Page semi-protected

List of events named massacres

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (August 23, 1572) in Paris, France (painting by François Dubois)

The following is a list of events for which one of the commonly accepted names includes the word "massacre".[1]


Massacre is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as "the indiscriminate and brutal slaughter of people or (less commonly) animals; carnage, butchery, slaughter in numbers". It also states that the term is used "in the names of certain massacres of history".[2]

The first recorded use in English of the word massacre in the name of an event is due to Christopher Marlowe, who in c. 1600 referred to what is now known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre as "The massacre at Paris".[3]

Massacre can also be used as a verb, as "To kill (people or, less commonly, animals) in numbers, esp. brutally and indiscriminately".[4] The first usage of which was "(c. 1588) Men which make no conscience for gaine sake, to breake the law of the æternall, and massaker soules (...) are dangerous subjects",[4] and this usage is not recorded in this list.

There are many alternative terms with similar connotations, such as butchery, carnage, bloodbath, mass killing, atrocity, etc. as well as euphemisms such as Vespers, Blutgericht or "attack", "incident", "tragedy" (etc.), use of which are outside the scope of this list.

Massacre is also used figuratively to describe dramatic events that did not involve any deaths, such as the "Hilo massacre" and the "Saturday Night Massacre"; this usage is also outside of the scope of this list.

Before or in 1945

Date Location Name Deaths Description
260 BC State of Zhao Battle of Changping 0,400,000400,000 Live burial of surrendered State of Zhao soldiers during Qin's wars of unification.[5]
207 BC Xin'an, Qin dynasty Xin'an massacre 0,200,000200,000+ Live burial of surrendered Qin dynasty soldiers after the Battle of Julu.[6]
88 BC Kingdom of Pontus Asiatic Vespers[failed verification][7] 0,080,00080,000–150,000 Wholesale massacre of all Roman and Italic citizens in Asia Minor, starting the Mithridatic Wars.
61 Anglesey, Britannia Menai massacre[failed verification] 0,000,001Unknown Gaius Suetonius Paulinus ordered the Roman army to destroy the Celtic Druid stronghold on Anglesey in Britain, sacking Druidic colleges and sacred groves. The massacre helped impose Roman religion on Britain and sent Druidism into a decline from which it never recovered.[8][9]
193 Xu Province, Eastern Han dynasty Massacre of Xuzhou 0,100,000Hundred-thousands Warlord Cao Cao invaded several cities of Xu Province after his father, Cao Song, was killed in the province. Dead bodies of civilians blocked the Si River.[10]
390 Thessaloniki, Macedonia Massacre of Thessaloniki (1760)[11] 0,007,0007,000 Emperor Theodosius I of Rome ordered the executions after the citizens of Thessaloniki murdered a top-level military commander during a violent protest against the arrest of a popular charioteer.[12][13]
627 Fortress of Banu Qurayza, Saudi Arabia Massacre of Banu Qurayza (1956)[14] 0,000,600600–900 Muhammad ordered his followers to attack the Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel.[15][16][17][18][19][20] Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe which was betrayed. 600–900 members of the Banu Qurayza (all males old enough to have pubic hair, all of whom were non-combatants) were beheaded, while the women and children of the tribe were sold into slavery (Tabari, Ibn Ishaq).[18][19][21] Al Waqidi influence is in Ibn Ishaqs biography. Stillman and Watt deny the authenticity of al-Waqidi.[22] Al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim Ulama, who claim that he is unreliable.[23][24] A reliable source says all the warriors were killed based on Sa'd ibn Mu'adh judgement whom was appointed by Banu Qurzaya for arbitration.[25][26][27] 2 Muslims were killed[18]
782 Verden, Lower Saxony, Germany Massacre of Verden (1830)[28] 0,004,5004,500 Charlemagne ordered the massacre of 4,500 imprisoned rebel pagan Saxons in response to losing two envoys, four counts, and twenty nobles in battle with the Saxons during his campaign to conquer and Christianize the Saxons during the Saxon Wars.[29]
November 13, 1002 various cities, England St. Brice's Day massacre (1871)[30] 0,000,001Unknown King Æthelred II "the Unready" of England ordered all Danes living in England killed. The Danes were accused of aiding Viking raiders. The King of Denmark, Sweyn Forkbeard, invaded England and deposed King Ethelred in 1013.[31][32][33]
1033 Fez, Morocco 1033 Fez massacre 0,006,0006,000+ Following their capture of the city of Fez from the Maghrawa tribal confederation, warriors of the Zenata Berber Banu Ifran tribe slaughtered over 6,000 Moroccan Jews.
December 30, 1066 Granada, Al-Andalus Massacre of the Jews of Granada (1906)[34] 0,004,0004,000 Apparently angered by a rumour that Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela intended to assassinate the king and take the throne for himself, a Muslim mob killed him and hung his body on a cross. The mob went on to kill the Jewish population of the city.[35][36][37][38]
1096 Rhineland, Germany and France Massacre of the Rhineland Jews (2015)[39] 0,060,00012,000[40] Series of mass murders of Jews perpetrated by mobs of French and German Christians of the People's Crusade.
1099 Jerusalem, Fatimid Caliphate Jerusalem Massacre[41][42] 0,060,000Thousands The culminating massacre of the First Crusade: Frankish expeditionary forces broke into besieged Jerusalem (then part of the Fatimid Caliphate) and killed Muslims and Jews.
May 1182 Constantinople, Byzantine Empire Massacre of the Latins (1789)[43] 0,060,00060,000–80,000 Wholesale massacre of all Latin (Western European) inhabitants of Constantinople by a mob.
1209 France Massacre at Béziers 0,015,00015,000+ First major military action of the Albigensian Crusade
1282 Kingdom of Sicily Massacre of the French in Sicily (1695)[44] 0,003,0003,000 Revolt against king Charles I, starting the War of the Sicilian Vespers
March 21, 1349 Erfurt, Holy Roman Empire (now Germany) 1349 Erfurt massacre 0,000,100100+ Against the backdrop of the Black Death persecutions, members of Erfurt's Jewish community were lynched. Any survivors were expelled from the city.
mid-14th century Crow Creek Site, Great Plains, North America Crow Creek massacre (1978)[45][46] 0,000,500500[47] Prehistoric massacre of Central Plains villagers in what is now South Dakota, involving scalping and dismemberment of the victims.[47][48]
1370 Brussels, Duchy of Brabant (now part of Belgium Brussels massacre 0,000,0066-20 When a clerical usury scandal led to allegations of host desecration, multiple local Jews were executed or otherwise killed and the rest of the Jewish community was banished.
April 1506 Lisbon, Portugal Lisbon massacre 0,001,9001,900+ When a New Christian expressed skepticism about an apparent miracle, he was dragged out of the Church of São Domingos and beaten to death by an enraged crowd. Afterwards, New Christians in general were scapegoated for drought and plague sweeping the country at the time. Encouraged by seditionist Dominican friars, mobs of local townspeople and foreign sailors tortured and killed nearly 2,000 known or suspected New Christians for alleged heresy and deicide.
May 22, 1520 Tenochtitlan, Aztec Empire, Central America Massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan Thousands Spanish troops and Tlaxcalan allies under the command of conquistador Pedro de Alvarado killed a large number of Aztec priests, nobles and warriors in the Templo Mayor for unclear reasons.
November 8, 1520 Stockholm, Sweden Stockholm massacre (1845)[49] 0,000,08080–90[50] Days after his coronation in Stockholm, King Christian II of Denmark—trying to maintain the Kalmar Union, a personal union between Sweden, Norway and Denmark, and thus keep up his claims to the Swedish throne—liquidated nobles and bishops who earlier had opposed him, or who might stir up fresh opposition.[51][52][53]
November 16, 1532 Cajamarca, Atahualpa, Peru Cajamarca massacre 0,002,000~2,000 The Battle of Cajamarca was the unexpected ambush and seizure of the Inca ruler Atahualpa by a small Spanish force led by Francisco Pizarro, on November 16, 1532. The Spanish killed thousands of Atahualpa's counsellors, commanders and unarmed attendants in the great plaza of Cajamarca, and caused his armed host outside the town to flee. The capture of Atahualpa marked the opening stage of the conquest of the pre-Columbian Inca civilization of Peru.
1545 Mérindol, Vaucluse, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France Mérindol massacre Hundreds or even thousands Francis I of France ordered that the Waldensians of the village of Mérindol be punished for their dissident religious activities. Provençal and papal soldiers killed large numbers of Waldensian villagers.
March 1, 1562 Wassy, France Massacre of Vassy 0,000,06363 The murder of Huguenot worshipers and citizens in an armed action by troops of Francis, Duke of Guise.
April 12, 1562 Sens, France Massacre of Sens 0,000,100100 French Catholics tied 100 French Huguenots to poles and drowned them in the Yonne.
1570 Cyprus Cyprus massacre 0,030,00030,000–50,000[54][55][56][57] Ottoman forces capturing Cyprus killed mostly Greek and Armenian Christian inhabitants.
1570 Novgorod, Tsardom of Russia Massacre of Novgorod 0,002,0002,000–60,000 Oprichniki were unleashed upon the city of Novgorod by Ivan the Terrible.
August 23, 1572 Paris, France Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day (1835)
"Massacre at Paris" (1600)[58]
0,005,0005,000–70,000[59] The French King's soldiers and subjects slaughtered Huguenots; it was the first massacre to be labeled by that word in the English language.[59][60][61]
November 1574 Belfast, Ireland Clandeboye massacre 0,000,200200 During a meeting between The Earl of Essex and Sir Brian McPhelim O'Neill at Belfast Castle, the English forces turned on the O'Neills and killed 200 of them.
October 10, 1580 Kerry, Ireland Massacre of Smerwick (1824)
Smerwick massacre (1976)[62]
0,000,600~600 English troops commanded by Grey de Wilton massacred Papal invasion forces at Dun an Oir in West Kerry[63]
July 3, 1586 Junkersdorf, Holy Roman Empire (now part of Cologne's Third District) Junkersdorf massacre 0,000,108108 During the Cologne War, marauding soldiers in the employ of prince-elector Archbishop Ernest of Bavaria attacked a civilian convoy.
October 1603 Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines Chinese massacre of 1603 0,015,00015,000–25,000[64] Fearing an uprising by the large Chinese community in the Philippines, the Spanish colonists carried out a preemptive massacre, largely in the Manila area, in October 1603.
March 22, 1622 Jamestown, Virginia Jamestown massacre[65][66] 0,000,347347 The Powhatans killed 347 settlers, almost one-third of the English population of the Virginia colony.
May 26, 1637 Mystic, Connecticut Fort Mystic massacre (1910)[67] 0,000,400400–700 Connecticut colonists under the command of Captain John Mason and Narragansett and Mohegan allies set fire to a fortified Pequot village near the Mystic River.
November 1639 Luzon, Captaincy General of the Philippines "Chinese massacre of 1639" (1961)[68] 0,017,00017,000–22,000[64] The Spanish and their Filipino allies carried out a large-scale massacre, in which 17,000 to 22,000 Chinese rebels died.
1641 Ulster, Ireland Ulster massacres 0,004,0004,000–12,000 The Ulster Massacres were a series of massacres and resulting deaths amongst the ~40,000 Protestant settlers which took place in 1641 during the Irish Rebellion.[69][70][71]
November 1641 Portadown, Ireland Portadown massacre 0,000,100~100 The Portadown massacre took place in November 1641 at what is now Portadown, County Armagh. Up to 100 mostly English Protestants were killed in the River Bann by a group of armed Irishmen. This was the biggest massacre of Protestant colonists during the 1641–42 uprising.[72]
May 28, 1644 Bolton, England Bolton massacre 0,000,200200–1,600 Royalist forces killed many of the town's defenders and citizens.[73][74][75]
1645 Yangzhou, China Yangzhou massacre 0,800,000Up to 800,000 Qing troops killed residents of Yangzhou as punishment for resistance[76][77]
1645–46[78] Sichuan, China Sichuan massacre 1,000,000 est.[78] There is no reliable figure, but estimated 1 million out of 3 million Sichuanese died mainly due to the massacre by army of Zhang Xianzhong.[78]
June 3, 1652 Batih Hill, near Ladyzhyn, Ukraine Batih massacre 8,000–8,500 After the Battle of Batih, Zaporozhian Cossacks under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky carried out a mass execution of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth prisoners of war, horrifying even the Cossacks' own Crimean Tatar allies.
1646 Dunoon, Scotland Dunoon massacre 0,000,07171 The Clan Campbell after receiving requested hospitality according to custom, slaughtered their Lamont Clan hosts in their beds and threw their bodies down the well to poison the water should they have missed anyone.
August 5, 1689 Lachine, New France Lachine massacre 0,000,02424–250 1,500 Mohawk warriors launch a surprise attack on the small (375 inhabitants) French settlement of Lachine, destroying a substantial portion of it and killing or capturing many of its inhabitants.
February 13, 1692 Scotland Massacre of Glencoe[79] 0,000,03838[80] Government soldiers, mainly from Clan Campbell, killed members of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe.[80]
September 29, 1714 Hailuoto, Finland (Sweden) Massacre of Hailuoto[81] 0,010,000>800 The Cossacks of the Russian Empire killed inhabitants of the Hailuoto Island with axes during the Great Wrath (part of the Great Northern War).[81]
October 9 – November 22, 1740 Batavia, Dutch East Indies 1740 Batavia massacre 0,010,000>10,000 At least 10,000 Chinese Indonesians in and near Batavia were slaughtered by members of other ethnic groups living in the area, in collaboration with Dutch soldiers.[82]
October 16, 1755 Snyder County, Pennsylvania Penn's Creek massacre 0,000,01414[83] A group of Indians attacked settlers on Penn's Creek.
1768 Uman, Ukraine Massacre of Uman 2,000–33,000 During the Koliivshchyna, a Haydamak rebel leader named Maksym Zalizniak ordered the slaughter of many civilians in the town of Uman, with priority given to targeting Poles, Jews and Uniates.
May 10, 1768 Southwark in South London Massacre of St George's Fields 0,000,0077 British troops fired at a mob that was protesting at the imprisonment of John Wilkes, whose crime was criticizing King George III.
March 5, 1770 Boston, Province of Massachusetts Bay Boston Massacre
0,000,0055[85] British troops fired at a mob of colonists. This helped spark the American Revolution even though an all-colonist jury found the soldiers innocent.[86][87]
July 17, 1771 Kugluktuk, Nunavut Bloody Falls massacre 0,000,02020[88] Chipewyan warriors attacked an Inuit camp, killing men, women and children.[89][90][91]
September 28, 1778 River Vale, New Jersey Baylor Massacre 0,000,01515[92] British infantry troops attacked sleeping Continental Light Dragoons using bayonets.[92]
October 15, 1778 Tuckerton, New Jersey Little Egg Harbor massacre 0,000,03030–50 British loyalists bayonetted Continental Light Dragoons as they slept.
November 11, 1778 Cherry Valley, New York Cherry Valley massacre 0,000,04444 A mixed force of Loyalists, British soldiers, and Iroquois of the Mohawk and Seneca tribes descended upon the town of Cherry Valley. They slaughtered 14 of the town's defenders and 30 noncombatants.
May 29, 1780 Lancaster, South Carolina Waxhaw massacre 0,000,113113[93] Loyalist troops under the command of British Colonel Banastre Tarleton slashed and bayoneted fallen American troops during the late stages of the Battle of Waxhaws. Conflicting contemporary accounts claim violation of an American white flag by one or the other of the sides involved.[94]
September 11, 1780 Luzerne County, Pennsylvania Sugarloaf massacre 0,000,01515[95] A group of loyalists and Indians during the American Revolutionary War led by Roland Montour attacked a group of American soldiers.
February 24, 1781 Alamance County, North Carolina Pyle's Massacre 0,000,09393 Patriot militia leader Colonel Henry Lee deceived Loyalist militia under Dr. John Pyle into thinking he was British commander Banastre Tarleton sent to meet them. Lee's men then opened fire, surprising and scattering Pyle's force.
November 29, 1781 Caribbean Sea, east of Jamaica Zong massacre 0,000,132 132–142 In order to claim on insurance, 132 to 142 African slaves were thrown overboard by the crew of the British slave ship Zong when potable water ran low.[96]
March 8, 1782 Gnadenhutten, Ohio Gnadenhutten massacre[97]
(Moravian massacre)
0,000,09696 Pennsylvania militia men attacked a Moravian mission and killed 96 peaceful Christian American Indians there in retaliation for unrelated deaths of several white Pennsylvanians.[97][98]
1790 Maui Olowalu Massacre ~100 In retribution for several thefts, maritime fur traders under the command of Simon Metcalfe fired cannons at the approaching canoes of Native Hawaiian villagers.
July 17, 1791 Champ de Mars, Paris, France Champ de Mars massacre 0,000,01212–50 Soldiers of the French National Guard fire into a crowd of republican protesters.
1792 France September Massacres[99][100] 0,001,440~1,440 Popular courts in the French Revolution sentenced prisoners to death, including around 240 priests.[101]
March 11, 1793 Machecoul, Loire-Atlantique, France First Massacre of Machecoul 0,000,200Around 200 Vendean peasants angered at mass conscription and the Civil Constitution of the Clergy slaughtered many republican troops and officials, along with locals believed to be supporters of the republic.
November 21, 1793 Avranches, France Avranches massacre 0,000,800Around 800 Catholic and Royal Army prisoners of war, and later suspected counterrevolutionaries and royalist sympathizers, were murdered by republican troops.
1794 Warsaw, Poland Massacre of Praga 0,020,00020,000 Inhabitants of the Warsaw district Praga were massacred by pillaging Russian troops following the Battle of Praga.
1804 Haiti 1804 Haiti massacre 0,003,0003,000–5,000 Massacre of French people in Haiti.
December 1809 Whangaroa, New Zealand Boyd massacre 0,000,06666 Whangaroa Māori killed and ate 66 crew and passengers on board the Boyd.[102]
August 30, 1813 Near Bay Minette, Alabama, United States Fort Mims massacre A force of Creek Indians belonging to the Red Sticks stormed and captured Fort Mims, then killed almost all of the surviving pro-American natives, métis people, white settlers, slaves, and militia still inside it.
December 9, 1817 Madulla, Central Province, Sri Lanka Madulla massacre 0,000,02222 British troops killed 22 unarmed native civilians who were hiding in a cave.[103][104]
1818 Uva Province, Sri Lanka Uva–Wellassa massacre 0,000,001Unknown During the suppression of the 1818 Uva–Wellassa uprising (also known as the Great Rebellion) Sir Robert Brownrigg ordered that all males between 15 and 60 years in the Uva-Wellassa region to be driven out, exiled or killed.[105][106][107][108]
August 16, 1819 Manchester, England Peterloo Massacre 0,000,01111[102] Manchester and Salford Yeomanry charged a meeting of 60,000–80,000 people campaigning for reform of parliamentary representation.[102]
March 1821 Constantinople Constantinople Massacre of 1821 0,000,001Unknown Hundreds of Greeks were massacred by the Ottomans, including the Greek patriarch, bishops and officials.
August 19, 1821 Navarino, Peloponnese, Greece Navarino massacre 0,003,0003,000[109] The whole Turkish population of Navarino, which was around 3000, were killed by Greeks.[109]
March 1822 Chios, Greece Chios massacre 0,052,000~52,000 Tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios were slaughtered by Ottoman troops in 1822.
April 13, 1822 Naousa, Greece Naousa massacre 2,000 Greek civilians were slaughtered by Ottoman Empire.
June 7, 1824 Kasos, Greece Kasos massacre 7,000 Ottoman-Egyptian army slaughtered Greek civilians
April 11, 1831 Marchaterre, Salsipuedes Creek, Uruguay Massacre of Salsipuedes At least 40 Uruguayan army under command of president Fructuoso Rivera slaughtered the last remains of the indigenous Charrua People, survivors were sent into a forced walk and then sold into slavery.
1833 Kiowa County, Oklahoma, United States Cutthroat Gap massacre 150 A group of Osage warriors charged into a Kiowa camp and brutally slaughtered everyone there, including children.
December 28, 1835 Florida, United States Dade massacre 0,000,108108 Two U.S. Army companies under the command of Major Francis L. Dade were marching from Fort Brooke (Tampa) to Fort King (Ocala) when they were attacked by about 200 Seminoles. One hundred and eight soldiers were killed; only two men from the command survived.
March 27, 1836 Goliad, Texas Goliad massacre 0,000,400~400 Around 400 Texians killed by Santa Anna's Mexican Army Presidio la Bahia Goliad Palm Sunday March 27, 1836.
January 1838 Waterloo Creek, Australia Waterloo Creek massacre[110] 0,000,100100–300 Aboriginal Australians killed by a force of colonial mounted police.[111]
February 6, 1838 uMgungundlovu, KwaZulu-Natal, Zulu Kingdom Piet Retief Delegation massacre 0,000,100100 Under the orders of Dingane kaSenzangakhona, a Voortrekker delegation led by Piet Retief was seized during land treaty negotiations and taken to the Kwa-Matiwane hillside, where its members and their servants were summarily executed.
February 17, 1838 Around the area of what is now Weenen, KwaZulu-Natal, Zulu Kingdom Weenen massacre 0,000,532532 Zulu impis sent by Dingane attacked and slaughtered Khoikhoi, Basuto and Voortrekkers who were camped at multiple sites.
June 10, 1838 Myall Creek, Australia Myall Creek massacre[110] 0,000,02828 A posse (which was mostly white, but included a black African) killed Aboriginal Australians. The perpetrators were convicted and sentenced to death.[112]
August 1, 1838 Victory, Wisconsin Bad Axe Massacre 0,000,06666 150 Sauk and Meskwaki killed by the U.S. Army
October 5, 1838 Cherokee County, Republic of Texas Killough massacre[113] 0,000,01818 In the largest attack by Native Americans on white settlers in Texas, a disaffected band of Cherokee, Caddo, Coushatta, and perhaps other ethnicities formed a war party and killed 18 members of the extended Killough family, who had settled in the area after the Senate of the Republic of Texas nullified the (land) treaty which President Sam Houston had negotiated with the Cherokee.
October 30, 1838 Caldwell County, Missouri, United States Haun's Mill massacre[114] 0,000,01919 About 240 Livingston County Missouri Regulators, Missouri State militiamen and anti-Mormon volunteers killed 18 Mormons and one non-Mormon friend.[115][116]
1840 Gippsland, Australia Gippsland massacres[117] 0,000,450~450[citation needed] A series of massacres spanning several years: 1840 – Nuntin, 1840 – Boney Point, 1841 – Butchers Creek – 30–35, 1841 – Maffra, 1842 – Skull Creek, 1842 – Bruthen Creek – "hundreds killed", 1843 – Warrigal Creek – between 60 and 180 shot, 1844 – Maffra, 1846 – South Gippsland – 14 killed, 1846 – Snowy River – 8 killed, 1846–47 – Central Gippsland – 50 or more shot, 1850 – East Gippsland – 15–20 killed, 1850 – Murrindal – 16 poisoned, 1850 – Brodribb River – 15–20 killed.[citation needed] See also Angus McMillan.
January 6, 1842 Afghanistan Massacre of Elphinstone's army 0,016,00016,000 Afghan tribes massacred Elphinstone's British army including some 12,000 civilians.[118][119][120]
May 23–26, 1856 Franklin County, Kansas Pottawatomie massacre 0,000,0055 In retaliation for the Sacking of Lawrence by proslavery settlers, John Brown led a band of abolitionist settlers-including some members of the Pottawatomie Rifles—in a massacre of five proslavery settlers north of Pottawatomie Creek.
April 8, 1857 Caborca, Sonora, Mexico Crabb massacre 0,000,08484 Mexican rebels fought American rebels at Caborca, Sonora. Out of less than ninety Americans, about thirty were killed in battle and the rest were executed by the Mexicans.
September 11, 1857 Mountain Meadows, Utah, United States Mountain Meadows massacre 0,000,120120–140[121][122] Mormon militia, some dressed as Indians, and Paiute tribesmen killed and plundered unarmed members of the Baker-Fancher emigrant wagon train.[123]
May 19, 1858 Kansas Marais des Cygnes massacre 0,000,0055 Proslavery leader Charles Hamilton and about 30 men under his command capture 11 Free-Staters from Kansas and takes them to a defile in, where they begin shooting at them. Five of the prisoners are killed, and another five are severely wounded.
September 2, 1861 Gallinas Mountains, Confederate Arizona (present-day Lincoln County, New Mexico), Confederate States of America Gallinas massacre 3 A war party of Mescalero Apache attacked a small group of Confederate soldiers, killing three of them.
August 10, 1862 Kinney County, Texas, United States Nueces massacre 0,000,03737 German Texans trying to flee to Mexico to avoid being drafted into the Confederate Army were attacked by Confederate soldiers.
January 18, 1863 Madison County, North Carolina, United States Shelton Laurel massacre 0,000,01313 Thirteen boys and men, accused of being Union sympathizers and spies, were summarily executed by members of the 64th North Carolina Regiment of the Confederate Army.[124]
January 29, 1863 Washington Territory near present day Preston, Idaho United States Bear River massacre 0,000,225~225[125] 3rd Regiment California Volunteer Infantry destroyed a village of Shoshone in southeastern Idaho.[126]
August 21, 1863 Lawrence, Kansas, United States Lawrence massacre 0,000,150~150[127][128] Pro-Confederate bushwhackers known as Quantrill's Raiders attacked the town of Lawrence, Kansas during the American Civil War in retaliation for the Union attack on Osceola, Missouri.[129][130]
April 12, 1864 Henning, Tennessee, United States Fort Pillow massacre 0,000,350350[131] After their surrender following the Battle of Fort Pillow, most of the Union garrison—consisting primarily of black troops—as well as civilians, including women and children, were massacred by Confederate forces under the command of General Nathan Bedford Forrest.[132][133][134][135]
November 29, 1864 Kiowa County, Colorado, United States Sand Creek massacre 0,000,200~200[136] Colorado Territory 90-day militia destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho on the eastern plains.[137][138]
January 14, 1865 Colorado Territory (near present-day Sterling), United States American Ranch massacre 8 Cheyenne and Sioux warriors attacked a ranch and killed eight people, three of them cowboys.
November 27, 1868 Indian Territory, United States Washita Massacre (1938)[139] 0,000,02929–150 Lt. Col. G. A. Custer's 7th cavalry attacked a village of sleeping Cheyenne led by Black Kettle. Custer reported 103—later revised to 140—warriors, "some" women and "few" children killed, and 53 women and children taken hostage. Other casualty estimates by cavalry members, scouts and Indians vary widely, with the number of men killed ranging as low as 11 and the numbers of women and children ranging as high as 75. Before returning to their base, the cavalry killed several hundred Indian ponies and burned the village.[140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][149][150]
1870 Tianjin, China Tianjin Massacre 0,000,06060 Attacks on French Catholic priests and nuns, violent belligerence from French diplomats, and armed foreign intervention in Tianjin.
October 24, 1871 Los Angeles California, United States Chinese massacre of 1871[151] 0,000,01717–20 A mob of over 500 men entered Chinatown in Los Angeles, rioted, ransacked, then tortured and killed 18 Chinese-Americans, making this among the largest mass lynchings in American history.[152]
July 1, 1873 Cypress Hills region, Sasketchewan, Canada Cypress Hills Massacre 0,000,01313 A group of American and Canadian wolfers got into a dispute with some Assiniboine warriors over a missing horse. Violence broke out in unclear circumstances, causing the deaths of thirteen Assiniboine.
August 5, 1873 Hitchcock County, Nebraska Massacre Canyon 0,000,065approx. 65–100 A Lakota war party attacked a band of Pawnee during their summer buffalo hunt, with many victims mutilated and some set on fire. The victims were mostly women and children.[153]
April 30, 1876 Batak Ottoman Empire Batak massacre[154][155][156] 0,003,0003,000–5,000 Ottoman army irregulars killed Bulgarian civilians barricaded in Batak's church.[157]
April 2, 1885 Frog Lake, North-West Territories, Canada Frog Lake Massacre 0,000,0099 Cree warriors, dissatisfied with the lack of support from the Canadian Government for Treaty Indians, and exacerbated by food shortages resulting from the near-extinction of bison, killed nine white settlers, including Indian agent Thomas Quinn.[158][159]
September 2, 1885 Rock Springs, Wyoming, United States Rock Springs massacre 0,000,02828 Rioting white immigrant miners killed 28 Chinese miners, wounded 15, and 75 Chinese homes burned.[160][161][162]
November 1887 Thibodaux, Louisiana Thibodaux massacre 0,000,03535+ Members of white paramilitary groups attack striking black sugar cane planation workers.
February 14, 1889 St. Lucie County, Florida, United States Jim Jumper massacre At least 7 At a Seminole camp northeast of Lake Okeechobee, a biracial (half-black, half-Native American) man named Jim Jumper shot and killed several Seminole for unclear reasons before being killed himself by a Seminole man named Billy Martin.
December 29, 1890 Wounded Knee, South Dakota, United States Wounded Knee Massacre 0,000,200200–300[163] The U.S. 7th Cavalry intercepted a band of Lakota people on their way to the Pine Ridge Reservation for shelter from the winter; as they were disarming them, a gun was fired, and the soldiers turned their artillery on the Lakota, killing men, women and children.[164][165]
August 16, 1893 Aigues-Mortes, France Massacre of Italians at Aigues-Mortes 8–150 Italian immigrant workers were attacked by French villagers and laborers.
1894–1896 Armenian Highlands, Ottoman Empire Hamidian massacres 0,100,000100,000–300,000[166]

