List of ethnic groups in Vietnam

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Vietnam is a multiethnic country with over fifty distinct groups (54 are recognized by the Vietnamese government), each with its own language, lifestyle, and cultural heritage. Many of the local ethnic groups are known collectively in the West as Montagnard or Degar. The largest ethnic groups are: Kinh (Viet) 86.2%, Tay 1.9%, Tai Ethnic 1.7%, Mường 1.5%, Khmer Krom (Khơ Me Crộm) 1.4%, Hoa 1.1%, Nùng 1.1%, Hmong 1%, others 4.1% (1999 census). The Vietnamese term for ethnic group is người thiểu số or dân tộc thiểu số (literally "minority people").

Alphabetical list[edit]

  1. Ba Na (Bahnar)
  2. Bố Y
  3. Brâu
  4. Bru
  5. Chăm - Descendants of the Champa polities of Southern Vietnam
  6. Chơ Ro
  7. Chu Ru (Chru)
  8. Chứt - related to the Kinh, only 2000-4000 people
  9. Co
  10. Cờ Ho (Koho)
  11. Cờ Lao (Gelao)
  12. Cơ Tu
  13. Phunoi (Cống)
  14. Dao - Yao people, also known as Mien, many speak Iu Mien language
  15. Ê Đê (Rade)
  16. Gia Rai (Jarai)
  17. Giáy
  18. Giẻ Triêng
  19. Hà Nhì (Hani)
  20. Hmong (formerly known as Mèo, classified as Miao in China)
  21. Hoa people (Overseas Chinese, not to be confused with the Ngái Hokkien, who are classified separately)
  22. Hrê
  23. Kháng
  24. Khmer Krom (Khơ Me Crộm)
  25. Khơ Mú (Khmu)
  26. Kinh (also called Viet, the largest ethnic group in Vietnam)
  27. La Chí
  28. La Ha
  29. La Hủ
  30. Lao
  31. Lô Lô (Yi)
  32. Lự
  33. Mạ
  34. Mảng
  35. Mnông
  36. Mường - Closest to the Kinh, the other main part of the Viet–Mường branch of the Vietic subfamily
  37. Ngái (Hakka Chinese, classified separately from the Hoa)
  38. Nùng
  39. Ơ Đu
  40. Pà Thẻn (Pa-Hng)
  41. Phù Lá
  42. Pu Péo (Pubiao)
  43. Ra Glai (Roglai)
  44. Rơ Măm
  45. Sán Chay (San Chay, Cao Lan)
  46. Sán Dìu (San Diu, Yao that speak Cantonese, though some know Iu Mien)
  47. Si La
  48. Tà Ôi (Ta Oi)
  49. Tày (Tay) - The largest minority in Vietnam
  50. Thái (Thai)
  51. Thổ (Tho) - Related to Kinh Vietnamese
  52. Xinh Mun (Xinh-mun)
  53. Xơ Đăng (Sedang, Xo Dang)
  54. Xtiêng (Stieng)

Listed by language group[edit]

  1. Vietic - Kinh, Mường, Chứt, Thổ
  2. Austroasiatic - Bahnar, Brâu, Bru, Chơ Ro, Co, Cờ Ho, Cơ Tu, Giẻ Triêng, Hrê, Kháng, Khmer Krom, Khơ Mú (Khmu), Mạ, Mảng, Mnông, Ơ Đu, Rơ Măm, Tà Ôi, Xinh Mun, Xơ Đăng (Sedang), and Xtiêng (Stieng).
  3. Tay-Thai - Bố Y (Bouyei), Giáy, Lao, Lự, Nùng, Sán Chay (Cao Lan), Tày and Thái
  4. Tibeto-Burman - Cống, Hà Nhì (Hani), La Hủ (Lahu), Lô Lô (Yi), Phù Lá, and Si La
  5. Malayo-Polynesian - Chăm, Chu Ru (Chru), Ê Đê (Rade), Gia Rai (Jarai), and Raglai
  6. Kadai - Cờ Lao (Gelao), La Chí, La Ha, and Pu Péo
  7. Mong-Dao - Dao (Yao), Hmong, and Pà Thẻn
  8. Han - Hoa (Overseas Chinese), Ngái (Hokkien), and Sán Dìu

