List of exoplanet extremes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets. The properties listed here are those for which values are known reliably.

Extremes from Earth's viewpoint[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Most distant discovered SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04 SWEEPS J175902.67−291153.5 27,710 light years.[1] An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy (2.54 ± 0.11 Mly).[2] In late January 2018,[3] a team of scientists led by Xinyu Dai claimed to have discovered a collection of about 2,000 rogue planets in the quasar microlens RX J1131-1231, which is 3.8 billion light-years distant. The bodies range in mass from that of the Moon to several Jupiter masses.[4][3]

The most distant potentially habitable planet confirmed is Kepler-443b, at 2,540 light-years distant,[5] although the unconfirmed planet KOI-5889.01 is over 5,000 light-years distant.

Least distant Proxima Centauri b Proxima Centauri 4.22 light years Also the closest rocky exoplanet, and closest potentially habitable exoplanet known.
Most distant directly visible CVSO 30 c CVSO 30 1,200 light years Also first directly imaged planet in system with a transiting planet.
Least distant directly visible Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut 25 light years Also first directly imaged planet at optical wavelength.
Star with the brightest apparent magnitude with a planet Pollux b Pollux[6] Apparent magnitude is 1.14 The evidence of planets around Vega with an apparent magnitude of 0.03 is strongly suggested by circumstellar disks surrounding it. As of 2018, no planets had yet been confirmed.[7]
Largest angular distance separation from its host star GU Piscium b GU Piscium 42 arc seconds[8] The upper mass limit (13 Jupiter masses) may make this a brown dwarf. WD 0806-661 b has an angular separation of 130.2 arc seconds from WD 0806-661. However, its planetary origin is also unknown. Not counting either of these, DT Virginis b would be the widest-separated definite exoplanet.

Planetary characteristics[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Most massive HR 2562 b[9] HR 2562[10] 30±15 Jupiter masses[11] Most massive planet in the NASA Exoplanet Archive although, according to most definitions of planet, it may be too massive to be a planet, and may be a brown dwarf instead.
Least massive PSR B1257+12 A[12][13] PSR B1257+12[12][13] ≥0.02 MEarth[12][13] Mass of PSR B1257+12 A is based on an assumption of coplanarity with the outer two planets. The least massive exoplanet for which a true mass is known is Kepler-138b, at 0.07 M.

Kepler-37b may be less massive (assuming Moon-like density), estimated mass >0.01 MEarth,[14] < 6 MEarth[15]

Largest radius GQ Lupi b GQ Lupi 3.0 ± 0.5 Jupiter radii The emitting area of the extremely young HD 100546 b, including planet and disk, indicates that there is a large amount of heat left from formation. Over time, the planet will shrink to approximately the size of Jupiter. This candidate could be larger.
Smallest radius KOI 115.03 Kepler-105 0.0258 Earth radii[16]  
Most dense KELT-1 b KELT-1 23.7 g/cm3[17]
Least dense Kepler-453b[18] Kepler-453 0–0.7 g/cm3[note 1] The density of Kepler-453b has not been accurately measured, and it has a radius of 6.204 Re
Hottest Kepler-70b Kepler-70 >7,000 K[20]
Coldest OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb OGLE-2005-BLG-390L 50 K
Highest albedo Kepler-10b[citation needed] Kepler-10 0.5–0.6 (geometric albedo)
Lowest albedo TrES-2b GSC 03549-02811 Geometric albedo < 1%[21] Best-fit model for albedo gives 0.04% (0.0004)[21]
Youngest DH Tau b DH Tau Myr 2MASS J04414489+2301513 also has an age of 1 Myr, however, it could be a brown dwarf by formation. V830 Tau b is the youngest radial velocity found planet at about 2 Myr.
Oldest PSR B1620-26 b PSR B1620-26 13 Gyr Orbits in a circumbinary orbit around two stellar remnants – a pulsar and a white dwarf. Kapteyn b is the oldest potentially habitable exoplanet at 11 Gyr.[22]

