List of exoplanet extremes
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The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets. The properties listed here are those for which values are known reliably.
Extremes from Earth's viewpoint
|Most distant discovered||SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04||SWEEPS J175902.67−291153.5||27,710 light years.||An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy (2.54 ± 0.11 Mly). In late January 2018, a team of scientists led by Xinyu Dai claimed to have discovered a collection of about 2,000 rogue planets in the quasar microlens RX J1131-1231, which is 3.8 billion light-years distant. The bodies range in mass from that of the Moon to several Jupiter masses.|
|Least distant||Proxima Centauri b||Proxima Centauri||4.22 light years||Also the closest rocky exoplanet, and closest potentially habitable exoplanet known.|
|Most distant directly visible||CVSO 30 c||CVSO 30||1,200 light years||Also first directly imaged planet in system with a transiting planet.|
|Least distant directly visible||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||25 light years||Also first directly imaged planet at optical wavelength.|
|Star with the brightest apparent magnitude with a planet||Pollux b||Pollux||Apparent magnitude is 1.14||The evidence of planets around Vega with an apparent magnitude of 0.03 is strongly suggested by circumstellar disks surrounding it. As of 2018[update], no planets had yet been confirmed.|
|Largest angular distance separation from its host star||GU Piscium b||GU Piscium||42 arc seconds||The upper mass limit (13 Jupiter masses) may make this a brown dwarf. WD 0806-661 b has an angular separation of 130.2 arc seconds from WD 0806-661. However, its planetary origin is also unknown. Not counting either of these, DT Virginis b would be the widest-separated definite exoplanet.|
|Most massive||HR 2562 b||HR 2562||±15 30Jupiter masses||Most massive planet in the NASA Exoplanet Archive although, according to most definitions of planet, it may be too massive to be a planet, and may be a brown dwarf instead.|
|Least massive||PSR B1257+12 A||PSR B1257+12||≥0.02 MEarth||Mass of PSR B1257+12 A is based on an assumption of coplanarity with the outer two planets. The least massive exoplanet for which a true mass is known is Kepler-138b, at 0.07 M⊕.|
|Largest radius||GQ Lupi b||GQ Lupi||3.0 ± 0.5 Jupiter radii||The emitting area of the extremely young HD 100546 b, including planet and disk, indicates that there is a large amount of heat left from formation. Over time, the planet will shrink to approximately the size of Jupiter. This candidate could be larger.|
|Smallest radius||KOI 115.03||Kepler-105||0.0258 Earth radii|
|Most dense||KELT-1 b||KELT-1||23.7 g/cm3|
|Least dense||Kepler-453b||Kepler-453||0–0.7 g/cm3[note 1]||The density of Kepler-453b has not been accurately measured, and it has a radius of 6.204 Re|
|Highest albedo||Kepler-10b||Kepler-10||0.5–0.6 (geometric albedo)|
|Lowest albedo||TrES-2b||GSC 03549-02811||Geometric albedo < 1%||Best-fit model for albedo gives 0.04% (0.0004)|
|Youngest||DH Tau b||DH Tau||1 Myr||2MASS J04414489+2301513 also has an age of 1 Myr, however, it could be a brown dwarf by formation. V830 Tau b is the youngest radial velocity found planet at about 2 Myr.|
|Oldest||PSR B1620-26 b||PSR B1620-26||13 Gyr||Orbits in a circumbinary orbit around two stellar remnants – a pulsar and a white dwarf. Kapteyn b is the oldest potentially habitable exoplanet at 11 Gyr.|
|Longest orbital period
|2MASS J2126-8140||TYC 9486-927-1||~1,000,000 years||GU Piscium b previously held record at 163,000 years.|
|Shortest orbital period