Sultan Abdul Hamid II ordered Ottoman forces to kill Armenians across the empire.[166][167][168]

November 21, 1894 Port Arthur (present-day Lu Shunkou), Dalian, China Port Arthur massacre 1,000–20,0001,000–20,000 Japanese troops killed somewhere between 1,000 and 20,000 civilians and surrendered Chinese soldiers for two or three days.
1895 Gutian County, China Kucheng massacre 0,000,01111 Members of a Chinese cult attacked British missionaries, killing eleven people and destroying two houses.
September 10, 1897 Pennsylvania, United States Lattimer massacre 0,000,01919 Unarmed striking miners were shot in the back: many were wounded and 19 were killed.
January 18, 1900 Guaymas, Mexico Mazocoba massacre 0,000,400~400 Mexican Army troops attack Yaqui hostiles west of Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico.
July 17, 1900 Blagoveshchensk and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River Blagoveshchensk massacre and Sixty-Four Villages East of the River massacre 0,007,0007,000 The Russian Empire invaded the two cities ruled by the Qing Dynasty. A total of 7,000 innocent Chinese civilians were killed in the massacres.
January 31, 1902 Leliefontein, Northern Cape, South Africa Leliefontein massacre[169] 0,000,03535 During the Second Boer War, Boer forces under Manie Maritz massacred 35 Khoikhoi for being British sympathisers.
March 10, 1906 Bud Dajo, Jolo Island, Philippines Moro Crater massacre[170][171] 0,000,800800–1,000 A U.S. Army force of 540 soldiers under the command of Major General Leonard Wood, accompanied by a naval detachment and with a detachment of native constabulary, armed with artillery and small firearms, attacked a Muslim village hidden in the crater of a dormant volcano.[172]
1906 Atlanta, Georgia, United States Atlanta massacre of 1906 At least 27 killed, over 90 wounded White on black violence
December 21, 1907 Chile Santa María School massacre 0,002,2002,200–3,600[citation needed] A massacre of striking workers, mostly saltpeter (nitrate) miners, along with wives and children, committed by the Chilean Army in Iquique, Chile. It occurred during the peak of the nitrate mining era, which coincided with the Parliamentary Period in Chilean political history (1891–1925). With the massacre and an ensuing reign of terror, not only was the strike broken, but the workers' movement was thrown into limbo for over a decade.[citation needed]
April–May 1909 Adana Province, Ottoman Empire Adana massacre 0,015,00015,000–30,000 In April 1909, a religious-ethnic clash in the city of Adana, amidst governmental upheaval, resulted in a series of anti-Armenian pogroms throughout the district, resulting in an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 deaths.[173][174][175][176][177]
July 29 – July 30, 1910 Slocum, Texas, United States Slocum massacre 6–200[178] Armed white mobs massacred black residents of the town of Slocum, Texas.
1912–1913 territories occupied by Serbia, especially in the regions of today's Kosovo, Western Macedonia and Northern Albania Massacres of Albanians in the Balkan Wars 20,000–25,000 Series of mass murders of Albanian civilians perpetrated by the Montenegrin and Serbian armies.
April 17, 1912 Near Lena River, Northeast Siberia, Russian Empire Lena massacre 0,000,270270 Striking gold miners were shot at by Russian troops while marching.
April 20, 1914 Ludlow, Colorado, United States Ludlow massacre 0,000,02020 Twenty people, 11 of them children, died during an attack by the Colorado National Guard on a tent colony of 1,200 striking coal miners and their families at Ludlow, Colorado. The event led to wider conflict quelled only by Federal troops sent in by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.[179][180][181]
August 29, 1914 Abschwangen, East Prussia, German Empire Abschwangen massacre 65 Soldiers of the Imperial Russian Army summarily executed 65 German civilians (including 28 locals and 37 refugees from southern East Prussia) in retaliation for a German cavalry reconnaissance unit killing a Russian officer who happened to be a member of the Trubetskoy family.
January 28, 1918 Porvenir, Texas, United States 1918 Porvenir massacre 15 In retaliation for the Brite Ranch raid, Texas Rangers, soldiers of the 8th Cavalry Regiment and local ranchers killed unarmed Mexican Americans.
April 28 – May 3, 1918 Vyborg, Finland Vyborg massacre 0,000,360360–420 At least 360 mostly Russian military personnel and civilians were killed after the Finnish Civil War Battle of Vyborg by the Finnish Whites. The victims include a large number of other nationalities which the Whites presumed as Russians. The killed were not affiliated with the Reds, but most were even White supporters. Also 450–1,200 captured Finnish Red Guard fighters were executed.[182]
April 5, 1919 Pinsk, Belarus Pinsk massacre 0,000,03535 Soldiers of the Polish Land Forces under the command of General Antoni Listowski killed a group of Jews for holding an "illegal meeting".
April 13, 1919 Amritsar, India Jallianwala Bagh massacre 0,000,379379–1,526[183][full citation needed][184][185] 90 British Indian Army soldiers, led by Brigadier Reginald Dyer, opened fire on an unarmed gathering of men, women and children. The firing lasted for 10 to 15 minutes, until they ran out of ammunition.[184][185]
June 16, 1919–17, 1919 Menemen, Izmir, Turkey Menemen massacre 200 Greek troops and local Greeks massacred Turks.[186]
September 30, 1919 Phillips County, Arkansas, United States Elaine massacre 105–242 White mobs slaughtered between 100 and 237 black people along with 5 white people.
November 11, 1919 Centralia, Washington, United States Washington State Centralia massacre 6 A conflict breaks out between members of the Industrial Workers of the World and the American Legion on the first anniversary of Armistice Day in unclear circumstances, killing one Wobbly and five Legionnaires.
1920–1921 Armutlu Peninsula, Turkey Yalova Peninsula massacres 5,500–9,900[187][188] Local Muslims of the peninsula were massacred by Greek troops, local Greeks, Armenians and Circassians.[189][190]
1920–1921 Jiandao, Eastern Manchuria Gando massacre 0,005,0005,000+ After the Hunchun incident, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered thousands of Korean civilians.
November 2, 1920 Ocoee, Florida, United States Ocoee massacre 30–35 blacks, 2 whites On election day, to stop "niggers" from voting, many local blacks were attacked by white mobs. The black population of Ocoee was forced to leave.
November 21, 1920 Dublin, Ireland Croke Park massacre 0,000,02323[191] British Auxiliary police and Black and Tans fired at Gaelic football spectators at Croke Park.[191][192]
May 31 – June 1, 1921 Tulsa, Oklahoma, United States Tulsa race massacre 0,000,36100–300 Mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
December 14, 1922 Perry, Florida, United States Perry massacre 3 White on black violence
January 1923 Rosewood, Florida, United States Rosewood massacre 0,000,0088 Several days of violence by white mobs, ranging in size up to 400 people, resulted in the deaths of six blacks and two whites and the destruction of the town of Rosewood, which was abandoned after the incident.[193]
September 1923 Kantō region, Japan Kantō Massacre 0,006,0006,000+ In the aftermath of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, Japanese soldiers and police officers, along with vigilantes, slaughtered at least six thousand Japanese Koreans and left-wing political dissidents.
July 19, 1924 Napalpí, Chaco Province, Argentina Napalpí massacre 0,000,400400 Argentine police officers and ranchers killed hundreds of Toba people in retaliation for the murder of a French immigrant.
September 9, 1924 Hanapepe, Hawaii Hanapepe massacre 0,000,02020 A dispute between officers of the Kauai County Police Department and striking Visayan sugar workers over the kidnapping of two Ilocano strikebreakers escalated into a violent exchange that killed 16 strikers and four cops.
June 23, 1925 Eastern Jiaochang, China Shaji massacre 0,000,050~50 A group of strikers in Canton, China, in support of a workers' strike in Hong Kong, were fired upon by British and French troops, who claimed to have been provoked by gunfire. Over 200 casualties resulted.
May 30, 1925 Shanghai, China Shanghai massacre of 1925 0,000,3030–200 Members of the Shanghai Municipal Police opened fire on Chinese protesters.
April 12, 1927 Shanghai and other locations, China Shanghai Massacre 0,000,300300–5000 KMT elements carried out a full-scale purge of Communists in all areas under their control.
November 21, 1927 Serene, Colorado Columbine Mine massacre (1928)[194] 0,000,0066 In a fight between Colorado state police and a striking coal miners, the police used firearms, killing six and wounding dozens. The miners claimed that machine guns were fired at them, which was denied by the state police.
May 18, 1927 Bath Township, Michigan, United States Bath School massacre (1981)[195] 0,000,04545 37 children and a 30-year-old teacher at Bathtown elementary school were killed by a major explosion set off by school board treasurer Andrew Kehoe. About a half-hour after the explosion, Kehoe then detonated dynamite in his truck, killing himself and five others, including a fourth-grader and four adults. Also, some hours before the event, Kehoe killed his wife at their Bath Township home. This event was the deadliest mass murder in a school in United States history.
August 14, 1928 Coniston, Central Australia, Australia Coniston massacre (1981)[196] 0,000,03131–170 The last known officially sanctioned massacre of indigenous Australians which took place in the vicinity of Coniston cattle station in the Territory of Central Australia, Australia in revenge for the death of a dingo hunter named Frederick Brooks.
December 6, 1928 Ciénaga, Magdalena, Colombia Banana Massacre 0,000,04747–2,000 The Banana massacre was a massacre of workers for the United Fruit Company that occurred on December 6, 1928, in the town of Ciénaga near Santa Marta, Colombia. An unknown number of workers died after the Conservative government of Miguel Abadía decided to send the Colombian army to end a month-long strike organized by the workers' union in order to secure better working conditions. The government of the United States of America had threatened to invade with the U.S. Marine Corps if the Colombian government did not act to protect United Fruit's interests.
February 14, 1929 Chicago, United States Saint Valentine's Day massacre 0,000,0077[197] Al Capone's gang shot rival gang members and their associates.[198]
August 1929 Hebron, Mandatory Palestine 1929 Hebron massacre 0,000,06969[199] Arabs kill 69 Jews after being incited by religious leaders. Survivors were relocated to Jerusalem, "leaving Hebron barren of Jews for the first time in hundreds of years."[199]
August 1929 Safed, Mandatory Palestine 1929 Safed massacre 0,000,01818[200] Arabs killed 18 Jews, wounded around 40, and some 200 houses were burned and looted.[201]
December 6, 1929 Marchaterre, Les Cayes, Haiti Les Cayes massacre 12–22 United States Marine Corps troops fire upon a group of 1,500 Haitians in Les Cayes who were protesting against the United States occupation of Haiti[202][203][204]
April 23, 1930 Peshawar, British Raj Qissa Khwani bazaar massacre 0,000,200200–250[205][206] Soldiers of the British Raj fired on unarmed non-violent protestors of the Khudai Khidmatgar with machine guns during the Indian independence movement[205][206]
July 1930 Van Province, Turkey Zilan massacre 0,004,5004,500–47,000[207][208] Turkish troops massacred Kurdish residents during the Ararat rebellion.
January 22–July 11, 1932 El Salvador La Matanza 0,010,00010,000–40,000 After a peasant rebellion occurred in the western departments of El Salvador, President Maximiliano Hernández Martínez would order the violent repression against the rebellion, ending in an ethnocide that killed between 10,000 and 40,000 peasants and civilians, many of them from the Pipil people.
August 1933 Iraq Simele massacre 0,003,0003,000[209] Iraqi Army killed 3,000 Assyrian men, women and children.[209] The massacre, amongst other things, included rape, cars running over children and bayoneting children and pregnant women.[209]
June–July 1934 Alto Bío Bío, Chile Ranquil massacre 0,000,477477 The Chilean Army and Carabineros de Chile assassinated 477 workers and Mapuche indigenous after they started a revolt.
February 13, 1936 Near Mai Lahlà, Ethiopia Gondrand massacre 0,000,08080 Ethiopian soldiers acting under the orders of Ras Imru attacked Italian civilians working for the Gondrand logistics company, killing 80 of them.
November – December 1936 Paracuellos del Jarama and Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain Paracuellos massacres 0,002,0002,000–3,000 Mass killings against right-wing civilians and soldiers perpetrated by Republican troops and militiamen.
March 21, 1937 Ponce, Puerto Rico Ponce massacre 0,000,01919[210] The Insular Police fired on unarmed Nationalist demonstrators peacefully marching to commemorate the ending of slavery in Puerto Rico.[210] It was the biggest massacre in Puerto Rican history.[211]
July 29, 1937 Tongzhou, China Tungchow massacre 223–260 East Hebei Army massacred Japanese civilians and troops in Tongzhou.
October 2–8, 1937 Dominican Republic Parsley massacre 0,038,000Up to 38,000[212] The Dominican military used machetes to brutally slash people to death and decapitate thousands of black Haitians; they also took people to the port of Montecristi, where thousands of Haitians were thrown into the ocean to drown with their hands and feet bound. Their executioners often inflicted wounds on their bodies before throwing them overboard in order to attract sharks. Survivors who managed to cross the border and return to Haiti told stories of family members being hacked with machetes and strangled by the soldiers, and children dashed against rocks and tree trunks.[213]
1937–38 Tunceli Province, Turkey Dersim massacre 0,013,16013,160–70,000[214][215] Turkish troops massacred Alevi residents during the Dersim Rebellion.
December 1937 – January 1938 Nanjing, China Nanking Massacre[216][217] 0,300,000300,000+[218] The Imperial Japanese Army pillaged and burned Nanking while, at the same time, murdering, enslaving, raping, and torturing prisoners-of-war and civilians.[219]
May 21, 1938 Kamo, Okayama, Empire of Japan Tsuyama massacre 0,000,03030 Mutsuo Toi, believing he was mistreated by his neighbors and rejected by women after being diagnosed with tuberculosis, murdered his own grandmother and 29 of his neighbors in a spree killing before shooting himself.
September 5, 1938 Santiago, Chile Seguro Obrero massacre 0,000,08080 After members of the National Socialist Movement of Chile (nicknamed "Nacistas") attempted a coup by taking over the Edificio del Seguro Obrero, he started a shootout with Carabineros de Chile. After the Nacistas surrendered when they were outmatched, the carabineros entered the place, and later they would group them together and shoot them.
September 4, 1939 Częstochowa, Poland Częstochowa massacre Approximately 1,140 Polish civilians were shot, stabbed and beaten to death by soldiers of the Wehrmacht.
April–May 1940 Katyn, Soviet Union Katyn massacre 0,021,85721,857–25,700[220][221][222] Soviet NKVD executed Polish intelligentsia, POWs and reserve officers.[223][224]
27 May 1940 Le Paradis village, commune of Lestrem, Northern France Le Paradis massacre 0,000,09797 Soldiers of the 14th Company, S.S. Division Totenkopf, under the command of Hauptsturmführer Fritz Knöchlein shot prisoners-of-war during the Battle of France.[225]
14 September 1940 Ipp, Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Ip, Sălaj, Romania) Ip massacre 0,000,174168–174 After two Hungarian soldiers died in an explosion, a detachment of the Royal Hungarian Army killed between 152 and 158 ethnic Romanians, along with 16 reported deserters.
26 November 1940 Jilava, Romania Jilava massacre 0,000,06464 Members of the Iron Guard murdered 64 political prisoners held in Jilava penitentiary.
April 1, 1941 Fântâna Albă, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Fântâna Albă massacre 0,000,04444–3,000 Ethnic Romanians trying to cross the border from the Soviet Union into Romania were met with open fire by Soviet Border Troops.
28 April 1941 Independent State of Croatia Gudovac massacre 0,196184–196[226] The mass killing of around 190 Bjelovar Serbs by the Croatian nationalist Ustaše
May–August 1941 Independent State of Croatia Glina massacres 0,2,4002,400[227] The mass killings of Serb peasants by the Ustashe in the town of Glina, that occurred between May and August 1941
June 2, 1941 Kondomari, Chania, Crete, Kingdom of Greece (under German occupation) Massacre of Kondomari 0,000,02323–60 Cretan civilians were shot by an ad hoc firing squad of German paratroopers as part of a series of reprisal killings.
June–October 1941 Soviet Union, Baltic states NKVD prisoner massacres 0,100,000100,000+[228] The Soviet NKVD executed thousands of political prisoners in the initial stages of Operation Barbarossa.[228][229]
August 27, 1941 [[Kamianets-Podilskyi, Soviet Union]] Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre 0,023,600 Police Battalion 320 and Einsatzgruppen under Friedrich Jeckeln, assisted by Hungarian troops and members of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police, wipe out the city's Jewish community.
September 11, 1941 Medvedev Forest, near Oryol, Russia Medvedev Forest massacre 0,000,157157 On the personal orders of Joseph Stalin, the NKVD took a number of political prisoners held at Oryol Prison into Medvedev Forest and shot them.
September 29, 1941 Ukraine Babi Yar massacre 0,030,00030,000[230] Nazi Einsatzgruppen killed the Jewish population of Kyiv.[230][231][232][233][234]
October 20–21, 1941 Serbia Kragujevac massacre 0,002,7962,796–5,000 Nazi soldiers massacred Serb and Roma hostages in retaliation for attacks on the occupying forces.
October 22–24, 1941 Odessa, Soviet Union Odessa massacre 0,025,00025,000–34,000 Romanian and German troops, supported by local authorities, massacred Jews in Odessa and the surrounding towns in Transnistria. The Romanians blamed Jews and communists for the detonation of a mine that was placed by Red Army sappers prior to their defeat.[235]
November 25 and 29, 1941 Kaunas, Lithuania Ninth Fort massacres of November 1941 0,004,9344,934 The first systematic mass killings of German Jews during the Holocaust.
November 30 and December 8, 1941 Riga, Latvia Rumbula massacre 0,025,00025,000 25,000 Jews were killed in Rumbula Forest, near Riga, Latvia, by the Nazis.[236]
1942 Arakan, Burma (present-day Rakhine State, Myanmar) Arakan massacres in 1942 0,060,00060,000 After local British forces retreated, violence erupted between pro-Japanese Rakhine Buddhists and pro-British Rohingya Muslims as a result of the power vacuum.
February 1942 Laha Airfield, Ambon Island Laha massacre 0,000,300300+[237] The Japanese killed surrendered Australian soldiers.[237][238]
February 18–March 4, 1942 Singapore and Malaya Sook Ching massacre 0,005,0005,000–25,000 A systematic purge of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese Malayans and the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military following the Battle of Singapore.
April 30, 1942 Zdzięcioł (now, Dzyatlava) German-occupied Poland, present-day Belarus First Dzyatlava massacre About 1,200 Around 1,200 Jews were marched out of the Dzyatlava Ghetto into the Kurpiesze (Kurpyash) forest and shot by Order Police battalions, aided by members of the Lithuanian and Belarusian auxiliary police forces.
June 10, 1942 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Lidice massacre 0,000,340340[239] Nazis killed 192 men, and sent the women and children to Nazi concentration camps where many died.[239][240][241]
August 10, 1942 Zdzięcioł (now, Dzyatlava) German-occupied Poland, present-day Belarus Second Dzyatlava massacre 2,000–3,000 Liquidation of the Dzyatlava Ghetto. Thousands of Jews were taken to mass graves on the southern outskirts of town and shot so that they fell in them.
March 22, 1943 Khatyn, Lahoysk District, Minsk Region, Belarus Khatyn massacre 0,000,156156 In retaliation for a Soviet partisan attack, the Dirlewanger Brigade and Schutzmannschaft Battalion 118 of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police slaughter almost the entire population of Khatyn.
May 8, 1943 Naliboki, German-occupied Poland Naliboki massacre 0,000,129129 Soviet partisans killed 129 Polish villagers.
July 11, 1943 Wołyń Voivodeship, Occupied Poland Dominopol massacre 0,000,250250–490 Polish villagers were attacked by a death squad of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army aided by local Ukrainian peasants.
August 3, 1943 Szczurowa, Poland Szczurowa massacre 0,000,09393 93 Romani people were rounded up and murdered in the village cemetery by Nazi occupiers.
September 21, 1943 Kefalonia, Greece Massacre of the Acqui Division 0,005,1555,155[242] Wehrmacht troops executed 5,155 POWs from the Italian 33 Infantry Division Acqui after the latter refused to hand over their weapons and resisted. A further 3,000 Italian POWs drowned at sea on transports that sank after hitting mines.
October 7, 1943 Wake Island Wake Island massacre 0,000,09898 Japanese forces under Rear Admiral Shigematsu Sakaibara massacred the remaining 98 U.S. civilians in fear of the anticipation U.S. invasion of Wake Island two days after a U.S. air raid on the island.[243][244]
December 13, 1943 Kalavryta, Greece Massacre of Kalavryta 0,000,511511–1,200 The extermination of the male population and the subsequent total destruction of the town of Kalavryta, in Greece, by a Jäger division that was part of the German occupying forces during World War II on 13 December 1943. It is the most serious case of war crimes committed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
1943–1947 Italy-Yugoslavia border Foibe massacres 0,003,0003,000–11,000 Multiple massacres against Italian civilians by Yugoslav Partisans.
January 27, 1944 Chechnya, Soviet Union Khaibakh massacre 0,000,700700 The Khaibakh massacre refers to a report of mass execution of the ethnically Chechen population of the aul of Khaibakh, in the mountainous part of Chechnya by Soviet forces under NKVD Colonel Mikhail Gveshiani during the Deportation of the Chechens and Ingush.
January 29, 1944 Kaniūkai, Lithuania Koniuchy massacre 0,000,038At least 38 Soviet and Jewish partisans murdered Lithuanian civilians, along with burning down their houses and slaughtering their livestock.
February 28, 1944 [[Huta Pieniacka, Ukraine]] Huta Pieniacka massacre 1,200 Polish civilians were murdered by members of the 14th SS Volunteer Division "Galizien" accompanied by a paramilitary unit of Ukrainian nationalists (though some Ukrainian historians put the blame on SS police regiments instead).
March 24, 1944 Rome, Italy Ardeatine massacre 0,000,335335 Mass killing carried out by German occupation troops as a reprisal for a partisan attack conducted on the previous day in central Rome against the SS Police Regiment Bozen.
April 1, 1944 Ascq, France Ascq massacre 0,000,08686 The Waffen-SS killed 86 men after a bomb attack in the Gare d'Ascq.
June 10, 1944 Oradour-sur-Glane, France Oradour-sur-Glane massacre 0,000,642642[245] The Waffen-SS killed 642 men, women and children without giving any specific reasons for their actions.[245][246][247][248][249][250]
June 10, 1944 Distomo, Greece Distomo massacre 0,000,218218 Nazi war crime perpetrated by members of the Waffen-SS in the village of Distomo, Greece, during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
August 8, 1944 Warsaw, Poland Wola massacre 0,040,00040,000–100,000 Special groups of SS and German soldiers of the Wehrmacht went from house to house in Warsaw district Wola, rounding-up and shooting all inhabitants.
August 12, 1944 Sant'Anna di Stazzema, Italy Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre 0,000,560560 Retreating SS-men of the II Battalion of SS-PanzergrenadierRegiment 35 of 16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS, rounded up 560 villagers and refugees—mostly women, children and older men—shot them and then burned their bodies.
August 4–25, 1944 Warsaw, Poland Ochota massacre 0,010,00010,000 Mass murders of citizens of Warsaw district Ochota in August 1944, committed by Waffen-SS, specifically the S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. commanded by Bronislav Kaminski.
August 26, 1944 Rüsselsheim, Germany Rüsselsheim massacre 0,000,0066 The townspeople of Rüsselsheim killed six American POWs who were walking through the bombed-out town while escorted by two German guards.
September 29 – October 5, 1944 Marzabotto, Italy Marzabotto massacre 0,000,700700–1,800[251] The SS killed Italian civilians in reprisal for support given to the resistance movement.[251][252]
December 17, 1944 Malmedy, Belgium Malmedy massacre 0,000,08888 Nazi Waffen-SS soldiers shot American POWs (43 escaped).[253][254]
January 1, 1945 Chenogne, Belgium Chenogne massacre 0,000,06060 German prisoners of war were shot by American soldiers in an unauthorized retaliation for the Malmedy Massacre.
February 1945 Manila, Philippines Manila massacre 0,100,000100,000 Japanese occupying forces massacred an estimated 100,000 Filipino civilians during the Battle of Manila.
March 3, 1945 Pawłokoma, Poland Pawłokoma massacre 0,000,150150–500 Members of the Polish Home Army, aided by Poles living in nearby villages, massacred ethnic Ukrainians.
April 10, 1945 Celle, Germany Celle massacre[255] 0,000,300300 Massacre of concentration camp inmates that took place in Celle at the end of the Second World War.
May 15, 1945 Bleiburg, Austria Bleiburg massacre 0,050,00050,000–250,000[256] Fleeing Croatian soldiers, members of the Chetnik movement and Slovene Home Guard associated with the fascist Ustaše Regime of Croatia were apprehended by Yugoslav Partisans at the Austrian border. Among those killed were an unknown number of civilians.
May 1945 Sétif, Algeria Sétif massacre 0,006,0006,000 Muslim villages were bombed by French aircraft and the cruiser Duguay-Trouin standing off the coast, in the Gulf of Bougie, shelled Kerrata. Pied noir vigilantes lynched prisoners taken from local gaols or randomly shot Muslims[257][258][259]
July 8, 1945 Salina, Utah Utah prisoner of war massacre 0,000,0099 Nine German prisoners of war are killed and 19 were wounded when, at midnight, an American soldier named Clarence V. Bertucci climbed a guard tower and fired at the tents of the sleeping prisoners. By the time his fifteen-second rampage was stopped, six of the POWs were already dead, and three more would later die of their wounds.[260][261][262]
July 31, 1945 Ústí nad Labem, today Czech republic Ústí massacre 0,000,08080–2,700 The Ústí massacre (Czech: Ústecký masakr, German: Massaker von Aussig) was a lynching of ethnic Germans in Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig an der Elbe), a largely ethnic German city in northern Bohemia ("Sudetenland") shortly after the end of the World War II, on July 31, 1945.