Listed by population (as of the 1999 census)[edit]

  1. Kinh (also called Viet, the largest ethnic group in Vietnam) 86.2%
  2. Tày (Tay) - The largest minority in Vietnam 1.9%
  3. Thái (Thai) 1.7%
  4. Mường - Closest to Kinh Vietnamese, other half of Viet–Muong language family 1.5%
  5. Khmer Krom (Khmer, Khơ Me Crộm) 1.4%
  6. Hoa (Chinese) 1.1%
  7. Nùng 1.1%
  8. H'Mông (Hmong, Hơ-mông, Mong; formerly known as Mèo) - Also known as Miao in China 1%
  9. Dao - Yao people, also known as Mien, many speak Iu Mien language, distant relatives of Hmong
  10. Gia Rai (Jarai, J'rai)
  11. Ê Đê (Rhade)
  12. Ba Na (Bahnar)
  13. Sán Chay (San Chay, Cao Lan)
  14. Chăm - Descendants of the Champa kingdom in southern Vietnam
  15. Xơ Đăng (Sedang, Xo Dang)
  16. Sán Dìu (San Diu)
  17. Hrê (H're)
  18. Cờ Ho
  19. Ra Glai (Raglai)
  20. M'Nông
  21. Thổ (Tho) - Related to Kinh Vietnamese
  22. Xtiêng (Stieng)
  23. Khơ Mú (Khmu)
  24. Bru-Vân Kiều
  25. Giáy
  26. Cơ Tu
  27. Giẻ Triêng
  28. Tà Ôi (Ta Oi)
  29. Mạ
  30. Co
  31. Chơ Ro
  32. Hà Nhì (Hani)
  33. Xinh Mun (Xinh-mun)
  34. Chu Ru (Chru)
  35. Lao - People from Laos
  36. La Chí
  37. Phù Lá
  38. La Hủ
  39. Kháng
  40. Lự
  41. Pà Thẻn
  42. Lô Lô (Lo Lo, Yi)
  43. Chứt - related to Vietnamese, only 2000-4000 people
  44. Mảng
  45. Cờ Lao (Gelao)
  46. Bố Y (Buyei)
  47. La Ha
  48. Cống (Cong)
  49. Ngái
  50. Si La
  51. Pu Péo
  52. Brâu
  53. Rơ Măm
  54. Ơ Đu

Ethnic groups not included in official list[edit]


  1. Nguồn - possibly Mường group, officially classified as a Việt (Kinh) group by the government, Nguồn themselves identify with Việt ethnicity; their language is a member of the Viet–Muong branch of the Vietic sub-family
  2. Sui people (Người Thủy) - officially classified as Pa Then people.
  3. According to news from Dantri, an online newspaper in Vietnam, the Thừa Thiên-Huế People's Committee in September 2008 announced a plan to do more research in a new ethnic group in Vietnam. It is Pa Kô, also called Pa Cô, Pa Kô, Pa-Kô or Pa Kôh. This ethnic group settles mainly in A Lưới suburban district (Thừa Thiên-Huế) and mountainous area of Hướng Hóa (Quảng Trị).[1][2] At the present, however, they have been being classified in Tà Ôi ethnic group.


People of European, North American, Australian, and Asian (non-Vietnamese) origin. Many people of these origins are temporary residents in Vietnam as expatriate workers and some are permanently settled there, some through marriage. Included in permanent settlers are Europeans of French descent, who are descendants of the colonial settlers. Most of them left after its independence.


  1. ^ Việt Nam sẽ có dân tộc thứ 55?
  2. ^ Pa Kô được bổ sung vào danh mục các dân tộc Việt Nam

External links[edit]

See also[edit]