List of executioners

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This is a list of people who have acted as official executioners.



Zachary Wallace Gross 1843–1856


Joseph Baroux 1842–1847
Nicolas Wolf 1847–1855
Antoine Rasseneux 1855–1871

Monsieur d'Alger[edit]

In 1870 the Republic of France abolished all local executioners and named the executioner of Alger, Antoine Rasseneux, Éxécuteur des Arrêts Criminels en Algérie, which became France's official description of the executioner of Algeria's occupation. From there on there would be one only executioner to carry out death sentences for entire Algeria. Since the colony's executioner had obligatorily to live in Alger, people soon started to refer to him as to the „Monsieur d'Alger“, „The Mister from Alger“. At the occasion of his nomination, Rasseneux could choose four among France's and Algeria's former local executioners to be his aides.

Antoine Rasseneux 1871–1885
Gustave Rasseneux 1885–1906
Pierre Lapeyre 1906–1928
Henri Roch 1928–1944
André-Léon Berger 1944–1947
Maurice-Alexandre Meyssonnier 1947–1958(de facto)/1961(official)
Fernand-Jean Meyssonnier 1958–1961


Hall in Tirol[edit]

Lienhart von Grätz 1497–1504
Stefan Ruef 1503–1525
Hans Schaider 1525–1528
Heinrich Käser 1525
Johann Frey 1528–1571
Melchior Frey 1572–1578
Christof Tollinger 1578–1584
Michael Fürst 1584–1606
Sebastian Oberstetter 1606–1608
Jakob Kienle 1608–1611
Jakob Vollmar 1611–1618
Hans Has 1618–1642
Heinrich Hödel 1642–1645
Othmar Krieger 1645–1671
Jakob Zäch 1671–1677
Andreas Leiner 1677–1693
Kaspar Pöltl 1693–1698
Sebastian Waldl 1699–1718
Marx Philipp Abrell 1718–1728
Johann Jakob Abrell 1728–1746
Josef Langmayr 1746
Bartholomeus Putzer 1747–1772
Johann Georg Putzer 1772–1786


Hans Säbele 1488–1509
Martin Vogl 1510
Gilg von Rodem 1510–1515
Heinrich Reif 1515 and 1521–1522
Lorenz von Altsee 1515–1521
Heinrich Käser 1522–1525
Jakob Gatz 1524
Hans Schwingsmesser 1525–1536
Theodor Reichl 1572–1575
Johann Peter Vollmar 1552–1561
Klaus Seckler 1562
Melchior Frey 1563–1572
Mattheus Leonhard 1575–1601
Hans Fürst 1592
Georg Fürst  ?-1621
Wolfgang Fürst 1605–1623
Wolfgang Helmschmied 1536–1552
Wolfgang Puechamer 1601–1605
Michael Pichler 1623–1631
Leonhard Oberdorfer 1632–1672
Johann Schlechuber 1672
Hans Schwarzhuber 1673–1675
Konrad Leonhard Krieger 1675–1679
Hans Jakob Müller 1679–1684
Franz Wagner 1684–1690
Jakob Fürst 1690–1694
Johann Georg Wacker 1694–1723
Johann Jakob Abrell 1723–1728
Johann Georg Kober 1728–1748
Martin Putzer 1748–1772
Bartholomeus Putzer 1772–1777
Franz Michael Putzer 1777–1787


Franz Joseph Wohlmut 1757-1817/21 (deceased 1823)


Paul ? ~1463
Jörg Carlhofer ~1486
Schrottenbacher family 1550–1802
Joachim Stein ~1618
 ? Willenbacher ~1868 (Vienna-Meidling)
Johann Hamberger ~1700
Johann Georg Hoffmann I. 1802–1827
Simon Abel 1827–1839
 ? Seyfried 1829–
Johann Georg Hoffmann II. 1839–1865
Johann Georg Hoffmann III. 1865–1874
 ? Willenbacher 1874–1892
Karl Sellinger 1862–1899
Josef Lang 1900–1918
Johann Lang 1933–1938


 ? Ance ~1789 (Rochefort)
Pierre Nieuwland before 1918 - before 1929 (but never did get to execute anybody)


After 1808, during the Portuguese-Brazilian Kingdom (1808-1822) and the Empire (1822-1889), when Brazil's States were still called "Provinces" and the currency was called "Reis", Brazil had factually abolished torture but was a busy death penalty country.
Method of execution was public hanging by an ultra-short drop of approximately 90 cm (2' 9 11/2"), with the executioner, after having activated the trap door or pushed the convict, according to the gallows's structure, climbed a ladder and launched himself rope downwards, hitting on the convict's shoulders with his weight.
Executioners generally were selected among convicts of capital crimes who had their death sentences stayed for indefinite terms or even commuted for live without parole, and who in exchange for their stays or commutations had to carry out the executions ordered by law. Executioners were, whenever possible, selected from among slaves convicted for a capital crime. And except for the province of Rio Grande do Norte, executioners had obligatorily to be of African descent.
As stayed or commuted convicts, executioners consequently lived as inmates in the prisons of the respective towns where they were based. When an execution was to be carried out elsewhere in his area, the executioner would be transported to the place of execution in chains and sleep in the local prison; after an attempt of murder against Fortunato José in 1834, prisons started separating the executioners were from other inmates.
In the province of Rio Grande do Norte, the executioner had always to be the convict scheduled to die next after an execution, so that province's last execution had to be carried out by a firing squad, after the necessary emergency change of execution protocol.
In the state of Rio de Janeiro, after Independence September 7, 1822 there were also free executioners of African descent who having to travel around, were reached by couriers with execution orders.
Executioners, also when slaves, were paid for their executions; at the example of the province of Minas Gerais, we can establish payment was between 4$000 and 12$000 (4 Mil-Reis to 12 Mil-Reis) per execution.
The last execution of a free convict in Brazil was that of José Pereira de Sousa October 30, 1861 in Santa Luzia (nowadays Luziânia), GO. The last execution at all under law in Brazil was that of the slave Francisco April 28, 1876 in Pilar, AL.
Brazil abolished capital punishment officially with the Proclamation of the Republic November 15, 1889, and by law with its first Republican Constitution of 1891 and Penal Code of September 22, 1892.



José do Egito 1823 (refused to carry out his first and only execution, had his stay lifted for it died executed himself)

Feira de Santana[edit]

Joaquim Correia September 26, 1849 (voluntary executioner, hanged Lucas da Feira; despite white he was allowed to carry out that one since his father, Francisco Correia, had been one of Lucas's vicims)



Agostinho Viera April 27, 1825 [1]
Francisco Corrêa Pareça 1835-1845 (executed the mutineers of Laura II October 22, 1839 in Fortaleza, CE)


Cosme Pereira da Silva (nicked "Cosme Cavaco") 1834-1850


Lourenço Nogueira Campos 19th Century
Manuel Preto 19th Century

Minas Gerais[edit]

Ouro Preto[edit]

Fortunato José 1833-1874 (carried out some executions the State of Rio de Janeiro either).

