Page semi-protected

List of ethnic slurs by ethnicity

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This list of ethnic slurs is sorted into categories that can defined by race, nationality or ethnicity.

Broader ethnic categories

Indigenous Australian

Abo/Abbo
(Aus) a term used for an Aboriginal Australian. Originally, this was simply an informal term for Aborigine, and was in fact used by Aboriginal people themselves until it started to be considered offensive in the 1950s. In remoter areas, Aboriginal people still often refer to themselves (quite neutrally) as Blackfellas (and whites as Whitefellas). Although Abo is still considered quite offensive by many, the pejorative boong is now more commonly used when the intent is deliberately to offend, as that word's status as an insult is unequivocal.[1]
Boong / bong / bung
(Aus) a term used for an Aboriginal Australian.[2] Boong, pronounced with ʊ (like the vowel in bull), is highly offensive and is related to the Australian-English slang word bung, meaning 'dead', 'infected', or 'dysfunctional'. From bung comes the phrase to go bung, "to die, then to break down, go bankrupt, cease to function [Ab. bong dead]."[3] The term was first used in 1847 by J. D. Lang in Cooksland.[4] The (Oxford) Australian National Dictionary gives its origin in the Wemba word for 'man' or 'human being'.[5]
Coon
an Aboriginal person.[6]
Gin
an Aboriginal woman.[7]
Lubra
an Aboriginal woman.[8] An Aboriginal word.[5]

African

Af
(Rhodesia) African to a white Rhodesian (Rhodie).[9]
Ape
(US) a black person.[10]
Béni-oui-oui
Mostly used during the French colonization of Algeria as a derogatory term for Algerian Muslims.[11]
Bluegum
An offensive slur for an African-American perceived as being lazy and who refuses to work.[12]
Boogie
a black person (film noir); "The boogies lowered the boom on Beaver Canal."[13]
Buck
a black person or Native American.[14]
Burrhead / Burr-head / Burr head
(US) a black person, in reference to Afro-textured hair.[15]
Colored
(US) a black person. Once generally accepted as inoffensive, this word is now considered disrespectful by some. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) continues to use its full name unapologetically. This is not to be confused with the term "person of color" which is the preferred term for collectively referring to all non-white people.
Coon
(US & UK) originally used by Europeans/whites as a pejorative term for a black person. Possibly from Portuguese barracoos, a building constructed to hold slaves for sale (1837).[16] The term (though still also used in its original sense) is commonly used today by African or Black Americans towards members of the same race who are perceived to pander/kowtow to white people; to be a 'sellout'; to hate themselves; or to "collud[e] with racism for personal gain."[17] It is often used against black conservatives or Republicans (similar to Uncle Tom and coconut).[18][19][20]
Crow
(US) a black person.[21]
Eggplant
(US ) A black person. Notable for appearing in the 1979 film, The Jerk[22] and the 1993 film True Romance.[23]
Fuzzies
(Commonwealth) A black person. Notable for appearing in the 1964 film, Zulu.[24]
Fuzzy-Wuzzy
(Commonwealth) A Hadendoa Beja. The term is a reference to the distinctive dirwa hairstyle used by many Beja men.[25]
Golliwogg
(Commonwealth) a dark-skinned person, named after Florence Kate Upton's children's book character.[26]
Jigaboo / jiggabo, jijjiboo, zigabo / jig, jigg, jiggy, jigga
(US & UK) a black person (JB) with stereotypical black features. (dark skin, wide nose, etc.) Refer to mannerisms that resemble dancing.
Jim Crow
(US) a black person;[27] also the name for the segregation laws prevalent in much of the United States until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.[28]
Jim Fish
(South Africa) a black person.[29]
Jungle bunny
(US & UK) a black person.[30]
Kaffir, kaffer, kafir, kaffre
(South Africa) a. a black person. Considered very offensive.
Macaca, macaque
a person of black African descent, originally used in languages of colonial powers in Africa. Same as "macaque."[31]
Mammy
Domestic servant of black African descent, generally good-natured, often overweight, and loud.[32]
Monkey
a person of black African descent.[31] See also Macaca (slur). It also gave rise to the racist "monkey chants" in sports.
Mosshead
a black person.[33]
Munt
(South Africa, Zimbabwe, & Zambia) a term, used among whites, for a black person. The term derives from muntu, the singular of Bantu.[34]
Nig-nog
(US & UK) a black person.[35]
Nigger / niggar / niggur, niger / nigor / nigre (Caribbean) / nigar, nigga / niggah / nig / nigguh
(International) An offensive term for a black person. From the word negro, which means the color black in numerous languages. Diminutive appellations include Nigg and Nigz. Over time, the terms nigga and niggaz (plural) have come to be frequently used between some African or black diaspora without the negative associations of nigger. Considered very offensive and typically censored as "the n-word" even in reference to its use. The term niggress and nigette are feminized formulations of the term.
Niglet / nigglet
a black child.[36]
Nigra / negra / niggra / nigrah / nigruh
(US) derogatory term for a black person, first used in the early 1900s.[37]
Pickaninny
generally refers to black children, or a caricature of them which is widely considered racist. Used in English, the term is generally considered derogatory.
Porch monkey
a black person.[38]
Powder burn
a black person.[33]
Quashie
a black person.[33]
Sambo
(US) a derogatory term for an African American, black, Indigenous American, a mixed race person, or sometimes a South Asian person.[32][39]
Smoked Irishman
(US) 19th century term for black people.[33]
Sooty
a term for a black person, originated in the U.S. in the 1950s.[40]
Spade
a term for a black person,[41] first recorded in 1928,[42] from the playing cards suit.
Spook
a black person.
Tar baby
(US) a black person, especially a child.[43]
Teapot
A black person, derived in 19th century.[44][33]
Thicklips, bootlips
a black person.[33]

Asian

East Asian

Celestial
(Aus) Chinese people, used in the late 1900s, a reference to their coming from the "Celestial Empire" (i.e. China).
Charlie
(U.S.) A term used by American troops during the Vietnam War as a shorthand for communist guerrillas: it was shortened from "Victor Charlie", the radio code designation for Viet Cong, or VC.[45]
Chinaman
(U.S.) Chinese person, used in old American west when discrimination against Chinese was common.[46]
Chink
(U.S.) a derogatory term for those of East Asian descent.
Coolie
(North America) unskilled Asian laborer, usually Chinese (originally used in the 19th century for Chinese railroad laborers). Possibly from Mandarin ku li (苦力) or Hindi kuli, 'day laborer'.[47] Also racial epithet for Indo-Caribbean people, especially in Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and South-African Indians.[48]
Gook
a derogatory term for East Asians, particularly aimed towards Japanese and Koreans used especially for enemy soldiers.[49][50][51] Its use as an ethnic slur towards Koreans has been traced to U.S. Marines serving in the Philippines in the early 20th century.[51] The earliest recorded use is dated 1920.[52] Widely popularized by the Korean war and Vietnam War (1965–73).
Jap
(Predominantly U.S.) Offensive. Shortened from the word "Japanese", often used pejoratively.
Nip
Offensive word for a Japanese person. From Nippon, first used in World War II.[53]
Oriental
(Predominantly U.S., used elsewhere) Refers to an East Asian person (of the Orient) and/or their ethnicity; sometimes considered offensive.[54][55][56] In 2016, US President Barack Obama signed a bill to remove the term Oriental, together with some others, as a reference to a person from federal laws.[57]
Yellow, Yellowman, or Yellowwoman
designating or pertaining to an East Asian person, in reference to those who have a yellowish skin complexion.[58]

South Asian

American-Born Confused Desi, or ABCD
(U.S.) used by South-Asian diaspora for American-born South Asians, including Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi (mainly Indians, as they are the largest number of South Asians in the US) who are confused about their cultural identity. This is often used humorously without any derogatory meaning.
Brownie
a brown-skinned person of South-Asian, Arab, or Hispanic descent. Rarely used as someone of Native-American or Pacific-Island descent.[59]
Chee-chee
a Eurasian half-caste, probably from Hindi chi-chi fie, literally 'dirt'.[60]
Chinki
used in India for those from Northeast India.
Curry muncher
(Australia, Africa, New Zealand, and North America) a person of Asian Indian origin.[61]
Madrasi
outdated exonym for the people of South India (named for the city of Madras, i.e. modern-day Chennai).
Malaun
(Bangladesh) term for Hindus.
Paki
pejorative for a person of Pakistani descent, but has been used against South Asians (including East Indians, South Indians) in general.