After 1945

Date Location Name Deaths Description
February 28, 1947 Taiwan February 28 Incident (February 28 massacre)[266][267] 0,018,0005,000–28,000 It was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan, and was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang government.
May 1, 1947 Piana degli Albanesi, Italy Portella della Ginestra massacre 0,000,01111 11 people were killed and 27 wounded during May Day celebrations in Sicily on May 1, 1947, in the municipality of Piana degli Albanesi, by the bandit and separatist leader Salvatore Giuliano and his band.
December 9, 1947 Balongsari, Karawang, West Java, Indonesia Rawagede massacre 0,000,431431 Almost all men in the Indonesian village of Rawagede (modern-day Balongsari) were killed in retaliation by the KNIL, having refused to disclose the location of a wanted Indonesian independence fighter, Lukas Kustaryo. Most estimates place the number at 431.
December 30, 1947 Haifa, Mandatory Palestine Haifa Oil Refinery massacre 0,000,03939 Members of Irgun, a Zionist paramilitary organization, throw bombs at a group of 100 Palestinian Arab refinery workers, killing 6 and wounding 42. Palestinian workers then attacked Jewish refinery workers in retaliation, resulting in 39 deaths and 49 injuries,[268]
December 31, 1947 Haifa, Mandatory Palestine Balad al-Shaykh massacre 0,000,01717–71 Haganah, a Zionist paramilitary organization, attacks residents of the Balad al-Shaykh village, killing 21 Palestinian Arab civilians while they were asleep.
April 3, 1948 Jeju island, South Korea Jeju massacre 0,014,00014,000[269]–60,000[270] Brutal suppression of an uprising. Many Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops while putting down the rebellion. Between 14,000 and 60,000 people died during the uprising.[270]
April 9, 1948 Deir Yassin, Mandatory Palestine Deir Yassin massacre 0,000,107107–254 The Deir Yassin massacre took place when the Irgun and Lehi militant groups attacked the village of Deir Yassin near Jerusalem, population of 750. Fatalities were estimated between 107 and 254 Palestinian Arab villagers, including civilian men, women, and children.[271]
April 13, 1948 Mount Scopus, Mandatory Palestine Hadassah medical convoy massacre 0,000,07979 Convoy, escorted by Haganah militia, bringing medical and fortification supplies and personnel to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus was ambushed by Arab forces. 78 Jews, mainly doctors and nurses, were killed in the ambush.[272]
May 13, 1948 Kfar Etzion, Mandatory Palestine Kfar Etzion massacre 0,000,157157 Arab armed forces attacked a Jewish kibbutz the day before the Declaration of Independence of the state of Israel[273][274]
May 23, 1948 Tantura, Mandatory Palestine Tantura massacre 0,000,157157 Israel Defense Force's Alexandroni Brigade attacked the village of Tantura and massacred up to 200 of its Palestinian Arab inhabitants.[275]
July 11, 1948 Lydda, Mandatory Palestine Massacre in Lydda (Dahamsh Mosque massacre) 0,000,250250–426 Over 150 Palestinian Arab civilians were massacred after an Israeli soldier dug a hole in the wall of the mosque and shot an anti-tank shell through it. They had taken shelter in the Dahamsh Mosque during the Israeli conquest of Lydda (today's Lod). All were crushed against the walls by the pressure from the blast and killed.[276] Also killed were 20 more after cleaning up the scene of the massacre. More civilians were killed as Israeli soldiers of the 89th Brigade, led by Moshe Dayan, throw grenades inside Palestinian houses, and those who fled to the streets were shot at by Israeli forces. Almost the entire population of Lydda, about 50,000 civilians at the time, which included many refugees, were then expelled and hundreds of men, women and children died due to dehydration, exhaustion and disease during a "death march" to the Arab front lines.[277]
August 12, 1948 Charsadda, Pakistan Babrra massacre 600+[278] The Pakistani police and militia forces killed more than 600 unarmed Pashtuns, who were supporters of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement, and injured more than 1200 others on Babrra ground in the Hashtnagar region in Charsadda District, North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan.[278]
October 29, 1948 Al-Dawayima, Mandatory Palestine Al-Dawayima massacre 0,000,08080–200 The killing of Palestinian Arab civilians by the Israeli army (IDF) that took place in the town of al-Dawayima during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.[279][280]
October 29 Safsaf, Palestine Safsaf massacre 52–64 The Israeli army (IDF) killed 52-64 Palestinian Arab civilians using two platoons of armored cars.[281][282]
October 30, 1948 Eilabun, Israel Eilabun massacre 0,000,01414 Israeli army kills 14 Palestinians from the Arab Christian village of Eilaboun, in north Israel, and expels the rest of the residents to Lebanon. Part of the community returns some months thereafter, due to pressure from the United Nations and the Vatican.
October 31 – November 1, 1948 Hula, Lebanon Hula massacre 0,000,03535–58 Hula is a Lebanese Shi'a Muslim village near the Lebanese Litani River. It was captured by the Carmeli Brigade of the Israel Defense Forces without any resistance. 35–58 captured men were reportedly shot down in a house which was later blown up on top of them. Two officers were responsible for the massacre; one served a one-year prison sentence and later received presidential amnesty. Shmuel Lahis was later to become Director General of the Jewish Agency.[283][284]
December 12, 1948 Batang Kali, Malaya Batang Kali massacre 0,000,02424 Villagers were purportedly shot by British troops before the village was burnt.[285][286][287]
January 5, 1949 Rengat, Indonesia Rengat massacre 80–2600 Part of Operation Kraai, and the bodies were disposed in the Indragiri River, the deaths included the father of an author named Chairil Anwar.[288]
December 24, 1949 Mungyeong, South Korea Mungyeong massacre 0,000,08686–88[289][290] Communist sympathizer civilians were killed by South Korean troops.
June 28, 1950 South Korea Bodo League massacre 0,004,934100,000–200,000[291][292] During the Korean War, communist sympathizer civilians or prisoners were killed by South Korean troops. Some scholars insist that the number of victims is between 100,000 and 200,000.[293] The number claimed by the 2005 South Korean Truth and Reconciliation Commission is 4,934.
June 28, 1950 Seoul, South Korea Seoul National University Hospital massacre 0,000,900900[294] During the Korean War, medical personnels, inpatients and wounded soldiers were killed by North Korean troops. There were 900 victims.[294]
July 26–29, 1950 No Gun Ri, South Korea No Gun Ri massacre 0,000,163163–400 Early in the Korean War, South Korean refugees trying to cross U.S. lines at No Gun Ri were killed by U.S. troops fearing North Korean infiltrators. In 2005, the South Korean government certified the names of 150 dead, 13 missing and 55 wounded, some of whom died of wounds, and said reports on many more victims were not filed.[295] The South Korean government-funded No Gun Ri Peace Foundation estimated in 2011 that 250–300 were killed, mostly women and children.[296] Survivors estimated 400 dead.[297]
August 14, 1950 Waegwan, South Korea Hill 303 massacre 0,000,04141[298] During the Korean War, American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army on August 14, 1950.[298]
October 1950 – early 1951 Namyangju, North Korea Namyangju massacre 0,000,460460[299] During the Korean War, South Korean citizens were massacred by South Korean police between October 1950 and early 1951.[300][301]
October 9–31, 1950 Goyang, South Korea Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre 0,000,153153[302] During the Korean War, South Korean civilians were massacred by South Korean police between October 9 to October 31, 1950.[302]
October 17 – December 7, 1950 Sinchon, North Korea Sinchon Massacre 0,030,00030,000[299] The North Korean government claims that North Korean citizens were massacred by United States forces between October 17 to December 7, 1950.[299] This is widely disputed.
January 6–9, 1951 Ganghwa, South Korea Ganghwa massacre 0,000,212212–1,300[303][304] During the Korean War, Communist collaborator civilians were massacred by South Korean forces, South Korean Police forces and pro-South Korea forces militia.
February 7, 1951 Sancheong and Hamyang, South Korea Sancheong and Hamyang massacre 0,000,705705[305] During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army on February 7, 1951.[305]
February 9–11, 1951 Geochang, South Korea Geochang massacre 0,000,719719[306] During the Korean War, Communist sympathizer civilians were massacred by South Korean Army between February 9 and February 11, 1951.[306]
March 26, 1953 Lari near Nairobi, Kenya Lari massacre 0,000,150~150 About 150 Kikuyu were killed by fellow tribesmen.[307][308]
October 14, 1953 Qibya, West Bank, Palestine Qibya massacre 0,000,06969+ Also known as the Qibya incident, occurred during "Operation Shoshana" when Israeli troops of Unit 101 under Ariel Sharon attacked the village of Qibya in the West Bank. At least sixty-nine Palestinian Arab villagers were killed, two-thirds of them women and children.
October 29, 1956 Kafr Qasim, Israel Kafr Qasim massacre 0,000,04848–49 Israeli Border Police shoot Israeli Arab farmers returning to their village from work, unaware of a curfew imposed on it. The police command ordered that civilians caught disobeying the curfew be shot. Over half the casualties were women and children.
March 21, 1960 Sharpeville, South Africa Sharpeville massacre 0,000,07272–90[309] South African police shot down black protesters.[310]
June 16, 1960 Mueda, Mozambique Mueda massacre 0,000,200200–325 Makonde nationalists organized a demonstration in front of the Mueda District headquarters on the Mueda town square demanding independence from Portugal, apparently the district administrator had invited them to present their grievances.[311] The administrator ordered the leaders arrested, and the crowd protested.[312] The Portuguese administrator ordered his pre-assembled troops to fire on the crowd,[313] and then many more were thrown to their death into a ravine.[314] The number of dead is in dispute.[315] However, resentment generated by these events led ultimately to independentist guerrilla FRELIMO gaining needed momentum in the outset of the Mozambican War of Independence.[312][313]
September 6, 1960 Matikhru, India Matikhrü Massacre[316][317] 9 The incident took place on September 6, 1960, when forces of the 16th Punjab Regiment of the Indian Army committed an act of mass murder against the village of Matikhru in Nagaland.
October 17, 1961 Paris, France Paris massacre of 1961 0,000,200200–325 French police, commanded by Maurice Papon, crushed a pacific demonstration of Algerians independentists.
June 2, 1962 Novocherkassk, Soviet Union Novocherkassk massacre 0,000,02323–70[318][319] The MVD open fire on a crowd of protesters demonstrating against inflation.[320]
July 5, 1962 Oran, Algeria Oran massacre of 1962 0,000,09595[321] Massacre of civilians including Europeans by an angry mob at the end of the Algerian War (1954–62).
December 28, 1962 Dominican Republic Liborista massacre 0,000,600600 The Dominican military dropped napalm on the Liboristas from airplanes—burning six hundred people to death.
August–October 1964 Jérémie, Haiti Jérémie Vespers 0,000,02727 In 1964, a group of exiled opponents of the François Duvalier regime called "Jeune Haiti" landed in Haiti to try to overthrow Duvalier, which ended in failure. Because many of those who participated in the overthrowing were originally from the city of Jérémie, the government ordered reprisals against their relatives, so the army and other elements of the Duvalier regime entered the city and killed 27 people.
1965–1966 Indonesia Indonesian massacres of 1965–1966 400,000–3,000,000 Massacre of those accused of being communists in Indonesia.[322][323][324]
August 1, 1966 Austin, Texas, United States University of Texas massacre 0,000,01616 University of Texas at Austin was the site of a massacre by Charles Whitman, who killed his mother and wife at their homes before killing 15 and wounding 32 others at the university atop the university tower before the police killed him.
October 9, 1966 Binh Tai village in Phước Bình District of Sông Bé Province, South Vietnam Binh Tai Massacre 0,000,06868[325] South Korean soldiers purportedly killed 68 South Vietnamese villagers.[325]
December 3–6, 1966 Binh Hoa village in Quảng Ngãi Province, South Vietnam Bình Hòa massacre 0,000,422422–430[326][327] South Korean soldiers purportedly killed South Vietnamese villagers.[326]
October 5-7, 1967 Asaba, Nigeria Asaba massacre 0,000,500500–1,000 Igbo civilians are killed by the Nigerian 2nd Division commanded by Murtala Mohammed, during the Nigerian Civil War.
January 31 – February 28, 1968 Huế, South Vietnam Massacre at Huế 0,002,8002,800–6,000[328] During the 1968 Tet Offensive in the Vietnam War, unarmed South Vietnamese civilians were massacred by North Vietnamese Army and Vietcong. Numerous mass graves were discovered in and around Huế after the Offensive. Victims included women, men, children, and infants.[329] Estimated death toll was between 2,800 and 6,000 civilians and POWs.[330] The Republic of Vietnam released a list of 4,062 victims identified as having been either murdered or abducted.[331][332] Victims were found bound, tortured, and often buried alive.[333][334][335] Many victims were also clubbed to death.[336]
March 18, 1968 Corregidor, Philippines Jabidah massacre 0,000,01111–200 The Jabidah massacre was the killing of Moro soldiers by members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) on March 18, 1968.[337][338][339]
February 12, 1968 Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat hamlets,
Dien Ban District of Quảng Nam Province, South Vietnam
Phong Nhi and Phong Nhat massacre 0,000,07979[340] South Korean soldiers killed unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.
February 25, 1968 Hà My village, Quảng Nam Province, South Vietnam Hà My massacre 0,000,135135[341] South Korean soldiers purportedly killed unarmed South Vietnamese villagers.
March 16, 1968 Mỹ Lai and Mỹ Khê hamlets,
Sơn Mỹ, Quảng Ngãi, South Vietnam
My Lai Massacre 0,000,347347–504[342] U.S. soldiers murdered, tortured and assaulted 347–504 unarmed South Vietnamese villagers suspected of aiding the Vietcong, ranging in ages from 1–81 years, mostly women and children.[342][343]
October 2, 1968 Mexico City, Mexico Tlatelolco massacre 0,000,02525–250[344][345] Government troops massacred between 25 (officially) and 250 (according to human rights activists, CIA documents[346] and independent investigations) students 10 days before the 1968 Summer Olympics taking place in Mexico City, and then tried to wash the blood away, along with evidence of the massacre.[345][347]
May 4, 1970 Kent State University, Ohio, United States Kent State massacre 0,000,0044[348] 29 members of the Ohio National Guard opened fire on unarmed students protesting the expansion of the Vietnam War into Cambodia on the Kent State University college campus, killing 4 and wounding 9, one of whom was permanently paralyzed.[348][349][350]
May 15, 1971 Barisal District, East Pakistan Ketnar Bil massacre 0,000,500500+ Massacre of unarmed Bengali Hindus in Ketnar Bil region of Barisal District by the Pakistan Army.
June 10, 1971 Mexico City, Mexico Corpus Christi massacre 0,000,001Unknown (officially); 120 (according to independent investigations) Similar to the Tlatelolco Massacre, the Corpus Christi Massacre took place on Thursday, June 10, 1971, when a student march got brutally attacked by a shock group called Los Halcones.
January 30, 1972 Derry, Northern Ireland Bogside massacre (31 January 1972)[351] 0,000,01414[352] British paratroopers fired on unarmed civil rights protesters, killing 14.[353] The government sponsored Saville Report, released in June 2010, found all those killed were innocent civil rights demonstrators, prompting an apology by UK Prime Minister David Cameron. As of that time, no one had been prosecuted for the killings.[354]
May 30, 1972 Lod, Israel Lod Airport massacre 0,000,02626[355] Three members of the Japanese Red Army, on behalf of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, killed 26 people and injured 80 others at Tel Aviv's Lod airport (now Ben Gurion International Airport).[355][356][357][358][359]
September 5, 1972 Munich, Germany Munich massacre[360] 0,000,01212[361] Members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and killed by the Palestinian Black September group. A West German police officer was also killed.
May 25, 1973 Ezeiza, Argentina Ezeiza massacre[362] 0,000,01313[362] Members of the right wing of the Peronist party shot and killed at least 13 after Peron's return to Argentina.
February 7, 1974 Jolo, Sulu, Philippines Battle of Jolo (1974)[363] 0,020,00020,000[363]–50,000 Soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines looted and burned the southern Philippine town of Jolo, Sulu and killed many of its Muslim Tausug inhabitants while leaving many more homeless after an engagement with the Moro rebels.
May 15, 1974 Ma'alot, Israel Ma'alot massacre[364][365] 0,000,02929[365] Members of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine infiltrate Israel from Lebanon, shoot and kill a Christian Arab woman and a Jewish couple and their 4-year-old son, and then take hostage and kill 22 high school students and three of their adult escorts.[365]
August 14, 1974 Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda, Cyprus Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda massacre[366][367][368] 0,000,126126[369] EOKA-B gunmen massacred the Turkish Cypriot inhabitants of the villages of Maratha, Santalaris and Aloda.[366][369]
August 14, 1974 Tochni, Cyprus Tochni massacre 84 EOKA-B gunmen massacred the Turkish Cypriot inhabitants of the Tochni.[370][371][372][373][374][375][376]
September 24, 1974 Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Philippines Malisbong Massacre[377] 0,001,0001,000–1,500[377] Soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines murdered male Muslim Moros aged 11–70 years old in a village surrounding a nearby mosque.
July 31, 1975 Northern Ireland Miami Showband massacre 0,000,0055 Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) with backing from the British Army forces killed three members of pop group the Miami Showband in a gun and bomb attack. Two UVF members also died when the bomb exploded prematurely.[378][379][380][381][382]
January 5, 1976 Northern Ireland Kingsmill massacre 0,000,01010[383] Irish republicans shot ten Protestant workers dead outside the village of Kingsmill in County Armagh, Northern Ireland.[383][384]
January 18, 1976 Lebanon Karantina massacre 0,001,5001,500 Lebanese Christian militia overrun the Karantina district in East Beirut and kill up to 1,500 Palestinians and Muslims during the Lebanese Civil War.[385]
January 20, 1976 Lebanon Damour massacre 0,000,150150–582[386] Palestinian militia aligned with the Lebanese National Movement kill 150–582 Christian civilians in the village of Damour during the Lebanese Civil War, in retaliation for the Karantina massacre.[386]
June 16, 1976 Soweto, South Africa Soweto massacre 0,000,176176–700 The South African Police shoot a group of young black protesters who were protesting.
August 8, 1976 Letipea, Estonia Letipea massacre 11 A conflict between workers and drunken Soviet border guards escalated when one of the guards opened fire with a machine gun, killing multiple workers as well as one of his fellow guards.
August 12, 1976 Lebanon Tel al-Zaatar massacre 0,001,5001,500–3,000 Lebanese Christian militias enter the Tel al-Zaatar refugee camp and kill up to 3,000 people during the Lebanese Civil War.[387][388]
October 6, 1976 Thailand 6 October 1976 massacre 0,000,04545–500 Right-wing authorities and right-wing anti-communism/ people defending the monarchy surrounded Thammasat University and killed 40 or more protesters. [389]
September 4, 1977 Chinatown, San Francisco, United States Golden Dragon massacre 0,000,0055 Five members of a Chinese-American gang called the Joe Boys attempt to kill leaders of a rival gang called the Wah Ching. Their attack on the Golden Dragon restaurant kills 5 people and wounds another 11, none of them gang members.
October 18, 1977 La Troncal Canton, Ecuador Aztra massacre 0,000,100100+ Workers from the Aztra ingenio who were on strike are assassinated by the National Police of Ecuador.
March 11, 1978 Israel Coastal Road massacre 0,000,03535[390] Palestinian Fatah members based in Lebanon land on a beach north of Tel Aviv, kill an American photographer, and hijack an inter-city bus driving along Israel's Coastal Highway. 35 civilians are killed and 80 wounded.[390][391][392][393]
January 31, 1979 Marichjhapi, West Bengal, India Marichjhapi massacre 0,000,05050–1,000[394] Marichjhapi massacre refers to the forcible eviction of Bangladeshi refugees and their subsequent death by starvation, exhaustion and police firing in the period between January–June, 1979.
November 3, 1979 Greensboro, United States Greensboro massacre 0,000,0055 Members of the Ku Klux Klan and the American Nazi Party assassinate 5 members of the Communist Workers' Party who were protesting.
May 18, 1980 South Korea Gwangju massacre 0,000,165165–2,000 An escalated popular uprising in the city of Gwangju, South Korea during which some of the civilian protesters armed themselves by raiding police stations and military depots led to the South Korean army violently ending the protests, causing 165 (maximum estimated) of deaths (including 24 soldiers, 4 policemen).
June 27, 1980 Palmyra, Syria Tadmor Prison massacre 0,001,000about 1,000 The massacre occurred the day after a failed attempt to assassinate Syrian president Hafez el-Assad. Members of the units of the Defence Brigades, under the command of Rifaat El Assad, brother of the president, entered in Tadmor Prison and assassinated about a thousand prisoners in the cells and the dormitories.
December 11, 1981 El Salvador El Mozote massacre 0,001,0001,000 The El Mozote Massacre took place in the village of El Mozote, in Morazán department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when Salvadoran armed forces trained by the United States military killed at least 1,000 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign.[395]
January 14, 1982 Mexico Tula massacre 0,000,01313 13 tortured bodies were found at Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico at the time of Arturo Durazo Moreno Administration.
February 2, 1982 Syria Hama massacre 0,007,0007,000–35,000[396] The Syrian Army killed an estimated 30,000 people in the city of Hama. Instances of mass execution and torture by the Syrian military were documented during the attacks.[397]
September 16–18, 1982 Lebanon Sabra and Shatila massacre 0,000,460460–3,500 Residents of Sabra and Shatila, mostly Palestinian refugees and Lebanese Shia, are killed by the Christian Lebanese Forces militia in the refugee camps, with the help of Israeli forces that encircled the area. The United Nations General Assembly condemned the massacre and declared it to be an act of genocide.[398][399][400]
December 6, 1982 Dos Erres, Guatemala Dos Erres Massacre More than 250 US-trained Guatemalan, elite forces came to the village and claimed the village were hiding weapons from rebels. They searched the entire village but they could not find any weapons. The next day, these soldiers massacred everyone in the village. There were only 3 survivors.[401]
February 19, 1983 Chinatown–International District, Seattle, United States Wah Mee massacre 0,000,01313 Three Chinese-American gangsters bind, rob, and shoot 14 people in the Wah Mee gambling club at the Louisa Hotel, 13 of whom die.[402][403]
April 3, 1983 Peru Lucanamarca massacre 0,000,06969 Maoist Shining Path guerrillas massacre 69 men, women and children with axes, machetes and guns in and around the town of Lucanamarca, Peru.[404]
February 10, 1984 Kenya Wagalla massacre 0,005,000~5,000 a massacre of ethnic Somalis by Kenyan security forces who first gathered them at the Wagalla Airstrip, Wajir County, Kenya.
July 18, 1984 San Diego, United States San Ysidro McDonald's massacre 0,000,02121 Gunman James Oliver Huberty killed 21 people in a McDonald's restaurant before being fatally shot by a SWAT team sniper.[405][406][407]
October 31 – November 3, 1984 India 1984 Sikh massacre 0,002,7322,732–8,000 Mobs composed primarily of Indian National Congress workers and local hoodlums chase down and lynch Sikhs in northern India following the assassination of India PM, Indira Gandhi, at the hands of her Sikh guards.
March 23, 1985 Iraq Dujail Massacre 0,000,129129[408]
(33 died in detention before trial)
Dujail was the site of an unsuccessful assassination attempt against then Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein by the Shiite Dawa Party, on July 8, 1982. Saddam Hussein ordered his special security and military forces to arrest all Dawa members and their families, imprisoning 787 men, women and children. In March 1985, 96 of the 148 who had confessed to having taken part in the assassination attempt were executed.[408][409][410][411]
May 14, 1985 Sri Lanka Anuradhapura massacre 0,000,146146[412] Tamil Tiger gunmen shot dead 146 Sinhalese civilians including Buddhist nuns and monks and injured 85 others as they were praying at Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi, a sacred Buddhist shrine in Anuradhapura.[413]
August 14, 1985 Peru Accomarca massacre 0,000,04747–74[414][415][416] An army massacre of campesinos (including six children) in Accomarca, Ayacucho.[415]
March 7, 1987 Donggang, Lieyu, Kinmen, Fujian, China Lieyu massacre (Donggang Incident) 0,000,01919+ Republic of China Army executed all the unarmed Vietnamese refugees in a disoriented fishing boat seeking for political asylum at Donggang beach of Lieyu, Kinmen on March 7–8, 1987.[417]
June 2, 1987 Sri Lanka Aranthalawa Massacre 0,000,03737 Tamil Tigers stopped a bus carrying Buddhist monks in Arantalawa and massacred all except of one monk. Killed in the massacre are Chief Priest Ven. Hegoda Indrasara and several novice monks (under the age of 18)[418]
June 20, 1987 Pınarcık, Mardin Province, Turkey Pınarcık massacre 30 On 20 June 1987, PKK committed a massacre in the village of Pınarcık in the Mardin Province of Turkey, killing more than 30 people, mainly women and children.[419][420][421]
August 9, 1987 Clifton Hill, Victoria, Australia Hoddle Street massacre 0,000,0077[422] The Hoddle Street massacre was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 7 people and wounded 19 others at Hoddle Street in Clifton Hill in north-eastern Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.[423]
August 19, 1987 Hungerford, England Hungerford massacre 0,000,01616[424] A gunman armed with semi-automatic rifles and a handgun killed 16 people before committing suicide.[425]
November 8, 1987 Enniskillen, Northern Ireland Remembrance Day bombing (Poppy Day massacre).[426][427][428] 0,000,01212 Provisional IRA bombing at the town's cenotaph on Remembrance Sunday.[429]
December 8, 1987 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Queen Street massacre 0,000,0088[422] The Queen Street massacre was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 8 people and wounded 5 others in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.[423]
March 16, 1988 Belfast, Northern Ireland Milltown massacre 0,000,0033 Ulster Defence Association (UDA) member Michael Stone kills three people and injures 60 others in a gun and grenade attack at the funeral of three IRA members being held in Milltown Cemetery, Belfast.[430][431]
June 4, 1989 Beijing, China Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 0,000,400300–2,700 The mourning of Hu Yaobang eventually evolved into a large-scale anti-corruption and democratic demonstration, which was ended in a violent suppression by state-controlled army. The actual number of deaths is still unknown. The massacre did not occur within Tiananmen Square, but in the surrounding areas of the square.[432][433]
October 3, 1989 Panama City, Panama Albrook Massacre[434][435] 0,000,01212 Following a failed coup, 12 officers were shot dead by forces loyal to Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega.[436][437][438][439]
December 6, 1989 École Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec, Canada École Polytechnique massacre[440] 0,000,01414 Marc Lépine, a misogynist and anti-feminist, shot and killed 14 female students of the École Polytechnique de Montréal and wounded 14 other people before turning his gun on himself. The event led to stricter gun control laws and changes in police tactical response to shootings in Canada.[441][442]
September 5, 1990 Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka Eastern University massacre 0,000,158158[443] Eastern University massacre is the massacre of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.[443][444][445]
January 20, 1990 Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir Gawkadal massacre 0,000,05050+ Indian paramilitary troops of the Central Reserve Police Force opened fire on Kashmiri protesters.
July 29, 1990 Sinkor, Monrovia, Liberia Monrovia Church massacre 0,000,600~600 Around 30 government soldiers loyal to Samuel Doe and belonging to his Krahn tribe entered St. Peter's Lutheran Church, indiscriminately slaughtering the mostly Gio and Mano people inside.
September 9, 1990 Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka Sathurukondan massacre 0,000,184184[446][447] Sathurukondan massacre, also known as the 1990 Batticaloa massacre is the massacre of 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka.[446][447][448][449][450]
November 13, 1990 Aramoana, New Zealand Aramoana massacre 0,000,01313 Lone gunman David Malcolm Gray began shooting indiscriminately at people, killing 13 people before being killed by police himself, allegedly after a dispute with his next door neighbor. It remains New Zealand's deadliest criminal shooting.[451][452][453][454]
January - March 1991 Awdal, Somalia Dilla Massacre 1000 + The Dilla Massacre, was a series of events that spanned from January 1991 to March 1991, perpetrated by members of the Somali National Movement (SNM) rebel group, against the Gadabuursi clan. The most violent episode was on February 4, 1991, in Dilla, Awdal where hundreds of people were murdered within a single day.[455][456] The killings were referred to and classified as ethnic cleansing, against the Gadabursi, by the United Nations.[457]
October 16, 1991 Killeen, Texas, United States Luby's shooting 0,000,02222 George Jo Hennard drove his pickup truck into a Luby's Cafeteria and shot and killed 22 people, wounded another 20 and then committed suicide by shooting himself.[458][459][460][461][462]
November 3, 1991 Lima, Peru Barrios Altos massacre 0,000,02222 Fifteen people were killed and four injured when Grupo Colina, the anti-communist paramilitary squad, opened fire on a neighborhood barbecue which they had mistaken for a gathering of Maoist Shining Path rebels.[463]
November 12, 1991 Dili, Timor Leste Santa Cruz massacre 0,000,270~270 An estimated 270 pro-independence demonstrators were killed in the Santa Cruz Cemetery while conducting a peaceful memorial service during the Indonesian Occupation of East Timor and is part of the East Timorese Genocide.[464]
November 15, 1991 Sudan, Bor Bor massacre 0,002,0002,000–27,000 An estimated 2,000 civilians were massacred in Bor during the Second Sudanese Civil War by Nuer fighters from SPLA-Nasir, led by Riek Machar, and the militant group known as the Nuer White Army.[465]
November 18–21, 1991 Vukovar, Croatia Vukovar massacre 0,000,264264 Members of the Serb militias, aided by the Yugoslav People's Army, killed Croat civilians and POWs.[466][467][468][469]
February 12, 1992 Bara, Bihar, India]] Bara massacre 35-40 An armed group of the Maoist Communist Centre of India containing members of schedule castes and OBCs killed a large group of Bhumihar men.
February 26, 1992 Khojaly, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Khojaly Massacre 0,000,613613[470] Armenian armed forces, reportedly with help of the Russian 366th Motor Rifle Regiment, raided the town of Khojaly and massacred its Muslim civilian population. The death toll according to the Government of Azerbaijan was 613 civilians, of whom 106 were women and 83 were children.[471][472][473]
April 10, 1992 Maraga, Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan Maraga massacre 43–100 Armenian inhabitants of village were killed by Azerbaijani Armed Forces.
June 17, 1992 Boipatong, South Africa Boipatong massacre 0,000,04545[474] 45 African National Congress (ANC) supporters were killed by members of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP).
July 18, 1992 Lima, Peru La Cantuta massacre 0,000,04545[475] 9 students and a professor on La Cantuta University were kidnapped and killed by Grupo Colina, an anticommunist paramilitary group.
September 7, 1992 Bisho, Ciskei/South Africa Bisho massacre 0,000,02929 28 African National Congress (ANC) supporters and one soldier were shot dead by the Ciskei Defence Force during a protest march.
October 2, 1992 São Paulo, Brazil Carandiru massacre 0,000,111111 The massacre was triggered by a prisoner revolt within the prison. The police made little if any effort to negotiate with the prisoners before the military police stormed the building, as the prison riot became more difficult for prison guards to control. The resulting casualties were of 111 prisoners killed.
January 8, 1993 Palatine, Illinois, United States Brown's Chicken massacre 0,000,0077 Seven people were murdered at the Brown's Chicken and Pasta in Palatine[citation needed]
1993 Autonomous republic of Abkhazia, Georgia Sukhumi massacre (1993)[476] 0,017,0001,000 civilians killed (Georgian estimate)[477] Incidents of ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia,[478][479][480][481]