São João del Rei[edit]

Antônio Resende 1833 - after 1848 (executed the Carrancas insurgents in 1833)



slave Silvério active in 1854



João Paulo de Sousa (nicked: "João Paulo Sagaz" and "Boca Negra") 16 de setembro de 1828 (executioner executed January 19, 1829)
slave Felício (nicked: “Farinha Sêca”) 04 de fevereiro de 1832
slave Francisco 05 de abril de 1838 (executioner executed September 5, 1838)
nicked "Macota" active in 1844


Florêncio José Baptista 26 de fevereiro de 1859

Rio de Janeiro[edit]

Rio de Janeiro[edit]

Jerônimo Capitania active in 1792 - executed Joaquim José da Silva Xavier (Tiradentes) April 21, 1792
Ananias active in 1850 - executed also in Espírito Santo, including two of the Queimado Insurrection leaders, Chico Prego and João da Viúva in Serra, ES

Rio Grande do Sul[edit]

Porto Alegre[edit]

slave Manoel nominated January 12, 1822, by commutuation of his death sentence


John Radclive 1892–1911
Arthur Ellis 1912–1935
Camille Blanchard 1935–1960[citation needed]


Hu Xiao ("working" in 2011) [2]

Kingdom od Bohemia / Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic) [edit]

Jan Mydlář 1572–1664 (Prague)
 ? Sperling ~1578 (Brno)
 ? Kotzurek ~1835 (Brno)
Alois Seyfried 1848–1849 (died 1869) (Brno, also last executioner for Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Johann Baptist Pipperger (Jan Křtitel Piperger in Czech) 1865–1888 (Prague)
Leopold Wohlschläger 1888–1927 (Prague)
 ? Nehyba 1927-
Vladimír Trunda hangman of Milada Horáková, only the name is known
František Skořepa hangman of Rudolf Slánský, only the name is known


w:da:Theodor Seistrup 1881–1906
Carl Peter Hermann Christensen 1906–1926


Hajj Abd Al-Nabi (chief executioner; active in 2013)
Hussein Urni (district executioner; active in 2013)



w:fr:Capeluche 1411-1418/19 (before being executed in 1418 or 1419, Capeluche trained his executioner himself)
Florent Bazart -1516 (lynched after a botched execution)
Nicolas Levasseur  ????-1685
Charles-Louis Sanson 1685 (de facto)/1688 (official)-1699 (de facto)/1703 (official)
Charles Sanson 1699 (de facto)/1707 (official)-1726
François Prudhomme 1726–1739
Charles-Jean-Baptiste Sanson 1739–1754 (de facto)/1778 (official)
Charles Henri Sanson 1754 (de facto)/1778 (official)-1793 (de facto)/1804 (official)
Henri Sanson 1793 (de facto)/1804 (official)-1840
Henry-Clément Sanson 1840–1847 (he was an inveterate abolitionist)
Charles-André Férey 1847–1849
Jean-François Heidenreich 1849–1871

Monsieur de Paris[edit]

In 1870 the Republic of France abolished all local executioners and named the executioner of Paris, Jean-François Heidenreich, Éxécuteur des Arrêts Criminels, which became France's official description of the executioner's occupation. From then on there would be only one executioner to carry out death sentences for all of France. As the Republic's executioner was required to live in Paris, people soon started to refer to him as "Monsieur de Paris", "The Mister from Paris". At the occasion of his nomination, Heidenreich could choose four among France's former local executioners to be his aides.

Jean-François Heidenreich 1871–1872
w:fr:Nicolas Roch 1872–1879
Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Deibler 1879–1898
Anatole-François-Joseph Deibler 1899–1939
Jules-Henri Desfourneaux 1939–1951
André-Albert Obrecht 1951–1976
Marcel-Charles Chevalier 1976–1981


Henry Ganié −1853
Nicolas Roch 1853–1871 (after 1853, see → Paris)


Pierre Roch 1833


Jean Varennes 2nd half of the 18th Century (brother to Antoine Varennes in Toulouse)


Charles-Louis Jouënne ~1850


Jouhanne"-Justice" mentioned in 1380



François-Joseph Heidenreich 1806–18??
Alphonse-Léon Berger 1863–1872 (after 1872 aide in Paris)


Pierre Juoanne −1662


Simon Grandjean 1615-1625 (lynched together with his wife in the end of an unsuccessful beheading)
Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Desmorest ~1823


Jean de Le Porte (active in 1459)


Charles Jouënne 1730


Nicolas-Lubin Jouënne 1737


Alexandre-Victor Jouënne  ?-?


François Desmorets −1843
Nicolas Roch 1843–1853 (after 1853, see → Amiens)


Jacques-Joseph Durand −1819 (executed for homicide)

Le Mans[edit]

Nicolas-Louis Jouënne ~1750


Jean Jacquenot active in 1529
Antoine Benoît -1723 (Benoit and his wife have been murdered in the night from May 18 to 19, 1723)
Jean Lavoué 1723-~1735
Marguerite-Julienne Le Paistour 1746-1749 (fired after involvement in a mayor robbery; married and became a housewife in Cancale)
Claude Chrétien ~1815


François Roch 1813


Georges Hérisson 1729-


Charles Jouënne  ?-?

Pays du Caux[edit]

Nicolas "La Justice" Jouhanne mentioned in 1202


Nicolas Gabriel Sanson 1754


Joseph-Antoine Deibler 1853–1863
Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Deibler 1863–1871 (after 1871, see → Paris)


w:fr:Geoffroy Thérage 1406-1432 (or after)
Pierre Jouenne active in 1675


Jean Rombaud 1530s (in 1536 called to England to execute Anne Boleyn)


Mathieu Bourideu -1757
Jean Daizes 1757-~1769
Antoine Varennes ~1769-1812


François-Joseph Heidenreich 1814–1827
Jean-François Heidenreich 1827–1848 (after 1848, see → Paris)


Nicolas Roch 1838–1843 (after 1843, see → Jura)

Versailles (Cour du Roi)[edit]

Nicolas Charles Gabriel Sanson −1778


Henriet Cousin 2nd. half of 17th century (Paris)
François Prudhomme 1729-17.. (Monsieur de Paris an assistant)
Louis Congo Circa 1725, emancipated slave appointed public executioner of Louisiana (New France)

French Guyana[edit]

Monsieur de Cayenne[edit]

Cayenne Central Prison never used its own guillotine.. All death sentences of convicts and locally condemned prisoners were conducted at Saint-Laurent.

Monsieur de Saint-Laurent[edit]

All executioners of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni were Bagne inmates themselves.

