida Indian Reservation, New York; Pierre, South Dakota; Rapid City, South Dakota; St. Ignace, Michigan; Sedona, Arizona; Sheridan, Wyoming; Tacoma, Washington; Utica, New York; Vernal, Utah; Wenatchee, Washington; Yucaipa, California; and Zebulon, North Carolina.

A mostly non-Indian community of Salamanca, New York within the Allegany Indian Reservation located in Upstate New York.

USA

Canada

Okies and Texans/Appalachian Whites/Southerners (cultural groups)[edit]

States with Texan and Oklahoman, Appalachian and southern cultural influences: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming.

In Mexico, Mexicali, Baja California (white and black Americans, and Mexican-Americans esp. Tejanos from Texas).

In Canada, the province of Alberta centered in Calgary and Edmonton.

Pacific Islanders[edit]

See also Samoans and Guamanians.

Pennsylvania Dutch and Amish/Mennonites[edit]

In Canada, many live in Saskatchewan and in Mexico, many live in the state of Chihuahua.

Quakers[edit]

Seventh-day Adventists (religious group communities and concentrations)[edit]

Sikhs (also large numbers of Muslims, esp Indians)[edit]

Except for Paterson, New Jersey, all communities in California.

In Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia is largest Sikh/South Asian community in North America.

South Africans (black and esp. white)[edit]

