List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

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There are 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam recognized by the Vietnamese government.[1] Each ethnicity has their own language, traditions, and subculture. The largest ethnic groups are: Kinh 85.32%, Tay 1.92%, Thái 1.89%, Mường 1.51%, Hmong 1.45%, Khmer 1.37%, Nùng 1.13%, Dao 0.93%, Hoa 0.78%, with all others comprising the remaining 3.7% (2019 census).[2] The Vietnamese term for minority ethnic groups are người thiểu số and dân tộc ít người (minority people).

List of ethnic groups[edit]

The total population of Vietnam was 96,208,984 according to the 2019 census.[2][3]

Group People 2009
census
2019 census Growth rate (per year) Distribution
(2019
Census)
Note
Total 85,846,997 96,208,984 1.14%
1. Vietic Kinh 73,594,427 82,085,826 1.09% throughout Vietnam also called Viet, the largest ethnic group in Vietnam
Chứt 6,022 7,513 2.21% Quảng Bình (6,572 people, comprising 87.5% of all Chứt in Vietnam) Cheut - related to the Kinh
Mường 1,268,963 1,452,095 1.35% Hòa Bình (549,026 people, comprising 64.28% of the province's population), Thanh Hóa (376,340 people, comprising 10.34% of the province's population), Phú Thọ (218,404 people, comprising 14.92% of the province's population), Sơn La (84,676 people, comprising 6.78% of the province's population), Hà Nội (62,239 people), Ninh Bình (27,345 people) closest to the Kinh, the other main part of the Viet–Mường branch of the Vietic subfamily
Thổ 74,458 91,430 2.05% Nghệ An (71,420 people, comprising 78.11% of all Thổ in Vietnam), Thanh Hóa (11,470 people, comprising 12.55% of all Thổ in Vietnam) Tho - Related to Kinh Vietnamese
2. Austroasiatic (non-Vietic) Ba Na 227,716 286,910 2.31% Gia Lai (189,367 people, comprising 12.51% of the province's population and 66.00% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Kon Tum (68,799 people, comprising 12.73% of the province's population and 23.98% of all Ba Na in Vietnam), Bình Định (21,650 people, comprising 1.46% of the province's population and 7.55% of all Ba Na in Vietnam) Bahnar
Brâu 397 525 2.79% Kon Tum (497 people, comprising 94.67% of all Brâu in Vietnam), Hồ Chí Minh City (8 people), Đồng Nai (4 people) Brau
Bru Vân Kiều 74,506 94,598 2.39% Quảng Trị (69,785 people, comprising 73.77% of all Bru Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Quảng Bình (18,575 people, comprising 19.64% of all Bru Vân Kiều in Vietnam), Đăk Lăk (3,563 people) Bru
Chơ Ro 26,855 29,520 0.95% Đồng Nai (16,738 people, comprising 56.70% of all Chơ Ro in Vietnam), Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu (8,079 people), Bình Thuận (3,777 people)
Co 33,817 40,442 1.79% Quảng Ngãi (33,227 people, comprising 82.16% of all Co), Quảng Nam (6,479 people)
Cờ Ho 166,112 200,800 1.9% Lâm Đồng (175,531 people, comprising 13.53% of the province's population and 87.42% of all Cơ Ho in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (13,531 people, 6.74% of all Cơ Ho in Vietnam) Koho
Cơ Tu 61,588 74,173 1.86% Quảng Nam (55,091 people, comprising 74.27% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam), Thừa Thiên-Huế (16,719 people, comprising 22.54% of all Cơ Tu in Vietnam)
Giẻ Triêng 50,962 63,322 2.17% Kon Tum (39,515 people, comprising 62.40% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (23,222 people, comprising 36.67% of all Giẻ Triêng in Vietnam)
Hrê 127,420 149,460 1.6% Quảng Ngãi (133,103 people, comprising 89.06% of all Hrê in Vietnam), Bình Định (11,112 people, 7.43% of all Hrê in Vietnam) H're
Kháng 13,840 16,180 1.56% Sơn La (9,830 people, comprising 60.75% of all Kháng in Vietnam), Điện Biên (5,224 people, comprising 32.29% of all Kháng in Vietnam)