Southeast Asian

Dink
Someone of Southeast Asian origin, particularly aimed towards a Vietnamese person. Also used as a disparaging term for a North Vietnamese soldier or guerrilla in the Vietnam War. Origin: 1965–70, Americanism.[62]
Flip
(U.S.) An ethnic slur applied to Filipinos.[63]
Gugus
(U.S.) a racial term used to refer to Filipino guerillas during the Philippine–American War. The term came from gugo, the Tagalog name for Entada phaseoloides or the St. Thomas bean, the bark of which was used by Filipinas to shampoo their hair. The term was a predecessor to the term gook, a racial term used to refer to all Asians.[64]
Huan-a
Hokkien word for foreigner, used to refer to non-Chinese Southeast Asians and Taiwanese aborigines, considered offensive by most non-Chinese speakers.[65][66]
Jakun
used as an insult for an unsophisticated person in Malaysia; derived from the name of an indigenous Orang Asli group and considered by some as derogatory and racist.[67]

Middle Eastern

Camel jockey
an Arab.
Hajji, Hadji, Haji
Used to refer to Iraqis, Arabs, Afghans, or Middle Eastern people in general. Derived from the honorific Al-Hajji, the title given to a Muslim who has completed the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).
Sand nigger
person who dwells in deserts, especially of Saudi Arabia or African continent.
Towelhead / Raghead
A Muslim, Arab, Sikh, or member of any group that traditionally wears headdress such as a turban, keffiyeh, or headscarf.

Latin American/Hispanic

Beaner
Term for Mexican, but can be used for Hispanics in general because of the idea that all Hispanics are the same.
Brownie
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[59]
Cholo
term used by Chilean officers to refer to Peruvians during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883).[68]
Greaseball
(U.S.) Can refer to a person of Italian or Hispanic descent.[69] More generally, it can also refer to anyone of Mediterranean or Latin American descent.[70]
Greaser
(U.S.) Can refer to a person of Italian or Hispanic descent. Can also refer to members of the 1950-1960s subculture which Italian Americans and Hispanic Americans were stereotyped to be a part of.
Spic, spick, spik, spig, or spigotty
A person of Hispanic descent. First recorded use in 1915. Theories include the slur originating from "no spik English" (with the original full slur being “spiggoty”, from “no speak-o t'e English”). Also used for someone who speaks the Spanish language. In the early 20th century, "spic", "spig", and "spigotty" were also similarly used as a slur against Italian immigrants in the United States and Italians in general, as well as Portuguese people.[71]
Sudaca
(Spain) a person from Latin America or 'Sudamérica'[72]
Tacohead
a Mexican person. This phrase is uttered by Willem Dafoe's character (Charlie) in the film Born on the Fourth of July.[73]
Tonk
An illegal migrant from Mexico.[74]
Veneco
Originally used by Colombians to refer to Colombians returned from Venezuela, now used in parts of South America to refer to Venezuelan Immigrants.[75]
Wetback
A Latino person. Originally applied specifically to Mexican migrant workers who had crossed the Rio Grande border river illegally to find work in the United States, its meaning has since broadened.

European

Ang mo
(Malaysia and Singapore) Hokkien for "red hair" referring to Dutch people from the 17th century and expanded to all white people by the 19th century, has become a neutral term in the 21st century.[76]
Barang
(Cambodia) any white person.[77]
Bule
(Indonesia) White people; literally, "albino", but used in the same way that "colored" might be used to refer to a black person to mean any white person.[78]
Charlie
Mildly derogatory term used by African Americans, mainly in the 1960s and 1970s, to refer to a white person. From James Baldwin's play, Blues For Mister Charlie.[79]
Coonass or coon-ass
(U.S.) a Cajun; may be derived from the French conasse.
Cracker
(U.S.) Derogatory term for whites, originally and still particularly used to refer to poor whites from the American South.[80]
Farang
(Thailand) any white person.
Gammon
A derogatory term for white people, especially older white men - based on the appearance of their faces.
Gringo
(The Americas) Non-Hispanic U.S. national. Hence Gringolandia, the United States; not always a pejorative term, unless used with intent to offend.[81]
Gubba
(AUS) Aboriginal (Koori) term for white people[82] – derived from Governor / Gubbanah
Gweilo, gwailo, kwai lo
(Hong Kong and South China) A White man. Gwei or kwai () means 'ghost', which the color white is associated with in China; and the term lo () refers to a regular guy (i.e. a fellow, a chap, or a bloke). Once a mark of xenophobia, the word was promoted by Maoists as insulting but is now in general, informal use.[83]
Honky
(U.S.) Offensive term for a white person.
Haole
(Hawaii) Usually not offensive, can be derogatory if intended to offend. Used by modern-day Native Hawaiians to refer to anyone of European descent whether native born or not. Use has spread to many other islands of the Pacific and is known in modern pop culture.[84]
Hunky / Bohunk
(U.S.) A Central European laborer. It originated in the coal regions of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, where Poles and other immigrants from Central Europe (Hungarians [Magyar], Rusyns, Slovaks) came to perform hard manual labor on the mines.[85]
Mangia cake / cake
(Canada) A derogatory term used by Italian Canadians for those of Anglo-Saxon or Northwestern European descent. Mangia cake is Italian for 'cake eater', and one suggestion is that this term originated from the perception of Italian immigrants that Canadian bread is sweet as cake in comparison to the rustic bread eaten by Italians.[86]
Medigan / Amedigan
(U.S.) A term used by Italian Americans to refer to Americans of White Anglo Saxon Protestant descent, Americans with no discernible ethnicity, or non-Italian Americans in general; similar to mangia cake (Italian for 'cake eater'). Comes from Southern Italian pronunciation of the Italian word americano.[87][88][89][90][91]
Ofay
(U.S.) a white person. Etymology is unknown.[92]
Arkie
(U.S.) A person from the State of Arkansas, used during the great depression for farmers from Arkansas looking for work elsewhere.
Okie
(U.S.) A person from the State of Oklahoma, used during the great depression for farmers from Oklahoma looking for work elsewhere.
Peckerwood
(U.S.) a white person (southerner). This word was coined in the 19th century by Southern black people to refer to poor white people.[93]
Whitey
(U.S.) Offensive term for a white person.