Isidore Hespel 1898–1921 (nicked "Le Chacal" by the other inmates)
Bonnefoy 1921–1923 (inmate nº 42164; nicked "Charlot" by the other inmates)
Louis Ladurelle 1923–1937
1937–1943 (nicked "Mouche à Bœuf" by the other inmates)


Pre-Germany Executioners[edit]

Mannäi ~20 a.C. (Machaerus)

Local Executioners (1276 to between 1848 and 1871)[edit]


Friedrich ? (also known as Meister Friedrich) 1575-1611


(name not found out yet) 13th Century (The first one ever nominated as a professional executioner in Germany; that was in 1276, and for the first time – simultaneously – an executioner's job description was published)
Veit Stolz 1538-1613
Joas Lemler ~1567
Hans Deibler 1572-1594 (Before 1561-1571 in Memmingen; ancestor to the French Republic's- executioners Louis Deibler and Anatole Deibler)
Michael Deibler 1594-1621
Dietrich Metz 1621-1624?
Georg Leichumb 1624-1629
Max Philipp Hartmann 1677-1679
Johann Adam Hartmann 1686-1706
Johann Jakob Scheller ~1705
 ? Kuisle -1714
Franz Trenckhler 1714-1723
Johann Georg Tränckler 1723-1730
Johann Adam Scheller ~1730
Johann Georg Tränckhler ~1768
Johann Pflügler -1789 (suicided 1790)


 ? Fischer ~1711


 ? Schmidt ~1537


Benedictus Barsch 1535-1560
Hermann Rüter, or Hartmann Rüter 1560–1571
Caspar Spiegel 1576-1586
Martin Heintze 1586-?
Hans Lissen 1631-1636
Gottfried Zürek 1636-1639
 ? Gebhart 1639-1653
Hans Rudolff 1647-1655
Gottfried ? 1655
Caspar Götze 1655-1669
Hans Müller 1669-1680
Heinrich Müller 1681-1690
Martin Koblentz 1690-1702
Hans Michael Eichfeld 1702-1705
Augustin Konrad Walter 1705-1710
Hans Michael Eichfeld 1710-1714
Christopf Stoff 1714
 ? Neumann 1714-1719
Georg Wilhelm 1720-1728
Martin Hennings 1729-1731
Martin Weydemann ~1731
Gottfried Weydemann 1745-1748
Jakob Kratzel 1748-1752
 ? Meyer 1752-1769
Johann Daniel Brandt 1769-1808
Christian Friedrich Krafft 1808-1819
August Hellriegel 1818-1834
 ? Hormuth 1834
A. W. Krafft 1834-1860


Johann Christoph Jeck 1729-1730
 ? Michaelis 1730-1740
Martin Gottlieb Koch 1740-1747
Andreas Kleine 1747-17??
August Heinrich Kaufmann 1780-1802
Carl Friedrich Kaufmann 1802-1836?
Wilhelm Weber 1836-1850
Carl Altmann 1853-1874?
Friedrich Schmidt 1874-1877
Ferdinand August Zimmermann 1877-?


Barthel Deibler (also Deübler) ~1637


 ? Heintze (known as Sohn des Torgauers) 16..?


 ? Polster ~1723

Bötzow, Oranienburg[edit]

Dietrich Jeck ~1586


Claus Frölich ~1652
Christoph Pfeffer ~1724
 ? Funcke ~1818


 ? Adelarius -1539
Christian Schwarz 1827–1860 (Unknown when he passed from Bremen City's local executioner to Bremen's state executioner; from 1843 to 1859 he also was Hannover's state executioner)
Johann Christian Göppel 1738-


 ? Huß ~1760


Georg Vollmair ~1734


Georg Vollmar ~1644


Suhr family ~1650–1750


Franz Joseph Wohlmuth ~1566


Johann Vollmar ~1639


 ? Span ~1644 (


Marx Deibler (also Max Deubler) ~1625
Jakob Bickle ~1640
Johann Michael Kober ~1720
Johann Hörmann 1802-1833


Melchior Wahlvon Dreißigacker 1630-1647
Melchior Vogel -1695


 ? Voss ~1817


 ? Peter ~1486
 ? Philipp ~1581
 ? Huß -1781
Karl Huß 1781-1827


Andreas Boden ~1644

Frankfurt am Main[edit]

Schelm von Bergen Mid-12th Century (Most likely not a professional executioner)
 ? Hans ~1370
 ? Friedrich ~1446
Jonas Fischer -1590


Jakob Bayr ~1720


 ? Kühn -1641


Bartholomaeus Abrel -1652
Berthin Aberel -1659
Barthlome Abrell -1707
Johann Michael Klingensteiner 1707-17??
Johann Klingensteiner -1765 (Günzburg)
Josef Anton Klingensteiner ~1775 (Günzburg)


Steinmeyer family ~1750
Jakob Steinmeyer 1764-
Xaver Steinmeyer ~1779


 ? Fritz ~1747


 ? Vicko 1372-1384
Peter Funcke 1384-1402?
 ? Rosenfeld ~1402
Johann Hagedorn 1471-
Michael Dannenberg -1485
Klaus Flügge 1485-1488
Hinrich Penningk 1521-1528
Claus Rose 1528-1547
Heinrich Wendeborn 1547-1576
Jürgen Böhme 1576-1612
Max Graf 1612-1621
Valtin Matz 1622-1639
 ? Gebhart (or Gevert?) 1639-?
Ismael Asthusen I. 1653-1664
Berthold Deutschmann 1664-1674
Jakob Stoeff 1674-1685
Ismael Asthusen II. 1685-1703
Ismael Asthusen III. 1703-1722
Franz Wilhelm Hennings I. 1722-? (1735?)
Ismael Asthusen IV. 17?? (1735?) -1767
Franz Wilhelm Hennigs II. 1767-1773
Franz Wilhelm Hennings III. 1773
Franz Wilhelm Hennings IV. 1773-1790
Franz Wilhelm Hennings V. 1790-1822
Franz Wilhelm Hennings VI. 1822-1830
Raphael Georg Voigt 1830-1852


Johann Hartmann 1818–1831
Johann Voß –1843
Christian Schwarz 1843–1857 (from 1857 to 1859 Hannover's state executioner; local executioner in Bremen from 1827 to 1860)


 ? Nord ~1812


Hans Maurer ~1446 ()


 ? Ingermann ~1609


Michael Schiler -1639


Christian Ludwig Fröhlich 1830-


Albert Möller -1630
Philipp Möller -1630


Hans Abril ~1659
Hans Conrad Näher -1666
Christoph Seitz ~1685
Conrad Fuchs ~1705
Johannes Seitz ~1715
Mattheß Fux ~1720
Johann Seitz ~1732
Johann Michael Weydenkeller 1732-1757
Johann Georg Fux 1773-


Georg Kuisl ~1665
Andreas Klingensteiner ~1701 (Kempten)
 ? Deigentesch -1708 (Kempten)


 ? Pickel (also Bickel) ~1722

Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia)[edit]

Johann Christoph Neumann 1756-

Landeck, Silesia (now in Poland[edit]

 ? Stein ~1800


Johann Vollmar ~1652


Heyland family 1600-
Christoph Hain ~1621
Christoph Heintze -1695
Polster family 1695-


Heintze (known as Sohn des Torgauers) mid-17th Century


Johann Näher 1623-1640 / 1650- (1639-1650 in Zurich, Switzerland)

Markt Oberdorf[edit]