Khmer 1,260,640 1,319,652 0.46% Sóc Trăng (362,029 people, comprising 30.18% of the province's population and 27.43% of all Khmer in Vietnam), Trà Vinh (318,231 people, comprising 31.53% of the province's population and 24.11% of all Khmer in Vietnam), Kiên Giang (211,282 people, comprising 12.26% of the province's population and 16.01% of all Khmer in Vietnam), An Giang (75,878 people), Bạc Liêu (73,968 people), Bình Dương (65,233 people), Hồ Chí Minh City (50,422 people), Cà Mau (26,110 people), Đồng Nai (23,560 people), Vĩnh Long (22,630 people) each comprising less than 10% of all Khmer in Vietnam) Khmer
Khơ Mú 72,929 90,612 2.17% Nghệ An (43,139 people, comprising 47.61% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Điện Biên (19,785 people, comprising 21.83% of all Khơ Mú in Vietnam), Sơn La (15,783 people), Lai Châu (7,778 people), Yên Bái (1,539 people) Khmu
Mạ 41,405 50,322 1.95% Lâm Đồng (38,523 people, comprising 76.55% of all Mạ in Vietnam), Đắk Nông (8,087 people), Đồng Nai (2,695 people)
Mảng 3,700 4,650 2.29% Lai Châu (4,501 people, comprising 96.78% of all Mảng in Vietnam)
Mnông 102,741 127,334 2.15% Đăk Nông (50,718 people, comprising 39.83% of all M’Nông in Vietnam), Đăk Lăk (48,505 people, comprising 38.09% of all M’Nông in Vietnam), Bình Phước (10,879 people), Lâm Đồng (10,517 people) Mnong
Ơ Đu 376 428 1.3% Nghệ An (411 people, comprising 96.03% of all Ơ Đu in Vietnam)
Rơ Măm 436 639 3.82% Kon Tum (577 people, comprising 90.30% of all Rơ Măm in Vietnam)
Tà Ôi 43,886 52,356 1.76% Thừa Thiên-Huế (34,967 people, comprising 66.79% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam), Quảng Trị (16,446 people, comprising 31.41% of all Tà Ôi in Vietnam) Ta Oi
Xinh Mun 23,278 29,503 2.37% Sơn La (27,031 people, comprising 91.62% of all Xinh Mun in Vietnam), Điện Biên (2,285 people) Xinh-mun
Xơ Đăng 169,501 212,277 2.25% Kon Tum (133,117 people, comprising 24.63% of the province's population and 62.71% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Nam (47,268 people, comprising 22.27% of all Xơ Đăng in Vietnam), Quảng Ngãi (19,690 people), Đắk Lắk (9,818 people) Sedang, Xo Dang
X’Tiêng 85,436 100,752 1.65% Bình Phước (96,649 people, comprising 95.93% of all Xtiêng in Vietnam) Stieng
3. Tai–Kadai,
Tai
Bố Y 2,273 3,232 3.52% Lào Cai (1,925 people, comprising 59.56% of all Bố Y in Vietnam), Hà Giang (1,161 people, comprising 35.93% of all Bố Y in Vietnam) Bouyei
Giáy 58,617 67,858 1.46% Lào Cai (33,119 people, comprising 48.81% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Hà Giang (17,392 people, comprising 25.63% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Lai Châu (12,932 people, comprising 19.06% of all Giáy in Vietnam), Yên Bái (2,634 people)
Lào 14,928 17,532 1.61% Lai Châu (6,922 people, comprising 39.48% of all Lào in Vietnam), Điện Biên (5,152 people, comprising 29.39% of all Lào in Vietnam), Sơn La (4,134 people, comprising 23.58% of all Lào in Vietnam)
Lự 5,601 6,757 1.88% Lai Châu (6,693 people, comprising 99.05% of all Lự in Vietnam) Lu
Nùng 968,800 1,083,298 1.12% Lạng Sơn (335,316 people, comprising 42.90% of the province's population and 30.95% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Cao Bằng (158,114 people, comprising 29.81% of the province's population and 14.60% of all Nùng in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (95,806 people), Thái Nguyên (81,740 people), Hà Giang (81,478 people), Đắk Lắk (75,857 people)
Sán Chay 169,410 201,398 1.73% Tuyên Quang (70,636 people, comprising 35.07% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Thái Nguyên (39,472 people, comprising 19.60% of all Sán Chay in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (30,283 people), Quảng Ninh (16,346 people) San Chay, Cao Lan
Tày 1,626,392 1,845,492 1.26% northern Vietnam Tay - The largest minority in Vietnam
Thái 1,550,423 1,820,950 1.61% northern Vietnam Including Tai Daeng, Tai Dón, Tai Dam and other minor groups