Orbital characteristics[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Longest orbital period
(Longest year)
2MASS J2126-8140 TYC 9486-927-1 ~1,000,000 years GU Piscium b previously held record at 163,000 years.
Shortest orbital period
(Shortest year)
SWIFT J1756.9-2508 b SWIFT J1756.9-2508 0.0339873 days[23] K2-137b has the shortest orbit around a main-sequence star (an M dwarf) at 4.31 hours.[24]
Most eccentric orbit HD 20782 b[25] HD 20782[25] eccentricity of 0.97±0.01 HD 80606 b has an orbital eccentricity of 0.9349,[26] previously held record
Largest orbit around a single star 2MASS J2126-8140 TYC 9486-927-1 ~6,900 AU The upper mass limit (13 Jupiter masses) may make this a brown dwarf. Next largest are CVSO 30 c with ~660 AU and HD 106906 b[27][28] with ~650 AU
Smallest orbit WD 1202-024 B[29] WD 1202-024 0.0021 AU
Smallest orbit around binary star Kepler-47b Kepler-47AB ≃0.3 AU [30]
Smallest ratio of semi-major axis of a planet orbit to binary star orbit Kepler-16b Kepler-16AB 3.14 ± 0.01 [31]
Largest orbit around binary star DT Virginis c DT Virginis 1,168 AU Star system is also known as Ross 458 AB. The planet was eventually confirmed to be below deuterium burning limit but its formation origin is unknown.
Largest orbit around a single star in a multiple star system Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut 115 AU The second stellar component of the system, TW Piscis Austrini, has a semi-major axis of 57,000 AU from Fomalhaut and the third stellar component, LP 876-10 orbits 158,000 AU away from Fomalhaut.
Largest distance between binary stars with a circumbinary planet FW Tauri AB b FW Tau AB ≈11 AU FW Tauri AB b orbits at a distance of 150-300 AU.[32]
Closest orbit between stars with a planet orbiting one of the stars OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LBb OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LB ~12–17 AU
(10 or 14 AU projected distance)[33]
OGLE-2013-BLG-0341L b's semi-major axis is 0.7 AU.[33]
Smallest semi-major axis difference between consecutive planets Kepler-70b and Kepler-70c[20] Kepler-70 0.0016 AU (about 240,000 km) During closest approach, Kepler-70c would appear 5 times the size of the Moon in Kepler-70b's sky.
Smallest semi-major axis ratio between consecutive planets Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c Kepler-36 11% Kepler-36b and c have semi-major axes of 0.1153 AU and 0.1283 AU respectively, c is 11% further from star than b .
Largest semi-major axis difference between consecutive planets PTFO 8-8695 / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c CVSO 30 ~662 AU (about 99,000,000,000 km) Currently c is at (least) 127 times the separation of Sun-Jupiter from b or 22 times Sun-Neptune (outer solar system planet)
Largest semi-major axis ratio between consecutive planets PTFO 8-8695 b / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c CVSO 30 7,900,000% PTFO 8-8695 b / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c have semi-major axes of 0.0084 AU and 662 AU respectively. c is 78,998 times further from the star than b.

Stellar characteristics[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Highest metallicity HD 126614 Ab HD 126614 A +0.56 dex Located in a triple star system.
Lowest metallicity Kepler-271b, c Kepler-271 −0.951 dex BD+20°2457 may be the lowest metallicity planet host ([Fe/H]=−1.00), however the proposed planetary system is dynamically unstable. [1] The next lowest-metallicity system is Kepler-271. Planets were announced around even the extremely low metallicity stars HIP 13044 and HIP 11952, however these claims have since been disproven. [2]
Highest stellar mass HD 13189 b[34] HD 13189[34] 4.5±2.5 M[34] Margin of error means the star NGC 4349-127 with a stellar mass of 3.9 M is potentially the most massive known planet-harboring star.[35]
Lowest stellar mass (main sequence) 2MASS J1119-1137 2MASS J1119–1137 0.0033 M The system 2MASS J1119-1137 AB is a pair of binary rogue planets approximately 3.7 Jupiter masses each.[36]

The least massive main sequence star with known planets is TRAPPIST-1, at 0.089 M.