Hans Enderes Abrel ~1628
Andreas Kuisl 1655-1678
Wilhelm Kober -1714
Nikolaus Kober 1714-1763
Wilm Kober 1763–1786
Baptist Trinkler ~1786


Hans Leycham 1553-1561?
Hans Deibler 1561-1571 (After 1571 til 1594 in Augsburg; ancestor to the French Republic's executioners Louis Deibler and Anatole Deibler)
Jakob Deibler (also Teübler) 1571-
Bartholme Deibler (also Teubler) 1607-
Matheus Fux (also Matheiß Fux) 1656-1696
Conrad Fux ~1696
Johann Fuchs -1720
Johann Conrad Nejer ~1720
 ? Widemann 1743-1767
Heinrich Widmann ~1772
Jakob Bickel ~1773
Johann Michael Widemann ~1777
Heinrich Widmann ~1778


Martin ? ~1760
Martin Hörmann 1813–1841 (Munich)
Lorenz Scheller 1829–1854 (after 1854, Scheller was Bavaria's state executioner)


Dietrich Brenner ~1469
Ulrich Tucher ~1515
Conrat Raab 1557-1565
Conrad Fischer 1565-1568
Ulrich Fischer 1568-
Hans Jerg Defner ~1677


Hans Wintter 1460-1470
Hans ? ~1479
 ? Gilg 1525
Franz Schmidt (also known as Meister Franz) 1572-1617; was the first executioner to ever write a book about his occupation; deceased 1634)
Bernhard Schlegel 1617-
Valentin Deusser -1641 (carried out sentences just a few months)
Matthäus Perger 1645-
Johann Michael Widmann 1738–1757 (Nürnberg)


Andreas Tinel ~1600


Caspar Vollmer -1640
Philipp Deibler (also Deubler) 1643-
Johann Fuchs ~1650 (deceased 1672)
Georg Vollmer 1668-
Georg Schöppelen 1690-


Kaspar Neithart ~1618


Johann Adam Scheller 1718-


Johann Fuchs ~1720


Emanuel Hamel ~1860


Johann Trenkler ~1722


Jörg Abriel (also Georg Abrellen) 1572-1594?
Hans Kuisl -1627
Georg Abrellen -1643
Hans Jakob Kuisl 1683-1696
Hans Kuisl 1711-1734
Jakob Kuisl 1735-
Johann Georg Widmann 1751–1781
Josef Benedikt Kuisl 1783–1807
Johann Michael Kuisl 18??- (Most likely the last executioner for Schongau)


 ? Schmidt ~1740


Jakob Stangel 1583-
Leonhard Tallhover ~1720
 ? Rörle -1800


 ? Hansen (known as “Dr. Hansen”) -1694


Andreas Kuisl 1678-
Johann Michael Kopp 1703–1753
Johannes Georg Kopp 1753–1801
Remigus Metz 1801-


Eberhard Schmid 1774-


Markus Bickel 1660-
Jakob Bickel
Andreas Bickel
Johannes Bickel -1691
Adolph Grossholz ~1720 (Stuttgart)

Thann in Bavaria[edit]

 ? Kester -1544


 ? Heintze before 1695 (father of Leipzig executioner Christoph Heintze)


Hans Conrad Näher 1666-
Dietrich Deigentesch ~1680


Johann Georg Igel -1783
Franz Xaver Igel 1783-


Carl Fuchs ~1677


two brothers Metz ~1640
Jakob Igel ~1787
Josef Igel ~1798


Hans ? 1537


Martin Heintze ~1606

State Executioners (from 1848 and 1871 to 1936/37)[edit]


Michael Müller 1854–1886
Franz Müller 1886–1888
Jakob Müller 1888–1908
Karol Wypyszewski 1893-1896 (Baden)
Benjamin Burckhardt 1884–1896 (Baden)
Karl Burckhardt 1896–1935 (state executioner also for Württemberg and Hesse)
Karl Müller 1908– after 1922 (Since 1921 state executioner also for Hesse)
Konrad Widder 1922–1923 (Baden)
Friedrich Hehr 1935–1949 (state executioner also for Württemberg and Hesse, from 1937 on imperial executioner)


Anton Leisner -1852
Heinrich Graul ~1852 (Bavarian Palatinate)
Lorenz Scheller 1854–1880
Franz Reichhart after 1854
 ? Kisslinger -1894
Franz Xaver Reichhart 1894–1924 (Bavaria)
Johann Baptist Reichhart (Bavaria) 1924-1937 (from 1937 on imperial Executioner)


| Christian Schwarz || 1827–1860 (Unknown when he was nominated from Bremen City's local executioner to Bremen state executioner; from 1843 to 1859 he also was the state's executioner in Hannover)


Christian Schwarz 1857–1859 (from 1843 til 1857 local executioner for Hannover; also local executioner in Bremen from 1827 to 1860)
 ? Bormann 1859–1870
Julius Krautz 1870-1878 (after 1878 state executioner for Prussia)


Karl Burckhardt 1896–1935 (state executioner also for Baden and Württemberg)
Karl Müller 1921 (from 1908 to after 1922 also state executioner in Baden)
Friedrich Hehr 1935–1949 (state executioner also for Baden and Württemberg, from 1937 on imperial executioner)


Georg Eduard Voigt 1852–
Julius Krautz 1878–1889 (until 1878 state executioner of Hannover)
Friedrich Reindel 1889–1898
Wilhelm Reindel 1899–1901
Alwin Engelhardt 1900–1906 (executioner for once more, and also for Saxony, from 1933 to 1936)
Lorenz Schwietz 1900–1914
Richard Schwietz 1913–1915
Carl Gröpler 1906–1937 (after 1927 executioner also for Saxony)
Paul Spaethe 1912–1924 (1923 also Saxony)
Joseph Kurz (also Kurzer) 1924–1927
Fritz Reichelt 1927–1933
Alwin Engelhardt 1933–1936 (executioner also for Saxony from 1933 to 1936)


 ? Fritzsche active in the 1840s and 50s
Otto Oswald Brand -1885 ()
w:de:Moritz Brand 1885-1923/1927
Paul Spaethe 1923-1927 (state executioner for Prussia from 1912 to 1924)
Carl Gröpler 1927–1937 (from 1906 til 1937 executioner also for Prussia)
Alwin Engelhardt 1933–1936 (executioner also for Saxony from 1933 to 1936; executed Martinus van der Lubbe)


 ? Schwarz -1888
 ? Siller 1888–1926 (Württemberg)
Karl Burckhardt 1896–1935 (state executioner also for Baden and Hesse)
Friedrich Hehr 1935–1949 (state executioner also for Baden and Hesse, from 1937 on imperial executioner)


Hans Kordess –1918 (according to the New York Times April 25, 1918)

Imperial Executioners (from 1936/37 to 1945)[edit]

