List of examples of lengths

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Planets of the Solar System to scale

This is a list of examples of lengths, in metres in order to give an understanding of lengths.

Shorter than 1 ym[edit]

1 ym to 1 zm[edit]

  • 1×10−24 metres = 1 ym = 1 yoctometre, the smallest named subdivision of the metre in the SI base unit of length.
  • 1×10−23 metres = 10 ym
  • 2×10−23 metres = 20 ym, the effective cross-section radius of 1 MeV neutrinos as measured by Clyde Cowan and Frederick Reines[1]

1 zm to 1 am[edit]

1 am to 1 fm[edit]

  • 1×10−18 metres = 1 am = 1 attometre = 1000 zeptometres
  • 1 am — sensitivity of the LIGO detector for gravitational waves
  • 1×10−17 metres = 10 am
  • 1×10−16 metres = 100 am
  • 0.85 fm — approximate proton radius[3]

1 fm to 1 pm[edit]

1 picometre[edit]

Lengths between 10−12 and 10−11 m (1 and 10 pm).

10 picometres[edit]

Lengths between 10−11 and 10−10 m (10 pm and 100 pm).

100 picometres[edit]

lengths between 10−10 and 10−9 m (100 pm and 1 nm).

10 nanometres[edit]

Comparison of sizes of semiconductor manufacturing process nodes with some microscopic objects and visible light wavelengths. At this scale, the width of a human hair is about 10 times that of the image.[12]

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10−8 and 10−7 m (10 and 100 nm).

  • 10 nm = 10 nanometres = 10−8 metres
  • 10 nm — lower size of tobacco smoke[13]
  • 10 nm Shortest Extreme Ultraviolet wavelength or longest X-ray wavelength[14]
  • 11 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell speculated to be manufactured in 2015.
  • 16 nm — technology is projected to be reached by semiconductor companies in the 2013 timeframe
  • 18 nm — diameter of tobacco mosaic virus[15] (Generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm.)[citation needed]
  • 20 nm — width of bacterial flagellum[16]
  • 20 nm to 80 nm — thickness of cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria[17]
  • 22 nm — Smallest feature size of production microprocessors in September 2009[18]
  • 22 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell expected to be manufactured at around the 2011–2011 time frame.
  • 30 nm — lower size of cooking oil smoke[13]
  • 32 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2009–2010 time frame.
  • 45 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2007–2008 time frame.
  • 50 nm — upper size for airborne virus particles[13]
  • 50 nm — flying height of the head of a hard disk[19]
  • 65 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2005–2006 time frame.
  • 90 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2002–2003 time frame.
  • 100 nm — larger than 90% of the particles of wood smoke[citation needed] (ranges from 7 to 3000 nanometres)[13]

100 nanometres[edit]

Lengths between 10−7 and 10−6 m (100 nm and 1 µm).

  • 100 nm — greatest particle size that can fit through a surgical mask[20]
  • 100 nm — 90% of particles in wood smoke are smaller than this.[citation needed]
  • 120 nm — greatest particle size that can fit through a ULPA filter[citation needed]
  • 120 nm — diameter of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [21]
  • 125 nm — standard depth of pits on compact discs (width: 500 nm, length: 850 nm to 3.5 µm)
  • 180 nm — typical length of the rabies virus
  • 200 nm — typical size of a Mycoplasma bacterium, among the smallest bacteria
  • 300-400 nm — near ultraviolet wavelength
  • 300 nm — greatest particle size that can fit through a HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter (N100 removes up to 99.97% at 0.3 micrometres, N95 removes up to 95% at 0.3 micrometres)[citation needed]
  • 400–420 nm — wavelength of violet light
  • 420–440 nm — wavelength of indigo light
  • 440–500 nm — wavelength of blue light
  • 500–520 nm — wavelength of cyan light
  • 520–565 nm — wavelength of green light
  • 565–590 nm — wavelength of yellow light
  • 590–625 nm — wavelength of orange light
  • 625–700 nm — wavelength of red light
  • 700–1400 nm — wavelength of near-infrared radiation
See also: colour and optical spectrum

1 micrometre[edit]

1 E-6 m 1 E-5 m 1 E-4 m 1 E-3 m 1 E-2 m 1 E-1 m 1 E0 m 1 E1 m 1 E2 m 1 E3 m 1 E4 m 1 E5 m
A clickable mosaic of objects
at scales within direct human experience, from the micrometric (106 m, top left) to the multi-kilometric (105 m, bottom right).

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists some items with lengths between 10−6 and 10−5 m (between 1 and 10 micrometres, or µm).

10 Micrometrees[edit]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 10−5 and 10−4 m (10 µm and 100 µm).

100 micrometres[edit]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 10−4 and 10−3 m (100 µm and 1 mm).