[482][483][484][485][486][487][488][489] also known as the "massacres of Georgians in Abkhazia"[490][491] and "genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia"[492]—refers to ethnic cleansing,[493] massacres[494] and forced mass expulsion of thousands of ethnic Georgians.

April 19, 1993 Waco, Texas, United States Massacre at Waco (July 1993)
Davidian Massacre (1995)[495]
0,000,08282 Seventy-six members of the Branch Davidian church died after a 51-day siege in a fire started either accidentally or by church members after a Federal Bureau of Investigation tank attack upon the main building. Earlier, on February 28, 1993, six others died by gunfire after the original Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms raid.[496]
June – July 1993 Brazil Yanomami or Haximu massacre 0,000,01616–73[497][498] Garimpeiros (illegal gold miners) killed Yanomami people.
July 2, 1993 Sivas, Turkey Sivas massacre 0,000,03535 35 people (mostly Alevi intellectuals) were killed when a mob of Islamic extremists set fire to the hotel where the group had assembled.[499][500][501]
July 5, 1993 Başbağlar, Erzincan, Turkey Başbağlar massacre 0,000,03333 Several PKK members stormed the village and killed 33 civilians after rounding them up. Also over 200 houses, a clinic, a school and a mosque were burned down.[502][503]
July 25, 1993 Cape Town, South Africa St James Church massacre 0,000,01111 11 People were killed during a church service by Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA) armed with assault rifles and grenades.
October 30, 1993 Greysteel, Northern Ireland Greysteel massacre 0,000,0088 Ulster Defence Association (UDA) opened fire in a crowded bar using an AK-47 and automatic pistol. Eight civilians were killed and thirteen wounded.[504][505][506][507][508][509][510][511]
February 25, 1994 West Bank Cave of the Patriarchs massacre[512][513]
(Ibrahimi Mosque massacre)[514]
0,000,02929 Israeli settler Baruch Goldstein opens fire with an assault rifle against Palestinian Muslims, killing 29 and wounding 150 at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque in Hebron before being subdued and beaten to death by survivors.[515][516]
1994 Algeria Algerian Village massacres of the 1990s 0,010,00010,000[517][518] During the 1990s, many large-scale massacres of villagers in Algeria were perpetrated by groups attacking villages at night and cutting the throats of the inhabitants. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) has avowed its responsibility for many of them. The massacres peaked in 1997 (with a smaller peak in 1994). According to a few reports former Algerian army officer, Habib Souaidia testified to his government's involvement in the massacres. The differing accounts are not yet reconciled.[517][519][520][521] The academic consensus is that at least the majority of the massacres were carried out by Islamist radicals; however, the government notably failed to intervene in a number of these massacres.[522]
March 28, 1994 Johannesburg, South Africa Shell House massacre 0,000,01919 Security guards of the African National Congress (ANC) fired on 20,000 Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) marchers.[523][524][525]
April 22, 1994 Gonaïves, Haiti Raboteau massacre 0,000,02323 Military and paramilitary forces loyal to the coup leader Raoul Cédras carried out an incursion in the Raboteau neighborhood, in Gonaïves, after its inhabitants demonstrated in support of the ousted president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The inhabitants of Raboteau were beaten, arrested and later shot.
June 18, 1994 Loughinisland, Northern Ireland Loughinisland massacre 0,000,0066 Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) opened fire in a crowded bar using assault rifles, killing six civilians and wounding five.[526][527][528][529][530][531][532]
December 27, 1994 Mokokchung, India Mokokchung Massacre 12 The incident took place when forces of the 10 Assam Rifles and the 12 Maratha Light Infantry of the Indian Army raided civilians in Nagaland's Mokokchung. The incident lasted for about 2 hours and left 89 shops, 48 houses, 17 vehicles and 7 two-wheelers razed to ashes, excluding those destroyed by gunfire and shelling. 7 civilians were gunned down, another 5 burned alive including a child, several women raped and more than a dozen gone missing.[533][534]
January 22, 1995 Israel Beit Lid massacre 0,000,02222[535] First suicide attack by Palestinian Islamic Jihad, killing 22 and wounding 69. Carried out by two bombers; the second waited until emergency crews arrived to assist the wounded and dying before detonating his bomb.[536][537][538][539]
March 5, 1995 Kohima, India 1995 Kohima Massacre 7 The incident was sparked off by a tire burst from one of the convoy's own vehicle leading the armed troops to fire at civilians after mistaking the sound of the tyre bursting for a bomb attack.[540][541]
July 1995 Bosnia and Herzegovina Srebrenica massacre 0,008,3728,372 The Srebrenica massacre involved the genocidal killing, in July 1995, of 8,372 Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
March 13, 1996 Scotland Dunblane massacre 0,000,01717[542] A gunman opened fire in a primary school, killing sixteen children and one teacher before killing himself.[543][544][545]
April 29, 1996 Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia Port Arthur massacre 0,000,03535[422] The Port Arthur massacre of 28 April 1996 was a killing spree which claimed the lives of 35 people and wounded 21 others mainly at the historic tourist site Port Arthur in south-eastern Tasmania, Australia. It later emerged that the gunman had severe intellectual disability.[546] The massacre remains Australia's deadliest mass killing spree and remains one of the deadliest such incidents worldwide in recent times.[423]
April 18, 1996 Lebanon First Qana massacre[547] 0,000,106106 Israeli artillery struck the Unifil Headquarters in Qana which was providing shelter to approximately two hundred Lebanese civilians. The Israeli military said the strike was in error and that they were not targeting the UN shelter. An amateur film was released showing that, contrary to Israeli assertions, an Israeli drone was spying on the UN compound just before it was shelling.[548] The UN concluded that the attack was intentional. Amnesty International also concluded, "the IDF intentionally attacked the UN compound.[549][550][551][552][553][554]
February 5, 1997 Ghulja, China Ghulja incident (2006)[555] 0,000,0099 After two days of protests during which the protesters had marched shouting "God is great" and "independence for Xinjiang" the demonstrations were crushed by the People's Liberation Army. Official reports put the death toll at 9 while dissident reports estimated the number killed at more than 100.[556][557][558][559][560][561]
October 22, 1997 Ituango, Antioquia, Colombia El Aro Massacre 0,000,01515 15 individuals accused of being leftist supporters of FARC were massacred by the AUC.
November 17, 1997 Luxor, Egypt Luxor massacre 0,000,06464 Massacre carried out by Egyptian Islamist militants, in which 64 people (including 59 visiting tourists) were killed using automatic weapons and machetes.[562][563][564]
December 1, 1997 Laxmanpur Bathe, Bihar, India Laxmanpur Bathe massacre 0,000,05858 58 Dalits were shot, allegedly by members of the Ranvir Sena in retribution for mass murders perpetrated by Maoists.
December 22, 1997 Acteal, Mexico Acteal massacre 0,000,04545 Massacre carried out by paramilitary forces of 45 people attending a prayer meeting of indigenous townspeople, who were members of the pacifist group Las Abejas ("The Bees"), in the village of Acteal, municipality of Chenalhó, in the Mexican state of Chiapas.[565][566][567]
August 15, 1998 Omagh, Northern Ireland Omagh bombing (November 1998)[568] 0,000,02929 The Omagh bombing was a car bomb attack carried out by the Real Irish Republican Army, a splinter group of former Provisional Irish Republican Army members opposed to the Good Friday Agreement. Twenty-nine people died and approximately 220 people were injured.The attack was described by the BBC as "Northern Ireland's worst single terrorist atrocity".[569][570][571][572][573][574]
March 13, 1999 Istanbul, Turkey Blue Market massacre 13 Terrorist attack of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) resulted in killing of 13 civilians.
April 20, 1999 Littleton, Colorado, United States Columbine High School Massacre (May 1999)[575] 0,000,01515[576] Two teenagers, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold open fire on their classmates on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School, killing 12 students and a teacher and injuring 21 others before committing suicide in the school's library.
July 27, 2000 West Bengal, India Nanoor massacre 0,000,01111 Killing of 11 landless labourers allegedly by activists of Communist Party of India (Marxist), a political party in India, in Suchpur, near Nanoor and under Nanoor police station, in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal.[577][578][579]
June 1, 2001 Tel Aviv, Israel Dolphinarium discotheque massacre 0,000,02525 A Hamas suicide bomber blows himself up outside a nightclub in Tel Aviv, killing at least 21 teenage girls and 4 adults. The youngest victim was 14 years old, and a majority of the teenage girls were of Russian origin.[580]
June 1, 2001 Kathmandu, Nepal Nepalese royal massacre 0,000,0099 Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal kills 9 members of the Nepalese royal family in a mass shooting.
June 7, 2001 Ikeda, Osaka, Japan Osaka school massacre 0,000,0088 Mamoru Takuma, an ex-convict with a history of mental disturbance and anti-social behavior, entered Ikeda Elementary School and stabbed multiple children and teachers there before being subdued.
December 20, 2001 Buenos Aires, Argentina 2001 Massacre of Plaza de Mayo 0,000,0055 Members of the Argentine Federal Police fired against a group of protesters who were protesting in the Plaza de Mayo. As a result, 5 people were killed and 227 were injured.
January 17, 2002 Hadera, Israel Bat Mitzvah massacre 0,000,0066 An attack carried out in January 2002 by al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades in which a Palestinian gunman hurling grenades killed six and wounded 33 in a Bat Mitzvah celebration, a traditional Jewish celebration held for a 12-year-old girl.[581][582]
February 28, 2002 Ahmedabad, India Gulbarg Society massacre 0,000,06969 During the 2002 Gujarat riots, a mob attacked the Gulbarg Society, a lower middle-class Muslim neighbourhood in Chamanpura, Ahmedabad. Most of the houses were burnt, and at least 35 victims including a former Congress, Member of Parliament, Ehsan Jafri, were burnt alive, while 31 others went missing after the incident, later presumed dead, bringing the total of the dead to 69.[583][584][585]
March 27, 2002 Netanya, Israel Passover massacre 0,000,03030[586] Killing of 30 guests at the Park Hotel in Netanya, Israel, sitting down to the traditional Passover Seder meal. Another 143 were injured. Hamas claimed responsibility.[586][587][588][589][590]
May 19, 2004 Iraq Mukaradeeb wedding party massacre 0,000,04242 US military shoots and bombs civilians celebrating a wedding; 42 are killed, including 13 children. US military maintains no such party was taking place at the time of the attack, but two videos, one of the party and the other of the remains taken the next day, refute the US denial.[591][592]
September 1, 2004 Beslan, Russian Federation Beslan school hostage crisis 0,000,334334 Armed Chechen separatists[593] took more than 1,200 people hostage at a school. 334 civilians were killed, including 186 school children, and hundreds wounded.[594][595][596]
March 5, 2005 near Rehoboth, Namibia Kareeboomvloer massacre 0,000,0088 Brothers Sylvester and Gavin Beukes murder the owners' couple of farm Kareeboomvloer and execute all witnesses, including two children.[597] The motive was revenge for a previous theft charge laid by the farm owner.[598]
May 13, 2005 Andijan, Uzbekistan Andijan massacre 0,000,187187–1,500 Uzbek Interior Ministry and National Security Service troops fired into a crowd of protesters.[599][600]
August 4, 2005 Shefa-Amr, Israel Shafram massacre (2005)[601] 0,000,0044 In protest of Ariel Sharon's government evacuation of Gaza colonies, Jewish IDF deserter Eden Natan-Zada travels to Israeli Arab city Shefa-Amr and unloads his gun against residents of a Druze neighborhood.
November 19, 2005 Haditha, Iraq Haditha massacre 0,000,02424 US Marines slaughter 24 unarmed Iraqi civilians, among whom numerous children and the elderly. Although the unit's commander, Staff Sgt Frank Wuterich, claimed his forces came under attack just before the rampage, no weapons were found in the area.[citation needed]
March 12, 2006 Iraq Mahmudiyah massacre[602] 0,000,0066 U.S. soldiers invade Iraqi family residence; kill a father and mother and their three youngest children; rape the eldest child, Abeer Qassim Hamza al-Janabi (14); and kill her.
March 25, 2006 Seattle, Washington, United States Capitol Hill massacre 0,000,0066 28-year-old Kyle Aaron Huff entered a rave afterparty in the southeast part of Seattle's Capitol Hill neighborhood and opened fire, killing six and wounding two, before committing suicide.[603]
April 16, 2007 Blacksburg, Virginia, United States Virginia Tech massacre 0,000,03232 Gunman Seung-Hui Cho, killed 32 people and wounded many others[604] before committing suicide. The massacre one of the deadliest peacetime shooting incidents by a single gunman in United States history, on or off a school campus.[605]
May 4, 2009 Bilge, Mardin, Turkey Mardin engagement ceremony massacre 44 The Mardin engagement ceremony massacre was a massacre carried out by Mehmet Çelebi,[606] a village guard, at an engagement ceremony, where at least forty-four people were killed on May 4, 2009, in the village of Bilge in Mazıdağı district of south-eastern Mardin Province in Turkey. The attack was perpetrated using grenades and automatic weapons by at least two masked assailants, who authorities believe are involved in a feud between two families.[607] According to some sources it was an internal feud of the Kurdish Çelebi clan.[608][609]
September 28, 2009 Conakry, Guinea 28 September massacre 0,000,157157 Guinean uniformed security forces opened fire on a political rally trapped in the 28 September Stadium.[610]
November 5, 2009 Ft. Hood, Texas, United States 2009 Fort Hood shooting 0,000,01313 Gunman Nidal Hasan, a Major in the U.S. Army, killed 12 soldiers and one civilian, and wounded at least 30 on the base at Ft. Hood. Initial reports indicate Hassan was upset at being deployed to Iraq.[611][612][613][614][615][616]
November 23, 2009 Ampatuan, Maguindanao, Philippines Maguindanao massacre 0,000,05757 A group of 100 armed men, alleged to include police and private militia led by Andal Ampatuan, Jr., stopped a convoy of five cars transporting Genalyn Tiamzon-Mangudadatu, the wife of Esmael Mangudadatu, who is running for provincial governor in the 2010 Philippine elections. She was en route to the town of Shariff Aguak to file a certificate of candidacy for her husband, accompanied by his sisters, other supporters, and members of the press. The attackers kidnapped and later killed all members of the Mangudadatu group; reports state that women in the group were raped before being killed. Five other people not part of the group, in a car behind the convoy, were also kidnapped and killed.[617][618][619][620][621]
August 24, 2010 San Fernando, Mexico 2010 San Fernando massacre 0,000,07272 72 of undocumented immigrants Were killed by Los Zetas
July 22, 2011 Utøya island, Norway Utøya massacre 69 Right-wing terrorist Anders Behring Breivik opened fire at a summer camp held by the Workers' Youth League killing 69 and wounding 200 before surrendering to police.[622] Breivik also killed eight people in a bombing in Oslo in a separate attack hours earlier.[623]
August 18, 2011 Uror County, South Sudan Uror massacre 0,000,640640+ In what was believed to be a revenge operation, members of the Murle tribe attacked members of the Nuer tribe, burning down over 3,400 houses and the hospital ran by Médecins Sans Frontières. An initial estimate showed that 38,000 heads of cattle were stolen and 208 children were kidnapped.[624]
October 5, 2011 Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai, Thailand Mekong River massacre 0,000,01313 Two Chinese cargo ships were attacked on a stretch of the Mekong River in the Golden Triangle area. All 13 crew members were killed and dumped in the river.[625] It is the deadliest assault on Chinese nationals abroad in modern times.[626]
December 23, 2011 – January 4, 2012 Pibor, South Sudan Pibor massacre 0,000,900900–3,141 Partly as reaction for previous massacres, the Nuer White Army released a statement stating its intention to "wipe out the entire Murle tribe on the face of the earth as the only solution to guarantee long-term security of Nuer's cattle"[627] and massacred members of the Murle people.[628]
March 11, 2012 Kandahar, Afghanistan Kandahar massacre 0,000,01717 17 Afghan civilians were killed by U.S. Army Soldier Robert Bales.[629] Some witnesses have indicated more than one person was involved.[630]
May 25, 2012 Houla, Syria Houla massacre 0,000,108108 Approximately 108 people were killed with knives in the Syrian town of Houla. Approximately 25 men, 49 children and 34 women were among the victims.[631]
August 14, 2013 Cairo, Egypt Rabaa massacre 0,000,600600–800+ Egyptian security forces and army raided two camps of protesters in Cairo: one at al-Nahda Square and a larger one at Rabaa al-Adawiya Square. The two sites had been occupied by supporters of ousted President Mohamed Morsi. Reports of fatalities range from 600 to more than 800 civilians, while at least 3,994 were injured.
December 2013 Juba, South Sudan Gudele massacre 0,000,240240 During the breakout of the South Sudanese Civil War, Dinka SPLA soldiers rounded up and killed Nuer men from Nuer suburbs in the capital, Juba.[632]
April 15, 2014 Bentiu, South Sudan 2014 Bentiu massacre 0,000,400400+ During the South Sudanese Civil War, rebels massacred mostly non-Nuer civilians after taking control of Bentiu.[633]
August 2014 Sinjar District, Nineveh Governorate, Iraq Sinjar massacre 0,002,0002,000–5,000 An ISIS massacre of Yazidi men.
December 16, 2014 Peshawar, Pakistan 2014 Peshawar school massacre 0,000,148148 Seven gunmen affiliated with the Tehrik-i-Taliban (TTP) conducted a terrorist attack on the Army Public School killing more than 150 people, including 134 schoolchildren, ranging between eight and eighteen years of age.
June 17, 2015 Charleston, SC, United States Charleston church shooting (Charleston church massacre)[634][635][636] 0,000,0099 A mass shooting perpetrated by Dylann Roof, a 21-year-old white supremacist, opened fire at the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church, killing 9.[637]
November 13, 2015 Paris, France Bataclan massacre (2016)[638] 0,000,130130 November 2015 Paris attacks. The single deadliest terrorist attack in French history. Multiple shooting and grenade attacks occurred on a Friday night; among the locations targeted were a music venue, sports stadium and several bar and restaurant terraces. 90 persons were killed during a siege at an Eagles of Death Metal concert inside the Bataclan. French president François Hollande evacuated from a football match between France and Germany at the Stade de France, slated venue for the UEFA Euro 2016 Final, after three separate suicide bombings over the course of about 40 minutes. ISIS claimed responsibility for the attacks and President Hollande named the Paris attacks an "act of war".[639]
June 12, 2016 Orlando, Florida, United States Orlando massacre 0,000,04949 A mass shooting perpetrated by Omar Mateen, a 29-year-old U.S. citizen, opened fire in the Pulse Nightclub, a gay nightclub, killing 49, and injuring 50+. ISIS claimed responsibility for the attacks. It was the worst shooting massacre by a lone perpetrator in modern U.S. history, until the 2017 Las Vegas shooting.[640]
September 2, 2017 Inn Din, Rakhine State, Myanmar Inn Din massacre 0,000,01010 Mass execution of Rohingyas by the Myanmar Army and armed Rakhine locals in the village of Inn Din, in Rakhine State, Myanmar.
December 1, 2018 Nduga Regency, Papua, Indonesia Nduga massacre 19 Papuan separatists attacked a construction camp and took 25 construction workers hostage. The separatists took their captives to a nearby hill and proceeded to shoot them, killing 19 of them. The West Papua Liberation Army, the military arm of the West Papua Liberation Organization, claimed responsibility for the attack, but claimed that the workers were in reality Indonesian soldiers disguised as civilians.
March 15, 2019 Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand Christchurch mosque massacre 0,000,05151 Australian white supremacist Brenton Harrison Tarrant went to the Al Noor Mosque and the Linwood Islamic Centre, shooting at the people who were there, while broadcasting the entire event live on Facebook.
May 26, 2019 North Waziristan, Pakistan Kharqamar incident (Khar Qamar massacre)[641] 13–17[642][641] Pakistan Army shot into a Pashtun protest gathering, killing more than 13 protesters and injuring over 25 others.[641]
May 23, 2019 Northern Mali Ogossagou massacre 160 Two villages of Fulani herders in central Mali, Ogossagou and Welingara, were particularly affected during several attacks by gunmen.[643]
June 10, 2019 Northern Mali Sobane Da massacre 76[644][645] The Dogon village of Sobane-Kou in Mali was attacked by a suspected Fulani militia group.[646]
August 3, 2019 El Paso, Texas, United States El Paso massacre 0,000,02323 White supremacist Patrick Wood Crusius commits a mass shooting at a Walmart that kills 23, mostly Hispanics.
October 20, 2020 Lekki, Lagos, Nigeria Lekki massacre 0,000,01212 The Nigerian Army shoot at End SARS protesters at the Lekki toll gate in Lagos, killing 12 people.
November 28, 2020November 29, 2020 Aksum, Ethiopia Aksum massacre 100–800 Eritrean soldiers attacked the city of Aksum after they were attacked by local militia loyal to the TPLF.
January 8, 2021 La Vega, Caracas, Venezuela La Vega massacre 0,000,02323 Members of the Venezuelan National Police (PNB), the Special Armed Forces (FAES) and the Venezuelan National Guard seized control of the parish, killing a number of people in the neighborhood.
January 22, 2021 Camargo, Mexico Camargo massacre 11 On 22 January 2021, 19 corpses were found in a truck in Camargo Municipality, which is in the Mexican state Tamaulipas and borders Texas in the United States. The authorities discovered two vehicles which were on fire.
May 16, 2021 Gaza, Palestine Wehda Street massacre[647][648][649] 44 Israeli forces bombed al-Wehda Street, a densely populated area located in one of Gaza's most prominent residential and commercial neighborhoods.
June 4, 2021 Solhan and Tadaryat, Burkina Faso Solhan and Tadaryat massacres 174 Unknown insurgents attacked the villages of Solhan and Tadaryat, marking one of the deadliest massacres in the insurgency in Burkina Faso.
July 30, 2021 Meram, Turkey Konya massacre 7 Seven family members were shot.[650][651]
December 4, 2021 Mon District, India Oting Massacre 16 Six were initially killed. Another 8 were killed in the ensuing violence.[652]
4-6 January, 2022 Zamfara State, Nigeria 2022 Zamfara massacres 200+ Gunmen on bikes attacked various towns in Zamfara State, displacing populations.[653]