Ernst Reindel 1936–1943 (sources vary about his start)
Johann Baptist Reichhart (Bavaria) 1937-1945 (from 1924 to 1937 state executioner for Bavaria; from 1945 to 1947 Interim time and Occupation executioner)
Friedrich Hehr 1937–1945 (from 1935 to 1937 state executioner for Baden, Württemberg and Hesse; from 1945 to 1949 Interim time and Occupation executioner)
Karl Burckhardt 1937–1945 (before 1935 state executioner for Baden, Hesse and Württemberg)
Gottlob Bordt 1940–1945
Alfred Roselieb 1941–1945
Wilhelm Friedrich Röttger 1942–1945
Karl Henschke 1943–1945
August Köster 1943–1945
Alois Weiß 1943–1945
Johann Mühl 1943–1945 (from 1946 to 1947 Interim time executioner)
Fritz Witzka 1943–1945

Interim Executioners (from 1945 to 1949)[edit]

Johann Baptist Reichhart (Bavaria) 1945-1947 (from 1924 to 1937 state executioner for Bavaria; from 1937 to 1945 Imperial executioner; also Occupation executioner with the rope for the American Military justice)
Friedrich Hehr 1945–1949 (from 1935 to 1937 state executioner for Baden, Württemberg and Hesse; from 1937 to 1945 Imperial executioner; after 1946 also Occupation executioner with the rope for the British Military justice)
Johann Mühl 1946-1947 (from 1943 to 1945 Imperial executioner)
Wilhelm Burckhard 1945-1949
Clemens Dobbek after 1945, “working” in 1947
Horst Schwenke after 1945-1949 (possibly still nominated/active for Western Berlin after 1949; executed Berthold Wehmeyer May 11, 1949, the last sentence carried out by order of a German court in Germany)
Walter Böttcher after 1945 (from 1949 on executioner in the German Democratic Republic)
Heinz M. 1946–
Clemens Dobbek - 1949 (after 1949 executioner for Western Berlin)

West Germany (1949 to 1951/53)[edit]

Except for Western Berlin where the Allied did not validate the new German constitution, West Germany had abolished capital punishment May 23, 1949. For West Berlin, the death penalty would still continue in law until January 20, 1951. Despite at least one executioner continued nominated, no death sentences or executions ordered by German courts in that period have been reported so far.

Clemens Dobbek 1949-1951 (before 1949 interim executioner, most likely in West Berlin only)

East Germany (1949 to 1987)[edit]

Walter Böttcher 1949-1960s
Hermann Lorenz 1968–1987 (last execution carried out June 25, 1981)

Concentration Camp Executioners (from 1938 to 1945)[edit]


Hermann Helbig

Occupation Executioners (from 1945 to 1992)[edit]


Johann Baptist Reichhart (Bavaria) 1945-1947 (from 1924 to 1937 state executioner for Bavaria; from 1937 to 1945 Imperial executioner; after 1945 also Interim time executioner with the guillotine for German justice; executed for the US Military justice)
Friedrich Hehr 1946–1952 (from 1935 to 1937 state executioner for Baden, Württemberg and Hesse; from 1937 to 1945 Imperial executioner; after 1945 also Interim time executioner with the guillotine for German justice; executed for the British Military justice)
Gustav Völpel 1945–1950 (in 1950 arrested, condemned for burglary and armed robberies and in jail until 1957; executed for the Soviet Military)


John Clarence Woods 1944-1946
Joseph Malta 1946-1947


Albert Pierrepoint 1945-1949 (from 1932 to 1941 assistant executioner and then chief executioner until 1956 in England)




Elizabeth "Betty" Sugrue (known as "Lady Betty") probavly 1776–1802 (Roscommon)[4]


w:nl:Shalom Nagar 1962


Yamada Asaemon (山田浅右衛門) 1736?−1881



Huda Ben Amir 1984- [5]


Tadashi Suzuki 1941-1945 (Japanese occupation executioner for Butterworth and Pulau Pinang) [6]
Rajendran Kuppusamy -1986 (died Nov. 15, 2011) [7]



Gerardus Jansen -1826
Jacobus Ras 1826-1837
Dirk Jansen 1837-1870


Joannes Jansen 1821-1851


Hans Pruijm 1604-1621

New Caledonia[edit]

Monsieur de la Bagne[edit]

All executioners of New Caledonia's Bagne were inmates themselves.

Jugaret 1937–1943 (nicked "La Gueule" by the other inmates)[citation needed]

New Zealand[edit]

Tom Long 1877–1908


w:no:Augustus Høcker 1689–1721
w:no:Johan Heinrich Helmschläger 1684–1760
w:no:August Lædel 1733–1749
w:no:Anton Lædel 1799–1833
w:no:Torbjørn Pedersen 1828–1834
w:no:Samson Isberg 1841–1864
w:no:Theodor Larsen 1864–

Papal States[edit]

Giovanni Bugatti 1796–1865
Antonio Balducci 1865–1870


Jan Mueller –1793
Stefan Böhm 1793-1813 or before
Maciejewski -1928
Jan Maciejewski -1932
Artur Braun 1932 (no executions, fired the morning after his nomination for shooting around woefully drunk while celebrating his new "job")
Piotr Śmietański 1948 or before-1951


Belchior Nunes Carrasco 15th Century (from his last name appeared the Portuguese word carrasco meaning hangman)


Ionel Boeru leader of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad December 25, 1989
Dorin Cârlan member of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad December 25, 1989
Octavian Gheorghiu member of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad December 25, 1989

Russia (USSR)[edit]

Mikhail Rodionovich Matveev 1918-1923 / 1927-1937 or 1939
Vasili Blokhin 1926–1952
Dmitry Vladimirovitch Uspensky 1929 (or before) - 1931 (or after)
Piotr Ivanovich Maggo 1931-1940
Ernst Ansovich Mach 1937- before 1948

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Abdallah Al-Bishi
Ahmed Rezkallah
Muhammad Saad al-Beshi[8][9]
Saeed Al-Sayaf


 ? Seymour -1959
Darshan Singh 1959–2005 (sacked); 2005-2006 (readmitting to retirement) (so Singh did not carry out the execution of Van Tuong Nguyen in 2005)[10][11][12]

South Africa[edit]

Christiaan "Chris" Barnard 1962–1986 (no relation to heart surgeon Christiaan Barnard)


Audiencia de Madrid[edit]

Francisco Ruiz Castellano 1879 (or before) - 1888 (or after)
w:es:Francisco Zamora 1888 (or after) - 1897
w:es:Áureo Fernández Carrasco 1897-1916
w:es:Casimiro Municio Aldea 1915-1935
w:es:Cándido Cartón 1940-1949 (see also Audiencia de Sevilla 1936-1939)
w:es:Antonio López Sierra 1949–1975

Audiencia de Barcelona[edit]

Nicomedes Méndez López 1866-1912
w:es:Rogelio Pérez Cicario 1913-1924
w:es:Federico Muñoz Contreras 1924-1935
w:es:Vicente López Copete 1953-1974

Audiencia de Burgos[edit]

w:es:Lorenzo Huertas 1885-1890
w:es:Gregorio Mayoral Sendino 1890-1928

Audiencia de Sevilla[edit]

w:es:José Caballero Quintana active in 1906
w:es:Cándido Cartón 1936-1939 (see also Audiencia de Madrid 1940-1949)
w:es:Bartolomé Casanueva Ramírez 1940-1948
w:es:Bernardo Sánchez Bascuñana 1949-1972
w:es:José Monero Renomo 1972-1977

