List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

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Vietnam is a multiethnic country with over fifty distinct groups (54 are recognized by the Vietnamese government), each with its own language, lifestyle, and cultural heritage.[1] Many of the local ethnic groups residing in mountain areas are known collectively in the West as Montagnard or Degar. The largest ethnic groups are: Kinh 85.32%, Tay 1.92%, Tai 1.89%, Mường 1.51%, Hmong 1.45%, Khmer 1.37%, Nùng 1.13%, Dao 0.93%, Hoa 0.78%, with all others comprising the remaining 3.7% (2019 census).[2] The Vietnamese term for ethnic group is người thiểu số or dân tộc thiểu số (literally people of smaller numbers, equivalent to the English minority people). One distinctive feature of highland ethnic minority groups in Vietnam is that they are colorfully attired whether at home, in the farm, traveling or in their home town. Many ethnic groups elsewhere such as southern part of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, China, Papua New Guinea, and many other countries do not wear as colorful clothes while engaged in their day-to-day activities. The clothing of one group is quite different from that of other groups and adds vibrancy to the social landscape.

List of ethnic groups[edit]

The population as per 2009 Census and the 2019 Census in parentheses:[3][2]

The total population of Vietnam was 96,208,984 according to the 2019 census.[2]

Group People Population
(2009
Census/2019
Census)
Distribution
(2009
Census)
Note
Total 85,846,997 (96,208,984)
1. Vietic (Austroasiatic) Kinh 73,594,427 (82,085,826) throughout Vietnam also called Viet, the largest ethnic group in Vietnam
Chứt 6,022 (7,513) Quảng Bình (5,095 people, comprising 84.6% of all Chứt in Vietnam) Cheut - related to the Kinh
Mường 1,268,963 (1,452,095) Hòa Bình (479,197 people, comprising 63.3% of the province's population), Thanh Hóa (328,744 people, comprising 9.5% of the province's population), Phú Thọ (165,748 people, comprising 13.1% of the province's population), Sơn La (71,906 people, comprising 8.2% of the province's population), Ninh Bình (46,539 people) closest to the Kinh, the other main part of the Viet–Mường branch of the Vietic subfamily
Thổ 74,458 (91,430) Nghệ An (59,579 people, comprising 80.0% of all Thổ in Vietnam), Thanh Hóa (9,652 people, comprising 13.0% of all Thổ in Vietnam) Tho - Related to Kinh Vietnamese
2. Austroasiatic,
other (non-Vietic)
Ba Na 227,716 (286,910) Gia Lai (150,416 people, comprising 11.8% of the province's population and 66.1% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Kon Tum (53,997 people, comprising 12.5% of the province's population and 23.7% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Phú Yên (4,145 people, comprising 12.5% of the province's population and 23.7% of all Ba Na in Vietnam) Bahnar
Brâu 397 (525) Kon Tum (379 people, comprising 95.5% of all Brâu in Vietnam) Brau
Bru 74,506 (94,598) Quảng Trị (55,079 people, comprising 73.9% of all Bru-Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Quảng Bình (14,631 people, comprising 19.6% of all Bru-Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Đăk Lăk (3,348 people) Bru
Chơ Ro 26,855 (29,520) Đồng Nai (15,174 people, comprising 56.5% of all Chơ Ro in Vietnam), Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu (7,632 people), Bình Thuận (3,375 people)
Co 33,817 (40,442) Quảng Ngãi (28,110 people, comprising 83.1% of all Co), Quảng Nam (5,361 people)
Cờ Ho 166,112 (200,800) Lâm Đồng (145,665 people, comprising 12.3% of the province's population and 87.7% of all Cơ Ho in Vietnam) Koho
Cơ Tu 61,588 (74,173) Quảng Nam (45,715 people, comprising 74.2% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam), Thừa Thiên-Huế (14,629 people, comprising 23.8% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam)
Giẻ Triêng 50,962 (63,322) Kon Tum (32,644 people, comprising 62.1% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (19,007 people, comprising 37.3% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam)
Hrê 127,420 (149,460) Quảng Ngãi (115,268 people, comprising 90.5% of all Hrê in Vietnam) H're
Kháng 13,840 (16,180) Sơn La (8,582 people, comprising 62.0% of all Kháng in Vietnam), Điện Biên (4,220 people, comprising 30.5% of all Kháng in Vietnam)
Khmer 1,260,640 (1,319,652) Sóc Trăng (397,014 people, comprising 30.7% of the province's population and 31.5% of all Khmer in Vietnam), Trà Vinh (317,203 people, comprising 31.6% of the province's population and 25.2% of all Khmer in Vietnam), Kiên Giang (210,899 people, comprising 12.5% of the province's population and 16.7% of all Khmer in Vietnam), An Giang (90,271 people), Bạc Liêu (70,667 people), Cà Mau (29,845 people) each comprising less than 10% of all Khmer in Vietnam) Khmer
Khơ Mú 72,929 (90,612) Nghệ An (35,670 people, comprising 48.9% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Điện Biên (16,200 people, comprising 22.2% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Sơn La (12,576 people), Lai Châu (6,102 people) Khmu
Mạ 41,405 (50,322) Lâm Đồng (31,869 people, comprising 77.0% of all Mạ in Vietnam), Đắk Nông (6,456 people), Đồng Nai (2,436 people)
Mảng 3,700 (4,650) Lai Châu (3,631 people, comprising 98.1% of all Mảng in Vietnam)
Mnông 102,741 (127,334) Đăk Lăk (40,344 people, comprising 39.3% of all M’Nông in Vietnam), Đăk Nông (39,964 people, comprising 38.9% of all M’Nông in Vietnam) Mnong
Ơ Đu 376 (428) Nghệ An (340 people, comprising 90.4% of all Ơ Đu in Vietnam)
Rơ Măm 436 (639) Kon Tum (419 people, comprising 96.1% of all Rơ Măm in Vietnam)
Tà Ôi 43,886 (52,356) Thừa Thiên-Huế (29,558 people, comprising 67.4% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam), Quảng Trị (13,961 people, comprising 31.8% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam) Ta Oi