Mediterranean/Southern European

Chocko
(Aus) a person of Mediterranean, Southern European, or Middle Eastern descent.[94][95]
Dago
(UK and Commonwealth) may refer to Italians, Spaniards, Portuguese, and potentially Greek peoples. Possibly derived from the Spanish name Diego.[96]
(U.S.) refers specifically to Italians.[96]
Greaseball, Greaser
(U.S. especially) greaseball generally refers to a person of Italian descent. Meanwhile, though it may be used as a shortening of greaseball to refer to Italians, greaser has been more often applied to Hispanic Americans or Mexican Americans. However, greaseball (and to a lesser extent, greaser) can also refer to any person of Mediterranean/Southern European descent or Hispanic descent, including Greeks, Spaniards, and the Portuguese, as well as Latin Americans.[97][70]
Kanake
(Ger) Used in 1960s Germany to refer to Southern European and Mediterranean immigrants, increasingly used exclusively for Turkish people.
Métèque
(Fr) Mediterranean or Middle Eastern immigrant, especially Italians.[98]
Wog
(Aus) slur for the first wave of Southern European immigrants to Australia and their descendants that contrasted with the dominant Anglo-Saxon/Anglo-Celtic colonial stock. Used mostly for Mediterraneans and Southern Europeans, including the Spanish, Italians, Greeks, Macedonians, Lebanese, Arabs, Croatians and Serbians.

Native American

Brownie
A brown-skinned person, or someone of Indigenous-Australian, -American, or -Canadian descent, as well as of those of Hispanic or South Asian descent.[59]
Chug
(Canada) refers to an individual of aboriginal descent.[99] From the native people Chugach.
Eskimo, Eskimo Pie
an indigenous person from the Arctic. Once a common term in Canada, Eskimo has come to be considered offensive and Inuit (or Inuk) is now preferred. Eskimo Pie has also been used against Inuk persons.[100]
Indian
People indigenous to the Americas, termed by Columbus due to the fact he thought he arrived in the East Indies. The term is considered offensive by few, but is still used within the Canadian legal system.[101]
Prairie Nigger
refers to Native Americans in the Great Plains.[102]
Redskin
a Native American person, now generally defined as an offensive term.[103]
Squaw
(US and Canada) a female Native American.[104] Derived from the lower East-Coast Algonquian language Massachusett term ussqua,[105] which originally meant 'young woman', but which took on strong negative connotations in the late 20th century.
Timber Nigger
(US) used by white Americans in reference to a Native American person.[106]
Wagon burner
a Native American person, in reference to when Native American tribes would attack wagon trains during the wars in the eastern American frontier.[107]
Yanacona
a term used by modern Mapuche as an insult for Mapuches considered to be subservient to non-indigenous Chileans, 'sellout'.[108] Use of the word yanacona to describe people have led legal action in Chile.[108]

Pacific Islander

Boonga / boong / bunga / boonie
(New Zealand) a Pacific Islander; an alteration of boong.[109]
Brownie
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[59]
Hori
(New Zealand), an offensive term for a Māori; from the formerly common Maorified version of the English name George.[110]
Kanaka
originally referred to indentured laborers from the Pacific Islands, especially Melanesians and Polynesians.

Individual nationalities and/or ethnicities

Americans

Merkin
Internet slang for inhabitant of the United States of America.[111]
Yankee, Yank
Uncontracted, Yankee remains in use in the American South in reference to Northerners; contracted, Yank is employed internationally by speakers of British English in a neutral reference to all Americans (first recorded 1778).[112] The term was first applied by the Dutch colonists of New Amsterdam to Connecticuters and other residents of New England, possibly from Dutch Janke ('Johnny') or from Jan Kees ('John Cheese').[112]
Seppo and Septic
From Cockney rhyming slang, using the unrhymed word of "septic tank" in reference to "Yank" above.

White Americans

Buckra, Bakra
from Sub-Saharan African languages, used in the U.S. and the West Indies.[113]
Bumpkin, Country Bumpkin, Hillbilly Bumpkin
derogatory term for poor rural white people, mainly those who share a rural lifestyle.
Cracker, Cracker Jack
Derogatory term for whites, particularly from the American South.[80]
Good ol' boy
Rural people, especially white, powerful people and their networks.
Hick
Derogatory term for poor white people.
Hillbilly
Usually refers to rural people. It originated as a term for farmers living in The Appalachian Mountains.
Honky, honkey, honkie
(U.S., NZ) a white person. Derived from an African-American pronunciation of hunky, the disparaging term for a Hungarian laborer. The first record of its use as an insulting term for a white person dates from the 1950s.[114] In New Zealand, honky is used by Māori to refer to New Zealanders of European descent.[115]
Peckerwood, wood
used as a slur against rural people today. In the 1940s, the abbreviated version wood entered California prison slang, originally meaning an Okie mainly from the San Joaquin Valley. This has caused the symbol of the woodpecker to be used by white power skinheads and other pro-white groups.
Redneck
Usually an insult to rural people.
Trailer trash
Derogatory term for a mainly white population stereotyped to live in trailer parks.
White trash
Originally an insult for poor rural white people.
Whitey
a term for a Caucasian.[116]

Argentines

Curepí
A common term used by people from Paraguay for people from Argentina, it means "pig's skin".[117][118]
Argie
Mildly derogatory British term for Argentinian people, popularised in the British press during the Falklands conflict.[citation needed]

Britons

Limey
A predominantly North American slang nickname for Britons, especially those from England. The term originates from the usage of limes by the British Navy to prevent scurvy.[citation needed]
Pom, Pommy
In Australia, South Africa and New Zealand usually denotes an English person. The term stands for "prisoner of mother country".[citation needed]
Pirata
Argentine term for British people, meaning 'pirate' in English. Used before and during the Falklands conflict.[119]

Scots

Jock
(UK) used in Southern England,[120] occasionally used as an insult. The slur became an offensive word during the war of succession with England when all Scots were referred to as Jocks.[121]
Porridge wog
Used to refer to Scots.[122]
Scotch
an old-fashioned and often derogatory adjective to refer to the Scottish.[123]
Teuchter
a Lowland Scots word originally used to describe a Scottish Highlander, essentially describing someone perceived as being uncouth and rural.[124]

Welsh

Sheep shagger
(UK) derogatory term used to refer to a Welsh person, implying that the individual engages in intercourse with sheep.[125]
Taffy
derogatory term that arose during the industrial revolution, when many Welsh families settled in mining towns outside of Wales, or even English miners settled in Wales for work, thus; expressed a distrust for people who spoke a different language to the English.[126]

Cubans

Cuban nigger
derogatory term often used by Anglo Americans in 1900s Tampa for white Cubans.[127]
Cubiche
derogatory term used by Spanish speakers for Cubans.[128]
Gusano
offensive term to refer to Cuban exiles. The term was coined by Fidel Castro, who called Cubans leaving in the Freedom Flights gusanos ('worms') and insisted the Cuban exiles were capitalists who had profited during the pre-Castro era.[129]
Tally wop
derogatory term often used by Anglo Americans in 1900s Tampa for black Cubans.[127]