See also


  1. ^ Mikaberidze 2013
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, n.
  3. ^ "Marlowe (c. 1600) (title) The massacre at Paris". Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, n.
  4. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary Massacre, v.
  5. ^ Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian. Vol. 5. 「趙師大敗,卒四十萬人皆降。武安君曰:『秦已拔上黨,上黨民不樂為秦而歸趙。趙卒反覆,非盡殺之,恐為亂。』乃挾詐而盡坑殺之,遺其小者二百四十人歸趙。」
  6. ^ Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian. Vol. 9. 「於是楚軍夜擊坑秦卒二十餘萬人新安城南。」
  7. ^ "; innocent and guilty were slain alike in what has been called the "Asiatic Vespers." The number who died in the massacre is usually given as 80,000." Finley Hooper, Roman realities (1979), p. 199.
  8. ^ Morgan, Williams (1880). Saint Paul in Britain Or, The Origin Of British As Opposed To Papal Christianity by Rev. R. W. Morgan. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  9. ^ John, Benjamin (February 2003). Pillar in the Wilderness by Benjamin John. ISBN 9780766139275. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  10. ^ Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian. Vol. 60. 「秋,操引兵擊謙,攻拔十餘城,至彭城,大戰,謙兵敗,走保郯。初,京、雒遭董卓之亂,民流移東出,多依徐土,遇操至,坑殺男女數十萬口於泗水,水為不流。」
  11. ^ Thomas Flloyd, Bibliotheca Biographica (1760) s.v. "Abmrose".
  12. ^ Norwich, John Julius (1989). Byzantium: The Early Centuries. New York: Knopf. p. 112. ISBN 0-394-53778-5. OCLC 18164817., "and 7,000 were dead by morning" (Page 139)
  13. ^ Gibbon, Edward; Low, D. M. (1960). The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. New York: Harcourt Brace. pp. ch. 27 2:56. OCLC 402038.
  14. ^ Kenneth Cragg, The Call of the Minaret (1956), p. 79. Muir, William (2003), The life of Mahomet, Kessinger Publishing, p. 317, ISBN 9780766177413
  15. ^ Ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume (translator) (2002), The Life of Muhammad (Sirat Rasul Allah), Oxford University Press, pp. 461–464, ISBN 978-0-19-636033-1{{citation}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  16. ^ Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 222-224.
  17. ^ Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book, pp. 137–141.
  18. ^ a b c Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 201–205. (online)
  19. ^ a b Ibn Kathir, Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009), Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz'21, MSA Publication Limited, p. 213, ISBN 9781861796110(online Archived 2015-03-05 at the Wayback Machine)
  20. ^ Inamdar, Subhash C. (2001), Muhammad and the Rise of Islam: The Creation of Group Identity, Psychosocial Press, p. 166 (footnotes), ISBN 1887841288
  21. ^ Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator) (1997), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, pp. 35–36, ISBN 9780791431504 {{citation}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  22. ^ Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book, pp. 14-16.
  23. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, section on "Muhammad"
  24. ^ Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Section on "Kurayza, Banu".
  25. ^ Muhammad: Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, pp. 313–314.
  26. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2665
  27. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:280
  28. ^ William Cooke Taylor, History of France and Normandy (1830)
  29. ^ Barbero, Alessandro (2004). Charlemagne: Father of a Continent, pages 46–47. University of California Press.
  30. ^ Robert Furley, A History of the Weald of Kent (1871).
  31. ^ Williams, Ann (2003). Æthelred the Unready: The Ill-Counselled King. London: Hambledon and London. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-85285-382-2. OCLC 51780838. "It is usually assumed that this story relates to the St Brice's Day massacre ..." p. 55
  32. ^ Hall, Simon (1998). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 297. ISBN 1-57958-107-2. "1002 St Brice's Day massacre; Danes in England were killed on order of King Ethelred." p. 340
  33. ^ "Saint Brices Day massacre" Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 26. 2007.
  34. ^ called "massacre of the Jews of Granada" by Archibald Sayce in Ancient empires of the East (1906), p. 417.
  35. ^ Gubbay, Lucien (1999). Sunlight and Shadow: The Jewish Experience of Islam. New York: Other Press. p. 80. ISBN 1-892746-69-7. "It should be noted though that the Granada massacre of 1066 was the first instance of persecution of Jews in Muslim Spain, which had enjoyed an almost unblemished record of tolerance for the preceding 350 years." (Page 80)
  36. ^ Roth, Norman (1994). Jews, Visigoths, and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Netherlands: E. J. Brill. p. 110. ISBN 90-04-09971-9. "Assuming that he was at least ten years old, however, it is again surprising that no more personal recollection of the Granada massacre is found in his writing..." (Page 110)
  37. ^ Gottheil, Richard; Kayserling, Meyer. "Granada". Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. G (1906 ed.). "More than 1,500 Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in one day, Ṭebet 9 (December 30), 1066."
  38. ^ Daud, Abraham Ibd (2007). Halsall, Paul (ed.). "On Samuel Ha-Nagid, Vizier of Granada, 993-d after 1056". Medieval Sourcebook. Fordham University. Retrieved July 9, 2011. He was proud to his own hurt, and the Berber princes were jealous of him, with the result that on the Sabbath, on the 9th of Tebet in the year 4827 (Saturday, December 30, 1066), he and the Community of Granada were murdered.
  39. ^ According to David Nirenberg,Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages – Updated Edition, Princeton University Press (2017), p. 7, the events of 1096 in the Rhineland occupy a significant place in modern Jewish historiography and are often presented as the first instance of an antisemitism that would henceforth never be forgotten and whose climax was the Holocaust.
  40. ^ Edward H. Flannery, The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism. Paulist Press, 1985: 93.
  41. ^ Benjamin Kedar, "The Jerusalem Massacre of July 1099 in the Western Historiography of the Crusades", Crusades 3 (2004): 15–75.
  42. ^ Hofreiter, Christian (2018). "The Jerusalem Massacre 1099". Making Sense of Old Testament Genocide: Christian Interpretations of Herem Passages. Oxford Theology and Religion Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 9780192539007. Retrieved 21 Apr 2019. When in July 1099 the crusaders finally reached the goal of their long, perilous, and arduous campaign, they acted in ways that resonated with elements of one of the Bible's best known herem narratives: just as [...] the Israelites had done at Jericho, so the crusaders killed a large proportion of the city's inhabitants, including women and children.
  43. ^ Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire uses "Massacre of the Latins" in the general index (vol. 12) and "their massacre" in the margin notes while the text has (vol. 11, p. 11) "the Latins were slaughtered in their houses and in the streets".
  44. ^ "Massacre of the French in Sicily" is used in the English translation of Johannes Sleidanus, De quattuor monarchiis (1556) published as De Quatuor Summis Imperiis: An Historical Account of the Four Chief Monarchies Or Empires of the World, Nathaniel Rolls, 1695 (p. 186). The name is also in modern use, often glossing the conventional name "Sicilian Vespers", e.g. in Henry Smith Williams, Italy (1908), p. 665. The term "Sicilian Vespers" was also used of a supposed massacre perpetrated by the Sicilian mafia in 1930/1 described by [[Valachi hearings |Joseph Valachi]] in 1963.
  45. ^ Prehistoric event reconstructed from excavations in 1978, named "Crow Creek Massacre" in Early Man vols. 1–3 (1978), p. 285. Beck, Lane A. (1995). Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis. New York: Plenum Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-306-44931-5.
  46. ^ Strutin, Michal (1999). A Guide to Contemporary Plains Indians. Tucson, Arizona: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association. p. 37. ISBN 1-877856-80-0.
  47. ^ a b "The Crow Creek Massacre" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ "Crow Creek Massacre" Archived July 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, University of South Dakota
  49. ^ Usually called "Stockholm bloodbath" (natively Stockholms blodbad), the event is also known as "Stockholm massacre" in English, so called in the English translation of Erik Gustaf Geijer's Svenska folkets historia (1832–36), published in 1845 as The History of the Swedes (p. 102).
  50. ^ Lauritz Weibull. "Nordisk historia. Forskningar och undersökningar. Del III. Från Erik den helige till Karl XII", Stockholm 1949, p. 160–163
  51. ^ González, Justo K., The Story of Christianity: Volume Two – The Reformation to the Present Day, HarperCollins Publishers, 1984, p. 92, ISBN 0-06-063316-6
  52. ^ Gjerset, Knut, History of the Norwegian People, Volume 2 MacMillan Co., 1915, pp. 111–114, ISBN 978-0-404-02818-3
  53. ^ Riis, Jacob A., Hero Tales of the Far North, Project Gutenberg, 2004
  54. ^ Change and Development in the Middle East: essays in honour of W.B. Fisher, John Innes Clarke, Howard Bowen-Jones, 1981, p.290
  55. ^ The Heritage of Armenian Literature, A. J. (Agop Jack) Hacikyan, Nourhan Ouzounian, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, 2000, p.777
  56. ^ "Turkey" by Edward Shepherd Creasy, Page 195
  57. ^ "Eric Solsten, ed. Cyprus: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  58. ^ Notable for the historically first use of "massacre" in the name of an event, by Marlowe (c. 1600); the name used by Marlowe was "The massacre at Paris". The now-current name of "Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day" dates to the first half of the 19th century (Francis Alexander Durivage, A Popular Cyclopedia of History, 1835), translating French massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy which term had been in use since the 17th century (Louis Maimbourg, Histoire De La Ligue, 1686). Appositional "St. Bartholomew's Day massacre" (rather than genitival "Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day") first appears in American English in the first half of the 20th century (Oberlin Alumni Magazine 31.4, 1935, p. 102).
  59. ^ a b "Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre", Columbia Encyclopedia
  60. ^ Staff, Massacre of Saint Bartholomews Day (French history) Archived May 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 December 2007.
  61. ^ Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Catholic Encyclopedia
  62. ^ "the wanton massacre of Smerwick" 'The Monthly Repertory of English Literature, Parsons Galignani, 1824, p. 75. "Massacre at Smerwick" recorded 1899; appositional "Smerwick massacre" in T. J. Barrington, Discovering Kerry: Its History, Heritage & Topography (1976), p. 76.
  63. ^ Massacre of Smerwick article, The Encyclopedia of Irealand, p. 998, Gill & Macmillan, 2003
  64. ^ a b Clodfelter, Micheal (2017-05-09). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015. p. 61. ISBN 9780786474707.
  65. ^ Janell Broyles, A Timeline of the Jamestown Colony, p. 22, The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004
  66. ^ Alfred Abioseh Jarrett, The Impact of Macro Social Systems on Ethnic Minorities in the United States, Page 29, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000
  67. ^ Herbert Milton Sylvester, Indian Wars of New England vol. 1 (1910), p. 426.
  68. ^ " the Chinese massacre of 1639" Political Participation in Modern Indonesia, Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1961, p. 50.
  69. ^ Bowcott, Owen. "Witness statements from Irish rebellion and massacres of 1641 go online". The Guardian.
  70. ^ "BBC – History – Wars and Conflicts – Plantation of Ulster – English and Scottish Planters – 1641 Rebellion".
  71. ^ The Story Of Ireland By Emily Lawless, XXXVII p146
  72. ^ Beresford Ellis, 'Eyewitness to Irish History', John Wiley & Sons, 9 Feb 2007, p108
  73. ^ "Bolton history". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  74. ^ Lonely Planet[dead link]
  75. ^ John Tincey, Marston Moor 1644: The Beginning Of The End: Osprey Publishing (March 11, 2003) ISBN 1-84176-334-9 p 33 "the 'massacre at Bolton' became a staple of Parliamentarian propaganda"
  76. ^ Ebrey, Patrician Buckley (1993). Chinese Civilization: a sourcebook. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-02-908752-X. Retrieved 2013-04-16 – via
  77. ^ Lee, Khoon Choy (2005). Pioneers of Modern China. World Scientific. ISBN 981-256-618-X. Retrieved 2013-04-16 – via
  78. ^ a b c Parsons, James B. (May 1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644-46". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233. JSTOR 2941233.
  79. ^ Oxford English Dictionary Cites "a1715 BP. G. BURNET Hist. Own Time (1734) II. 156 The Massacre in Glencoe, made still a great noise." and "1957 'H. MACDIARMID' Battle Continues 1 Franco has made no more horrible shambles Than this poem of Campbell's, The foulest outrage his breed has to show Since the massacre of Glencoe!"
  80. ^ a b Glencoe, engraved by W. Miller after J.M.W. Turner, Edinburgh University library
  81. ^ a b Kaitasuo, Pia (August 15, 2015). "Pietari Suuren synkkä tuhon kylvö". Kaleva (in Finnish). No. 221. Oulu: Kaleva Oy. p. 34–35. ISSN 0356-1356.
  82. ^ Tan, Mely G. (2005). "Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia". In Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R. & Skoggard, Ian (eds.). Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 795–807. ISBN 978-0-387-29904-4.
  83. ^ "The Penn's Creek Massacre of 1755". Archived from the original on December 10, 2013. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  84. ^ The event was almost immediately termed a "massacre" and used for propagandistic purposes, especially by Samuel Adams. A pamphlet with the title A short narrative of the horrid massacre in Boston, perpetrated in the evening of the fifth day of March, 1770, by soldiers of the 29th regiment, which with the 14th regiment were then quartered there; with some observations on the state of things prior to that catastrophe was printed still in 1770. Appositional "Boston massacre" was in use by the early 1800s (Benjamin Austin, Constitutional Republicanism, in Opposition to Fallacious Federalism, 1803, p. 314). The term "Massacre Day" for the annual remembrance held during 1771–1783 dates to the late 19th century (Augusta De Grasse Stevens, Old Boston: An American Historical Romance, 1888, p. 126) The 1772 "Massacre Day of Oration" by Joseph Warren was originally titled An Oration Delivered March 5th, 1772. At the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston; to Commemorate the Bloody Tragedy of the Fifth of March, 1770.
  85. ^ Zobel, The Boston Massacre, W.W.Norton and Co.(1970), 199–200.
  86. ^ "Boston Massacre – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  87. ^ "Boston Massacre". Archived from the original on October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  88. ^ Kenn Harper A Day in Arctic History: July 17, 1771 — Slaughter at Bloody Falls Archived May 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Nunatsiaq News, 29 July 2005
  89. ^ Robin McGrath. Samuel Hearne And The Inuit Oral Tradition, University of New Brunswick, libraries. Retrieved 23 December 2007.
  90. ^ Samuel Hearne and David Thompson, trekking in the footsteps Archived January 12, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, (From: Manitoba History Society June 1, 2005 Binning, Alexander)
  91. ^ Bloody Falls Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Canadian Encyclopedia
  92. ^ a b Wright, Kevin W. "OVERKILL: Revolutionary War Reminiscences of River Vale". Bergen County Historical Society. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
  93. ^ "Buford's Massacre". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  94. ^ "" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17.
  95. ^ Moore, Rogan H. (2009). The Bloodstained Field: A History of the Sugarloaf Massacre, September 11, 1780.
  96. ^ The Zong case at
  97. ^ a b "Gnadenhutten Massacre". Ohio History Central. Retrieved June 5, 2009.
  98. ^ "Gnadenhutten Massacre (United States history)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  99. ^ "". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  100. ^ David Andress, The Terror: The Merciless War for Freedom in Revolutionary France, Chapter 4, Macmillan, 2006
  101. ^ Dwyer, Phillip & McPhee, Peter (2002). The French Revolution and Napoleon: A Sourcebook. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-415-19907-0.
  102. ^ a b c "New plaque for massacre memorial", BBC, 17 August 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
  103. ^ "The Madulla massacre by the British (9th of Dec. 1817)". WWW Virtual Library Sri Lanka. Retrieved 2013-10-23.
  104. ^ "A Moral Audit of the British Empire". Brendon, Piers. History Today.
  105. ^ "Sumanawathie's success brings lustre back to Uva Wellassa", Ceylon Daily News, 21st October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  106. ^ Sri Lanka is to revoke British Governor's infamous Gazette Notification Archived 2016-01-02 at the Wayback Machine, Asian Tribune, Sat, 2011-03-12. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  107. ^ Müller, J. B. (6 November 2010). "Anglophiles, Eurocentric arrogance and Reality". The Island.
  108. ^ Keerthisinghe, Lakshman I. (2013). "The British duplicity in protecting human rights in Sri Lanka". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  109. ^ a b William St. Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press, London, 1972 p.43 ISBN 0-19-215194-0
  110. ^ a b National Centre for History Education Archived January 12, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (Australia)
  111. ^ "Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience", Bruce Elder, Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2003
  112. ^ "Myall Creek Massacre" Archived 2010-08-28 at the Wayback Machine, Parliament of New South Wales Hansard, June 8, 2000
  113. ^ Christopher Long, "KILLOUGH MASSACRE," Handbook of Texas Online <>, accessed February 25, 2015. Uploaded on June 15, 2010. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  114. ^ FAQ Archived 2008-04-28 at the Wayback Machine "What was the Haun's Mill Massacre?" – Brigham Young University website (abstracted from "Haun's Mill Massacre", in Encyclopedia of Mormonism, ed. Daniel H. Ludlow, New York: Macmillan, 1992)
  115. ^ Historical Record, Jenson, Vol. 7 & 8, p 671.
  116. ^ History of the Church, Vol. III, pp 182–186.
  117. ^ Gardner, P.D. (2001), Gippsland massacres: the destruction of the Kurnai tribes, 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Essay, Victoria ISBN 1-875254-31-5
  118. ^ "Afghan and Northwest Border Wars 1834 to 1897". Archived from the original on July 19, 2014.
  119. ^ "Summary: the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1838–42". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008.
  120. ^ Blog Post (2007-10-09). "Massacre of Elphinstone's army". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  121. ^ Carleton, James Henry (1902). Special Report on the Mountain Meadows Massacre. Washington: Government Printing Office. p. 126.
  122. ^ Thompson, Jacob (1860). Message of the President of the United States: communicating, in compliance with a resolution of the Senate, information in relation to the massacre at Mountain Meadows, and other massacres in Utah Territory, 36th Congress, 1st Session, Exec. Doc. No. 42. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the Interior..
  123. ^ *Bagley, Will (2002). Blood of the Prophets: Brigham Young and the Massacre at Mountain Meadows. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3426-7..
  124. ^ Paludan, Philip S. 1981. Victims: A True Story of the Civil War. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press. 144 p.
  125. ^ Brigham D. Madsen (with foreword by Charles S. Peterson), The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, pp. 190–192, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
  126. ^ Pages 183 to 194, The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre, by Brigham D. Madsen, foreword by Charles S. Peterson, University of Utah Press (1985-hardcover 1995-paperback), trade paperback, 286 pages, ISBN 0-87480-494-9
  127. ^ "William Quantrill and the Lawrence Massacre". Archived from the original on 2016-05-07. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  128. ^ "Lawrence (Kansas, United States)". Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  129. ^ "The Bloodiest Man In American History". Archived from the original on December 1, 2008.
  130. ^ "Erastus D. Ladd's Description of the Lawrence Massacre, by Russell E. Bidlack, Summer 1963". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  131. ^ Dyer, Frederick H. (1908). A Compendium of the War of Rebellion. Des Moines: The Dyer Publishing Company. p. 590.
  132. ^ "Fort Pillow Massacre". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  133. ^ Critchell, Robert S. (May 3, 1864). "The Fort Pillow Massacre". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  134. ^ U.S. Congress (2006) [February 6, 1905]. Fort Pillow Massacre. ISBN 978-1-933706-00-9.
  135. ^ Cimprich, John; Mainfort, Robert C., Jr. (December 1989). "The Fort Pillow Massacre: A Statistical Note". The Journal of American History. 76 (3): 830–837. doi:10.2307/2936423. JSTOR 2936423. PMID 11617251.
  136. ^ "Chapter 14 Winning the West The Army in the Indian Wars". American Military History, Volume I. United States Army Center of Military History. 2005. CMH Pub 30-21.
  137. ^ ""Inquiry into the Sand Creek Massacre, November, 1864." The Wynkoop Family Research Library. Freepages. Retrieved on 2008-02-19". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  138. ^ Hoig, Stan. (1977). The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-1147-6
  139. ^ Charles J. Brill, Custer, Black Kettle, and the Fight on the Washita (1938), p. 155.
  140. ^ "ABC-CLIO Schools|Washita Massacre". 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  141. ^ Andrist, Ralph K., The Long Death: The Last Days of the Plains Indians, University of Oklahoma Press, 2001, 371 pages, pp 157–162, ISBN 978-0-8061-3308-9
  142. ^ Brown, Dee, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee, Henry Holt and Co., 2007, 487 pages, pp 167–169, ISBN 978-0-8050-8684-3
  143. ^ Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present, City Lights, 1997, 381 pages, p 236, ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1
  144. ^ "Sand Creek Memorial and Washita Sites". Colorado Humanities. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  145. ^ Cox, Dale. "Washita Battlefield, Oklahoma". Archived from the original on May 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  146. ^ "Giago, Tim – Honoring Those Who Died at Washita". Huffington Post. 2007-04-22. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  147. ^ "The 140th Anniversary of the Washita Massacre of Nov. 27, 1868". Native American Netroots. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  148. ^ "THE WEST – Washita". PBS. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  149. ^ The Saint Francis Herald, "Cherry Creek Massacre recognized in magazine", St. Francis, Kansas, November 17, 2005
  150. ^ Zeman, Scott C., Chronology of the American West from 23,000 B.C.E. through the Twentieth Century, ABC-CLIO, 2002, 381 pages, p 155, ISBN 978-1-57607-207-3
  151. ^ "Chinese Massacre of 1871". University of Southern California. June 23, 2002. Archived from the original on October 14, 2012.
  152. ^ Erika Lee, Review of The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and the Massacre of 1871, by Scott Zesch, Journal of American History, vol. 100, no. 1 (June 2013), pg. 217.
  153. ^ The Nebraska Indian Wars reader, 1865–1877 By R. Eli Paul p.88 Publisher: University of Nebraska Press (April 1, 1998) Language: English ISBN 0-8032-8749-6
  154. ^ Greenway, Paul. (2002). Bulgaria: Centuries of History Ripe for Discovery. P141. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-86450-148-0
  155. ^ Bousfield, Jonathan. (2002). The Rough Guide to Bulgaria. P352. Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-882-7
  156. ^ Crampton, R.J. (2007). Bulgaria. P92. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-820514-7
  157. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bulgaria: History" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  158. ^ Chaput, John (2007). "Frog Lake Massacre". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. University of Regina and Canadian Plains Research Center. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  159. ^ W. B. Cameron, "Massacre at Frog Lake" Archived 2005-12-15 at the Wayback Machine, University of Alberta Libraries, response by W. B. Cameron to "Massacre at Frog Lake", Edmonton Journal, 4 April 1939. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