Audiencia de Valladolid[edit]

w:es:Florencio Fuentes Estébanez 1941 (or before) - 1953

Audiencia de Zaragoza[edit]

Marcos ? -1840
w:es:José González Irigoyen 1840-1896


Anders Persson Trafware 1702-1721 (Gävleborg)
Anders Pettersson (Blekinge, Skåne) 1838–c. 1868
Johan Fredrik Hjort (Stockholm) 1862–1882
Per Petter Christiansson Steineck (Jönköping/Vadstena) 1861–1887
Albert Gustaf Dahlman (originally in Stockholm, from 1901 for the entire country) 1885–1920



Franz Josef Mengis carried out Canton (= State) of Aargau's last public execution May 24, 1854, in Lenzburg

Appenzell Innerrhoden[edit]

Ulrich Styvater 1404-


Bernhard Schlegel -1374 (murdered by theft victim Peter Agsten after the thief hanged got back to live)
Claus von Offenburg 1393- or -1393 (?)
Hans Körber 1424-1436
Hans Seckeler 1430-1445
Hans Krämer 1445-1448 (nicknamed "Gangkly")
Hans Heyd 1448-1449
Ulrich von Eger 1449-1458
Ulrich von Honwile 1458-1467 or -1474 (?)
Hans Schatz 1474-1476
Jakob Rennisfeld 1476-1488
Jakob Nydegger 1488-1497
Ulrich ? 1497-1509
Conrad von Horn 1509-1511 or -1516 (?)
Hans Schenk 1516-518
Gilg Beck 1518-1529
Jakob ? 1529-1537
Niklaus Rod 1537-1541
Jörg Volmar 1541 (himself decapitated for murder still in 1541)
Niklaus Schnatz 1545-1546, 1552 (contract executioner from Berne)
Pauli Fuerer 1559-1569 or - 1572 (?)
Georg Käser 1572-1592 or -1612 (?)
 ? Iseli 1612-1633
Thomas Iseli 1633
Conrad von Hagen 1633-1635
Georg ? 1635-1652
Paulus Stunzt 1652 (contracted executioner from Saint-Gall)
Jakob Günther 1652-1692
Georg Friedrich Günther 1692-1714 or -1726 (?)
Hans Jakob Günther 1692
 ? von Hagen 1694-1695 or -1726 (?)
Sebastian Näher 1726-1745
Friedrich Näher 1745-1758 or -1766 (?)
Martin Mengis 1766-1804
Peter Mengis 1804-1838
Jacob Mengis 1838-1850 (contracted executioner from Aargau since Bâle chose to not have an own executioner after 1838.


 ? Deigentesch ~1716


François Tabazan -1624


 ? Vollmer ~1782
see also Schwyz


Baltzer Mengis ~1652 (also referred to as Balthasar Mengis)


Vollmar family 1695-
Johannes Bettenmann -1843
see also Schwyz


Christoph Mengis -1651
Christoph II. Mengis 1651-1681
Johannes Mengis 1681-1695
Balthasar Mengis 1695-1723
Bernhard Mengis 1723-
 ? Mengis -1779
Johann Melchior Grossholz -1815
Augustin Grossholz 1815–1826
Joseph Pickel 1826–1829
Oswald Schlumpf 1829–1830
Johann Bettenmann 1855–1857 (also for Saint-Gall)
Franz Xaver Schmid 1830–1855 (also for Zug and Glarus)


Johann Näher 1797-1839


Franz Josef Grossholz active in 1765
Nikolaus Grossholz active in 1833
Vinzenz Grossholz 1861-


Franz Grossholz 1822–
Arthur X. August 25, 1939 (official reference to the executioner of Paul Irniger, the "taxi killer of Baar"; died in 1960 of paranoid schizophrenia at Burghölzli mental institution in Zurich)
see also Schwyz


Cunrat Grossholz 1473-
Paulus Volmar 1587-
Hans Jakob Volmar
Hans Jakob II. Volmar
Johann Näher 1639-1650 (1623-1640 and again after 1650 in Lindau, Germany)
Hans Jakob III. Volmar -1697
Hans Jakob IV. Volmar 1697- 1711
 ? Vollmer 20ies of the 19th century

Federal Executioner for all Swiss Death Penalty Cantons[edit]

Theodor Mengis 1879–1918
Theodor Mengis Junior 1918-1958


Chavoret Jaruboon 1984-2003

United Kingdom[edit]

Cratwell to 1538 (when he was himself hanged for robbery)[13][14]
"Stump-leg" to 1556 (when he was himself hanged for theft)[13][15]
 ? Bull before 1593–1601
Thomas Derrick 1601- before 1616
Gregory Brandon before 1616- before 1640
Richard Brandon before 1640–1649
William Lowen 1649[16]
Edward Dun 1649–1663[17] (the subject of Groanes from Newgate, or an Elegy upon Edward Dun. Esq., the Citie's Common Hangman, who died naturally in his bed the 11th of September, 1663. Written by a person of Quality)[18]
Jack Ketch 1663–1686
Paskah Rose 1686 (Bleackley (1929) graphs his name as Pasha Rose)
John Price 1714–1715
William Marvell 1715–1717
James Aird 1715–1723[citation needed]
 ? Banks (known as Banks the Bailiff) 1717- after 1718[19]
Richard Arnet before 1726–1728[19] (hanged Jonathan Wild in 1725[20])
John Hooper 1728–1735[21] (known as "the laughing hangman"[21])
John Thrift 1735–1752 (convicted of murder in 1750, but pardoned and continued in office;[22][23] executed Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat on 9 April 1747, the last man to be beheaded in England.[24])
Thomas Turlis 1752–1771 (hanged Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers with a silken rope, the last nobleman to be hanged in England[25])
Edward Dennis 1771–1786 (the last hangman at Tyburn and the first at Newgate;[26] died 21 November 1786 at his home in the Old Bailey[27])
Edward Barlow 1781–1812
William Brunskill career lasted from 1786 to 1814[28] (started as assistant to Edward Dennis;[26] executed Catherine Murphy in 1789, the last woman to be burned at the stake in England)
William Taylor −1810[citation needed]
James Botting 1813/17-1819
John Langley 1814–1817[29]
James Botting 1817–1820
Thomas Cheshire 1820 (known as "Old Cheese";[30] assistant from 1808 to 1820 and from 1820 to 1840)[31]
James Foxen 1820–1829
William Lee −1827[citation needed]
William Calcraft 1829–1874
John Scott 1835–1847 (last executioner of Edinburgh)[32]
George Smith 1849–1872
Thomas Askern 1853–1877[citation needed]
Robert Anderson Evans 1873–1875
William Marwood 1874–1883
George Meker, or George Incher 1875–1881[citation needed]
Bartholomew Binns 1883–1884
James Berry 1884–1891
James Billington 1884–1901
Thomas Henry Scott 1892–1895
Thomas Billington 1897–1901
William Billington 1902–1905
John Billington 1901–1905
John Ellis 1901–1923/24
Henry Pierrepoint 1901–1910
William Willis 1906–1926 (assistant to John Ellis from 1906;[33] assisted him in the execution of Hawley Harvey Crippen[34])
Thomas Pierrepoint 1909–1946
Robert Baxter 1915–1935
Thomas Phillips 1918–1941
Robert Wilson 1920–1936
Alfred Allen 1928–1937
Stanley Cross 1932–1941
Albert Pierrepoint 1932–1956
Henry Kirk, or Harry Kirk 1941–1950
Stephen Wade 1941–1955
Harry Bernard Allen 1941–1964
Syd Dernley 1949–1954
Robert Leslie Stewart 1950–1964
Royston Lawrence Rickard 1953–1964[citation needed]
Harry Frank Robinson 1958–1964[citation needed]
Samuel Barrass Plant 1961–1964[citation needed]
John Underhill 1963–1964[citation needed]