Germans

Boches
Apheresis of the word alboche, which in turn is a blend of allemand (French for German) and caboche (slang for 'head'). Used mainly during the First and Second World Wars, and directed especially at German soldiers.[130]
Chleuh
a term with racial connotations, derived from the name of the Chleuh, a North African ethnicity. It also denotes the absence of words beginning in Schl- in French. It was used mainly in World War II, but is also used now in a less offensive way.
Hermans, Herms
Based on the common German name Hermann, pronounced to rhyme with "German"[131]
The Hun, Huns
Initially seen on Allied war propaganda during World War I. An allusion to the legendary savagery of Attila the Hun, referenced by Kaiser Wilhelm II in a speech given in 1900, exhorting his troops to be similarly brutal and relentless in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion in China.
Jerry, Gerry
Rhyming slang (i.e., Jerry the German), primarily used in the First and Second World Wars by the British and other English-speaking. nations. Based on the common given nickname Jerry, short for Jeremiah, Gerald, and other similar-sounding names.[citation needed]
Kraut
derogatory term for a German which came to be used in Anglophone nations since World War II. The term is probably based on sauerkraut, which is popular in various South-German cuisines but traditionally not prepared in North Germany.
Marmeladinger
From Southern German/Austrian marmelade, 'jam'. The origins of the slur can be traced to the trenches of World War I: while Austrian infantry rations included butter and lard as spread, German troops had to make do with cheaper marmelade as ersatz, which they disdainfully called Heldenbutter ('Hero's butter') or Hindenburgfett.[132]
Mof
a derogatory term used exclusively for Germans, reflecting Dutch resentment of the German occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War. It is the second most common term in Dutch for the German people, after the regular/official term (Duitse).[133]
Nazi
Used against any German or German-American without regard to their politics or family history, even towards those who suffered under the Nazi regime.
Piefke
Austrian ethnic slur for a German, derived from the name of Prussian military composer and band-leader Johann Gottfried Piefke. Like its Bavarian counterpart Saupreiß ('sow-Prussian'), the term Piefke historically characterized the people of Prussia only.[134]

Irish

Bog-trotter or Bog Irish
derogatory term for the Irish, derived from the widespread occurrence of peat bogs in central Ireland and the attendant Irish practice of peat cutting for fuel.[135]
Mick
(US and UK) derogatory term for an Irishman. Like Mickey, Mike, and Mikey, Mick is a common abbreviation or nickname for Michael (in English) or Mícheál (its equivalent in Irish), which are common names for Irish males (such as Mick McCarthy).[136][137]
Paddy
generally derogatory term for an Irish man, derived from a nickname for Pádraig, a common Irish name for males after St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland. The term is not always intended to be derogatory—for instance, it was used by Taoiseach-in-waiting Enda Kenny in February 2011.[138]
Prod
abbreviation for Protestant, especially Northern Ireland Protestants, often used alongside Taig (Irish Catholics) in expressions such as both Taigs and Prods. Like other such abbreviations everywhere, it is often used for convenience, as a friendly nickname, or as self-description, usually without any offense being intended, and usually without any offense being taken.
Taig
a term referring to Catholics in Northern Ireland, often having implications of Republican sympathy. It is derived from the Irish Gaelic forename Tadhg, and is often used alongside Prod (Irish Protestants), in expressions such as both Taigs and Prods.
Snout
offensive term used in Northern Ireland to refer to Protestants of British descent living in Northern Ireland.[139]

Italians

Continentale
(Italy) a neutral term used by people from Sardinia and Sicily to indicate someone's origin from the Italian peninsula;[140][141] in Sardinia, the word has taken on the general meaning of "non-Sardinian."[142]
Dago
(US) a person of Italian descent. Possibly originally from the common Spanish first name Diego.
Eyetie
(US) a person of Italian descent, derived from the mispronunciation of Italian as eye-talian.[143][144]
Ginzo
(US) An Italian-American.[145]
Goombah
(US) an Italian male, especially an Italian thug or mafioso. From the Neapolitan and Sicilian cumpà and cumpari ('buddy').
Greaseball, Greaser
(US) a person of Italian or Hispanic descent.[69] In particular, greaser also referred to members of the 1950s subculture that Italians were stereotyped to be a part of.
Guido
(US) usually offensive term for an Italian-American male. Used mostly in the Northeastern United States as a stereotype for working-class urban Italian-Americans. Derives from the Italian given name Guido.[146]
Guinea
(US) someone of Italian descent, most likely derived from "Guinea Negro," implying that Italians are dark or swarthy-skinned like the natives of Guinea.[147]
Polentone
(Italy) a slur often used by southern Italians to refer to northern Italians. It stands for 'polenta eater'.[148]
Terrone
(Italy) a slur originated in northern Italy to refer to people from the South who moved there. (Uncertain etymology.)[149]
Wog
(Aus) slur for the first wave of Southern European immigrants in Australia and their descendants, contrasting with the dominant Anglo-Saxon/Anglo-Celtic colonial stock. Used mostly for Mediterraneans and Southern Europeans, including the Spanish, Italians, Greeks, Macedonians, Lebanese, Arabs, Croatians and Serbians.
Wop
(US) an ethnic term for anyone of Italian descent, derived from the Neapolitan word guappo, close to 'dude, swaggerer' and other informal appellations.[150][151] Some etymologies popularly, but inaccurately, provided for slur is that it stands for "With Out Passport/Papers or "Working On Pavement," supposedly derived from Italians that arrived to North America as immigrants without papers and worked in construction and blue collar work. These acronyms are dismissed as folk etymology or backronyms by etymologists.

Sardinians

Sardegnolo, sardignòlo, sardignuolo, sardagnòlo
(Italy) an ethnic slur often used to refer to the Sardinians by people from mainland Italy and Sicily; depending on the latter's local dialect, the term might also present itself in the form of sardignòlo, sardignuolo,[152] or sardagnòlo.[153][154] In Italy, Sardinia used to be considered a place of exile[155][156] and sardigna, by extension, a metonymy for 'place where to dump dead or infected animals'.[157][158] Being also employed in reference to animals indigenous to the island,[153] the term might be used in a derogatory fashion to imply some likening to them.[159][160][161]
Sheep shagger
(Italy) an ethnic slur, used in a variety of Italian renditions by people from mainland Italy and Sicily, to refer to the Sardinians as a people whose men rather engage in bestiality than in sexual intercourse with a fellow human.[162][163]

Jews

Kapo
generally used of one Jew by another.[164]
Kike, kyke
(mostly US) used for Ashkenazi Jews. Possibly from Yiddish kikel, 'circle', as immigrant Jews who could not read English often signed legal documents with an "O" (similar to an "X", to which Jews objected because such also symbolizes a cross).[165]
Shylock
a slur against Jews based upon the Shakespeare character of the same name. Relates to money lending and greed.
Yid, zhyd
term for Jews, derived from its use as an endonym among Yiddish-speaking Jews.[166] In English, yid can be used both as a neutral or derogatory term,[166] whereas the Russian zhyd came to be a pejorative term banned by the Soviet authorities in the 1930s.[167][168] However, in most other Slavic languages (e.g. Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Croatian), the term simply translates to 'Jew' (e.g. Polish: żyd) and is thus not a pejorative.

Lebanese

Lebo, Lebbo
(mostly Aus) someone of Lebanese descent, usually a Lebanese Australian.[169]
Wog
(Aus) slur for the first wave of Southern European immigrants in Australia and their descendants, contrasting with the dominant Anglo-Saxon/Anglo-Celtic colonial stock. Originally used mostly for Mediterraneans and Southern Europeans, including the Spanish, Italians, Greeks, and Macedonians, expanded to include Mediterranean people of the Middle East or Levantine, including the Lebanese.