  160. ^ Camp Pilot Butte, National Register of Historic Places.
  161. ^ Larson, History of Wyoming, pp. 141–44.
  162. ^ Daniels, Asian America, pp. 61–63.
  163. ^ Ostler, Jeffrey, Conquest and the State, 65 Pacific Hist. Rev. 217, 248 n.52 (1996)(collecting estimates)
  164. ^ National Historic Landmarks Program: Wounded Knee Archived 2008-03-09 at the Wayback Machine National Park Service. Retrieved on 19 February 2008.
  165. ^ "The Wounded Knee Massacre". Archived from the original on December 5, 2011.
  166. ^ a b Charny, Israel W. (1999). Encyclopedia of genocide (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-87436-928-1. "also known as the Hamidian Massacres, after the sultan", distinguishing the current name from what the events were previously known as: the Armenian Massacres.
  167. ^ Cohan, Sara (October 2005). "A Brief History of the Armenian Genocide". Social Education. National Science Teachers Association, 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22201-3000. v69 (n6): 333. ISSN 0037-7724. "They are now known as the Hamidian Massacres"
  168. ^ Totten, Samuel; Paul Robert Bartrop; Jacobs, Steven L. (2008). Dictionary of genocide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-313-34642-2. "they are now often called the Hamidian massacres to distinguish them from the greater atrocities associated with the 1915 Armenian Genocide"
  169. ^ Western Cape Institute for Historical Research (1993-01-01). "Kronos". Kronos. Issues. University of the Western Cape. 20–22: 57–60.
  170. ^ Mark Twain, Weapons of Satire, pp. 168–178, Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York 1992
  171. ^ American Troops Killing Muslims: A Massacre to Remember Archived 2008-09-06 at the Wayback Machine, by Christine Gibson,, March 8, 2006
  172. ^ Byler, Charles A. Pacifying the Moros; Military Review, May–June, 2005
  173. ^ Creelman, James (August 22, 1909). "The Slaughter of Christians In Asia Minor". The New York Times.
  174. ^ Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act. 2006, pp. 69–70: "fifteen to twenty thousand Armenians were killed"
  175. ^ "30,000 Killed in Massacres". The New York Times. April 25, 1909.
  176. ^ Century of Genocide: Eyewitness Accounts and Critical Views By Samuel. Totten, William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny
  177. ^ Walker, 1980, pp. 182–88
  178. ^ Bills, E.R. (2014). The 1910 Slocum Massacre. Charleston, SC 29403: The History Press. ISBN 978-1-62619-352-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)
  179. ^ American Experience|The Rockefellers|Special Features|The Ludlow Massacre (PBS)
  180. ^ "The Ludlow Massacre|United Mine Workers of America". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  181. ^ Zinn, H. "The Ludlow Massacre", Excerpt from A People's History of the United States. pgs 346–349.
  182. ^ Westerlund, Lars (2004). "Me odotimme teitä vapauttajina ja te toitte kuolemaa – Viipurin valloituksen yhteydessä teloitetut venäläiset". Venäläissurmat Suomessa 1914–22: Osa 2.2. Sotatapahtumat 1918–22. Prime Minister's Office of Finland. ISBN 952-5354-45-8.
  183. ^ Report of Commissioners, Vol 1, New Delhi, p. 105
  184. ^ a b "Amritsar, Episode 83", This Sceptred Isle: Empire, BBC, June 7, 2006
  185. ^ a b "Massacre of Amritsar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
  186. ^ "The Inter-Allied Investigation of the Greek Invasion of Smyrna, 1919". doi:10.1163/2468-1733_shafr_sim110060001. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  187. ^ McNeill, William H. (1989). Arnold J. Toynbee : a Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-992339-7. OCLC 778339562.
  188. ^ {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  189. ^ Smith, Michael Llewellyn, 1939– (1998). Ionian vision : Greece in Asia Minor, 1919–1922 : with a new introduction. London: C. Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-413-1. OCLC 40461928.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  190. ^ Chambers, Mortimer; Toynbee, Arnold (1970). "Some Problems of Greek History". The Classical World. 64 (2): 62. doi:10.2307/4347289. ISSN 0009-8418. JSTOR 4347289.
  191. ^ a b T. Ryle Dwyer, The Squad and the intelligence operations of Michael Collins, Dublin, 2005
  192. ^ David Leeson, "Death in the Afternoon: The Croke Park Massacre, 21 November 1920", Canadian Journal of History, vol. 38, no. 1 (April 2003)
  193. ^ Florida Department of State, State Library & Archives of Florida, Rosewood Bibliography "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-21. Retrieved 2009-09-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  194. ^ Time vol. 11 (1928), p. 12, use in scare quotes: "The back of their mine strike broken, the I. W. W.'s in Colorado resented it last fortnight when Louis N. Scherf, 'hero' of the Columbine Mine 'massacre' (Time Dec. 5), was posted in Walsenburg, Colo., with his squad of sharpshooting State Police"
  195. ^ Michigan History, vols. 65–66, Michigan Department of State, 1981, p. 48.
  196. ^ Elspeth Young, The Aboriginal Component in the Australian Economy (1981), p. 9.
  197. ^ "Freedom of Information/Privacy Act". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on November 5, 2010.
  198. ^ Al Capone: Chicago's Most Infamous Mob Boss – The Crime library Archived April 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  199. ^ a b Schoenberg, Shira, "The Hebron Massacre of 1929", Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved March 3, 2010.
  200. ^ "Safed Victims Put at 70 Killed and Wounded", New York Times, September 1, 1929
  201. ^ "Safed Massacre of 1929". 1929-08-14. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  202. ^ McPherson, Alan (2014). "Herbert Hoover, occupation withdrawal, and the good neighbor policy". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 44 (4): 623+.
  203. ^ Belleau, Jean-Philippe (2016-01-25). "Massacres perpetrated in the 20th Century in Haiti". Sciences Po. Retrieved 2021-05-28.
  204. ^ Danticat, Edwidge. "The Long Legacy of Occupation in Haiti". The New Yorker. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
  205. ^ a b Habib, Irfan (September–October 1997). "Civil Disobedience 1930–31". Social Scientist. 25 (9–10): 43–66. doi:10.2307/3517680. JSTOR 3517680.
  206. ^ a b Johansen, Robert C. (1997). "Radical Islam and Nonviolence: A Case Study of Religious Empowerment and Constraint Among Pashtuns". Journal of Peace Research. 34 (1): 53–71. doi:10.1177/0022343397034001005. S2CID 145684635.
  207. ^ "Der Krieg am Ararat" (Telegramm unseres Korrespondenten) Berliner Tageblatt, October 3, 1930, "... die Türken in der Gegend von Zilan 220 Dörfer zerstört und 4500 Frauen und Greise massakriert". (in German)
  208. ^ M. Kalman, Belge, tanık ve yaşayanlarıyla Ağrı Direnişi 1926–1930, Pêrî Yayınları, Istanbul, 1997, ISBN 975-8245-01-5, p. 105. (in Turkish)
  209. ^ a b c Tamcke, Martin (2004-01-01). Syriaca II. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 289, 290. ISBN 3-8258-7834-1.
  210. ^ a b 19 Were killed including 2 policemen caught in the cross-fire The Washington Post. Tuesday, December 28, 1999; Page A03. Apology Isn't Enough for Puerto Rico Spy Victims'.' Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  211. ^ Biggest Massacre in Puerto Rican History. Retrieved July 14, 2009.
  212. ^ Kaussen, Valerie (December 24, 2007). Migrant Revolutions: Haitian Literature, Globalization, and U.S. Imperialism. Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739130162 – via Google Books.
  213. ^ Galván, Javier A. (2012). Latin American Dictators of the 20th Century: The Lives and Regimes of 15 Rulers. McFarland. p. 53.
  214. ^ "Resmi raporlarda Dersim katliamı: 13 bin kişi öldürüldü", Radikal, November 19, 2009. (in Turkish)
  215. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-20. Retrieved 2011-08-07.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  216. ^ Honda Katsuichi, The Nanjing Massacre, M.E. Sharp 1998
  217. ^ Fordham University webpage: Modern History Sourcebook
  218. ^ Matthew White Nanking Massacre, Accessed December 17, 2007. Cites eight sources directly and another ten indirectly. Lowest estimate Spence, The Search for Modern China: 42,000. Highest estimate Iris Chang, The Rape of Nanking (1997), citing James Yin & Shi Young: 400,000
  219. ^ Justin Harmon Student-Run Conference to Examine Nanking Massacre, Princeton University, November 12, 1997
  220. ^ John Earl Haynes and Harvey Klehr. In Denial: Historians, Communism, and Espionage. Encounter Books, 2003. ISBN 1-893554-72-4 p. 22
  221. ^ Aleksandr Shelepin's March 3, 1959 note to Khrushchev, with information about the execution of 21,857 Poles and with the proposal to destroy their personal files. Online Archived March 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  222. ^ Beria's March 1940 proposal to shoot 25,700 Poles from Kozelsk, Ostashkov, and Starobels camps, and from certain prisons of Western Ukraine and Belarus bearing Stalin's signature (among others). proposal online Archived March 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  223. ^ Fischer, Benjamin B., "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000
  224. ^ "Katyn Massacre", Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
  225. ^ Jolly, Cyril (1957). The Vengeance of Private Pooley. William Heineman Ltd. ISBN 0-9507733-1-X.
  226. ^ Goldstein, Ivo (2007). "The Independent State of Croatia in 1941: On the Road to Catastrophe". In Ramet, Sabrina P. (ed.). The Independent State of Croatia 1941–45. New York: Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-138-86811-3.
  227. ^ Levene, Mark (2013). The Crisis of Genocide, Annihilation: The European Rimlands, 1939–1953. Vol. 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-968304-8.
  228. ^ a b Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1-4000-4005-1 p. 391
  229. ^ Rhodes, Richard (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9.
  230. ^ a b The Holocaust Chronicle: Massacre at Babi Yar, The Holocaust Chronicle web site. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  231. ^ Khiterer, Victoria (2004). "Babi Yar: The tragedy of Kiev's Jews" (PDF). Brandeis Graduate Journal. 2: 1–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 28, 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  232. ^ "A survivor of the Babi Yar massacre". Heritage: Civilization and the Jews. Public Broadcasting System (PBS). Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  233. ^ Wette, Wolfram (2006). The Wehrmacht: History, Myth, Reality. Harvard University Press. p. 112. The massacre at Babi Yar, near Kyiv, which claimed the lives of more than thirty thousand Jewish victims on September 29 and 30, 1941, was the largest single mass killing for which the German army was responsible during its campaign against the Soviet Union.
  234. ^ Dougherty, Jill & Bittermann, Jim (2001-06-25). "Pope visits Jewish massacre site". CNN. Retrieved 2008-01-20.
  235. ^ Rozen, Marcu (1943-09-01). "The Holocaust in Romania Under the Antonescu Government (24)". Archived from the original on May 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  236. ^ *Ezergailis, Andrew (1996a). "Latvia". In Wyman, David S.; Rosenzveig, Charles H. (eds.). The World Reacts to the Holocaust. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-8018-4969-1.
  237. ^ a b Saff Fall of Ambon: Massacred at Laha Archived 2012-02-27 at the Wayback Machine, Australia's War 1939-145 Archived 2017-04-21 at the Wayback Machine An Australian government website.
  238. ^ Peter Stanley The defence of the 'Malay barrier': Rabaul and Ambon, January 1942 principal historian to Australian War Memorial
  239. ^ a b Katerina Zachovalova. War Crime To War Game, Time, September 17
  240. ^ David Vaughan. The Lidice massacre – atrocity and courage website of Czech Radio, 11 June 2002
  241. ^ "Lidice memorial". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  242. ^ "Memorial Acqui Division Kefalonia - Argostoli -".
  243. ^ "Massacre on Wake Island". Archived from the original on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
  244. ^ Burke, Matthew M. (January 22, 2012). "Search for closure, accurate account of Wake Island massacre continues". Stars and Stripes.
  245. ^ a b "Oradour Info – Oradour-sur-Glane 10th June 1944". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  246. ^ "The Second World War – The massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane". 1944-06-10. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  247. ^ Mackness, Robin. "Oradour Massacre and Aftermath". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  248. ^ Mackness, Robin (1988). Massacre at Oradour. ISBN 978-0-394-57002-0. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  249. ^ Hare-Cuming, Stephanie (2013-03-01). "Massacre at Oradour, France, 1944". Oxford Journals. Archived from the original on 2008-12-01. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  250. ^ Farmer, Sarah (1999). Martyred Village: Commemorating the 1944 Massacre at Oradour-sur-Glane. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-21186-5. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  251. ^ a b Italy convicts Nazis of massacre BBC, January 13, 2007
  252. ^ Richard Owen. "Ten convicted for 1944 massacre", The Times (London), January 15, 2007
  253. ^ The Malmedy Massacre Revisited – Henri Rogister, Joseph Dejardin and Emile Jamar
  254. ^ Goldstein, Donald M.; J. Michael Wenger; Dillon, Katherine V. (1997). Nuts! the Battle of the Bulge (illustrated ed.). Brassey's. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-57488-279-7.
  255. ^ Euphemistically Celler Hasenjagd ("hare chase of Celle"). The English term "Celle Massacre Trial" for the trial of 1947/8 is referenced in Mijndert Bertram, Celle '45: Aspekte einer Zeitenwende (1995), p. 26.
  256. ^ Geiger, Vladimir (2013). "Human losses of Croats in World War II and the immediate post-war period caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the partisan detachment of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Yugoslav Communist authoritities. Numerical indicators". Review of Croatian History. Croatian institute of history. 8 (1): 77–121.
  257. ^ *A 1961 Massacre of Algerians in Paris When the Media Failed the Test James J. Napoli
  258. ^ Yves Courrière, La guerre d'Algérie, tome 1 (Les fils de la Toussaint), Fayard, Paris 1969, ISBN 2-213-61118-1
  259. ^ * Jean Louis Planche, Sétif 1945, histoire d'un massacre annoncé, Perrin, Paris 2006
  260. ^ "History Matters: Few know of World War II massacre in Salina". Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  261. ^ Harris, Justin M. (December 2009). "American Soldiers and POW Killing in the European Theater of World War II" (PDF): 1–2. Retrieved November 28, 2018. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  262. ^ Flanders, Christian. "The P.O.W. Camp at Salina, Utah". Intermountain Histories. Northern Arizona University. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
  263. ^ de Zayas, Alfred M.: A terrible Revenge. Palgrave/Macmillan, New York, 1994.
  264. ^ Naimark, Norman: Fires of Hatred. Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth – Century Europe. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2001.
  265. ^ Prausser Steffen and Rees, Arfon: The Expulsion of the "German Communities from Eastern Europe at the End of the Second World War. Florence, Italy, European University Institute, 2004.
  266. ^ Wang, Amy. "For decades, no one spoke of Taiwan's hidden massacre. A new generation is breaking the silence". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 February 2017. his grandfather had been one of the tens of thousands of victims targeted and murdered in Taiwan's "February 28 Massacres."
  267. ^ Shattuck, Thomas (27 February 2017). "Taiwans White Terror: Remembering the 228 Incident". Foreign Policy Research Institute. Just blocks away from the Presidential Palace in Taipei is a museum and park memorializing the victims of the 228 Massacre.
  268. ^ Commission of enquiry report, Palestine Post, 20 Feb 1948.
  269. ^ "제주4.3사건 희생자·유족 추가신고 받는다".
  270. ^ a b Ghosts Of Cheju Newsweek
  271. ^ Kana'ana and Zeitawi, 1987.
  272. ^ "Hadassah Convoy Massacre". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  273. ^ Allon, Yigal, (1970) "Shield of David – The Story of Israel's Armed Forces". Weidenfeld and Nicolson. SBN 297 00133 7. Page 196.
  274. ^ Gilbert, Martin (1977) "Jerusalem – Illustrated History Atlas". Published in conjunction with the Board of Deputies of British Jews. Map 50, page 93.
  275. ^ Adam Raz, 'There’s a Mass Palestinian Grave at a Popular Israeli Beach, Veterans Confess,' Haaretz, 20 January 2022.
  276. ^ Shehadeh, Raja (October 16, 2012). "The Nakba, Then and Now". The New York Times.
  277. ^ "Massacre at Dahmash mosque in al-Lydd". Archived from the original on 2017-12-08. Retrieved 2013-09-04.
  278. ^ a b "70 years after Babrra massacre, victims' families demand justice, as deaths of 600 Khudai Khidmatgars remain buried in history – Firstpost". Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  280. ^ Israel and the Palestinian Refugees. Springer Science & Business Media. 2007-02-17. ISBN 9783540681618.
  281. ^ "October 29: The Safsaf Massacre, 1948". Jewish Currents. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  282. ^ Khalili, Laleh (2007). Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine: The Politics of National Commemoration. Cambridge University Press. p. 167. ISBN 9781139462822.
  283. ^ #B. Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004. pp481,487,501,502.
  284. ^ An article (no title given) by R. Barkan from the Mapam newspaper Al Hamishmar, quoting a letter from eyewitness Dov Yirmiya and the Jewish Agency's response, translated in the Journal of Palestine Studies, vol. VII, no. 4 (summer 1978), no. 28, pp. 143–145.
  285. ^ "Malay massacre evidence to be reviewed by the UK government". BBC News. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  286. ^ Kent, Jonathan (July 17, 2004). "Past lessons for occupying forces". BBC News.
  287. ^ Only one reference names this as "the Batang Massacre" rather than just a massacre at Batang
  288. ^ "Hari Ini 68 Tahun Silam, 2.600 Warga Rengat Dibantai Belanda, Termasuk Ayah Penyair Terkemuka Chairil Anwar". (in Indonesian). 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2021-07-02.
  289. ^ 민간인학살 울산-문경 두 판결문 비교. 경남도민일보 (in Korean). 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  290. ^ 두 민간인 학살 사건, 상반된 판결 왜 나왔나?'울산보도연맹' – '문경학살사건' 판결문 비교분석해 봤더니.... OhmyNews (in Korean). 2009-02-17. Archived from the original on 2011-05-03. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
  291. ^ Diplomat, Benjamin Katzeff Silberstein, The. "South Korea's Own History Problem". The Diplomat.
  292. ^ "Korea bloodbath probe ends; US escapes much blame". San Diego Union-Tribune. July 10, 2010.
  293. ^ South Korea owns up to brutal past Sydney Morning Herald
  294. ^ a b "서울대병원, 6.25전쟁 참전 용사들을 위한 추모제 가져". Seoul National University Hospital. 2010-06-04. Archived from the original on 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
  295. ^ Committee for the Review and Restoration of Honor for the No Gun Ri Victims (2009). No Gun Ri Incident Victim Review Report. Seoul: Government of the Republic of Korea. pp. 247–249, 328. ISBN 978-89-957925-1-3.
  296. ^ Lee, B-C (2012-10-15). "No Gun Ri Foundation held special law seminar". Newsis (online news agency) (in Korean). Retrieved 2020-02-18.
  297. ^ "War's hidden chapter: Ex-GIs tell of killing Korean refugees". Associated Press. September 29, 1999.
  298. ^ a b Soldiers scale Hill 303 in honor of fallen comrades Archived 2012-03-27 at the Wayback Machine 8th United States Army
  299. ^ a b c "< 북에서의 6.25 '미군만행' 확인될까 >". JoongAng Daily. 2001-05-16. Archived from the original on 2013-06-19. Retrieved 2012-08-03.
  300. ^ Sung-hwan, Kim (2008-05-22). "남양주 민간인학살 국가사과 권고". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
  301. ^ Hanley, Charles J.; Chang, Jae-Soon (2008-12-06). "Children 'executed' in 1950 South Korean killings". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2021-11-09. Retrieved 2012-08-30.
  302. ^ a b Chun-hwa, Hwang (2011-11-29). "고양 금정굴 민간인 학살...법원 "유족에 국가배상을"". Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2011-11-29.
  303. ^ 강화교동도 학살•1 '우익단체가 주민 212명 총살' 공식확인 유족 주장 사실로.... Kyeongin Ilbo (in Korean). 2006-02-28. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
  304. ^ 강화지역 민간인 학살 희생자 고유제 및 추모제. Incheon Ilbo (in Korean). 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2010-07-12.[dead link]
  305. ^ a b '산청·함양 양민학살' 책 펴낸 강희근 교수. Newstoday21 (in Korean). 2008-11-07. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
  306. ^ a b 편히 영면하소서!'..거창사건 희생자 위령제. Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 2009-04-17. Archived from the original on June 11, 2011. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
  307. ^ "Mau Mau Massacres 150 Natives In Night Raid Near Kenya Capital". The New York Times. March 28, 1953.
  308. ^ Corradini, Stephen (1999). Chief Luka and the Lari Massacre: Contrary Notions of Kikuyu Land Tenure and the Mau Mau War. University of Wisconsin-Madison. p. 154. ISBN 0-942615-49-2.
  309. ^ "South Africa: The Sharpeville Massacre". Time. 1960-04-04. Archived from the original on October 20, 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  310. ^ "The Sharpeville Massacre – A watershed in South Africa". Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  311. ^ This invitation was later disputed by the Portuguese authorities. Azevedo, Mario (1991) "Mueda" Historical Dictionary of Mozambique Scarecrow Press, Metuchen, New Jersey, page 92, ISBN 0-8108-2413-2
  312. ^ a b West, Harry G. (2003) ""Who Rules Us Now?" Identity Tokens, Sorcery, and Other Metaphors in the 1994 Mozambican Elections" pp. 92–124 In West, Harry G. (editor) (2003) Transparency and Conspiracy: Ethnographies of suspicion in the new world order Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina, page 103, ISBN 0-8223-3036-9
  313. ^ a b Newitt, Malyn D. D. (1995) A History of Mozambique Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, page 521, ISBN 0-253-34006-3
  314. ^ Fitzpatrick, Mary (2007) Mozambique Lonely Planet, Footscray, Victoria, Australia, page 162, ISBN 978-1-74059-188-1
  315. ^ West, Harry G. (2003) "'Who Rules Us Now?' Identity Tokens, Sorcery, and Other Metaphors in the 1994 Mozambican Elections" pp. 92–124 In West, Harry G. (editor) (2003) Transparency and Conspiracy: Ethnographies of suspicion in the new world order Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, page 120, note 31, ISBN 0-8223-3036-9 "The number of casualties is disputed. Nationalists suggested that as many a six hundred were killed, while Portuguese accounts sometimes place the number of casualties in the single digits."
  316. ^ Katiry, Zhiwhuotho (September 5, 2017). "Living Eyewitness – Pochury Black Day, and Massacre of Matikhru Village". Eastern Mirror. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  317. ^ "Nagalim: Remembrance Of Matikhrü Incident". Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization. September 9, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  318. ^ Alessandra Stanley, Russian General Campaigns On Old-Time Soviet Values The New York Times, October 13, 1995
  319. ^ Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-08760-8 p. 228
  320. ^ Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev. A Century of Violence in Soviet Russia. Yale University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-300-08760-8 p. 226
  321. ^ Benjamin Stora, Algeria, 1830–2000: A Short History (Cornell University Press, 2004) p105
  322. ^ "No Apology Forthcoming as 50th Anniversary of Anti-Communist Massacre Looms". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  323. ^ "Indonesia massacres: Declassified US files shed new light". BBC News. 2017-10-17. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  324. ^ Post, The Jakarta. "1965 victims: We don't want communism, just reconciliation". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  325. ^ a b Armstrong, Charles (2001). Critical asian studies, Volume 33, Issue 4:America's Korea, Korea's Vietnam. Routledge. pp. 530–534.
  326. ^ a b "On War extra – Vietnam's massacre survivors" (Flash Video). AlJazeera. YouTube. January 4, 2009. Archived from the original on 2021-12-11. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  327. ^ "Binh Hoa Massacre". Tourist attractions: Relics. People's Committee of Quảng Ngãi province. Archived from the original on August 8, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  328. ^ Anderson, David L. (2004). The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. pp. 98–9
  329. ^ Jackson, Gerald (16–22 February 1998). "Hue: the massacre the Left wants us to forget". The New Australian. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