  • 100 µm – 1/10 of a millimetre
  • 100 µm – 0.00394 inches
  • 100 µm – average diameter of a strand of human hair[27]
  • 100 µm – thickness of a coat of paint
  • 100 µm – length of a dust particle
  • 120 µm – diameter of a human ovum
  • 170 µm – length of the largest sperm cell in nature[29][30]
  • 181 µm – maximum width of a strand of human hair[27]
  • 100–400 µm – length of Demodex mites living in human hair follicles
  • 200 µm – typical length of Paramecium caudatum, a ciliate protist
  • 250–300 µm – length of a dust mite[31]
  • 340 µm – length of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with a resolution of 1024×768
  • 500 µm – typical length of Amoeba proteus, an amoeboid protist
  • 500 µm – MEMS micro-engine[citation needed]
  • 560 µm - thickness of the central area of a human cornea[32]
  • 760 µm – thickness of a credit card

1 millimetre[edit]

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10−3 and 10−2 m (1 mm and 1 cm).

  • 1.0 mm — 1/1000 of a metre
  • 1.0 mm — 0.03937 inches or 5127 (exactly)
  • 1.0 mm — side of square of area 1 mm2
  • 1.0 mm — diameter of a pinhead
  • 1.5 mm — length of average flea
  • 2.54 mm — distance between pins on old DIP (dual-inline-package) electronic components
  • 5 mm — length of average red ant
  • 5.56×45mm NATO — standard ammunition size
  • 7.62×51mm NATO — common military ammunition size

1 centimetre[edit]

1 E-6 m 1 E-5 m 1 E-4 m 1 E-3 m 1 E-2 m 1 E-1 m 1 E0 m 1 E1 m 1 E2 m 1 E3 m 1 E4 m 1 E5 m
A clickable mosaic of objects
at scales within direct human experience, from the micrometric (106 m, top left) to the multi-kilometric (105 m, bottom right).

Lengths between 10−2 and 10−1 m (1and 10 cm).

1 decimetre[edit]

Lengths between 10 and 100 centimetres (10−1 and 1 metre).

Conversions[edit]

10 centimetres (abbreviated to 10 cm) is equal to

Wavelengths[edit]

Human-defined scales and structures[edit]

  • 10.16 cm = 1.016 dm — 1 hand used in measuring height of horses (4 inches)
  • 12 cm = 1.2 dm — diameter of a Compact Disc (CD) (= 120 mm)
  • 15 cm = 1.5 dm — length of a Bic pen with cap on
  • 22 cm = 2.2 dm — diameter of a typical soccer ball
  • 30.48 cm = 3.048 dm — 1 foot
  • 30 cm = 3 dm — typical school-use ruler length (= 300 mm)
  • 60 cm = 6 dm — standard depth (front to back) of a domestic kitchen worktop in Europe (= 600 mm)
  • 90 cm = 9 dm — average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[36]
  • 91.44 cm = 9.144 dm — one yard
  • Cigarettes 100 mm (4 in) in length

Nature[edit]

Longer[edit]

  1. 1 metre
  2. 1 decametre
  3. 1 hectometre
  4. 1 kilometre
  5. 1 myriametre
  6. 100 kilometres
  7. 1 megametre
  8. 10 megametres
  9. 100 megametres

1 gigametre[edit]

1 E6 m - Click on the relevant thumbnail image to jump to the desired order of length magnitude: left is 1e6m, right is 1e13m. Click on information icon bottom-left for description of image. 1 E7 m 1 E8 m 1 E9 m 1 E10 m 1 E11 m 1 E12 m 1 E13 m 1 E14 m 1 E15 m 1 E16 m 1 E17 m
Click on the thumbnail image to jump to the desired order of length magnitude: top-left is 1e6m, lower-right is 1e17m. (Image description)
Upper part: Gamma Orionis, Algol B, the Sun (centre), underneath their darker mirror images (artist's interpretation), and other objects, to scale.

Lengths starting at 109 metres (1 gigametre (Gm) or 1 million kilometres).