|SWIFT J1756.9-2508 b||SWIFT J1756.9-2508||0.0339873 days||K2-137b has the shortest orbit around a main-sequence star (an M dwarf) at 4.31 hours.|
|Most eccentric orbit||HD 20782 b||HD 20782||eccentricity of 0.97±0.01||HD 80606 b has an orbital eccentricity of 0.9349, previously held record|
|Largest orbit around a single star||2MASS J2126-8140||TYC 9486-927-1||~6,900 AU||The upper mass limit (13 Jupiter masses) may make this a brown dwarf. Next largest are CVSO 30 c with ~660 AU and HD 106906 b with ~650 AU|
|Smallest orbit||WD 1202-024 B||WD 1202-024||0.0021 AU|
|Smallest orbit around binary star||Kepler-47b||Kepler-47AB||≃0.3 AU|||
|Smallest ratio of semi-major axis of a planet orbit to binary star orbit||Kepler-16b||Kepler-16AB||3.14 ± 0.01|||
|Largest orbit around binary star||DT Virginis c||DT Virginis||1,168 AU||Star system is also known as Ross 458 AB. The planet was eventually confirmed to be below deuterium burning limit but its formation origin is unknown.|
|Largest orbit around a single star in a multiple star system||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||115 AU||The second stellar component of the system, TW Piscis Austrini, has a semi-major axis of 57,000 AU from Fomalhaut and the third stellar component, LP 876-10 orbits 158,000 AU away from Fomalhaut.|
|Largest distance between binary stars with a circumbinary planet||FW Tauri AB b||FW Tau AB||≈11 AU||FW Tauri AB b orbits at a distance of 150-300 AU.|
|Closest orbit between stars with a planet orbiting one of the stars||OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LBb||OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LB||~12–17 AU
(10 or 14 AU projected distance)
|OGLE-2013-BLG-0341L b's semi-major axis is 0.7 AU.|
|Smallest semi-major axis difference between consecutive planets||Kepler-70b and Kepler-70c||Kepler-70||0.0016 AU (about 240,000 km)||During closest approach, Kepler-70c would appear 5 times the size of the Moon in Kepler-70b's sky.|
|Smallest semi-major axis ratio between consecutive planets||Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c||Kepler-36||11%||Kepler-36b and c have semi-major axes of 0.1153 AU and 0.1283 AU respectively, c is 11% further from star than b .|
|Largest semi-major axis difference between consecutive planets||PTFO 8-8695 / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c||CVSO 30||~662 AU (about 99,000,000,000 km)||Currently c is at (least) 127 times the separation of Sun-Jupiter from b or 22 times Sun-Neptune (outer solar system planet)|
|Largest semi-major axis ratio between consecutive planets||PTFO 8-8695 b / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c||CVSO 30||7,900,000%||PTFO 8-8695 b / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c have semi-major axes of 0.0084 AU and 662 AU respectively. c is 78,998 times further from the star than b.|
|Highest metallicity||HD 126614 Ab||HD 126614 A||+0.56 dex||Located in a triple star system.|
|Lowest metallicity||Kepler-271b, c||Kepler-271||−0.951 dex||BD+20°2457 may be the lowest metallicity planet host ([Fe/H]=−1.00), however the proposed planetary system is dynamically unstable.  The next lowest-metallicity system is Kepler-271. Planets were announced around even the extremely low metallicity stars HIP 13044 and HIP 11952, however these claims have since been disproven. |
|Highest stellar mass||HD 13189 b||HD 13189||4.5±2.5 M☉||Margin of error means the star NGC 4349-127 with a stellar mass of 3.9 M☉ is potentially the most massive known planet-harboring star.|
|Lowest stellar mass (main sequence)||2MASS J1119-1137||2MASS J1119–1137||0.0033 M☉||The system 2MASS J1119-1137 AB is a pair of binary rogue planets approximately 3.7 Jupiter masses each.
The least massive main sequence star with known planets is TRAPPIST-1, at 0.089 M☉.