  330. ^ Anderson, David L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. 2004, page 98-9
  331. ^ "List of Civilians Massacred by the Communists During "Tet Mau Than" in Thua Thien Province ad Hue City" (PDF). RVN. Retrieved 25 April 2014.[dead link]
  332. ^ "List of Civilians Massacred by the Communists During "Tet Mau Than" in Thua Thien Province ad Hue City" (PDF). RVN. Retrieved 25 April 2014.[dead link]
  333. ^ Kendrick Oliver, The My Lai Massacre in American History and Memory (Manchester University Press, 2006), p. 27.
  334. ^ Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, edited by James Minahan, vol. 4 (Greenwood, 2002), p. 1761.
  335. ^ Pierre Journod, "La France, les États-Unis et la guerre du Vietnam: l'année 1968", in Les relations franco-américaines au XX siècle, edited by Pierre Melandri and Serge Ricard (L'Harmattan, 2003), p. 176.
  336. ^ Manley, Jacqueline. Saigon Salvation. Xulon Press. p. 364. ISBN 1622306716.
  337. ^ Lone survivor recalls Jabidah Massacre –, Philippine News for Filipinos Archived September 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  338. ^ Guillermo, Artemio R. (16 December 2011). Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. Scarecrow Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8108-7511-1.
  339. ^ McCoy, Alfred W. (2009). Policing America's empire: the United States, the Philippines, and the rise of the surveillance state. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 390–391. ISBN 978-0-299-23414-0.
  340. ^ Han Hong-gu, Sungkonghoe University professor (2000-11-15). 미국의 관심은 '학살은폐 책임' 최초공개된 미국 비밀보고서의 의미... 정부는 참전군인의 명예를 위해서 진상조사에 나서라. Hankyoreh (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-01-29.
  341. ^ Kwon, Heonik (2006-11-10). After the massacre: commemoration and consolation in Ha My and My Lai. University of California Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-520-24797-0.
  342. ^ a b "Murder in the name of war – My Lai", BBC News, July 20, 1998
  343. ^ "The My Lai Massacre", Public Broadcasting Service, March 29, 2005
  344. ^ "Former Mexican president sheds light on 1968 massacre", CNN, February 4, 1998
  345. ^ a b "Mexican Court Issues Warrant for Former President". 1968-10-02. Archived from the original on 2013-05-27. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  346. ^ "Tlatelolco: las Claves de la Masacre" Archived November 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, "in a CIA document it reads 'As is typical in Mexico, accurate statistics concerning the number of casualties in the 2 October battle cannot be found. Reports have been received of as high as 350 killed. The best Embassy estimate is that this figure is between 150 and 200.'".
  347. ^ Weiner, Tim (2003-02-07). "Mexico Digs at Last for Truth About 1968 Massacre". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  348. ^ a b Lang, John (2000-05-04). "The day the Vietnam War came home". Scripps Howard News service. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
  349. ^ Caputo, Philip (May 4, 2005). "The Kent State Shootings, 35 Years Later". NPR. Retrieved November 9, 2007. These would be the first of many probes into what soon became known as the Kent State Massacre. Like the Boston Massacre almost exactly two hundred years before (March 5, 1770), which it resembled, it was called a massacre not for the number of its victims but for the wanton manner in which they were shot down.
  350. ^ Ryan, Tim (May 4, 2007). "Congressman Tim Ryan Gives Speech at 37th Commemoration of Kent State Massacre". Congressional website of Rep. Tim Ryan (D-Ohio). Retrieved November 9, 2007.
  351. ^ Dated quote (diary of Tony Benn, 31 January 1972) in Ruth Winstone, Events, Dear Boy, Events: A Political Diary of Britain 1921–2010 (2012).
  352. ^ Walker, Christopher; Barkham, Patrick (October 17, 2002). "Killing of 14 was not justified, says Bloody Sunday soldier". The Times. London. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  353. ^ Feemster, Ron (March 7, 2002). "Fitting Bloody Sunday Into the Present". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  354. ^ "Bloody Sunday killings 'unjustified and unjustifiable'". BBC News. June 15, 2010. Retrieved June 15, 2010.
  355. ^ a b "In what became known as the Lod Airport Massacre three members of the terrorist group, Japanese Red Army, arrived at the airport aboard an Air France flight from Paris. Once inside the airport they grabbed automatic firearms from their carry-on cases and fired at airport staff and visitors. In the end, 26 people died and 80 people were injured." CBC News, The Fifth Estate, "Fasten Your Seatbelts: Ben Gurion Airport in Israel", 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  356. ^ "The short-term impact of the Lod Airport massacre as a precursor to Munich..." Stephen Sloan, John C. Bersia, J. B. Hill. Terrorism: The Present Threat in Context, Berg Publisher, 2006, p. 50. ISBN 1-84520-344-5
  357. ^ "Two years later, just before the Lod Airport massacre, authorities uncovered the bodies of 14 young men and women on remote Mount Haruna, 70 miles northwest of Tokyo." "Again the Red Army", Time, August 18, 1975.
  358. ^ "Those named by Lebanese officials as having been arrested included at least three Red Army members who have been wanted for years by Japanese authorities, most notably Kozo Okamoto, 49, the only member of the attacking group who survived the Lod Airport massacre." "Lebanon Seizes Japanese Radicals Sought in Terror Attacks", The New York Times, February 19, 1997.
  359. ^ "They were responsible for the Lod Airport massacre in Israel in 1972, which was committed on behalf of the PFLP." Jeffrey D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism, Indiana University Press, p. 324. ISBN 0-253-21477-7
  360. ^ "Munich Massacre Remembered". CBS News. 2002-09-05.
  361. ^ Wolff, Alexander (September 2, 2002). "When The Terror Began". Time. Archived from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  362. ^ a b "La Masacre de Ezeiza". El Historiador. 2005. Archived from the original on 2016-02-01.
  363. ^ a b "Revisiting the February 7–8, 1974, Burning of Jolo". Archived from the original on 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  364. ^ Sources describing the event as a "massacre":
    • "The day after the Ma'alot massacre, condemned by Pope Paul VI and most Western leaders as "an evil outrage", ..." Frank Gervasi. Thunder Over the Mediterranean, McKay, 1975, p. 443.
    • "The previous day Israel had been traumatized by the Ma'alot massacre, which had resulted in the deaths of numerous schoolchildren." William B. Quandt. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967, Brookings Institution Press, 2001, p. 432.
    • "Faced with a public outcry over the Ma'alot massacre, they demanded of Syria a pledge to forbid terrorist to cross the Golan into Israel." Milton Viorst. Sands of Sorrow: Israel's Journey from Independence, I.B.Tauris, 1987, p. 192.
    • "...Organization (PLO) crimes, like the massacre of Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympic Games in 1972 and the Ma'alot massacre of children in 1974." Richard J. Chasdi. Tapestry of Terror: A Portrait of Middle East Terrorism, 1994–1999, Lexington Books, 2002, p. 6.
    • "The PFLP was responsible for the Ma'alot massacre on May IS, 1974 during which 22 Israeli children were killed." Alex Peter Schmid, A. J. Jongman, Michael Stohl. Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories, & Literature, Transaction Publishers, 2005, p. 639.
    • "On 22 November 1974, six months after the Ma'alot massacre, the United Nations General Assembly voted to accept the Palestine Liberation Organisation as an..." Martin Gilbert. The Jews in the Twentieth Century: An Illustrated History, Schocken Books, 2001, p. 327.
  365. ^ a b c Khoury, Jack. "U.S. filmmakers plan documentary on Ma'alot massacre", Haaretz, March 07, 2007.
  366. ^ a b Oberling, Pierre. The road to Bellapais: the Turkish Cypriot exodus to northern Cyprus (1982), Social Science Monographs, p. 185
  367. ^ L'Événement du jeudi, Issues 543–547 (1995), S.A. L'Evénement du jeudi, p. 45 (in French)
  368. ^ Documents officiels, United Nations
  369. ^ a b Paul Sant Cassia, Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84545-228-5, p. 237.
  370. ^ Δημητρίου, Μάριος (21 August 2016). "Μια παλιά μαρτυρία στην Τόχνη". Sigma Live. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  371. ^ Δημητρίου, Μάριος (20 March 2014). "Κηδεύτηκαν έξι Τουρκοκύπριοι της Τόχνης". Sigma Live. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  372. ^ Κουκουμάς, Γιώργος (2 August 2015). "Σφαγές Τ/κ από τον ελληνοκυπριακό φασισμό". Διάλογος. Archived from the original on 5 August 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  373. ^ "Τουρκοκύπριος συγκλονίζει: Έτσι έγινε η σφαγή της Τόχνης". Πρώτο Θέμα.
  374. ^ "Remembering the Tochni Massacre". T-Vine. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
  375. ^ Paul Sant Cassia, Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84545-228-5, Massacre&f=false p. 61.
  376. ^ Gisela Welz,European Products: Making and Unmaking Heritage in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, 2015, ISBN 9781782388234 p. 53
  377. ^ a b Mawallil, Amir. "OPINION: The Malisbong Massacre and the privilege to remember". ABS-CBN News.
  378. ^ Carton, Donna (December 11, 2005). "Miami Showband massacre files to stay under wraps". Sunday Mirror. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
  379. ^ "Miami Showband massacre remembered". 30 July 2005. Archived from the original on February 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  380. ^ "Miami Showband Memorial Unveiled". 10 December 2007. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
  381. ^ "Ahern unveils Miami Showband memorial". The Irish Times. December 10, 2007. Retrieved February 5, 2008.
  382. ^ Dillon, Martin (1991). The Dirty War. Arrow Books. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-09-984520-1.
  383. ^ a b "1976: Ten dead in Northern Ireland ambush", BBC, On this day series (5 January). Retrieved December 23, 2007.
  384. ^ Sam Knight, "Ulster lukewarm about unsolved murders probe", The Times (London), January 20, 2006
  385. ^ Kissinger, Henry (1999) Years of Renewal Simon Schuster, ISBN 1-84212-042-5 p 1022
  386. ^ a b Friedman, New York Times, September 20, 21, 26, 27, 1982. Retrieved May 17, 2009
  387. ^ Cobban, Helena (1984), The Palestinian Liberation Organisation: People, Power, and Politics, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-27216-5 p 73
  388. ^ Price, Daniel E. (1999). Islamic Political Culture, Democracy, and Human Rights: A Comparative Study. Greenwood Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0-275-96187-9, p. 68.
  389. ^ Winichakul, Thongchai (2002). "Remembering/ Silencing the Traumatic Past: the Ambivalent Memories of the October 1976 Massacre in Bangkok". Cultural Crisis and Social Memory: Modernity and Identity in Thailand and Laos. London: Routledge Curzon: 243.
  390. ^ a b "Among the most notorious attacks was the coastal road massacre in Israel in March 1978. The attack left 35 civilians dead and 80 wounded." Ben Gad, Yitschak. Politics, Lies, and Videotape, Shapolsky Publishers, 1991, ISBN 1-56171-015-6, p. 94.
  391. ^ "1978, March 11. The Coastal Road Massacre" Richard Ernest Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present, Harper & Row, 1986, ISBN 0-06-181235-8, p. 1362.
  392. ^ "Operation Litani is launched in retaliation for that month's Coastal Road massacre." Gregory S. Mahler. Politics and Government in Israel: The Maturation of a Modern State, Rowman & Littlefield, 2004, ISBN 0-7425-1611-3, p. 259.
  393. ^ "So did the Coastal Road massacre of 1978, in which a POLO hijacking of an intercity bus ended with the deaths of thirty-five Israeli hostages." Binyamin Netanyahu. A Durable Peace: Israel and Its Place Among the Nations, Warner Books, 2000, ISBN 0-446-52306-2, p. 218.
  394. ^ "Ghost of Marichjhapi returns to haunt". Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  395. ^ "O.A.S. to Reopen Inquiry Into Massacre in El Salvador in 1981". The New York Times. 8 March 2005.
  396. ^ Yemeni father's school slaughter, The Independent (March 31, 1997)[dead link]
  397. ^ Friedman, Thomas L., From Beirut to Jerusalem, (Macmillan, 1991), 76–105.
  398. ^ Robert Fisk Another war on terror. Another proxy army. Another mysterious massacre. And now, after 19 years, perhaps the truth at last... Archived December 1, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, The Independent 28 November 2001
  399. ^ Cilina Nasser. Sharon role in massacre remembered Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Al Jazeera, 5 March 2006
  400. ^ Amal Hamdan Remembering Sabra and Shatila Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Al Jazeera, 16 September 2003
  401. ^ Rotella, Sebastian (May 25, 2012). "Finding Oscar: Massacre,Memory and Justice in Guatemala". Pro-Publica. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved Nov 5, 2018.
  402. ^ Conklin, Ellis E. "The Broken Heart of Chinatown". Seattle Weekly. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-17.
  403. ^ Parker, Laura (February 22, 1983). "Seattle's Wah Mee Club, Once a Respectable Bar, Became Place of Death". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  404. ^ Peru: The killings of Lucanamarca BBC, 09–14–06
  405. ^ Kavanagh, Jim (July 24, 2009). "Slaughter at McDonald's changed how police operate". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  406. ^ Gresko, Jessica (July 18, 2004). "20 Years later, San Ysidro McDonald's massacre remembered". North County Times. Escondido, California. Archived from the original on May 20, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  407. ^ Ben-Ali, Russell (December 14, 1990). "After a Long Wait, Monument Is Dedicated at Massacre Site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  408. ^ a b Rory Carroll. Saddam trial to open with village massacre, The Guardian, June 7, 2005
  409. ^ "Documents Link Saddam To Massacre" Archived June 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Al Jazeera, Reuters, March 3, 2006
  410. ^ "Judging Dujail (section 3)". Human Rights Watch. November 19, 2006. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
  411. ^ "Judging Dujail (section 7)". Human Rights Watch. November 19, 2006. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
  412. ^ "Sri Lanka Tamil Terror". Time. May 27, 1985. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007.
  413. ^ "From Anuradhapura to Anuradhapura". The Hindu. Chennai, India. June 17, 2006. Archived from the original on June 29, 2006.
  414. ^ "Unofficial biography of Alan Garcia. Alan Garcia life and work. Alan Garcia contributions". Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  415. ^ a b "Notorious Peruvian School of the Americas Graduates". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  416. ^ "RIGHTS-PERU: Time Is of the Essence in Extradition of War Criminal". Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  417. ^ 管仁健. 〈國軍屠殺越南難民的三七事件〉. 《你不知道的台灣》. 2008-03-07
  418. ^ Elmo Fernando: LTTE massacre site is haven for Tamil victims, BBC Sinhala, January 28, 2005
  419. ^ O'Ballance, E. (18 December 1995). The Kurdish Struggle, 1920–94. Springer. ISBN 9780230377424. Retrieved 5 January 2019 – via Google Books.
  420. ^ Reuters (10 July 1987). "Kurdish Rebels Kill 20 In 2 Villages in Turkey". Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  421. ^ "PKK murdered 30 peasants in Pınarcık this day 30 years ago". Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  422. ^ a b c "Australian gunman laughs as he admits killing 35". CNN News. 1996-11-07. Archived from the original on September 22, 2008.
  423. ^ a b c Aftermath of horror death toll climbs to 35, New York Daily News Archived February 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine (April 30, 1996)
  424. ^ "1987: Gunman kills 14 in Hungerford rampage", On this day August 19. BBC, Retrieved August 6, 2008
  425. ^ "Ryan shot at me, then at my mother". The Daily Telegraph. London. December 7, 2004. Archived from the original on May 1, 2005. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
  426. ^ Patrick Bishop, "The IRA's 'Mistake'", Spectator, 14 November 1987, p. 15 (subtitled "Patrick Bishop on the meaning of the Poppy Day massacre for Republican terrorists" (the article text uses "the massacre at Enniskillen", as well as "La Mon House massacre" in reference to the La Mon restaurant bombing of 1978)
  427. ^ Harney, Mary (2001). "Dail Remarks by Mary Harney, T.D., Tánaiste and Leader of the Progressive Democrats in Response to the Recent Terrorist Attacks on the United States". DETE press release. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2008.
  428. ^ McDonald, Henry (23 April 2006). "Gadaffi sued by 160 victims of IRA". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 May 2008.
  429. ^ Bell, J Bowyer (1997). The Secret Army: The IRA. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers. p. 702. ISBN 1-56000-901-2., "The most dreadful of all the IRA errors came first with the Remembrance Day bombing in Enniskillen in November 1987: the Poppy Day Massacre" (Page 591)
  430. ^ "Michael Stone: Loyalist icon". CNN. 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
  431. ^ "Stone Murdered At Funeral". Sky News. 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
  432. ^ Barth, Kelly (2003). The Tiananmen Square Massacre. Greenhaven Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-7377-1176-0.
  433. ^ Cheng, Chu-Yuan (1990). Behind the Tiananmen Massacre: Social, Political, and Economic Ferment in China. Westview Press. p. 292. ISBN 0-8133-1047-4.
  434. ^ "1989: a suppressed discussion reopened". Panama News. 8 October 2017.
  435. ^ "The Latest: Noriega called 'most sinister' in Panama". Fox News. Associated Press. 30 May 2017.
  436. ^ Zeballos, Emilia (3 October 2014). "Masacre de Albrook, en el olvido de los panameños" [The Albrook massacre forgotten by Panamanians]. El Siglo (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  437. ^ Diaz, Juan Manuel (4 October 2015). "En memoria de los caídos en la masacre de Albrook" [In memory of those fallen in the Albrook massacre]. La Prensa (in Spanish). Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  438. ^ Johnson, Tim (6 July 2015). "Panama's former dictator Manuel Noriega trying to get out of prison". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australia. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  439. ^ "El ex general sólo merece la cárcel, según los familiares de sus víctimas" [The ex-general only deserves jail, according to the families of his victims]. El Mundo. Spain. 11 December 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  440. ^ Buchignani, Walter (1989-12-08). "Amid the tragedy, miracles of survival". The Gazette. Montreal. pp. A3.
  441. ^ Rathjen, Heidi; Montpetit, Charles (1999). December 6th: From the Montreal Massacre to Gun Control. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-6125-0.
  442. ^ Rakobowchuk, Peter (September 14, 2006). "Lessons learned from 1989 Montreal massacre help save lives at Dawson college". Canadian Press. Archived from the original on 2007-08-29.
  443. ^ a b "Welcome to UTHRJ: Report 7, Chapter 4". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  444. ^ "HRW report – Sri Lanka". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2007-02-02.
  445. ^ "Graveyard for Disappeared Persons – Statistic for Batticaloa district".[permanent dead link]
  446. ^ a b Hoole, Ranjan (2001). Sri Lanka: The Arrogance of Power: Myths, Decadence & Murder. University Teachers for Human Rights. ISBN 955-9447-04-1. p.378–397
  447. ^ a b Lawrence, Patricia (2001). The Ocean of Stories; Children's Imagination, Creativity, and Reconciliation in Eastern Sri Lanka. International Centre for Ethnic Studies. ISBN 955-580-076-6. p.40
  448. ^ McDermott (edit), Rachel Fell (2008). Encountering Kali: In the Margins, at the Center, in the West. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23240-2. p.121
  449. ^ Hoole, Ranjan. "The massacre at Sathurukondan: 9th September 1990". University Teachers for Human Rights. Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
  450. ^ Caron, Cynthia (March 15–21, 2003). "Floundering Peace Process: Need to Widen Participation". Economic and Political Weekly. 38 (11): 1029–1031. JSTOR 4413336.
  451. ^ "Hours Of Terror End". Otago Daily Times. November 15, 1990. p. 1.
  452. ^ "Aramoana Massacre –". 1990-11-13. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  453. ^ "Aramoana movie will bring back the tears Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine". Wairarapa Times-Age.
  454. ^ Jones, Lea (November 5, 2005). "Return to Aramoana". The New Zealand Herald. Otago Daily Times. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
  455. ^ Somaliland: Democratisation and Its Discontents. International Crisis Group. 2003.
  456. ^ London (2012-02-04). "4th February is the Anniversary of Genocide in Dilla and Borama by SNM by Suleiman Abdi Dugsiye". Codka, shacabka, SSC, wararkii ugu dambeeyey. Retrieved 2019-05-21.
  457. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Somalia: Information 1) on the current situation of the Gadabursi in Somalia and in Somaliland, on the actions taken against them by other clans and on their current relationship with the Hawiye and the Issaq". Refworld. Retrieved 2019-05-21. In February 1991, "ethnic cleansing" by the SNM took place in the Boroma region, the main Gadabursi town
  458. ^ Hayes, Thomas C (1991-10-17). "Gunman Kills 22 and Himself in Texas Cafeteria". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-15.
  459. ^ Chin, Paula. "A Texas Massacre". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  460. ^ "Memories of Luby's massacre in wake of Fort Hood shooting". Archived from the original on 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  461. ^ Sullivan, Andrew (2009-11-06). "Killeen's Other Massacre – The Daily Dish". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  462. ^ "Luby's Massacre Remains Among Nation's Worst Mass Shootings". Archived from the original on 2013-04-08. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  463. ^ The Trial of Fujimori Archived July 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  464. ^ . October 23, 2017 {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  465. ^ "South Sudan: White Army 'abandons war march' on Bor town". 29 December 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
  466. ^ Croatia massacre trial under way", BBC News, 11 October 2005
  467. ^ Vukovar massacre: What happened", BBC News, 13 June 2003
  468. ^ "ICTY Indictment" (PDF). 2007-03-05. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 17, 2009. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  469. ^ "Serbian Court Finds 14 Guilty In '91 Massacre Of Croatians". Reuters. 13 December 2005 – via The New York Times.
  470. ^ "Letter from the Charge d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan to the United Nations Office". Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  471. ^ Human Rights Watch/ Helsinki. Azerbaijan: Seven Years of Conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh. New York. 1994.
  472. ^ Thomas De Waal, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War, NYU Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8147-1945-7. Chapter 11. August 1991 – May 1992: War Breaks Out.
  473. ^ Smolowe, Jill (1992-03-16). "TIME Magazine – Tragedy Massacre in Khojaly". Archived from the original on February 28, 2005. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  474. ^ Retrieved February 6, 2016. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  475. ^ Krauss, Clifford (September 14, 2001). "Peru, Pressing Japan, Issues an Order for Fujimori's Arrest". The New York Times.
  476. ^ Daily Report: Central Eurasia, Issues 209–218, The Service, 1993, p. 8.
  477. ^ О выявленных фактах политики этнической чистки/геноцида, проводимой на территории Абхазии, Грузия, и необходимости передачи виновных лиц в руки правосудия в соответствии с международными принципами надлежащего судебного процесса. заключение Гос. комис. Грузии по установлению фактов политики этнич. чистки-геноцида, проводимой в отношении груз. населения Абхазии, Грузия, и передаче материалов в Междунар. трибунал (in Russian). О-во грузин в России. 1997.
  478. ^ Budapest Declaration and Geneva Declaration on Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia between 1992–1993 adopted by the OSCE and recognized as ethnic cleansing in 1994 and 1999
  479. ^ The Guns of August 2008, Russia's War in Georgia, Svante Cornell & Frederick Starr, p 27
  480. ^ Anatol Lieven, "Victorious Abkhazian Army Settles Old Scores in An Orgy of Looting, THe Times, 4 October 1993
  481. ^ In Georgia, Tales of Atrocities Lee Hockstander, International Herald Tribune, 22 October 1993
  482. ^ The Human Rights Field Operation: Law, Theory and Practice, Abkhazia Case, Michael O'Flaherty