Other cultural communities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2013 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  3. ^ a b "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  4. ^ John Marzulli (May 9, 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: © Copyright 2012 NY Daily News.com. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  5. ^ "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. January 25, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  6. ^ Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Second Edition, Edited by Pyong Gap Min. Pine Forge Press – An Imprint of Sage Publications, Inc. 2006. ISBN 9781412905565. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  7. ^ KAREN SUDOL AND DAVE SHEINGOLD (October 12, 2011). "Korean language ballots coming to Bergen County". © 2012 North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  8. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  9. ^ Ph.D, Reed Ueda (September 21, 2017). "America's Changing Neighborhoods: An Exploration of Diversity through Places [3 volumes]". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "The Mellahs of Los Angeles: A Moroccan Jewish Community in an American Urban Space". AJS Perspectives. December 16, 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  11. ^ http://www.startribune.com/inside-little-mogadishu-no-one-is-an-outcast/414876214/
  12. ^ Anh Do; Christopher Goffard. "Orange County home to third-largest Asian American population in U.S." latimes.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  13. ^ https://viss.wordpress.com/2015/06/19/which-counties-do-burmese-americans-live-in/
  14. ^ "Chinatown New York City Fact Sheet" (PDF). www.explorechinatown.com. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  15. ^ "Chinatown". Indo New York. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  16. ^ Sarah Waxman. "The History of New York's Chinatown". Mediabridge Infosystems, Inc. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  17. ^ Reimers, David M (1992). Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America. ISBN 9780231076814. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  18. ^ Lawrence A. McGlinn, Department of Geography SUNY-New Paltz. "BEYOND CHINATOWN: DUAL IMMIGRATION AND THE CHINESE POPULATION OF METROPOLITAN NEW YORK CITY, 2000, Page 4" (PDF). Middle States Geographer, 2002, 35: 110-119, Journal of the Middle States Division of the Association of American Geographers. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  19. ^ https://www.latimes.com/business/hiltzik/la-fi-hiltzik-chinese-immigrants-history-20190405-story.html
  20. ^ link, Get; Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest; Email; Apps, Other. "China Alley; Hanford, CA". gribblenation.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  21. ^ a b http://chineseadvertisingagencies.com/Chinese-demographics-California.html
  22. ^ http://sociologyinfocus.com/2012/09/chinese-american-ethnic-enclaves-reppin-the-626/
  23. ^ "Affluent Demographics - City of West Covina". www.westcovina.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  24. ^ "URBANPHOTO: Cities / People / Place » Chinatown is Changing". urbanphoto.net. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  25. ^ "American FactFinder - Results". web.archive.org. March 5, 2014. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  26. ^ January 6, ALAN KRAWITZ SPECIAL TO NEWSDAY; Pm, 2007 7:00. "Hicksville: LI's LITTLE INDIA". Newsday. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  27. ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-19751370
  28. ^
  29. ^ http://www.koreanamericancenter.org/
  30. ^ "A little 'Seoul' on Warwick Boulevard".
  31. ^ "Riverside's Korea Town was historic, but was it first?". pe.com. December 4, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  32. ^ ericbrightwell (May 1, 2016). "No Enclave — Exploring Pakistani Los Angeles". ericbrightwell.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  33. ^ Foster, Carly (2007). "Tamils: Population in Canada". Ryerson University. Archived from the original on February 14, 2008. Retrieved June 25, 2008. According to government figures, there are about 200,000 Tamils in Canada
  34. ^ "New Beginnings: Tamil Heritage in Toronto -". heritagetoronto.org.
  35. ^ "The Tamil Community in Canada: A Brief Overview". tamilculture.com.
  36. ^ https://globalboston.bc.edu/index.php/home/ethnic-groups/vietnamese/
  37. ^ a b Conner, Deirdre. "Jacksonville's foreign-born population diverse unto itself". The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  38. ^ "Ancestry Search - Genealogy by City - ePodunk.com". www.epodunk.com.
  39. ^ "Marengo County, Alabama history, ADAH". www.archives.state.al.us. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  40. ^ a b "Reynoldston Research — Oral and Digital History of Northern New York". www.reynoldstonnewyork.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  41. ^ "Deutschtown (Pittsburgh), PA". www.globalpittsburgh.org. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
  42. ^ https://www.vacasa.com/discover/best-bavarian-villages-in-the-united-states
  43. ^ Official Program of the Centennial of Incorporation of the Borough of Hanover, Pennsylvania. Hanover, Pa: Hanover (York County, Pa.). Centennial Committee. 1915. p. 11. ISBN 9781152216747. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2015.
  44. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). web.archive.org. October 22, 2006. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  45. ^ "Greek Festival ~ Palm Desert". pdgreekfest.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  46. ^ https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2008-may-27-me-greektown27-story.html
  47. ^ https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2016/03/17/just-how-irish-boston/aTIo00BOP5Nyw6WdHAgXSI/story.html
  48. ^ Alexander Nazaryan On 8/25/16 at 9:00 AM EDT (August 25, 2016). "Yes, there was a Little Italy in Los Angeles. It now even has a museum". Newsweek. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  49. ^ Roberts, Sam (February 21, 2011). "In New York's Little Italy, Fewer and Fewer Italians". Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
  50. ^ "Little Italy Association of San Diego". www.littleitalysd.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  51. ^ a b "Gangsters in Paradise". Desert Sun. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  52. ^ "Oklahoma's Little Italy". TravelOK.com - Oklahoma's Official Travel & Tourism Site. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  53. ^ "Cities with the Highest Percentage of Italians in New Jersey - Zip Atlas". zipatlas.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  54. ^ Rothrock, Thomas (1957). "The Story of Tontitown, Arkansas". The Arkansas Historical Quarterly. 16 (1): 84–88. JSTOR 40018434.
  55. ^ "Pan-Italian Clubs". www.italianlosangeles.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  56. ^ https://bernein.com/