|Lowest stellar mass (brown dwarf)||2M J044144 b||2M J044144||0.02 M☉|
|Largest stellar radius||R Leonis b||R Leonis||299 or 320-350 R☉||Star is a Mira variable.|
|Smallest stellar radius (main sequence star)||TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g, and h.||TRAPPIST-1||0.121 R☉|
|Smallest stellar radius (brown dwarf)||2M 0746+20 b||2M 0746+20||0.089 (± 0.003) R☉||Planet's mass is very uncertain at 30.0 (± 25.0) Mjup.|
|Smallest stellar radius (pulsar)||PSR J1719-1438 b||PSR J1719-1438||0.04 R☉|
|Oldest star||HD 164922 b||HD 164922||13.4 billion years|
|Hottest star with a planet||NY Virginis b||NY Virginis||33,247 K||This star is a subdwarf B star and has a red dwarf companion of 0.14 solar masses with a semi-major axis of slightly under 4 million kilometers from the primary component. The NN Serpentis system has two exoplanets (NN Serpentis c and NN Serpentis d), with the star at ~57,000K.|
|Hottest main-sequence star with a planet||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||8,590 K||HIP 78530 has a surface temperature of 10,500K, but it is uncertain whether the orbiting companion is a brown dwarf or planet.|
|Coldest star with a planet||TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g, and h.||TRAPPIST-1||2,511 K||Technically Oph 162225-240515, CFBDSIR J145829+101343, and WISE 1217+1626 are colder, but are classified as brown dwarfs.|
|System with most (confirmed) planets||HD 10180, Kepler-90||9 (8)||1||The planets are HD 10180 b, c, d e, f, g and h, with 2 unconfirmed planets in the HD 10180 system, and more data is needed to confirm their existence. Kepler-90 has eight confirmed planets.|
|System with most planets in habitable zone||TRAPPIST-1||3||1||Three planets in this system (e, f and g) orbit within the habitable zone.|
|System with most stars||Kepler 64||PH1b (Kepler 64b)||4||PH1 has a circumbinary orbit.|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest mean semi-major axis (planets are nearest to their star)||Kepler 42
|b, c, d
b, c, d?
|Kepler-42 b, c, and d have a semimajor axis of only 0.0116, 0.006, and 0.0154 AU, respectively.|
Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have a semimajor axis of only 0.006, 0.0076, and ~0.0065 AU, respectively.
|Multiplanetary system with largest mean semi-major axis (planets are farthest from their star)||HR 8799||b, c, d, e||1||HR 8799 b, c, d, and e have a semimajor axis of 68, 38, 24, and 14.5 AU, respectively.|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest range of semi-major axis (smallest difference between the star's nearest planet and its farthest planet)||Kepler-70||b, c, d?||1||Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have a semimajor axis of only 0.006, 0.0076, and ~0.0065 AU, respectively. The separation between closest and furthest is only 0.0016 AU.|
|Multiplanetary system with largest range of semi-major axis (largest difference between the star's nearest planet and its farthest planet)||HR 8799||b, c, d, e||1||HR 8799 b, c, d, and e have a semimajor axis of 68, 38, 24, and 14.5 AU, respectively. The separation between closest and furthest is 53.5 AU.|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest mean difference in semi-major axis between neighboring planets (orbits are most closely spaced to each other)|
|Multiplanetary system with largest mean semi-major axis between neighboring planets (orbits are most spread out with respect to each other)|
|System with smallest total planetary mass||Kepler-70||b, c, d?||1||Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have masses of 0.440, 0.655, and ~0.222 Earth masses, respectively.|
|System with largest total planetary mass||Kepler-52?||b, c, d||1||Kepler-52 b and c have masses of 8.7 and 10.41 Jupiter Masses, respectively. The mass of Kepler-52 d is not known.|
|System with smallest ratio of total planetary mass to stellar mass|
|System with largest ratio of total planetary mass to stellar mass|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest mean planetary mass|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest ratio of mean planetary mass to stellar mass|
|Multiplanetary system with largest mean planetary mass|
|Multiplanetary system with largest ratio of mean planetary mass to stellar mass|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest range in planetary mass (smallest difference between the most and least massive planets)|
|Multiplanetary system with largest range in planetary mass (largest difference between the most and least massive planets)|
- Extremes on Earth
- List of lists of exoplanets
- List of stars with proplyds
- Methods of detecting exoplanets
- Terrestrial exoplanets
- NASA does not give a direct density value, however both mass and radius values are given. Using the PHL density Calculator mass value of 0–30 Me and 6.204 Re were used and gave a result of 0–0.7 g/cm which may or may not be lower than Kepler-51d's density depending on the radius of Kepler-52d and the mass of Kepler-453b. The volume of Kepler-51d may be an order of magnitude smaller, or somewhat larger, than that of Jupiter, with possible densities between 10 and about 500 grams per liter.
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these projected separations are good proxies for the semi-major axis (afterupward adjustment by to correct for projection effects)
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