Lowest stellar mass (brown dwarf) 2M J044144 b[37] 2M J044144[37] 0.02 M[37]
Largest stellar radius R Leonis b R Leonis 299 or 320-350 R[38][39] Star is a Mira variable.
Smallest stellar radius (main sequence star) TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g, and h. TRAPPIST-1 0.121 R
Smallest stellar radius (brown dwarf) 2M 0746+20 b[40] 2M 0746+20 0.089 (± 0.003) R Planet's mass is very uncertain at 30.0 (± 25.0) Mjup.
Smallest stellar radius (pulsar) PSR J1719-1438 b[41] PSR J1719-1438 0.04 R
Oldest star HD 164922 b HD 164922[42] 13.4 billion years[42]
Hottest star with a planet NY Virginis b NY Virginis[43] 33,247 K This star is a subdwarf B star and has a red dwarf companion of 0.14 solar masses with a semi-major axis of slightly under 4 million kilometers from the primary component. The NN Serpentis system has two exoplanets (NN Serpentis c and NN Serpentis d), with the star at ~57,000K.
Hottest main-sequence star with a planet Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut[44] 8,590 K HIP 78530 has a surface temperature of 10,500K, but it is uncertain whether the orbiting companion is a brown dwarf or planet.
Coldest star with a planet TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g, and h. TRAPPIST-1 2,511 K Technically Oph 162225-240515, CFBDSIR J145829+101343, and WISE 1217+1626 are colder, but are classified as brown dwarfs.

System characteristics[edit]