Macedonians

Ethnic slurs against Macedonians are often used in an attempt to deny their self-identification.[170][171]

FYROMian
(Greece) a term referencing the once UN-recognized name of North Macedonia: the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM).[170]
Bulgaroskopian
(Greece) a term implying Macedonians to be of Bulgarian origin.[172][173]
Macedonist
(Bulgaria) a derogatory term used by Bulgarians to identify Macedonians.[171]
Pseudomacedonian, pseudo-Macedonian
(Greece) a term implying that the Macedonians are pretenders (i.e., pseudo-)[174]
Skopjan/Skopjian, Skopiana/Skopianika
(Greece) a term referencing the capital of North Macedonia.[173][175][176][177][178][179][180][181]

Finnish

China Swede
(US) a person of Finnish descent.
Chukhna
(Russia) a person of Finnish descent.

Polish

Polack, Polak, Pollack, Pollock, Polock
(US, UK, Canada) a person of Polish descent.
Pshek
(Russia) a person of Polish descent.
Mazurik
(Russia) a person of Polish descent. Literally meaning little Masovian.

Russians

Russki, Russkie
a term for "Russian" that is sometimes disparaging when used by foreigners.[182] However, in the Russian language, it is a neutral term that simply means an ethnic Russian, as opposed to a citizen of the Russian Federation.
Moskal
(Ukraine, Belarus and Poland) originally a designation for a resident of the Grand Duchy of Moscow from the 12th-18th centuries.[183][184]

South Africans

Japies, Yarpies
mildly derogative term for white South Africans, especially those of Afrikaner descent. From the Afrikaans term plaasjapie, meaning 'farm boy',[185] and from the common Afrikaans first name Japie, a diminutive of Jacobus.

Chinese

Japanese

Koreans

Filipinos

Serbs

Ukrainians

Crossed ethnicities

African–European

Coon
(US) first used as by whites, the pejorative term is commonly used by African American or Black Americans today towards African/Black Americans who are perceived to pander/kowtow to white people; to be a 'sellout'; to hate themselves; or to "collud[e] with racism for personal gain."[17] Often used against black conservatives or Republicans.[18][19][20] (Similar to Uncle Tom and coconut.)
Mulatto
(Americas, originally) a term used to refer to a person who is born from one white parent. The term is generally considered archaic by some and inadvertently derogatory, especially in the African-American community. The term is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean usually without suggesting any insult. Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was applied also at times to persons with an admixture of Native Americans, and African Americans in general. In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry.
Uncle Tom / Uncle Ruckus
(US) a term, used by American (especially Black) minorities, for an African-American, Latino, or Asian who are perceived to pander to white people; " to hate themselves;[186] or to be a 'sellout'. Uncle Tom derives from the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. Uncle Ruckus, used as an alternative to Uncle Tom, is the name of a character from a TV series, The Boondocks, in which the character satirizes the "Uncle Tom" stereotype.[186] Both terms have been popularly used against black conservatives or Republicans.[187][186][19] (Similar to coon and coconut.)
Oreo
Africans who practice white culture, referring to an oreo cookie: "black on the outside, white on the inside."
Aunt Jemima / Aunt Jane / Aunt Mary / Aunt Sally / Aunt Thomasina
(US) a term, used by black people, for a black woman who "kisses up" to whites; a "sellout; " a female counterpart of Uncle Tom. (Similar to Coconut.)[188] The term is taken from the popular syrup of the same name, wherein the titular Aunt Jemima is represented as a black woman.[189]
Afro-Saxon
(North America) a young white male devotee of black pop culture.[190]
Ann, Miss Ann
a term used by black people to either denote a white woman or a black woman who acts too much like a white one. While Miss Ann (or just plain Ann) is a derisive reference to the white woman, by extension it is applied to any black woman who puts on airs and tries to act like Miss Ann.[191][192]
Wigger/Wigga, wegro
a slang term for a white person who allophilically emulates mannerisms, slangs (ebonics), and fashions stereotypically associated with urban African Americans; especially in relation to hip hop culture.
Rhineland Bastard
a derogatory term used in the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany to refer to Afro-German children of mixed German and African parentage, who were fathered by Africans serving as French colonial troops occupying the Rhineland after World War I.

Native American–African

Mulatto
(Origin Americas) Mulatto is a term used to refer to a person who is born from one white parent. The term is generally considered archaic by some and inadvertently derogatory, especially in the African-American community. The term is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean usually without suggesting any insult. Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was applied also at times to persons with an admixture of Native Americans, and African Americans in general. In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry.
Zambo
are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, considered a slur, is sambo).
Lobos
In Mexico, black Native Americans are known as lobos (literally meaning wolves), they formed a sizeable minority in the past.

Native American–European

Mulatto
(Americas, originally) a term used to refer to a person who is born from one white parent. The term is generally considered archaic by some and inadvertently derogatory, especially in the African-American community. The term is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean usually without suggesting any insult. Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was applied also at times to persons with an admixture of Native Americans, and African Americans in general. In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry.
Apple
(North America) a Native American who is "red on the outside, white on the inside." First used in the 1970s, the term is primarily employed by other Native Americans to indicate someone who has lost touch with their cultural identity.[193]

Asian/Latin American/Pacific Islander–European

American-Born Confused Desi, or ABCD
(US) a term used by Asian Indians for American-born South Asians, including Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi (mainly Indians, who are the largest number of South Asians) who are confused about their cultural identity. This is often used humorously without any derogatory meaning.
Banana
(North America, UK, Malaysia) an East-Asian person living in a Western country (e.g., East-Asian American) who is "yellow on the outside, white on the inside." Used primarily by East Asians to indicate someone who has lost touch with the cultural identity of his or her parents.[194]
Coconut
(US) a person of Hispanic descent who is accused of acting 'white'.[195]
(UK) a British Asian who is perceived as being fully assimilated into Western culture.[196][197][198]
(Aus/New Zealand) a Pacific Islander. Named after the coconut, the nut from the coconut palm; in Australian Aboriginal culture used in the American sense, as one who adapts to, or is adopted by White society; it derives from the fact that a coconut is brown on the outside and white on the inside.[199]

