List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

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Vietnam is a multiethnic country with over fifty distinct groups (54 are recognized by the Vietnamese government), each with its own language, lifestyle, and cultural heritage. Many of the local ethnic groups residing in mountain areas are known collectively in the West as Montagnard or Degar. The largest ethnic groups are: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Tai Ethnic 1.7%, Mường 1.5%, Khmer Krom (Khơ Me Crộm) 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nùng 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% (1999 census). The Vietnamese term for ethnic group is người thiểu số or dân tộc thiểu số (literally "minority people"). One distinctive feature of highland ethnic minority groups in Vietnam is that they are in colorful attires whether at home, in the farm, on travel or in the town. Many of the ethnic groups elsewhere such as southern part of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, China, Papua New Guinea, and many other countries do not wear attractive clothes while engaged in their day-to-day activities. The clothes of one group is quite different from that of other groups that adds color to the social landscape.

List of ethnic groups[edit]

The population data taken from 2009 Census[1]

The total population number of Apr 2014 was 90.493.352,published in the Premier Minister Website.[2]

Group People Population
(2009
Census)
Distribution
(2009
Census)
Note
Total 85,846,997
1. Vietic Kinh 73,594,427 throughout Vietnam also called Viet, the largest ethnic group in Vietnam
Chứt 6,022 Quảng Bình (5.095 persons, comprising 84,6% of all Chứt in Vietnam) Cheut - related to the Kinh
Mường 1,268,963 Hòa Bình (479.197 persons, comprising 63,3% of the province's population), Thanh Hóa (328.744 persons, comprising 9,5% of the province's population), Phú Thọ (165.748 persons, comprising 13,1% of the province's population), Sơn La (71.906 persons, comprising 8,2% of the province's population), Ninh Bình (46.539 persons) closest to the Kinh, the other main part of the Viet–Mường branch of the Vietic subfamily
Thổ 74,458 Nghệ An (59.579 persons, comprising 80,0% of all Thổ in Vietnam), Thanh Hóa (9.652 persons, comprising 13,0% of all Thổ in Vietnam) Tho - Related to Kinh Vietnamese
2. Tai–Kadai Bố Y 2,273 Lào Cai (1.398 persons, comprising 61,5% of all Bố Y in Vietnam), Hà Giang (808 persons, comprising 35,5% of all Bố Y in Vietnam) Bouyei
Giáy 58,617 Lào Cai (28.606 persons, comprising 48,8% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Hà Giang (15.157 persons, comprising 25,9% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Lai Châu (11.334 persons), Yên Bái (2.329 persons)
Lao 14,928 Lai Châu (5.760 persons, comprising 38,6% of all Lào in Vietnam), Điện Biên (4.564 persons, comprising 30,6% of all Lào in Vietnam), Sơn La (3.380 persons, comprising 22,6% of all Lào in Vietnam)
Lự 5,601 Lai Châu (5.487 persons, comprising 98,0% of all Lự in Vietnam) Lu
Nùng 968,800 Lạng Sơn (314.295 persons, comprising 42,9% of the province's population and 32,4% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Cao Bằng (157.607 persons, comprising 31,1% of the province's population and 16,3% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (76.354 persons)
Sán Chay 169,410 Tuyên Quang (61.343 persons, comprising 36,2% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Thái Nguyên (32.483 persons, comprising 19,2% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (25.821 persons), San Chay, Cao Lan
Tày 1,626,392 northern Vietnam Tay - The largest minority in Vietnam
Thái 1,550,423 northern Vietnam Thai
3. Kadai
(Kra)
Cờ Lao 2,636 Hà Giang (2.301 persons, comprising 87,3% of all Cờ Lao in Vietnam) Gelao
La Chí 13,158 Hà Giang (12.072 persons, comprising 91,7% of all La Chí in Vietnam), Lào Cai (619 persons), Tuyên Quang (100 persons) Lachi
La Ha 8,177 Sơn La (8.107 persons, comprising 99,14% of all La Ha in Vietnam) Laha
Pu Péo 687 Hà Giang (580 persons, comprising 84,4% of all Pu Péo in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (48 persons) Qabiao, Pubiao
3. Austroasiatic Ba Na 227,716 Gia Lai (150.416 persons, comprising 11,8% of the province's population and 66,1% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Kon Tum (53.997 persons, comprising 12,5% of the province's population and 23,7% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Phú Yên (4.145 persons, comprising 12,5% of the province's population and 23,7% of all Ba Na in Vietnam) Bahnar
Brâu 397 Kon Tum (379 persons, comprising 95,5% of all Brâu in Vietnam) Brau
Bru 74,506 Quảng Trị (55.079 persons, comprising 73,9% of all Bru-Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Quảng Bình (14.631 persons, comprising 19,6% of all Bru-Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Đăk Lăk (3.348 persons) Bru
Chơ Ro 26,855 Đồng Nai (15.174 persons, comprising 56,5% of all Chơ Ro in Vietnam), Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu (7.632 persons), Bình Thuận (3.375 persons)
Co 33,817 Quảng Ngãi (28.110 persons, comprising 83,1% of all Co), Quảng Nam (5.361 persons)
Cờ Ho 166,112 Lâm Đồng (145.665 persons, comprising 12,3% of the province's population and 87,7% of all Cơ Ho in Vietnam) Koho
Cơ Tu 61,588 Quảng Nam (45.715 persons, comprising 74,2% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam), Thừa Thiên-Huế (14.629 persons, comprising 23,8% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam)