Title System(s) Planet(s) Star(s) Notes
System with most (confirmed) planets HD 10180, Kepler-90 9 (8) 1 The planets are HD 10180 b, c, d e, f, g and h, with 2 unconfirmed planets in the HD 10180 system, and more data is needed to confirm their existence.[45][46] Kepler-90 has eight confirmed planets.[47]
System with most planets in habitable zone TRAPPIST-1 3 1 Three planets in this system (e, f and g) orbit within the habitable zone.[48]
System with most stars Kepler 64 PH1b (Kepler 64b) 4 PH1 has a circumbinary orbit.
Multiplanetary system with smallest mean semi-major axis (planets are nearest to their star) Kepler 42
Kepler 70
b, c, d
b, c, d?
1
1
Kepler-42 b, c, and d have a semimajor axis of only 0.0116, 0.006, and 0.0154 AU, respectively.
Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have a semimajor axis of only 0.006, 0.0076, and ~0.0065 AU, respectively.
Multiplanetary system with largest mean semi-major axis (planets are farthest from their star) HR 8799 b, c, d, e 1 HR 8799 b, c, d, and e have a semimajor axis of 68, 38, 24, and 14.5 AU, respectively.
Multiplanetary system with smallest range of semi-major axis (smallest difference between the star's nearest planet and its farthest planet) Kepler-70 b, c, d? 1 Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have a semimajor axis of only 0.006, 0.0076, and ~0.0065 AU, respectively. The separation between closest and furthest is only 0.0016 AU.
Multiplanetary system with largest range of semi-major axis (largest difference between the star's nearest planet and its farthest planet) HR 8799 b, c, d, e 1 HR 8799 b, c, d, and e have a semimajor axis of 68, 38, 24, and 14.5 AU, respectively. The separation between closest and furthest is 53.5 AU.
Multiplanetary system with smallest mean difference in semi-major axis between neighboring planets (orbits are most closely spaced to each other)
Multiplanetary system with largest mean semi-major axis between neighboring planets (orbits are most spread out with respect to each other)
System with smallest total planetary mass Kepler-70 b, c, d? 1 Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have masses of 0.440, 0.655, and ~0.222 Earth masses, respectively.
System with largest total planetary mass Kepler-52? b, c, d 1 Kepler-52 b and c have masses of 8.7 and 10.41 Jupiter Masses, respectively. The mass of Kepler-52 d is not known.
System with smallest ratio of total planetary mass to stellar mass
System with largest ratio of total planetary mass to stellar mass
Multiplanetary system with smallest mean planetary mass
Multiplanetary system with smallest ratio of mean planetary mass to stellar mass
Multiplanetary system with largest mean planetary mass
Multiplanetary system with largest ratio of mean planetary mass to stellar mass
Multiplanetary system with smallest range in planetary mass (smallest difference between the most and least massive planets)
Multiplanetary system with largest range in planetary mass (largest difference between the most and least massive planets)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ NASA does not give a direct density value, however both mass and radius values are given. Using the PHL density Calculator mass value of 0–30 Me and 6.204 Re were used and gave a result of 0–0.7 g/cm which may or may not be lower than Kepler-51d's density depending on the radius of Kepler-52d and the mass of Kepler-453b. The volume of Kepler-51d may be an order of magnitude smaller, or somewhat larger, than that of Jupiter, with possible densities between 10 and about 500 grams per liter.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "HEC: Top 10 Exoplanets". University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  2. ^ Schneider, J. "Notes for star PA-99-N2". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
  3. ^ a b Dai, Xinyu; Guerras, Eduardo (February 2, 2018). "Probing Extragalactic Planets Using Quasar Microlensing". The Astrophysical Journal. 853 (2): L27. arXiv:1802.00049. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa5fb. ISSN 2041-8213.
  4. ^ "Astronomers Claim to Find Population of Rogue Exoplanets in Distant Galaxy". Science News.
  5. ^ "The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — Kepler-443 b". Exoplanet.eu. 2015-01-09. Retrieved 2018-10-20.
  6. ^ Lee, T. A. (October 1970), "Photometry of high-luminosity M-type stars", Astrophysical Journal, 162: 217, Bibcode:1970ApJ...162..217L, doi:10.1086/150648
  7. ^ "NASA, ESA Telescopes Find Evidence for Asteroid Belt Around Vega" (Press release). Whitney Clavin, NASA. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  8. ^ "GU Psc b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia.
  9. ^ Konopacky, Quinn M.; Rameau, Julien; Duchêne, Gaspard; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Giorla Godfrey, Paige A.; Marois, Christian; Nielsen, Eric L. (September 20, 2016). "Discovery of a Substellar Companion to the Nearby Debris Disk Host HR 2562". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 829 (1): 10. arXiv:1608.06660. Bibcode:2016ApJ...829L...4K. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L4.
  10. ^ Staff (21 December 2017). "HR 2562". SIMBAD. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  11. ^ Staff. "HR 2562 b". Caltech. Retrieved 21 December 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Stephen Battersby (19 January 2009). "Smallest known exoplanet may actually be Earth-mass". New Scientist. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  13. ^ a b c Alex Wolszczan. "Planets Around Pulsars". astro.psu.edu. Archived from the original on 11 July 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  14. ^ "Kepler: Discovery: Kepler-37b, a planet only slightly larger than the Moon". nasa.gov. 2015-03-31.
  15. ^ Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; et al. (January 13, 2014). "Masses, Radii, and Orbits of Small Kepler Planets: the Transition From Gaseous to Rocky Planets". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 210 (2): 20. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/210/2/20. ISSN 0067-0049. Retrieved October 20, 2018. 2.78 ± 3.7 MEarth means 0 to 6 MEarth at 1 sigma