Xinh Mun 23,278 (29,503) Sơn La (21,288 people, comprising 91.5% of all Xinh Mun in Vietnam), Điện Biên (1,926 people) Xinh-mun
Xơ Đăng 169,501 (212,277) Kon Tum (104,759 people, comprising 24.4% of the province's population and 61,8% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (37,900 people, comprising 22.4% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Ngãi (17,713 people) Sedang, Xo Dang
X’Tiêng 85,436 (100,752) Bình Phước (81,708 people, comprising 95.6% of all Xtiêng in Vietnam) Stieng
3. Kra-Dai
(Tai–Kadai)
,
Tai
Bố Y 2,273 (3,232) Lào Cai (1,398 people, comprising 61.5% of all Bố Y in Vietnam), Hà Giang (808 people, comprising 35.5% of all Bố Y in Vietnam) Bouyei
Giáy 58,617 (67,858) Lào Cai (28,606 people, comprising 48.8% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Hà Giang (15,157 people, comprising 25.9% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Lai Châu (11,334 people), Yên Bái (2,329 people)
Lao 14,928 (17,532) Lai Châu (5,760 people, comprising 38.6% of all Lào in Vietnam), Điện Biên (4,564 people, comprising 30.6% of all Lào in Vietnam), Sơn La (3,380 people, comprising 22.6% of all Lào in Vietnam)
Lự 5,601 (6,757) Lai Châu (5,487 people, comprising 98.0% of all Lự in Vietnam) Lu
Nùng 968,800 (1,083,298) Lạng Sơn (314,295 people, comprising 42.9% of the province's population and 32.4% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Cao Bằng (157.607 people, comprising 31.1% of the province's population and 16.3% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (76,354 people)
Sán Chay 169,410 (201,398) Tuyên Quang (61,343 people, comprising 36.2% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Thái Nguyên (32,483 people, comprising 19.2% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (25,821 people), San Chay, Cao Lan
Tày 1,626,392 (1,845,492) northern Vietnam Tay - The largest minority in Vietnam
Thái 1,550,423 (1,820,950) northern Vietnam Including Tai Daeng, Tai Dón, Tai Dam and other minor groups
4. Kra-Dai
(Tai-Kadai)
,
Kra (Kadai)
Cờ Lao 2,636 (4,003) Hà Giang (2,301 people, comprising 87.3% of all Cờ Lao in Vietnam) Gelao
La Chí 13,158 (15,126) Hà Giang (12,072 people, comprising 91.7% of all La Chí in Vietnam), Lào Cai (619 people), Tuyên Quang (100 people) Lachi
La Ha 8,177 (10,157) Sơn La (8,107 people, comprising 99.1% of all La Ha in Vietnam) Laha
Pu Péo 687 (903) Hà Giang (580 people, comprising 84.4% of all Pu Péo in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (48 people) Qabiao, Pubiao
5. Hmong–Mien Dao 751,067 (891,151) northern Vietnam Yao people, also known as Mien, many speak Iu Mien language
Hmong 1,068,189 (1,393,547) northern Vietnam formerly known as Mèo, classified as Miao in China
Pà Thẻn 6,811 (8,248) Hà Giang (5,771 people, comprising 84.7% of all Pà Thẻn in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (877 people) Pa-Hng
6. Malayo-Polynesian Chăm 161,729 (178,948) Ninh Thuận (67,274 people, comprising 41.6% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (34,690 people, comprising 21.4% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Phú Yên (19,945 people), An Giang (14,209 people) Cham - Descendants of the Champa polities of Southern Vietnam
Chu Ru 19,314 (23,242) Lâm Đồng (18,631 people, comprising 96.5% of all Chu Ru in Vietnam) Chru
Ê Đê 331,194 (398,671) Đăk Lăk (298,534 people, comprising 17.2% of the province's population and 90.1% of all Ê Đê in Vietnam), Phú Yên (20,905 people) Rade
Gia Rai 411,275 (513,930) Gia Lai (372,302 people, comprising 29.2% of the province's population and 90.5% of all Jrai in Vietnam), ngoài ra còn có ở Kon Tum (20,606 people), Đắk Lắk (16,129 people) Jarai
Ra Glai 122,245 (146,613) Ninh Thuận (58,911 people, comprising 48.2% of all Raglai in Vietnam), Khánh Hòa (45,915 people, comprising 37.6% of all Raglai in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (15,440 people) Roglai
7. Chinese Hoa 823,071 (749,466) Hồ Chí Minh City (414,045 people, comprising 50.3% of all Hoa in Vietnam), Đồng Nai (95,162 people), Sóc Trăng (64,910 people), Kiên Giang (29,850 people), Bạc Liêu (20,082 people), Bình Dương (18,783 people), Bắc Giang (18,539 people) Constitute those who have Chinese of Mandarin-speaking background. Not to be confused with the Ngái Hokkien, who are classified separately.
Ngái 1,035 (1,649) Thái Nguyên (495 people, comprising 47.8% of all Ngái in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (157 people, comprising 15.2% of all Ngái in Vietnam) Hakka Chinese, classified separately from the Hoa
Sán Dìu 146,821 (183,004) Thái Nguyên (44,131 people, comprising 30.1% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Vĩnh Phúc (36,821 people, comprising 25.1% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (27,283 people), Quảng Ninh (17,946 people), Tuyên Quang (12,565 people) San Diu, Yao that speak Cantonese, though some know Iu Mien
8. Tibeto-Burman Phunoi 2,029 (2,729) Lai Châu (1,134 people, comprising 55.9% of all Cống in Vietnam), Điện Biên (871 people, comprising 42.9% of all Cống in Vietnam) Cống
Hà Nhì 21,725 (25,539) Lai Châu (13,752 people, comprising 63.3% of all Hà Nhì in Vietnam), Lào Cai (4,026 people), Điện Biên (3,786 people) Hani
La Hủ 9,651 (12,113) Lai Châu (9,600 people, comprising 99.5% of all La Hủ in Vietnam) Lahu
Lô Lô 4,541 (4,827) Cao Bằng (2,373 people, comprising 52.3% of all Lô Lô in Vietnam), Hà Giang (1,426 people), Lai Châu (617 people) Yi
Phù Lá 10,944 (12,471) Lào Cai (8,926 people, comprising 81.6% of all Phù Lá in Vietnam), Yên Bái (942 people), Hà Giang (785 people), Điện Biên (206 people)
Si La 709 (909) Lai Châu (530 people, comprising 74.8% of all Si La in Vietnam), Điện Biên (148 people, comprising 20.9% of all Si La in Vietnam)