Giẻ Triêng 50,962 Kon Tum (32.644 persons, comprising 62,1% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (19.007 persons, comprising 37,3% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam)
Hrê 127,420 Quảng Ngãi (115.268 persons, comprising 90,5% of all Hrê in Vietnam) H're
Kháng 13,840 Sơn La (8.582 persons, comprising 62,0% of all Kháng in Vietnam), Điện Biên (4.220 persons, comprising 30,5% of all Kháng in Vietnam)
Khmer Krom 1,260,640 Sóc Trăng (397.014 persons, comprising 30,7 % of the province's population and 31,5 % of all Khmer in Vietnam), Trà Vinh (317.203 persons, comprising 31,6 % of the province's population and 25,2 % of all Khmer in Vietnam), Kiên Giang (210.899 persons, comprising 12,5 % of the province's population and 16,7 % of all Khmer in Vietnam), An Giang (90.271 persons), Bạc Liêu (70.667 persons), Cà Mau (29.845 persons)
Khơ Mú 72,929 Nghệ An (35.670 persons, comprising 48,9% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Điện Biên (16.200 persons), Sơn La (12.576 persons), Lai Châu (6.102 persons) Khmu
Mạ 41,405 Lâm Đồng (31.869 persons, comprising 77,0% of all Mạ in Vietnam), Đắk Nông (6.456 persons), Đồng Nai (2.436 persons)
Mảng 3,700 Lai Châu (3.631 persons, comprising 98,1% of all Mảng in Vietnam)
Mnông 102,741 Đăk Lăk (40.344 persons, comprising 39,3% of all M’Nông in Vietnam), Đăk Nông (39.964 persons, comprising 38,9% of all M’Nông in Vietnam) Mnong
Ơ Đu 376 Nghệ An (340 persons, comprising 90,4% of all Ơ Đu in Vietnam)
Rơ Măm 436 Kon Tum (419 persons, comprising 96,1% of all Rơ Măm in Vietnam)
Tà Ôi 43,886 Thừa Thiên-Huế (29.558 persons, comprising 67,35% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam), Quảng Trị (13.961 persons, comprising 31,81% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam) Ta Oi
Xinh Mun 23,278 Sơn La (21.288 persons, comprising 91,5% of all Xinh Mun in Vietnam), Điện Biên (1.926 persons) Xinh-mun
Xơ Đăng 169,501 Kon Tum (104.759 persons, comprising 24,4% of the province's population and 61,8% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (37.900 persons, comprising 22,4% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Ngãi (17.713 persons) Sedang, Xo Dang
X’Tiêng 85,436 Bình Phước (81.708 persons, comprising 95,6% of all Xtiêng in Vietnam) Stieng
5. Hmong–Mien Dao 751,067 northern Vietnam Yao people, also known as Mien, many speak Iu Mien language
Hmong 1,068,189 northern Vietnam formerly known as Mèo, classified as Miao in China
Pà Thẻn 6,811 Hà Giang (5.771 persons, comprising 84,7% of all Pà Thẻn in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (877 persons) Pa-Hng
6. Malayo-Polynesian Chăm 161,729 Ninh Thuận (67.274 persons, comprising 41,6% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (34.690 persons, comprising 21,4% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Phú Yên (19.945 persons), An Giang (14.209 persons) Cham - Descendants of the Champa polities of Southern Vietnam
Chu Ru 19,314 Lâm Đồng (18.631 persons, comprising 96,5% of all Chu Ru in Vietnam) Chru
Ê Đê 331,194 Đăk Lăk (298.534 persons, comprising 17,2% of the province's population and 90,1% of all Ê Đê in Vietnam), Phú Yên (20.905 persons) Rade
Gia Rai 411,275 Gia Lai (372.302 persons, comprising 29,2% of the province's population and 90,5% of all Jrai in Vietnam), ngoài ra còn có ở Kon Tum (20.606 persons), Đắk Lắk (16.129 persons) Jarai
Ra Glai 122,245 Ninh Thuận (58.911 persons, comprising 48,2% of all Raglai in Vietnam), Khánh Hòa (45.915 persons, comprising 37,6% of all Raglai in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (15.440 persons) Roglai
7. Chinese Hoa 823,071 Hồ Chí Minh City (414.045 persons, comprising 50,3% of all Hoa in Vietnam), Đồng Nai (95.162 persons), Sóc Trăng (64.910 persons), Kiên Giang (29.850 persons), Bạc Liêu (20.082 persons), Bình Dương (18.783 persons), Bắc Giang (18.539 persons) Overseas Chinese, not to be confused with the Ngái Hokkien, who are classified separately
Ngái 1,035 Thái Nguyên (495 persons, comprising 47,8% of all Ngái in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (157 persons, comprising 15,2% of all Ngái in Vietnam) Hakka Chinese, classified separately from the Hoa
Sán Dìu 146,821 Thái Nguyên (44.131 persons, comprising 30,1% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Vĩnh Phúc (36.821 persons, comprising 25,1% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (27.283 persons), Quảng Ninh (17.946 persons), Tuyên Quang (12.565 persons) San Diu, Yao that speak Cantonese, though some know Iu Mien
8. Tibeto-Burman Phunoi 2,029 Lai Châu (1.134 persons, comprising 55,9% of all Cống in Vietnam), Điện Biên (871 persons, comprising 42,9% of all Cống in Vietnam) Cống
Hà Nhì 21,725 Lai Châu (13.752 persons, comprising 63,3% of all Hà Nhì in Vietnam), Lào Cai (4.026 persons), Điện Biên (3.786 persons) Hani
La Hủ 9,651 Lai Châu (9.600 persons, comprising 99,47% of all La Hủ in Vietnam) Lahu
Lô Lô 4,541 Cao Bằng (2.373 persons, comprising 52,3% of all Lô Lô in Vietnam), Hà Giang (1.426 persons), Lai Châu (617 persons) Yi
Phù Lá 10,944 Lào Cai (8.926 persons, comprising 81,6% of all Phù Lá in Vietnam), Yên Bái (942 persons), Hà Giang (785 persons), Điện Biên (206 persons)
Si La 709 Lai Châu (530 persons, comprising 74,75% of all Si La in Vietnam), Điện Biên (148 persons, comprising 20,87% of all Si La in Vietnam)