  16. ^ "Open Exoplanet Catalogue - KOI-115.03". www.openexoplanetcatalogue.com. Retrieved 2018-08-07.
  17. ^ Johns, Daniel; Marti, Connor; Huff, Madison; McCann, Jacob; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Wright, Duncan J. (2018-08-14). "Revised Exoplanet Radii and Habitability Using Gaia Data Release 2". arXiv:1808.04533 [astro-ph.EP].
  18. ^ "Kepler-453 b". caltech.edu.
  19. ^ "HEC: Exoplanets Calculator". Planetary Habitability Laboratory @ UPR Arecibo. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  20. ^ a b Charpinet, S.; et al. (December 21, 2011). "A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star". Nature. 480 (7378): 496–499. Bibcode:2011Natur.480..496C. doi:10.1038/nature10631. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 22193103. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  21. ^ a b David M. Kipping; et al. (2011). "Detection of visible light from the darkest world" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 417 (1): L88–L92. arXiv:1108.2297. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.417L..88K. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2011.01127.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 2011-08-12.
  22. ^ "Introducing Earth's bigger, older brother: planet Kapteyn b". June 14, 2014.
  23. ^ "The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — SWIFT J1756-2508". exoplanet.eu. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  24. ^ "The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — K2-137 b." Exoplanet.eu. 2018.
  25. ^ a b "HD 20781 b". Open Exoplanet Catalogue. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  26. ^ "Students Find Jupiter-sized Oddball Planet". ScienceDaily. April 22, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  27. ^ Chow, Denise (6 December 2013). "Giant Alien Planet Discovered in Most Distant Orbit Ever Seen". space.com. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
  28. ^ Bailey, Vanessa; et al. (January 2014). "HD 106906 b: A planetary-mass companion outside a massive debris disk". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 780 (1): L4. arXiv:1312.1265. Bibcode:2014ApJ...780L...4B. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/780/1/L4. L4.
  29. ^ Bailes, M.; Bates, S. D.; Bhalerao, V.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; d'Amico, N.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. J.; et al. (2011). "Transformation of a Star into a Planet in a Millisecond Pulsar Binary" (PDF). Science. 333 (6050): 1717–20. arXiv:1108.5201. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1717B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.753.7160. doi:10.1126/science.1208890. PMID 21868629.
  30. ^ OROSZ J.; WELSH W.; CARTER J.; FABRYCKY D.; COCHRAN W.; et al. (2012). "Kepler-47: A Transiting Circumbinary Multi-Planet System". Science. 337 (6101): 1511–4. arXiv:1208.5489. Bibcode:2012Sci...337.1511O. doi:10.1126/science.1228380. PMID 22933522.
  31. ^ Laurance R. Doyle; Joshua A. Carter; Daniel C. Fabrycky; Robert W. Slawson; Steve B. Howell; Joshua N. Winn; Jerome A. Orosz; Andrej Prsa; William F. Welsh; et al. (2011). "Kepler-16: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet". Science. 333 (6049): 1602–1606. arXiv:1109.3432v1. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1602D. doi:10.1126/science.1210923. PMID 21921192.
  32. ^ Kraus, Adam; J. Ireland, Michael; A. Cieza, Lucas; Hinkley, Sasha; J. Dupuy, Trent; P. Bowler, Brendan; C. Liu, Michael (2 January 2014). "Three Wide Planetary-Mass Companions to FW Tau, ROXs 12, and ROXs 42B". Science. 1 (1): 1311. arXiv:1311.7664v2. Bibcode:2014ApJ...781...20K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/20.
  33. ^ a b Gould, A.; et al. (July 3, 2014). "A terrestrial planet in a ~1-AU orbit around one member of a 15-AU binary". Science. 345 (6192): 46–49. arXiv:1407.1115. Bibcode:2014Sci...345...46G. doi:10.1126/science.1251527. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 24994642. these projected separations are good proxies for the semi-major axis (afterupward adjustment by to correct for projection effects)
  34. ^ a b c "Notes for planet HD 13189 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2015-09-15.
  35. ^ "Notes for planet NGC 4349-127 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2017-08-28.
  36. ^ "Notes for planet 2MASSS J1119-1137 AB". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  37. ^ a b c Schneider, J. "Notes for planet 2M J044144 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  38. ^ De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; De Koter, A.; Justtanont, K.; Verhoelst, T.; Kemper, F.; Menten, K. M. (2010). "Probing the mass-loss history of AGB and red supergiant stars from CO rotational line profiles. II. CO line survey of evolved stars: Derivation of mass-loss rate formulae". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 523: A18. arXiv:1008.1083. Bibcode:2010A&A...523A..18D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913771.
  39. ^ Fedele; et al. (2005). "The K -Band Intensity Profile of R Leonis Probed by VLTI/VINCI". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 431 (3): 1019–1026. arXiv:astro-ph/0411133. Bibcode:2005A&A...431.1019F. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20042013.
  40. ^ "The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — 2M 0746+20 b". exoplanet.eu.
  41. ^ "PSR J1719-1438 b". caltech.edu.
  42. ^ a b "HD 164922 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
  43. ^ Joe Bauwens (2011-12-29). "Sciency Thoughts: Planets in the NY Virginis system". sciencythoughts.blogspot.com.
  44. ^ "Fomalhaut b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
  45. ^ "HD 10180 i". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  46. ^ "HD 10180 j". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2012-12-24.
  47. ^ Northon, Karen (2017-12-14). "Artificial Intelligence, NASA Data Used to Discover Exoplanet". NASA. Retrieved 2017-12-14.
  48. ^ "NASA telescope reveals largest batch of Earth-size, habitable-zone planets around single star". Exoplanet Exploration: Planets Beyond our Solar System. nasa.gov. February 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-14.

External links[edit]