  483. ^ The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, Michael Bourdeaux, p. 237
  484. ^ Managing Conflict in the Former Soviet Union: Russian and American Perspectives, Alekseĭ Georgievich Arbatov, p. 388
  485. ^ On Ruins of Empire: Ethnicity and Nationalism in the Former Soviet Union Georgiy I. Mirsky, p. 72
  486. ^ "Georgia – History". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  487. ^ Freedom in the World: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties by Roger Kaplan, p 564
  488. ^ Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, p 174
  489. ^ The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, by Michael Bourdeaux, p. 238
  490. ^ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
  491. ^ Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Soviet Union, Svante E. Cornell
  492. ^ Tamaz Nadareishvili, Conspiracy Against Georgia, Tbilisi, 2002
  493. ^ Human Rights Watch Helsinki, Vol 7, No 7, March 1995, p 230
  494. ^ Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia, Gary K. Bertsch, Page 161
  495. ^ Clifford L. Linedecker, Massacre at Waco, Texas (July 1993). Moore, Carol, The Davidian Massacre: Disturbing Questions About Waco Which Must Be Answered (1995).
  496. ^ Clifford L. Linedecker, Massacre at Waco: The Shocking True Story of Cult Leader David Koresh and the Branch Davidians, St. Martin's Press, 1993.
    • Brad Bailey and Bob Darden, Mad Man in Waco: The Complete Story of the Davidian Cult, David Koresh and the Waco Massacre, WRS Publishing, 1993.
    • James R. Lewis, From the Ashes: Making Sense of Waco, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994, p.3.
    • Dick J. Reavis, The Ashes of Waco: An Investigation, Syracuse University Press, 1998, p. 14.
    • James McEnteer, Deep in the Heart: The Texas Tendency in American Politics, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, p. 165.
  497. ^ Tom Hennigan, Tribe flees to escape contact with world, The Times, May 18, 2005
  498. ^ James Brooke, Brazil's Outrage Intensifies As Toll in Massacre Hits 73, The New York Times, August 23, 1993
  499. ^ "Victims of Sivas Massacre Commemorated – Bianet". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  500. ^ "Turkey commemorates 15th anniversary of Sivas massacre". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  501. ^ "Article page – Centre for Islamic Pluralism". 2009-04-23. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  502. ^ "Turkish minister remembers victims of Başbağlar massacre". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  503. ^ "Başbağlar, one of PKK's bloodiest massacres, remembered". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  504. ^ {{cite news |url= massacre turned trick or treat into a night of horror|first=Ian|last=Starrett|work=The News Letter|location=Belfast|date=2003-10-30|access-date=}[dead link]
  505. ^ "'I feared my brother had been killed' – horror of Greysteel massacre recalled". Derry Journal. 2007-02-27. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
  506. ^ "Victims' relatives criticise MLA". The Irish News. Belfast. 2007-10-22. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
  507. ^ "The leaders of one tribe now represent the hopes of another". Irish Examiner. 2007-03-13. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
  508. ^ Sales, Rosemary (1997). Women Divided: Gender, Religion and Politics in Northern Ireland. Routledge. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-415-13765-2.
  509. ^ Lister, David & Jordan, Hugh (2004). Mad Dog: The Rise And Fall of Johnny Adair and 'C Company'. Mainstream Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-84018-890-5.
  510. ^ McDonand, Henry & Cusack, Jim (2004). UDA: Inside The Heart of Loyalist Terror. Penguin Books. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-84488-020-1.
  511. ^ "The Tablet – Inside the mind of terrorists". 1993-10-31. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  512. ^ May 14, 2002
  513. ^ United Nations Archived 2008-05-30 at the Wayback Machine Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Palestinian People and Other Arabs of the Occupied Territories, 23 September 2002
  514. ^ Archived August 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine February 15, 2005
  515. ^ Piven, Jeremy S. (2002). Terror and Apocalypse Psychological Undercurrents of History, Volume II. Writer's Showcase Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-595-21874-5.
  516. ^ Hoffman, Bruce (1999). Insider Terrorism. Columbia University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-231-11469-1.
  517. ^ a b "An Anatomy of the Massacres", Ait-Larbi, Ait-Belkacem, Belaid, Nait-Redjam, and Soltani, in An Inquiry into the Algerian Massacres, ed. Bedjaoui, Aroua, and Ait-Larbi, Hoggar: Geneva 1999.
  518. ^ "Wanton and Senseless? The Logic of Massacres in Algeria" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine, Stathis N. Kalyvas, Rationality and Society, Vol. 11, No. 3, 243–285 (1999)
  519. ^ "I saw Algerian soldiers massacre civilians". 2001-02-14. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  520. ^ "Algeria: Amnesty Article, 5/16/98". 1998-05-16. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  521. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 4, 2011. Retrieved February 6, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  522. ^ Kalyvas, Stathis N. "Wanton and Senseless?: The Logic of Massacres in Algeria" Archived 2008-09-12 at the Wayback Machine Rationality and Society 1999; 11: "The most important evidence comes from testimonies of survivors who were able to identify local Islamists among the attackers (see below). In fact, survivors who openly accuse the army for its failure to intervene also expressed no doubt about the identity of the killers, pointing to the Islamist guerrillas (e.g. Tuquoi 1997). Moreover, some of the troubling aspects of this story can be explained without reference to an army conspiracy. For example, in civil wars prisoners tend to be killed on the spot rather than taken prisoner (Laqueur 1998).11 Militiamen, the most likely to capture guerrillas, have openly stated that they took no prisoners (AI 1997b: 17). Journalists working in the field have found credible testimonies in support of the thesis that most massacres are organized by the rebels (Leclère 1997; Tuquoi 1997 among others). European foreign ministries believe that it is Islamist guerrillas who are responsible for the massacres (Observer 9 February 1998). Although, it is impossible to know the full truth at this point (see Charef 1998), the assumption that many massacres were committed by the Islamist guerrillas seems plausible and is widely adopted by area experts (Addi 1998: 44) and other authors (Smith 1998: 27). Likewise, the reluctance of the army to intervene and stop some of these massacres is also beyond doubt."
  523. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on February 17, 2005. Retrieved February 6, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  524. ^ [1] Archived April 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  525. ^ [2][dead link]
  526. ^ O'Brien, Brendan. The Long War: The IRA and Sinn Féin. Syracuse University Press, 1999. Page 314.
  527. ^ Elliott, Sydney. Conflict in Northern Ireland: an encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 1999. Page 350.
  528. ^ Sluka, Jeffry. Death Squad: The Anthropology of State Terror. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. Page 141.
  529. ^ Cusack, Jim. UVF. Poolbeg, 1997. Page 317.
  530. ^ "The UVF's catalogue of atrocities". BBC News. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  531. ^ The Economist newspaper, 25 June 1994, Pages 25–26
  532. ^ "Sutton Index of Deaths, 1994". Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 19 February 2010.
  533. ^ Das, Asit (November 19, 2011). "Armed Forces(Special Powers) Act (AFSPA) And Irom Sharmila's Struggle For Justice". Counter Currents. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  534. ^ "1994 isn't just a number". The Morung Express. September 22, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  535. ^ "Members of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad Arrested, Charged with Racketeering and Conspiracy to Provide Support to Terrorists", United States Department of Justice, February 20, 2003. "...1995 murder of 22 people in a double suicide bombing at Beit Lid, Israel...".
  536. ^ "But after the Beit Lid massacre, the government approved the construction and sale of 4000 units in occupied land around Jerusalem." Beyer, Lisa. "Can Peace Survive", Time, February 06, 1995.
  537. ^ "When Arafat called Rabin to express his condolences on the Beit Lid massacre, the prime minister was understandably furious." Karsh, Efraim, Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest, Grove Press, 2003, p. 116. ISBN 0-8021-1758-9
  538. ^ "The reaction of peace processors in Jerusalem and Washington to the Beit Lid massacre, in which Islamic suicide bombers wiped out a score of Israelis, has been shock, anger, sorrow – but a determination that terrorist attacks not be allowed to stop the peace process." Safire, William. "Essay; Responding to Terror", The New York Times, January 26, 1995.
  539. ^ "President Ezer Weizman, a super-dove who initially supported the agreement wholeheartedly, called for a temporary suspension of talks following the Beit Lid massacre on January 22 and again after the February 6 killing in Gaza." Bar-Ilan, David. "Rain of terror – Israeli politics" Archived 2015-10-16 at the Wayback Machine, National Review, March 6, 1995, p. 2.
  540. ^ Naleo, Villo (August 23, 2016). "Nagaland: Remembering Truthfully and Forgiving Generously". Eastern Mirror. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  541. ^ "Nagaland Timeline - Year 1995". South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  542. ^ "BBC news article, on this day (13th March)". BBC News. 1996-03-13. Retrieved 2010-01-06.
  543. ^ Lyall, Sarah (October 17, 1996). "Britain May Forbid Private Ownership Of Most Handguns". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  544. ^ "British Push For Stricter Gun Control Laws". Time. March 18, 1996. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  545. ^ "Scottish town mourns loss of little ones". CNN. 14 March 1996. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
  546. ^ "A danegrous mind: what turned Martin Bryant into a mass murderer". The Age. Melbourne.
  547. ^ BBC News 31 July 2006
  548. ^ Fisk, Robert (6 May 1996). "Massacre film puts Israel in dock". The Independent. London. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  549. ^ The growing political ties with Israel[dead link] Lebanon Daily Mirror
  550. ^ Dignitaries, officials mark 12th anniversary of Qana massacre Sri Lanka Daily Star
  551. ^ Gaza media: It's Palestine's Qana massacre
  552. ^ "Middle East History of Israel's role in Lebanon" BBC, April 1, 1998
  553. ^ "Human Rights Watch "Operation Grapes of Wrath" The Civilian Victims". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  554. ^ "Israel/Lebanon: Unlawful killings during operation 'Grapes of Wrath'". Amnesty International. July 23, 1996: 16. Retrieved April 19, 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  555. ^ American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 23:3 (2006), p. 146.
  556. ^ Lidster, Suzanne (2002-09-10). "China's 'war on terror'". BBC News.
  557. ^ "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27.
  558. ^ "youtube video". Channel 4 (UK). Archived from the original on 2021-12-11.
  559. ^ "Rebiya Kadeer – Not the Torch of Liberty –". April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  560. ^ "Remembering the Ghulja Massacre". Archived from the original on 2011-11-25. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  561. ^ "World Uyghur Congress|The Ghulja Massacre "We refuse to forget" (2006.02.05)". Archived from the original on 2018-01-27. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  562. ^ "Solidly ahead of oil, Suez Canal revenues, and remittances, tourism is Egypt's main hard currency earner at $6.5 billion per year." (in 2005) ... concerns over tourism's future Archived September 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
  563. ^ Alan Cowell, 'At Swiss Airport, 36 Dead, Home from Luxor,' New York Times, November 20, 1997,
  564. ^ Douglas Jehl, 'At Ancient Site Along the Nile, Modern Horror, New York Times, November 19, 1997
  565. ^ "The Acteal Massacre – Chiapas Mexico – December 22, 1997". Associated Press. December 22, 2003. Archived from the original on March 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  566. ^ "Mexico Court Frees Nine Accused in Massacre – Christian World News – CBN News – Christian News 24–7 –". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  567. ^ "Document – Mexico: The Acteal massacre—one year on and still no justice|Amnesty International". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  568. ^ Richard Needham, Battling for Peace (30 November 1998), p. 328.
  569. ^ "Our twin-track move to brand new lives" The Belfast Telegraph, 2008-01-25.
  570. ^ "Anonymous caller warned of blast 11 days earlier, says Ombudsman; OMAGH MASSACRE: Report finds details of warning did not emerge for almost two years and that police investigation into killings had serious shortcomings"[dead link] "Western Mail", 2001-12-07. Retrieved: 2012-05-07.
  571. ^ "MASSACRE AT OMAGH: A pathetic excuse for an apology"[dead link] The Mirror, 1998-08-19.
  572. ^ "Omagh massacre film to be premiered" Belfast Telegraph, 2004-05-07.
  573. ^ "Bravery awards for bomb helpers". BBC News. 1999-11-17. Retrieved 2007-03-14.
  574. ^ Omagh bomb attack 'was massacre' BBC News, 2008-04-07.
  575. ^ Jet 95:23 (10 May 1999), p. 51.
  576. ^ Toppo, Greg (2009-04-14). "10 years later, the real story behind Columbine, 2009". Retrieved 2013-04-16.
  577. ^ "CPM brings terror charge against Trinamul". The Statesman. Kolkata. April 23, 2003. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  578. ^ "Editorial: Attack in Nanoor". The Statesman. Kolkata. May 20, 2005. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  579. ^ "CPM ticket for Nanoor massacre accused". The Statesman. Kolkata. April 18, 2003. Archived from the original on April 30, 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2007.
  580. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne. "Suicide bomb massacre at Israeli beach disco". The Guardian.
  581. ^ Bat mitzvah massacre in Israel leaves seven dead Archived November 9, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, By Phil Reeves, 18 January 2002
  582. ^ "Archived copy". Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  583. ^ "The Gulbarg Society massacre: What happened". New Delhi: NDTV. March 11, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  584. ^ "Safehouse Of Horrors". Tehelka. New Delhi. November 3, 2007. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  585. ^ "Apex court SIT submits report on Gulbarg Society massacre". The Hindustan Times. May 14, 2010. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2010.
  586. ^ a b "Alleged Passover massacre plotter arrested", CNN, March 26, 2008.
  587. ^ Ohad Gozani, "Hotel blast survivors relive the Passover massacre"[dead link], The Daily Telegraph, 29/03/2002.
  588. ^ "This reached a peak following the Passover massacre in the seaside resort of Netanya..." David Newman, "The consequence or the cause? Impact on the Israel-Palestine Peace Process", in Mary E. A. Buckley, Mary Buckley, Rick Fawn. Global Responses to Terrorism: 9/11, the War in Afghanistan, and Beyond, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-31429-1, p. 158.
  589. ^ "They faced stiff resistance from Palestinian gunmen who began preparing the camp's defenses as early as the Passover massacre in Netanya..." Todd C. Helmus, Russell W. Glenn. Steeling the Mind: Combat Stress Reactions and Their Implications for Urban Warfare Rand Corporation, 2005, ISBN 0-8330-3702-1, p. 58.
  590. ^ "It can therefore be asked whether the 'human bomb' offensive starting with the Passover massacre on 27 March 2002..." Brigitte L. Nacos, "The Terrorist Calculus Behind 9–11: A Model for Future Terrorism?" in Gus Martin. The New Era of Terrorism: Selected Readings, Sage Publications Inc, 2004, ISBN 0-7619-8873-4, p. 176.
  591. ^ "Wedding party massacre | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  592. ^ "'Wedding video' contradicts US denials | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  593. ^ "Domain gesperrt". Archived from the original on September 12, 2011.
  594. ^ "Woman injured in 2004 Russian siege dies". The Boston Globe. December 8, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
  595. ^ "Putin meets angry Beslan mothers". BBC News. September 2, 2005. Retrieved 2006-07-28.
  596. ^ Arnold, Chloe (2005-06-04). "Beslan mothers' futile quest for relief". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  597. ^ Menges, Werner. "Record jail terms in massacre trial". The Namibian.
  598. ^ Damaseb, Petrus (27 July 2011). "S[tate] v Neidel and Others (CC 21/2006)". Southern African Legal Information Institute (SAFLII). Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
  599. ^ Preliminary findings on the events in Andijan Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe, June 2005
  600. ^ "Documenting Andijan", Council for Foreign Relations, June 26, 2006.
  601. ^ "Israeli Government Bears Responsibility for Shfaram Massacre". 7 August 2005. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  602. ^ Watson, R.T.; Donati, Jessica (2019-10-23). "U.S. Soldiers' War Crime Gets Hollywood Treatment". WSJ. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  603. ^ Seattle Post-Intelligencer {{cite news}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  604. ^ "Report of the Virginia Tech Review Panel". Commonwealth of Virginia. Archived from the original on 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2008-09-16.Cho shot and wounded a further 17 people and caused injury to 6 others as they tried to flee.
  605. ^ "Fact File: Deadliest shootings in the U.S." NBC News. Retrieved 2008-09-16. Note: there have been several deadlier shootings in U.S. history, but not by a single gunman, and not on a school campus.
  606. ^ "Bilge Köyü katliamı sanığı: Asla pişman değilim". Posta. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  607. ^ Edis, Şeyhmus (2009-05-06). "Family dispute leads to massacre in Mardin". Today's Zaman. pp. 1, 17. Archived from the original on 2009-05-11. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
  608. ^ Hochzeits-Massaker – Täter wollten ganze Sippe auslöschen Focus (German), 06.05.2009
  609. ^ Massaker im Namen der Ehre Die Zeit (German), 6.5.2009
  610. ^ "Guinea: September 28 Massacre Was Premeditated". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  611. ^ "After the Fort Hood Massacre". The Wall Street Journal.
  612. ^ "Was Fort Hood Massacre a Terrorist Act or a Man Who Snapped?" Archived October 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. The O'Reilly Factor. FOX News.
  613. ^ "Fort Hood Shooter Tried to Contact al Qaeda Terrorists, Officials Say". ABC News.
  614. ^ "Sen. Joe Lieberman calls Fort Hood massacre a 'terrorist' act" Archived January 18, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Daily News (New York).
  615. ^ "Fort Hood massacre: Barack Obama would have to sign death warrant" Daily Telegraph.
  616. ^ "Massacre shocks those who knew the shooter". Archived from the original on 2009-11-17. Retrieved 2009-11-17.. Vancouver Sun.
  617. ^ Maguindanao massacre, The Philippine Star, November 24, 2009
  618. ^ Death toll in Maguindanao massacre now 57, GMANews.TV, November 25, 2009
  619. ^ Toll Rising in Philippines Massacre,, November 25, 2009
  620. ^ Clan allied to Philippine president suspected of being behind massacre,, November 25, 2009
  621. ^ Innocent motorists among Ampatuan massacre victims, GMANews.TV, November 25, 2009
  622. ^ Connolly, Kate (February 19, 2018). "Utøya massacre re-enactment stuns Berlin audiences". The Guardian. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  623. ^ Flynn, Sean (July 30, 2012). "Anders Breivik: The Fully Story of Norway's Utøya Massacre". GQ. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  624. ^ "Hundreds dead' in South Sudan cattle raids". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on 29 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  625. ^ 中国13名船员在泰国境内惨遭劫杀. (in Chinese). 10 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  626. ^ "Laos extradites suspect to China in Mekong massacre case". Chicago Tribune. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  627. ^ Ferrie, Jared (27 December 2011). "United Nations Urges South Sudan to Help Avert Possible Attack". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 December 2011.
  628. ^ "In South Sudan, massacre of 3000 is reported". New York Times. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  629. ^ Heinz, Emily (April 30, 2012). "Robert Bales' Family, Soldier Charged With Murdering 16 Afghan Civilians, Gets Help From Veterans Group". Huffington Post. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
  630. ^ "U.S. Soldier Accused of Killing 17 Afghans, Including Women and Children". ABC News. 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2012-03-26.
  631. ^ "The Houla massacre". Japan Times. 2012-06-05. Retrieved 2012-06-05.
  632. ^ Copnall, James (24 December 2013). "South Sudan sees 'mass ethnic killings'". BBC. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  634. ^ "Church Massacre Suspect Held as Charleston Grieves". The New York Times. June 18, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  635. ^ Connor, Tracy (July 7, 2015). "Dylann Roof Indicted for Murder in Charleston Church Massacre". NBC News. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  636. ^ "Nine dead in Charleston church massacre". MSNBC. June 17, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  637. ^ Corasaniti, Nick; Pérez-Peña, Richard; Alvarez, Lizette (2015-06-18). "Church Massacre Suspect Held as Charleston Grieves". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  638. ^ Louise Mensch, "France 'Suppressed Reports of Gruesome Torture' at Bataclan Massacre," July 15, 2016. "Bataclan theatre massacre" in Brad Taylor, Ring of Fire (January 2017), p. 102.
  639. ^ "Paris attacks were carried out by three groups tied to Islamic State, official says". Washington Post.
  640. ^ "Orlando Sees Worst Mass Shooting On U.S. Soil: What We Know Monday".
  641. ^ a b c "Waziristan: Staring at the sun". Asian News International. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
  642. ^ "Pakistan's Tribal Areas Are Still Waiting for Justice as Army Tightens Grip". The New York Times. 11 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  643. ^ "Death Toll From Mali Attacks Climbs to 160, Government Says". 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  644. ^ "Massacre toll in Mali revised down to 35". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  645. ^ "A new round of violence in Mali". The Economist. 2019-07-03. Retrieved 2021-03-14.
  646. ^ "At least 95 killed in attack on ethnic Dogon village in central Mali". France 24. 2019-06-10. Retrieved 2019-06-10.
  647. ^ "ارتفاع عدد شهداء مجزرة "شارع الوحدة" وسط غزة إلى 37 - 2021-05-16". صدى الإعلام (in Arabic). May 16, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  648. ^ "حماية يطالب مجلس حقوق الإنسان بتشكل لجنة تحقيق في مجزرة شارع الوحدة بغزة". دنيا الوطن (in Arabic). May 16, 2021. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  649. ^ غزة, ضياء خليل ــ; الحلو, علاء (May 17, 2021). "مجزرة شارع الوحدة... جريمة حرب مكتملة الأركان". العربي الجديد (in Arabic). Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  650. ^ "Demirtaş'tan Konya katliamı açıklaması: Nedeni hükümetin ayırımcı politikaları, hedef gösteren dilidir". (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-08-02.
  651. ^ "Konya massacre: 'Turkey must confront racist hatred'". Bianet. 2 August 2021. Retrieved 2 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  652. ^ "Indian troops kill 14 civilians in weekend incidents, spurring demands for repeal of special powers in some regions". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-12-07.
  653. ^ "Death toll in attacks in Nigeria's Zamfara state around 200 - residents". National Post. 2022-01-08. Retrieved 2022-01-20.

External links

  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2013). "Chronology of massacres and war crimes". Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 773–766. ISBN 978-1-59884-926-4.
  • World History Database, Alphabetic Listing of Battles Index of World battles.
  • Radford, Robert, Great Historical Battles. An extensive list of important battles and influential leaders, from −490 BC to present times.