Distances shorter than 109 metres

Longer[edit]

  1. 10 gigametres
  2. 100 gigametres
  3. 1 terametre
  4. 10 terametres
  5. 100 terametres
  6. 1 petametre
  7. 10 petametres
  8. 100 petametres
  9. 1 exametre
  10. 10 exametres
  11. 100 exametres
  12. 1 zettametre
  13. 10 zettametres
  14. 100 zettametres
  15. 1 yottametre
  16. 10 yottametres
  17. 100 yottametres

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c m is an abbreviation of metre; cm of centimetre; dm of decimetre; m2 is short for square metre; m3 is short for cubic metre

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carl R. Nave. "Cowan and Reines Neutrino Experiment". Retrieved 2008-12-04.  (6.3×10−44 cm2, which gives an effective radius of about 2×10−23 m)
  2. ^ a b Carl R. Nave. "Neutron Absorption Cross-sections". Retrieved 2008-12-04.  (area for 20 GeV about 1×10−41 m2 gives effective radius of about 2×10−21 m; for 250 GeV about 1.5×10−40 m2 gives effective radius of about 7×10−21 m)
  3. ^ Randolf Pohl; Aldo Antognini; François Nez; Fernando D. Amaro; François Biraben; João M. R. Cardoso; Daniel S. Covita; Andreas Dax; Satish Dhawan; Luis M. P. Fernandes; Adolf Giesen; Thomas Graf; Theodor W. Hänsch; Paul Indelicato; Lucile Julien; Cheng-Yang Kao; Paul Knowles; Eric-Olivier Le Bigot; Yi-Wei Liu; José A. M. Lopes; Livia Ludhova; Cristina M. B. Monteiro; Françoise Mulhauser; Tobias Nebel; Paul Rabinowitz; et al. (8 July 2010). "The size of the proton". Nature 466 (7303): 213–216. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..213P. doi:10.1038/nature09250. PMID 20613837. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  4. ^ a b Carl R. Nave. "Scattering Cross Section". Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  5. ^ NIST. CODATA Value: classical electron radius. Retrieved 2009-02-10
  6. ^ a b c Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Hydrogen / radii". Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  7. ^ a b Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Helium / radii". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  8. ^ http://rdmag.com/Community/Blogs/RDBlog/Twists-and-turns-keep-TEM-on-top/
  9. ^ Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Sulfur / Radii". Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  10. ^ Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Periodicity / Van der Waals radius / periodicity". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  11. ^ "Resolution of an Electron Microscope". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  12. ^ Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-85233-507-6. 
  13. ^ a b c d Annis, Patty J. October 1991. Kansas State University. Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm)
  14. ^ Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum and Spectroscopy
  15. ^ Stryer, Lubert (1988). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1843-X. 
  16. ^ Kojima S, Blair D (2004). "The bacterial flagellar motor: structure and function of a complex molecular machine". Int Rev Cytol. International Review of Cytology 233: 93–134. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(04)33003-2. ISBN 978-0-12-364637-8. PMID 15037363. 
  17. ^ Microbiology Text.com
  18. ^ http://www.physorg.com/news172852816.html accessed 2009.09.21
  19. ^ help with PCs web site
  20. ^ Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles. In-Depth Article. Retrieved September 15, 2010. Aerosol Science and Technology, Volume 43, Issue 4 April 2009 , pages 298 - 304.
  21. ^ Textbook Of Pharmacology by SD Seth
  22. ^ Smith, D.J. (2009). "Human sperm accumulation near surfaces: a simulation study" (PDF). Journal of Fluid Mechanics 621: 295. Bibcode:2009JFM...621..289S. doi:10.1017/S0022112008004953. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  23. ^ DNA From The Beginning, section 6: Genes are real things., "Amination" section, final slide
  24. ^ Gordon Ramel. "Spider Silk". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-04. garden spider silk has a diameter of about 0.003 mm ... Dragline silk (about .00032 inch (.008 mm) in Nephila) 
  25. ^ a b IST - Innovative Sintering Technologies Ltd. "Fibreshape applications". Retrieved 2008-12-04. Histogram of cotton thickness 
  26. ^ Morton Lippmann (2000). Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects. John Wiley and Sons. p. 453. ISBN 0-471-29298-2. ISBN 978-0-471-29298-2. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 20 µm .. 5 µm 
  27. ^ a b c According to The Physics Factbook, the diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 µm. Ley, Brian (1999). "Width of a Human Hair". The Physics Factbook. 
  28. ^ "Apple – iPhone 4S – See everything clearly with the Retina display". Apple Inc. Official Website. Apple Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  29. ^ http://www2.oakland.edu/biology/lindemann/spermfacts.htm
  30. ^ http://www.neatorama.com/2006/06/17/worlds-biggest-sperm-belongs-to-a-tiny-fly/
  31. ^ House Dust Mites HYG-2157-97. Retrieved 2008-12-04
  32. ^ "Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system". Br J Ophthalmol 83 (7): 774–8. July 1999. doi:10.1136/bjo.83.7.774. PMC 1723104. PMID 10381661. 
  33. ^ "USGA: Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls". USGA. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  34. ^ "Official Rules". MLB. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  35. ^ "Credit Card Dimensions". Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  36. ^ http://www.2-clicks-swords.com/article/what-is-a-rapier.html
  37. ^ Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. & William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved June 2011. 
  38. ^ Sun Fact Sheet
  39. ^ Neuroscience: The Science of the Brain [1] p.44