4. Tai-Kadai,
Kra
Cờ Lao 2,636 4,003 4.18% Hà Giang (2,922 people, comprising 73.00% of all Cờ Lao in Vietnam) Gelao
La Chí 13,158 15,126 1.39% Hà Giang (13,828 people, comprising 91.42% of all La Chí in Vietnam) Lachi
La Ha 8,177 10,157 2.17% Sơn La (10,015 people, comprising 98.60% of all La Ha in Vietnam) Laha
Pu Péo 687 903 2.73% Hà Giang (771 people, comprising 85.38% of all Pu Péo in Vietnam) Qabiao, Pubiao
5. Hmong–Mien Dao 751,067 891,151 1.71% Hà Giang (127,181 people, comprising 14.27% of all Dao in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (105,359 people), Lào Cai (104,045 people), Yên Bái (101,223 people), Quảng Ninh (73,591 people) Yao people, also known as Mien, many speak Iu Mien language
Hmong 1,068,189 1,393,547 2.66% northern Vietnam formerly known as Mèo, classified as Miao in China
Pà Thẻn 6,811 8,248 1.91% Hà Giang (6,502 people, comprising 78.83% of all Pà Thẻn in Vietnam), Tuyên Quang (1,258 people, comprising 15.25% of all Pà Thẻn in Vietnam) Pa-Hng
6. Malayo-Polynesian Chăm 161,729 178,948 1.01% Ninh Thuận (67,517 people, comprising 37.73% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (39,557 people, comprising 22.11% of all Chăm in Vietnam), Phú Yên (22,813 people), An Giang (11,171 people), Hồ Chí Minh City (10,509 people), Đồng Nai (8,603 people), Bình Định (6,364 people) Cham - Descendants of the Champa polities of Southern Vietnam
Chu Ru 19,314 23,242 1.85% Lâm Đồng (22,473 people, comprising 96.70% of all Chu Ru in Vietnam) Chru
Ê Đê 331,194 398,671 1.85% Đăk Lăk (351,278 people, comprising 18.79% of the province's population and 88.11% of all Ê Đê in Vietnam), Phú Yên (25,225 people) Rade
Gia Rai 411,275 513,930 2.23% Gia Lai (459,738 people, comprising 30.37% of the province's population and 89.46% of all Jrai in Vietnam), Kon Tum (25,883 people), Đắk Lắk (20,495 people) Jarai
Raglay 122,245 146,613 1.82% Ninh Thuận (70,366 people, comprising 48.00% of all Raglay in Vietnam), Khánh Hòa (55,844 people, comprising 38.09% of all Raglay in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (17,382 people) Roglai
7. Sino-Tibetan languages, Chinese languages Hoa 823,071 749,466 -0.94% Hồ Chí Minh City (382,826 people, comprising 51.08% of all Hoa in Vietnam), Đồng Nai (87,497 people), Sóc Trăng (62,389 people), Kiên Giang (24,051 people), Bắc Giang (20,225 people), Bình Dương (17,993 people) Constitute those who have Chinese of Mandarin-speaking background. Not to be confused with the Ngái Hokkien, who are classified separately.
Ngái 1,035 1,649 4.66% Thái Nguyên (800 people, comprising 48.51% of all Ngái in Vietnam), Bình Thuận (188 people, comprising 11.40% of all Ngái in Vietnam) Hakka Chinese, classified separately from the Hoa
Sán Dìu 146,821 183,004 2.2% Thái Nguyên (56,477 people, comprising 30.86% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Vĩnh Phúc (46,222 people, comprising 25.26% of all Sán Dìu in Vietnam), Bắc Giang (33,846 people), Quảng Ninh (20,669 people) San Diu, Yao that speak Cantonese, though some know Iu Mien
Cống 2,029 2,729 2.96% Lai Châu (1,513 people, comprising 55.44% of all Cống in Vietnam), Điện Biên (1,145 people, comprising 41.96% of all Cống in Vietnam) Phunoi
Hà Nhì 21,725 25,539 1.62% Lai Châu (15,952 people, comprising 62.46% of all Hà Nhì in Vietnam), Lào Cai (4,661 people), Điện Biên (4,555 people) Hani
La Hủ 9,651 12,113 2.27% Lai Châu (12,002 people, comprising 99.08% of all La Hủ in Vietnam) Lahu
Lô Lô 4,541 4,827 0.61% Cao Bằng (2,861 people, comprising 59.27% of all Lô Lô in Vietnam), Hà Giang (1,707 people) Yi
Phù Lá 10,944 12,471 1.31% Lào Cai (10,293 people, comprising 82.54% of all Phù Lá in Vietnam), Yên Bái (968 people)
Si La 709 909 2.48% Lai Châu (592 people, comprising 65.13% of all Si La in Vietnam), Điện Biên (243 people, comprising 26.73% of all Si La in Vietnam)