  57. ^ "BBC - Mid Wales National Library - Wales - Ohio Project". archive.is. August 1, 2012. Archived from the original on August 1, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  58. ^ Tyler (2016). "Occupational Mobility and Social Status: The Welsh Experience in Sharon, Pennsylvania, 1880–1930". Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies. 83: 1. doi:10.5325/pennhistory.83.1.0001.
  59. ^ "Little Arabia in Northwest of Chicago". Foursquare. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  60. ^ "Arabs In Cleveland Area Striving For Acceptance". www.cleveland19.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  61. ^ "Arab American Community in Detroit Michigan". Arab America. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  62. ^ "Little Arabia District". Little Arabia District. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  63. ^ Gupta, Arun (April 8, 2013). "Little Baghdad, California". Progressive.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  64. ^ "A Profile of the Canadian Arab Community in Montreal". www.canadianarabinstitute.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  65. ^ Sun, Baltimore. "Love of country, homeland evident in 'Little Kabul'". chicagotribune.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  66. ^ KELLY, DAVID (February 28, 2002). "A Time to Rebuild Afghan Hope". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 25, 2018.
  67. ^ https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/04/glendale-armenians/475926/
  68. ^ "Between Homelands: an Unofficial Embassy for Los Angeles Kurds". KQED. May 10, 2015. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  69. ^ "Anaheim Population and Demographics (Anaheim, CA)". anaheim.areaconnect.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  70. ^ Nakao, Annie (October 1, 2002). "Excelsior district takes care of its own". SFGate. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  71. ^ "Cuban-American Population by U.S. City - NerdWallet". December 17, 2014.
  72. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/slideshows/11-cities-with-the-most-hispanics
  73. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20101015091121/http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/44000.html
  74. ^ "largest central american community in us states - Saferbrowser Yahoo Image Search Results". images.search.yahoo.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  75. ^ "Puerto Rican Festival of Massachusetts 2019 in Boston, MA - Everfest". Everfest.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  76. ^ "Colony Park". Colony Park. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  77. ^ "Santa Ana Barrios - Google Search". www.google.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  78. ^ https://ericbrightwell.com/2018/10/01/no-enclave-exploring-salvadoran-los-angeles/
  79. ^ "Top 101 cities with the most residents born in El Salvador (population 500+)". www.city-data.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  80. ^ Copquin, Claudia. "Salvadoran consulate offers business help". Newsday. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  81. ^ Jean, Aymar (June 13, 2005). "Arlandria Celebrates Community, Culture". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
  82. ^ a b "These Are The 10 Oklahoma Cities With The Largest Latino Population For 2019". homesnacks.net. December 9, 2018. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  83. ^ Reyes-Velarde, Alejandra. "A TV show chronicling gentrification in Boyle Heights is protested as an example of, well, gentrification". latimes.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  84. ^ https://www.latimes.com/local/la-me-downey-latinos-20150805-story.html
  85. ^ Sangha, Soni (December 28, 2016). "Latino neighborhoods: East L.A., the colorful heart of the Chicano movement". Fox News. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  86. ^ "These Are The 10 California Cities With The Largest Latino Population For 2019". homesnacks.net. December 9, 2018. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  87. ^ Ph.D, Reed Ueda (September 21, 2017). "America's Changing Neighborhoods: An Exploration of Diversity through Places [3 volumes]". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via Google Books.
  88. ^ "History of Chicano Park, Barrio Logan, San Diego, CA". www.chicanoparksandiego.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  89. ^ "Mexican Americans recall segregation in Redlands". redlandsdailyfacts.com. June 16, 2012. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  90. ^ https://www.riversideca.gov/athomeinriverside/neighborhoods-eastside.asp
  91. ^ https://www.arcadiapublishing.com/Products/9780738581743
  92. ^ "Jamaican Ancestry Maps". ePodunk. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  93. ^ Saldaña, Matt. "Raleigh's Cuban community: Their stories, their views on Obama's new diplomacy".
  94. ^ "Cuban Ancestry Maps". ePodunk. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
  95. ^ "Simi Valley Population and Demographics (Simi Valley, CA)". simivalley.areaconnect.com. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  96. ^ "Athens". Mapping L.A. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  97. ^ Milton, Massachusetts#Demographics
  98. ^ https://www.tripsavvy.com/hassidic-communities-in-brooklyn-442781
  99. ^ "Jewtown: Port Richmond's Little Known Pocket Community, 19134". whyy.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  100. ^ https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/kiryas-joel
  101. ^ "How Lakewood became a worldwide destination for Orthodox Jews - Di Ionno".
  102. ^ "B'nai Israel Congregation". web.archive.org. August 19, 2008. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  103. ^ https://www.stuytown.com/guides/lower-east-side/history
  104. ^ "Palm Springs and Desert Area". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  105. ^ Ogden, Christopher (November 29, 2009). Legacy: A Biography of Moses and Walter Annenberg. ISBN 9780316092449.
  106. ^ "When left-wingers and chicken wings populated Petaluma – J". May 7, 1999.
  107. ^ History of the Jews in the United States#Local developments 2
  108. ^ History of the Jews in the United States#Local developments
  109. ^ "California Jewish History". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  110. ^ https://thelosangelesbeat.com/2016/02/the-story-of-indian-alley/
  111. ^ "Indian City, U.S.A. - Anadarko, Oklahoma". www.lasr.net. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
  112. ^ http://www.d-q-u.org/
  113. ^ Garner, Dwight (June 4, 2018). "'There There' Is an Energetic Revelation of a Corner of American Life". Retrieved March 24, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
  114. ^ http://amishamerica.com/12-largest-amish-communities-2017/
  115. ^ https://www.sikhnet.com/news/american-punjabi-sikhs-yuba-city

External links[edit]