United States[edit]

John C. Woods (1911–1950). Hangman for the Third Army in WWII. He was one of the hangmen who executed Nazi war criminals.

Joseph Malta (1918–1999) was the hangman who, with John C. Woods, executed the top 10 leaders of the Third Reich in Nuremberg on October 16, 1946, for crimes against humanity.


Clarence Burford, warden at Kilby Prison from 1952–1965, was involved in several executions[35]
Murray Daniels, assistant warden at Kilby Prison in the 1950s, involved in eleven executions[36]
J.D. White, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 1980 to 1983, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences. Executed Alabama's first post-Furman inmate, John Louis Evans on April 22, 1983.[37]
Willie Johnson, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 1983 to 1988, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[38]
Charlie Jones, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 1988–2002, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[39]
Grantt Culliver, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 2002–2009, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[40]
Gary Hetzel, warden at Holman Correctional Facility since 2012, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[41]


Maledon, George

During the first part of the 20th century, operators of the electric chair were known as "State electricians".


Max Brice – executioner from mid-1950s to 1967

Daniel Vasquez – warden of San Quentin prison who served as executioner at the gas chamber executions of Robert Alton Harris in 1992 and the execution of David Mason the following year.


John J. "Jack" Eeles – corrections officer who served as hangman at Colorado State Penitentiary until he was murdered in a prison riot on October 3, 1929.[42]
Wayne K. Patterson – warden at Colorado State Penitentiary who pulled the lever to start execution of Luis Jose Monge on June 2, 1967. This was the last execution in the United States prior to the 1972 US Supreme Court case Furman vs. Georgia, which temporarily invalidated the death penalty nationwide. Patterson was opposed to capital punishment.[43]


Jack P. Duckworth 1981 – Warden of Indiana State Prison at Michigan City who was required by law to throw the switch at the electrocution of Steven Timothy Judy[44]


Louis Congo 1725-1740s


Edwin B. Currier circa 1910 – Chief Engineer at Massachusetts General Hospital who operated electric chair control panel during executions at Charlestown Prison.[45]


Jimmy Thompson – 1940–1950[46]
Thomas Berry Bruce – 1957–1987[47]
Donald Hocutt – 1987–1995 [48]


Alan R. Doerhoff (apparently involved in executions also in Indiana, Arizona and at least one Federal)

New York[edit]

Erie County[edit]

Sheriff Grover Cleveland September 6, 1872 and February 14, 1873 [49]

State Executioners[edit]

Edwin Davis 1891–1914
John Hulbert 1913–1926
Robert Elliott 1926–1939
Joseph Francel 1939–1953
Dow Hover 1953–1963


Before Statehood[edit]

  • Sheriff John Ludlow on November 15, 1792 (today's Hamilton County)

Adams County[edit]

  • Sheriff John Ellison, Jr. on December 10, 1808

Cuyahoga County[edit]

  • Sheriff Samuel S. Baldwin and Deputy Sheriff & Coroner Levi Johnson on June 26, 1812
  • Sheriff Miller S. Spangler on June 1st, 1855
  • Sheriff Felix Nicola on February 9 and 10, 1866 and August 10, 1866
  • Sheriff John Frazee on February 4 or 13, 1869 and April 25, 1872
  • Sheriff Pardon B. Smith on April 29, 1874
  • Sheriff A. P. Winslow on June 22, 1876
  • Sheriff John Wilcox on February 13, 1879

Fairfield County[edit]

  • Sheriff Daniel Kishler and Coroner John Heck on October 14, 1836

Franklin County[edit]

  • Sheriff William Domigan and Coroner A. W. Reader on February 9, 1844 (a double execution, including the first reported execution of a woman in Ohio's history)
  • Sheriff Silas W. Park and Coroner Elias Gaver on December 17, 1858

Gallia County[edit]

  • Sheriff Samuel Holcomb on September 9, 1817

Ross County[edit]

  • Sheriff Jeremiah McLene and Coroner Benjamin Urmston on August 3, 1804

Portage County[edit]

  • Sheriff Asa Burroughs on November 30, 1816

State Executioners with the Gallows[edit]

  • Warden Isaac Peetry between 1885-1886
  • Warden E.G. Coffin between 1886-1890
  • Warden B.F. Dyer between 1890-1892
  • Warden C.C. James between 1892-1896
  • Warden E.G. Coffin between 1896-1897

State Executioners with the Electric Chair[edit]

  • Warden E.G. Coffin between 1897-1900
  • Warden W.N. Darby between 1900-1903
  • Warden E. A. Hershey between 1903-1904
  • Warden O.B. Gould between 1904-1909
  • Warden T.H.B. Jones between 1909-1913
  • Warden D.E. Thomas between 1913-1935
  • Warden J.C. Woodard between 1935-1939
  • Warden F.D. Henderson between 1939-1948
  • Warden R.W. Alvis between 1948-1959
  • Warden B.C. Sacks between 1959-1961
  • Warden E.L. Maxwell between 1961-1963



  • Zoe Himes in 1911 (a secretary of Clarion County, PA, Court House, she reportedly executed Vincent Voycheck on June 1st, 1911)
  • Frank Wilson electrical industry superintendent from Pittsburgh area who served as executioner between 1949 and 1953 at Rockview Prison.[52]

South Carolina[edit]


  • Joe Byrd – Captain of the guard at the Walls Unit who served as executioner between 1936 and 1964.[36] The nearby prison cemetery, where unclaimed remains of executed inmates are buried by the state, is named in his honor.
  • W. James "Jim" Estelle – Director of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) between 1972 to 1983. Was designated executioner under policy developed by the TDCJ in 1976.[53] Was the individual pushing the drugs into the IV lines at the December, 1982 execution of Charlie Brooks, the first inmate in the United States to be executed by lethal injection.


Jerry Givens 1982–1999 – Givens, a corrections officer at Virginia State Penitentiary and later Greensville Correctional Center, served as official executioner for all executions carried out in the state during this time period.