Other[edit]

  1. Nguồn - possibly Mường group, officially classified as a Việt (Kinh) group by the government, Nguồn themselves identify with Việt ethnicity; their language is a member of the Viet–Muong branch of the Vietic sub-family
  2. Sui people (Người Thủy) - officially classified as Pa Then people.
  3. According to news from Dantri, an online newspaper in Vietnam, the Thừa Thiên-Huế People's Committee in September 2008 announced a plan to do more research in a new ethnic group in Vietnam. It is Pa Kô, also called Pa Cô, Pa Kô, Pa-Kô or Pa Kôh. This ethnic group settles mainly in A Lưới suburban district (Thừa Thiên-Huế) and mountainous area of Hướng Hóa (Quảng Trị).[4][5] At the present, however, they have been classified in Tà Ôi ethnic group.

Many of the local ethnic groups residing in mountain areas are known collectively in the West as Montagnard or Degar. One distinctive feature of highland ethnic minority groups in Vietnam is that they are colorfully attired whether at home, in the farm, traveling or in their home town.

Foreign expatriate workers comprise a small portion of the population, some settling permanently or through marriage. Many are migrants from neighboring Asian countries like China, though some are from the west. Today, 2,700 Americans live in Vietnam. Moreover, some descend from the French and other Europeans from the colonial period. However, most European descendants left after Vietnam gained independence.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Các dân tộc Việt Nam (Ethnic groups in Vietnam). Portal of the Committee for Ethnic Problems, Hậu Giang prov., 2012. Retrieved 1 Apr 2017.
  2. ^ a b General Statistics Office of Vietnam (2019). "Completed Results of the 2019 Viet Nam Population and Housing Census" (PDF). Statistical Publishing House (Vietnam). ISBN 978-604-75-1532-5.
  3. ^ 2009 Census: Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009, Tổng Cục Thống kê Việt Nam. Retrieved 18/08/2015.
  4. ^ Việt Nam sẽ có dân tộc thứ 55?
  5. ^ Pa Kô được bổ sung vào danh mục các dân tộc Việt Nam Archived 2013-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Young envoy in Vietnam | Embassy of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in the United States".

Further reading[edit]

  • Nguyễn Trọng Tấn; Viện khoa học xã hội Việt Nam - Viện dân tộc học - Tạp chí dân tộc học. 2005. Tổng mục lục 30 năm tạp chí dân tộc học (1974 - 2004). Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội.

External links[edit]