Ethnic groups not included in official list[edit]

Natives[edit]

  1. Nguồn - possibly Mường group, officially classified as a Việt (Kinh) group by the government, Nguồn themselves identify with Việt ethnicity; their language is a member of the Viet–Muong branch of the Vietic sub-family
  2. Sui people (Người Thủy) - officially classified as Pa Then people.
  3. According to news from Dantri, an online newspaper in Vietnam, the Thừa Thiên-Huế People's Committee in September 2008 announced a plan to do more research in a new ethnic group in Vietnam. It is Pa Kô, also called Pa Cô, Pa Kô, Pa-Kô or Pa Kôh. This ethnic group settles mainly in A Lưới suburban district (Thừa Thiên-Huế) and mountainous area of Hướng Hóa (Quảng Trị).[3][4] At the present, however, they have been being classified in Tà Ôi ethnic group.
  4. Bunong/Pnong people. This ethnic group lives mainly in North East Cambodia, but during the American War many fled into Vietnam in the central highlands region around Buon Ma Thuot province. While most returned to their homeland in Cambodia after the war, a small number remain in Vietnam as evidenced by the story of Guin Thi. Though presumably the number of Bunong people remaining in Vietnam is very low. The Christian and Missionary Alliance have targeted this minority group in Cambodia and seem to be the only organization publishing much information about their history.

Europeans[edit]

People of European, North American, Australian, and Asian (non-Vietnamese) origin. Many people of these origins are temporary residents in Vietnam as expatriate workers and some are permanently settled there, some through marriage. Included in permanent settlers are Europeans of French descent, who are descendants of the colonial settlers. Most of them left after its independence.

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ 2009 Census: Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009, Tổng Cục Thống kê Việt Nam. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  2. ^ Trang Web Thủ tướng. Dân số Việt Nam. Retrieved 22/08/2015.
  3. ^ Việt Nam sẽ có dân tộc thứ 55?
  4. ^ Pa Kô được bổ sung vào danh mục các dân tộc Việt Nam

Further reading[edit]

  • Nguyễn Trọng Tấn; Viện khoa học xã hội Việt Nam - Viện dân tộc học - Tạp chí dân tộc học. 2005. Tổng mục lục 30 năm tạp chí dân tộc học (1974 - 2004). Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội.

External links[edit]