Ethnic groups not included in official list[edit]

Natives[edit]

  1. Nguồn - possibly Mường group, officially classified as a Việt (Kinh) group by the government, Nguồn themselves identify with Việt ethnicity; their language is a member of the Viet–Muong branch of the Vietic sub-family
  2. Sui people (Người Thủy) - officially classified as Pa Then people.
  3. According to news from Dantri, an online newspaper in Vietnam, the Thừa Thiên-Huế People's Committee in September 2008 announced a plan to do more research in a new ethnic group in Vietnam. It is Pa Kô, also called Pa Cô, Pa Kô, Pa-Kô or Pa Kôh. This ethnic group settles mainly in A Lưới suburban district (Thừa Thiên-Huế) and mountainous area of Hướng Hóa (Quảng Trị).[4][5] At the present, however, they have been being classified in Tà Ôi ethnic group.
  4. Bunong/Pnong people. This ethnic group lives mainly in North East Cambodia, but during the American War many fled into Vietnam in the central highlands region around Buon Ma Thuot province. While most returned to their homeland in Cambodia after the war, a small number remain in Vietnam as evidenced by the story of Guin Thi. Though presumably the number of Bunong people remaining in Vietnam is very low. The Christian and Missionary Alliance have targeted this minority group in Cambodia and seem to be the only organization publishing much information about their history.

Foreigners[edit]

People of European, North American, Australian, and Asian (non-Vietnamese) origin. Many people of these origins are temporary residents in Vietnam as expatriate workers and some are permanently settled there, some through marriage. Included in permanent settlers are Europeans of French descent, who are descendants of the colonial settlers. Most of them left after its independence. 2,700 Westerners from the United States live in Vietnam.[6] They represent 0.002% of its total population.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Các dân tộc Việt Nam (Ethnic groups in Vietnam). Portal of the Committee for Ethnic Problems, Hậu Giang prov., 2012. Retrieved 1 Apr 2017.
  2. ^ a b c "Report on Results of the 2019 Census". General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  3. ^ 2009 Census: Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009, Tổng Cục Thống kê Việt Nam. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  4. ^ Việt Nam sẽ có dân tộc thứ 55?
  5. ^ Pa Kô được bổ sung vào danh mục các dân tộc Việt Nam Archived 2013-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ http://vietnamembassy-usa.org/relations/young-envoy-vietnam

Further reading[edit]

  • Nguyễn Trọng Tấn; Viện khoa học xã hội Việt Nam - Viện dân tộc học - Tạp chí dân tộc học. 2005. Tổng mục lục 30 năm tạp chí dân tộc học (1974 - 2004). Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội.

External links[edit]