See also

References

  1. ^ Moore (2004), p. 3
  2. ^ Moore (2004)
  3. ^ Wilkes (1978), p. 62
  4. ^ Lang, John Dunmore (1847). Cooksland in North-eastern Australia: The Future Cottonfield of Great Britain: Its Characteristics and Capabilities for European Colonization. With a Disquisition on the Origin, Manners, and Customs of the Aborigines. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans. p. 430. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  5. ^ a b W. S. Ramson, ed. (1988). Australian National Dictionary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19554736-5.
  6. ^ Hughes, Geoffrey (26 March 2015). An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, and Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World. Routledge. ISBN 9781317476771. Retrieved 23 September 2017 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Moore (2004), gin
  8. ^ Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2004), p. 850.
  9. ^ Livingstone, Douglas. 1986. Drums Along Balmoral Drive.
  10. ^ Spears (2001), p. 10.; also, Zoo Ape or Jungle Ape
  11. ^ Dominelli, Lena (1986). Love and wages: the impact of imperialism, State intervention and women's domestic labour on workers' control in Algeria 1962-1972. Novata. p. 123.
  12. ^ "Operation Blue Gum gets the chainsaw". theaustralian.com.au. 19 March 2010. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  13. ^ Mankiewicz, Joseph L., dir. 1950. No Way Out [film], starring Sidney Poitier and Richard Widmark.
  14. ^ Green (2005), p. 192
  15. ^ Green (2005), p. 216
  16. ^ Harper, Douglas. "coon". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  17. ^ a b Abbey, Nels. 11 October 2018. "In defence of ‘Uncle Tom’ and ‘coconut’." Media Diversified. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  18. ^ a b Leonard, Connie. 14 August 2019. "AG candidate Daniel Cameron on racial slur: ‘I’ve been called worse’." Wave3.
  19. ^ a b c Larry Elder [@larryelder] (26 July 2018). ""Uncle Tom": (synonyms) "coon"; "Uncle Ruckus"; "coconut"; "Oreo; " "foot-shuffler; " "sell-out"; "self-loathing"; "buck dancer"; "a--licker"; "butt-kisser" (definition): a black conservative winning an argument against a black liberal" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  20. ^ a b Dunbar, Anwar Y. 3 September 2017. "Are you Cooning? Thoughts on Black America’s new favorite racial slur, critical thought, and groupthink." The Big Words Blog Site.
  21. ^ Partridge (2006a), p. 517
  22. ^ Reiner, Carl, dir. 1979. The Jerk, written by Steve Martin, Carl Gottlieb, and Michael Elias
  23. ^ Scott, Tony, dir. 1993. True Romance, written by Quentin Tarantino
  24. ^ Endfield, Cy. 1964. Zulu.
  25. ^ Shoup III, John A. (17 October 2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 50. ISBN 9781598843637.
  26. ^ "'Controversial' golly to be shelved". BBC News. 23 August 2001. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  27. ^ "Jim Crow". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  28. ^ "Arkansas Jim Crow". 18 May 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  29. ^ Partridge (2006b), p. 1103
  30. ^ Ayto & Simpson (2010), jungle bunny
  31. ^ a b Hund, University of Hamburg, Wulf D.; Mills, Northwestern University, Charles W. (29 February 2016). "Comparing Black People to Monkeys has a Long, Dark Simian History". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  32. ^ a b Goings, Kenneth (1994) Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black Collectibles and American Stereotyping, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-32592-7
  33. ^ a b c d e f (Spears 2001, p. 118)
  34. ^ Ayto & Simpson (2010), munt
  35. ^ "nig-nog". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  36. ^ Dalton, C. H. (30 December 2008). A Practical Guide to Racism. Penguin. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-59240-430-8.
  37. ^ Ayto & Simpson (2010), nigra
  38. ^ Gonsalves, Sean (April 11, 2000). "Who Are The Bush People?". Cape Cod Times. Archived from the original on 2013-11-02.
  39. ^ Boskin, Joseph. 1986. Sambo. New York: Oxford University Press
  40. ^ Ayto & Simpson (2010), sooty
  41. ^ "Spade". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  42. ^ "Spade". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  43. ^ "tar baby". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  44. ^ Green (2005), p. 1419
  45. ^ "The Language of War" Archived 2017-03-19 at the Wayback Machine, on the American Experience/Vietnam Online website. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
  46. ^ "Chinaman". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  47. ^ "Etymology of Selected Words of Indian Language Origin". Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  48. ^ Bayor, Ronald H. (31 July 2011). Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans. 2. Greenwood. p. 882. ISBN 978-0313357862. Retrieved 12 April 2015 – via Google Books.
  49. ^ The Free Dictionary Archived 2019-03-19 at the Wayback Machine gook.
  50. ^ "Gook". Rhetoric of Race. 2003. Archived from the original on February 24, 2009.
  51. ^ a b Dictionary.com Archived 2008-09-27 at the Wayback Machine gook.
  52. ^ Seligman, Herbert J., "The Conquest of Haiti", The Nation, July 10, 1920.
  53. ^ "nip". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  54. ^ "Oriental". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  55. ^ "Oriental". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  56. ^ "Oriental". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  57. ^ Varagur, Krithika (23 May 2016). "Obama Signs Bill Removing 'Oriental' and 'Negro' From Federal Laws". Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017 – via Huff Post.
  58. ^ "Yellow". Archived from the original on 2014-04-17.
  59. ^ a b c d Green (2005), p. 188
  60. ^ Hotten, John Camden (1870). The Slang Dictionary; Or, The Vulgar Words, Street Phrases, and "fast" Expressions of High and Low Society: Many with Their Etymology and a Few with Their History Traced. London: J.C. Hotten. p. 98. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  61. ^ Fuller, Alexandra (26 April 2005). Scribbling the Cat: Travels with an African Soldier. Penguin Group US. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-101-11880-1.
  62. ^ "dink". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  63. ^ Schneiler, Robert J. (2008). Blue & Gold and Black: Racial Integration of the U.S. Naval Academy. Texas A&M University Press. p. 211. ISBN 9781603440004. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  64. ^ Francis Whitebird. "Derogatory terms used in history". Lakota Country Times. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
  65. ^ Tong, Chee Kiong (2010). Identity and ethnic relations in Southeast Asia. Springer. p. 231. ISBN 978-90-481-8908-3.
  66. ^ Katz, Paul R.; Murray A. Rubinstein (2003). Religion and the formation of Taiwanese identities. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 279.
  67. ^ R. Elangaiyan (2007). "Foundation for Endangered Languages". Vital voices: endangered languages and multilingualism: proceedings of the Tenth FEL Conference, CIIL, Mysore, India, 25-27 October, 2006. Central Institute of Indian Languages. ISBN 978-09-538-2488-5.
  68. ^ Vergara, Jorge Iván; Gundermann, Hans (2012). "Constitution and internal dynamics of the regional identitary in Tarapacá and Los Lagos, Chile". Chungara (in Spanish). University of Tarapacá. 44 (1): 115–134. doi:10.4067/s0717-73562012000100009.
  69. ^ a b "the definition of greaseball". Dictionary.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  70. ^ a b Hughes, Geoffrey (March 26, 2015). An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, and Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World. Routledge. p. 259. ISBN 9781317476788. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  71. ^ Paredes, Am (1995). Folklore and Culture on the Texas-Mexican Border. University of Texas Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780292765641.
  72. ^ "Sudaca". Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy). Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  73. ^ Stone, Oliver; Kovic, Ron (August 1988). Born on the Fourth of July movie script (part 2) (PDF). p. 121. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015. Hey how far the fuck you going - tacohead!
  74. ^ Rappoport, Leon (2005). Punchlines : the case for racial, ethnic, and gender humor. Westport, Conn. : Praeger Publishers. p. 47. OCLC 1004590710.