West Virginia[edit]

Jefferson County[edit]

Sheriff James W. Campbell and Deputy Sheriff John Avis (hanged John Brown December 2, 1859)

Zimbabwe and former Rhodesia[edit]

Jack Catchpole predecessor to "Ted" "Lofty" Milton; former Rhodesia's chief executioner until 1963
Edward "Lofty" Milton 1954 - after 1968; former Rhodesia's chief executioner after 1963


  • Anderson, Patrick R.: "Expert witnesses: Criminologists in the Courtroom".|Albany: State University of New York, 1987
  • Evans, Richard J.: Rituals of Retribution: Capital Punishment in Germany, 1600–1987. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996; London: Penguin Books, 1997
  • Goulart, José Alípio: Da Palmatória ao Patíbulo: Castigos de Escravos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Editora Conquista, 1971
  • Koch, Tankred: Die Geschichte der Henker: Scharfrichterschicksale aus acht Jahrhunderten. Heidelberg: Kriminalistikverlag, 1988; Herrsching: Manfred-Pawlak-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1991
  • Martschukat, Jürgen: Inszeniertes Töten: Eine Geschichte der Todesstrafe vom 17. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Köln: Böhlau, 2000; Hamburg: 2006
  • Nowosadtko, Jutta: Scharfrichter und Abdecker: Der Alltag zweier "unehrlicher Berufe" in der Frühen Neuzeit. Paderborn: 1994
  • Ribeiro, João Luiz: No Meio das Galinhas as Baratas Não Têm Razão: A Lei de 10 de Junho de 1835 - Os Escravos e a Pena de Morte no Império do Brasil 1822-1889. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Renovar, 2005.
  • Rossa, Kurt: Todesstrafen: Von den Anfängen bis heute. Bergisch-Gladbach: Bastei-Lübbe-Verlag, 1979
Newspaper Sources

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Did not carry out any execution; officially nominated that day, he refused the “job” and persisted in his refusal, changing his mind not even when tortured to make him reconsider. The next day, April 28, 1825, two anonymous convicts of whose names have not appeared records so far, if there are any surviving somewhere, refused the “job” either and so persisted when being shown the gallows and in front of them announced they'd be hanged there later; they preferred their own hangings
  2. ^ "Chinese executioner says job not "complicated"". Reuters. November 14, 2011. 
  3. ^ View to a kill: Indian hangman prepares for his first execution The Guardian 18.09.2014
  4. ^ Christopher Winn (2006). I Never Knew That About Ireland. Random House. p. 30. ISBN 0091910250. 
  5. ^ Meo, Nick (March 6, 2011). "'Huda the executioner' - Libya's devil in female form". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  6. ^ "Old Penang: Suzuki, the "Hippy" Executioner: October 2013". 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2014-09-02. 
  7. ^ murmurs (2011-12-29). "murmurs: December 2011". Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  8. ^ "Saudi executioner tells all". BBC News. June 5, 2003. 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ "Singapore executioner 'sacked'". BBC News Online. 28 November 2005. 
  11. ^ Levett, Connie; Butcher, Steve (30 November 2005). "Hangman ignites outrage". Melbourne: Reuters. 
  12. ^ Darshan didn't do it, The Age, 3 December 2005
  13. ^ a b Donald Rumbelow (1982). The Triple Tree: Newgate, Tyburn, and Old Bailey. Harrap. p. 176. ISBN 0245538771. 
  14. ^ Richard Grafton (1809). Grafton's chronicle, or history of England: to which is added his table of the bailiffs, sheriffs and mayors of the city of London from the year 1189, to 1558, inclusive : in two volumes 2. Johnson. p. 463. 
  15. ^ Andrew Barrett; Christopher Harrison, eds. (1999). Crime and punishment in England: a sourcebook. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 1857288718. 
  16. ^ Frederic George Stephens; Mary Dorothy George, eds. (1870). Catalogue of prints and drawings in the British Museum: Division I. Political and personal satires 1. Trustees of the British Museum. p. 421. 
  17. ^ Bleakley (1929) p.4
  18. ^ William Thomas Lowndes (1834). The bibliographer's manual of English literature containing an account of rare, curious, and useful books, published in or relating to Great Britain and Ireland, from the invention of printing: with bibliographical and critical notices, collations of the rarer articles, and the prices at which they have been sold in the present century. W. Pickering. p. 628. 
  19. ^ a b Bleakley (1929) p.39
  20. ^ Gerald Howson (1985). Thief-Taker General: Jonathan Wild and the emergence of crime and corruption as a way of life in eighteenth-century England. Transaction Publishers. pp. 132, 276. ISBN 0887380328. 
  21. ^ a b Bleakley (1929) p.55
  22. ^ John Brown (1820). Memoirs of George the Third, late king of Great Britain: including characters and anecdotes of the British court. H. Fisher. p. 129. 
  23. ^ Pat Rogers (1980). Hacks and dunces: Pope, Swift and Grub Street. University paperbacks 704. Taylor & Francis. p. 92. ISBN 0416742408. 
  24. ^ Lloyd Bradley; Thomas Eaton (2005). Book of Secrets. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 0740755617. 
  25. ^ Timothy Vance Kaufman-Osborn (2002). From noose to needle: capital punishment and the late liberal state. Law, meaning, and violence. University of Michigan Press. p. 77. ISBN 0472088904. 
  26. ^ a b Jeremy Beadle; Ian Harrison (2008). Firsts, Lasts & Onlys: Crime. Anova Books. p. 39. ISBN 1905798040. 
  27. ^ John Laurence (1971). A history of capital punishment: with special reference to capital punishment in Great Britain. Kennikat Press. p. 104. ISBN 0804611149. 
  28. ^ Bleakley (1929) p.135
  29. ^ Bleakley (1929) p.151
  30. ^ Notes and Queries. 2nd ser XI. 20 April 1861. p. 315.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ Bleakley (1929) pp.192-202
  32. ^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge for the people 4. W. & R. Chambers. 1862. p. 190. 
  33. ^ Kenneth Fields (1998). Lancashire magic & mystery: secrets of the Red Rose County. Sigma. p. 115. ISBN 1850586063. 
  34. ^ David James Smith (2010). Supper with the Crippens. Hachette UK. ISBN 140913413X. 
  35. ^ Russell Tate (December 3, 1967). "Kilby electric chair – will anyone else ride lightning?". Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  36. ^ a b "Applications for executioner posts run high". Wilmington Morning Star. May 11, 1976. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  37. ^ United Press International (May 21, 1986). "Warden Transfers to Fulfill Promise". Florence Times-Daily. Retrieved June 1, 1983.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  38. ^ Associated Press (May 21, 1986). "Mother Relieved After Execution". Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  39. ^ Stan Bailey (August 4, 2002). "Retired executioner has no regrets". The Birmingham News. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  40. ^ Tom Gordon (March 14, 2010). "After 20 executions, Grantt Culliver has a serene outlook". The Birmingham News. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  41. ^ Associated Press (July 26, 2013). "Andrew Reid Lackey executed in Alabama for killing elderly man.". The Epoch Times. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
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