  75. ^ Suarez, Luciano (November 19, 2018). "¿Que significa "veneco" y cual es su verdadero origen?". Medium.
  76. ^ Khambhaita, Priya; Willis, Rosalind (2018). "British-born Indian second-generation 'return' to India". In Leonard, Pauline; Walsh, Katie (eds.). British Migration: Privilege, Diversity and Vulnerability. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9781315537016-7. ISBN 978-1-134-99255-3.
  77. ^ North, Peter (2008). CultureShock! Cambodia: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd. p. 184. ISBN 9789814408912. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  78. ^ "Don't Call Me Bule!: How expatriates experience a word - Living in Indonesia, A Site for Expatriates". www.expat.or.id. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  79. ^ Taubman, Howard (24 April 1964). "Theater: 'Blues for Mister Charlie'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  80. ^ a b Hugh Chisholm, ed. (1910). The Encyclopædia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. The Encyclopædia Britannica company. p. 359. Archived from the original on 2014-07-04. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
  81. ^ "gringo. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000". 3 January 2007. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  82. ^ Moore (2004), gubba
  83. ^ "Gweilo". www.gojp.com. Archived from the original on 9 May 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  84. ^ "haole". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  85. ^ Rothenberg, Paula S. (2008). White Privilege. Worth Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-4292-0660-0. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2016.
  86. ^ "Tabaret". Tabaret. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011.
  87. ^ Cervasio, Joseph Rocco (2004). Bad News on the Doorstep. Author House. ISBN 9781418407216. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  88. ^ Mucha, Peter. "A better 'best hoagies' list". Philly.com. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  89. ^ Sperduto Oliver, Elvira. "The Joy of Growing Up Italian". John Pirelli Lodge of The Order Sons of Italy in America. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  90. ^ Liberkowski, Ida; Malizia, Cynthia (2006). Along the Amalfi Drive. Lulu. ISBN 9781847285065. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  91. ^ Riccitelli, Donna (2012). Mobster's Girl. Amy Rachiele. ISBN 9781478206712.
  92. ^ "ofay - Origin and history of ofay by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  93. ^ "A Visual Database of Extremist Symbols, Logos and Tattoos". adl.org. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  94. ^ Partridge (2006a), p. 401
  95. ^ Simpson, Catherine; Murawska, Renata (2009). Diasporas of Australian Cinema. Intellect Books. ISBN 9781841501970. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  96. ^ a b Partridge (2006a), p. 546
  97. ^ Roediger, David R. (8 August 2006). Working Toward Whiteness: How America's Immigrants Became White. Basic Books. p. 42. ISBN 978-0465070732. Archived from the original on 21 September 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  98. ^ T. Talley, Robert (October 11, 2011). Geocritical Explorations: Space, Place, and Mapping in Literary and Cultural Studies. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780679604266. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  99. ^ Warman v. Beaumont, CHRT (Canadian Human Rights Commission 2007) ("I haven't seen the new $50 bills, but the $20s and $100s I have seen. I have talked with a few people about them (who aren't WN) but they don't like the fact that there is native stuff on the bills. I mean, who wants to pay for something and be reminded of a chug? Not me!").
  100. ^ "It's the great Eskimo debate". Waikato Times. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  101. ^ Archives, The National. "The National Archives - Homepage". The National Archives. Retrieved 2020-04-29.
  102. ^ Partridge (2006b), p. 1538
  103. ^ Shoemaker, Nancy (June 1997). "How Indians Got to be Red" (PDF). The American Historical Review. 102 (3): 627–28. doi:10.2307/2171504. JSTOR 2171504.
  104. ^ "squaw". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  105. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary
  106. ^ Kennedy, Randall L. (Winter 1999–2000). "Who Can Say "Nigger"? And Other Considerations" (PDF). The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (26): 86–96 [87]. doi:10.2307/2999172. JSTOR 2999172. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  107. ^ Partridge (2006b), p. 2059
  108. ^ a b "Audiencia en caso Mapuexpress: Querellante pidió censurar al medio a cambio de retirar la demanda". El Desconcierto (in Spanish). July 27, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2019.
  109. ^ "boonga" Deverson, Tony (2004). "The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary". Oxford University Press. Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved 6 May 2006.
  110. ^ "Kiwi Speak (Colloquialisms): H". New Zealand.co.nz. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
  111. ^ Quinion, Michael B. (2 January 1996). "My fellow Merkins". World Wide Words. Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
  112. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. Online Etymology Dictionary: "Yankee Archived 2013-11-03 at the Wayback Machine". 2013. Accessed 13 Jul 2013.
  113. ^ "Buckra". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  114. ^ Fuller, Alexandra (26 April 2005). Scribbling the Cat: Travels with an African Soldier. Penguin Group US. p. 183. ISBN 978-1-101-11880-1.
  115. ^ Morgan Godfery. "Maui Street". mauistreet.blogspot.com.au. Archived from the original on 2018-01-12. Retrieved 2018-03-22.
  116. ^ "Whitey". Princeton WordNet listing. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  117. ^ "Paraguay: por qué a los argentinos les dicen "curepíes"". Infobae (in Spanish). 9 September 2009. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  118. ^ "Diccionario Latinoamericano de la Lengua Española; curepí". National University of Tres de Febrero. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  119. ^ "In Buenos Aires, they think England are the 'pirates'". The Independent. October 22, 2011.
  120. ^ "Is it a slur to call someone a Jock?". June 14, 2009 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  121. ^ Thompson, Amanda (October 10, 2019). "Traveling Smart: 7 Offensive Words To Avoid Abroad". GoAbroad. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  122. ^ Green (2005), p. 1124
  123. ^ "Scotch, origin and meaning". Etymonline.
  124. ^ "Dictionary of the Scots Language:: SND :: teuchter". Edinburgh University. Archived from the original on 2019-05-25. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  125. ^ Partridge (2006b), p. 1712
  126. ^ Opie, Iona; Opie, Peter, eds. (1973). The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. pp. 400–401. ISBN 0198691114.
  127. ^ a b Grillo, Evelio (2000). Black Cuban, Black American A Memoir. Arte Publico Press. p. x. line feed character in |title= at position 28 (help)
  128. ^ "In Cubiche, Voices of Cuba's Lost Generation Unite in Song". www.miaminewtimes.com. Retrieved 2020-01-25.
  129. ^ Aguirre, B.E. (1994). "Cuban Mass Migration and the Social Construction of Deviants". Bulletin of Latin American Research. 13 (2): 155–183. doi:10.2307/3338273. JSTOR 3338273.
  130. ^ Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Boche" . Encyclopedia Americana.
  131. ^ Leigh, Mark (19 September 2013). EUrrgh!: Is it Just Me or is Europe merde?. Little, Brown Book Group. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-4721-0940-8. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  132. ^ Mally, Anton Karl. 1984. "Herkunft und Rolle eines österreichischen Spitznamens für den Preußen, den Nord-und den Reichsdeutschen." Muttersprache 4:257–86.
  133. ^ Waarom wordt een Duitser Mof genoemd ??? Archived 2015-07-12 at the Wayback Machine (Dutch)
  134. ^ Mally, Anton Karl. 1983/84. "Piefke | Nachträge." Muttersprache 94(3-4): 313–27.
  135. ^ McCabe, James (6 December 2011). "Language and Landscapes of Ireland". In Marie Mianowski (ed.). Irish Contemporary Landscapes in Literature and the Arts. Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-230-36029-7. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
  136. ^ Allen, Irving L. (August 1990). Unkind words: ethnic labeling from Redskin to WASP. Bergin & Garvey. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-89789-217-9. Retrieved 19 January 2015.
  137. ^ The names Micheal and Mícheál are derived from St. Michael, variants of whose name (such as Michel in French, and Michelle in both English and French) are common for both genders throughout the Western world (not just for Irish males).
  138. ^ ""Paddy likes to know what the story is" – Ireland's Taoiseach-in-waiting promises to tell the truth". TheJournal.ie. February 26, 2011. Archived from the original on January 20, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2015. Enda Kenny says once he has the full facts about the economic crisis, he’ll keep us informed. ... He promised that the Irish people would be kept informed of the economic situation, saying: The incoming government is not going to leave our people in the dark …Paddy likes to know what the story is.
  139. ^ Lanclos, Donna M. (2003). At Play in Belfast: Children's Folklore and Identities in Northern Ireland. Rutgers University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-8135-3322-3. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  140. ^ "Continente". Treccani.
  141. ^ "Continentale". Treccani.
  142. ^ <<L’impiego di continente e di continentale, diffuso in tutta l’area sarda, rivela un significato peculiare poiché (come nota Dettori 2007) con questi lessemi i sardi si riferiscono non solo alla penisola italiana e ai suoi abitanti, ma anche alla Sicilia e ai siciliani.>> Ines Loi Corvetto (2011). "Sardegna, italiano di in "Enciclopedia dell'italiano"". Treccani.
  143. ^ Green (2005), p. 481
  144. ^ Dalzell, Tom (2018). "Eyetie". The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English. Routledge. ISBN 9781351765206.
  145. ^ "ginzo" The New Oxford American Dictionary, second edition. Ed. Erin McKean. (Oxford University Press: 2005.) [Accessed 6 May 2006]
  146. ^ "Strutting Season". The Washington Post. 2003-07-06. Archived from the original on 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  147. ^ Partridge (2006a), p. 934
  148. ^ Sampson, Susan (22 December 2007). "Pleasing polenta | The Star". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
  149. ^ Battaglia, Salvatore (1961). Grande dizionario della lingua italiana, UTET, Torino, V. XX, pp.961-962
  150. ^ wop. Dictionary.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. "Wop". Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2007.
  151. ^ "wop - Origin and history of wop by Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  152. ^ "Trent'anni dopo, riecco il razzismo antisardo. Alla sbarra otto carabinieri". Sardiniapost. 2015.
  153. ^ a b Battaglia, Salvatore (1961). Grande dizionario della lingua italiana, UTET, Torino, V. XVII, p.577
  154. ^ "Itri, 4 luglio 1911 quando i "negri" erano gli operai sardi". La Nuova Sardegna. 2010.
  155. ^ "Ti sbatto in Sardegna. Sardegna Digital Library". Rai. 1967.
  156. ^ ""Ti sbatto in Sardegna", quando certi stereotipi sono duri a morire". La Nuova Sardegna. 2014.
  157. ^ Battaglia, Salvatore (1961). Grande dizionario della lingua italiana, UTET, Torino, V. XVII, p.578
  158. ^ "sardigna in Vocabolario - Treccani". www.treccani.it.
  159. ^ "sardegnòlo". Treccani.
  160. ^ Dehumanizing language with regard to the island in Italian literature started with Dante Alighieri's De Vulgari Eloquentia, wherein the Sardinians are compared to "apes that imitate humans" (Lib. I, XI, 7) because of the language they used to speak. Cfr. Casula, Francesco (2017, Il Manifesto). I sardi? Ladri e delinquenti. Ed anche "negri"
  161. ^ "Il principe Savoia e i sardi: "capre che puzzano"". La Nuova Sardegna. 2006.
  162. ^ ""I sardi si accoppiano con le pecore". Villaggio fa esplodere un caso in tv". La Nuova Sardegna. 2012.
  163. ^ Christie Davies (2011). Jokes and Targets. Indiana University Press. p. 166.
  164. ^ Lebovic, Matt (20 December 2016). "On David Friedman, the 'kapo' smear, and Jewish honor". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  165. ^ Wolarsky, Eric (2001). "Kike". Interactive Dictionary of Racial Language. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  166. ^ a b "Yid". Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  167. ^ Berkhoff, Karel C. 2008. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule. Belknap Press. ISBN 0674027183. p. 60.
  168. ^ Яременко В. і Сліпушко О.. Новий тлумачний словник української мови. — К. : Аконіт, 2000. — Т. 2 (Ж—О). — С. 26. — ISBN 966-7173-02-X.
  169. ^ Partridge (2006b), p. 1195, Lebo
  170. ^ a b Moussakas is and remains Greek, not North-Macedonian or FYROMian Keep Talking Greece. 11 February 2019.
  171. ^ a b Rychlík, Jan (2007). "The Consciousness of the Slavonic Orthodox Population in Pirin Macedonia and the Identity of the Population of Moravia and Moravian Slovakia". Sprawy Narodowościowe (31): 183–197. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
  172. ^ "Ο ΟΑΣΕ αναγνώρισε "μακεδονική" μειονότητα στην Ελλάδα". Archived from the original on September 2, 2006.
  173. ^ a b Ο Γιώργος Καρατζαφέρης έβαλε "στην θέση της" την Υπουργό Εξωτερικών των Σκοπίων (in Greek). Ελληνικές Γραμμες ("Hellenic Lines"). Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
  174. ^ "Η επιστροφή των "Σλαβομακεδόνων" (the return of the "Slavomacedonians")" (in Greek). antibaro.gr. Archived from the original on December 27, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2006.
  175. ^ Laura Payton. MP Karygiannis Accused of Berating Civil Servants Archived 2012-10-25 at the Wayback Machine. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  176. ^ Canadian Member of Parliament Refers to Macedonians as 'Skopjans'. Action Alert. 21 September 2007.
  177. ^ Macedonians Demand Resignation of Liberal MP Jim Karygiannis Archived 2012-06-12 at the Wayback Machine. Macedonian Human Rights Movement International. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  178. ^ Report Sent to International Organizations, April 8, 2008, http://macedoniansaregreeksen.blogspot.gr/2008/04/report-sent-to-international.html Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine
  179. ^ Ant1 News Archived 2008-03-02 at the Wayback Machine, Ώρα μηδέν για το Σκοπιανό (Time Zero for the Skopjan issue), Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  180. ^ eriot, P. (1997) "Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien", in Andrée Tabouret-Keller (éd.) : Le nom des langues. L'enjeu de la nomination des langues, vol. 1, (Louvain : Peeters), pp. 167–190.
  181. ^ Androitis, N. P. (1966) The Federative Republic of Skopje and its Language. (Athens)
  182. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
  183. ^ Alexander Mikaberidze (2011). Ilya Radozhitskii's Campaign Memoirs. Lulu. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-105-16871-0. Archived from the original on 2019-05-08. Retrieved 2019-07-26.
  184. ^ Benjamin Harshav (1986). American Yiddish Poetry: A Bilingual Anthology. University of California Press. p. 559. ISBN 978-0-520-04842-3.
  185. ^ "Yarpie Archived 2019-07-26 at the Wayback Machine", allwords.com.
  186. ^ a b c Cooper, Wilbert L. 25 February 2013. "'The Boondocks' Creator Aaron McGruder Tells Us About 'The Uncle Ruckus Movie'." VICE.
  187. ^ Elassar, Alaa. 9 November 2019. "Uncle Ruckus of 'The Boondocks' was replaced with a photo of Kanye West in a MAGA hat." CNN.
  188. ^ Green (2005), p. 36.
  189. ^ Spears (2001), p.  118.
  190. ^ Spears (2001), p.4.
  191. ^ Rawson (1989), p. 19
  192. ^ Smitherman, Geneva (1986). Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Wayne State University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-8143-1805-3. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  193. ^ Green (2005), p. 29
  194. ^ "The Confession of a Banana". Archived from the original on 8 September 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  195. ^ "Hispanic Groups Criticize Ad Guru for Calling Rubio 'Coconut'". Fox News. 2010-02-24. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  196. ^ "Many Asians 'do not feel British'". BBC. 2007-07-30. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  197. ^ Coleman, Clive (2010-06-29). "The rules of speech crime". BBC. Archived from the original on 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  198. ^ Muir, High (2010-06-29). "Hideously diverse Britain: Understanding the 'coconut' row". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 2013-09-15. Retrieved 2014-01-29.
  199. ^ Orsman, H. W. (1999). The Dictionary of New Zealand English. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558347-7.

Bibliography

Further reading