List of exoplanet extremes
The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets. The properties listed here are those for which values are known reliably.
Extremes from Earth's viewpoint
|Most distant discovered||SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04||SWEEPS J175902.67−291153.5||27,710 light years.||An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy (2.54 ± 0.11 Mly). In late January 2018, a team of scientists led by Xinyu Dai claimed to have discovered a collection of about 2,000 rogue planets in the quasar microlens RX J1131-1231, which is 3.8 billion light-years distant. The bodies range in mass from that of the Moon to several Jupiter masses.|
|Least distant||Proxima Centauri b||Proxima Centauri||4.22 light years||Also the closest rocky exoplanet, and closest potentially habitable exoplanet known. As Proxima Centauri is the closest star to the Sun (and will stay so for the next 25,000 years) this is an absolute record.|
|Most distant directly visible||CVSO 30 c||CVSO 30||1,200 light years||Also first directly imaged planet in system with a transiting planet.|
|Least distant directly visible||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||25 light years||Also first directly imaged planet at optical wavelength.|
|Star with the brightest apparent magnitude with a planet||Pollux b||Pollux||Apparent magnitude is 1.14||The evidence of planets around Vega with an apparent magnitude of 0.03 is strongly suggested by circumstellar disks surrounding it. As of 2018[update], no planets had yet been confirmed.|
|Largest angular distance separation from its host star||GU Piscium b||GU Piscium||42 arc seconds||The upper mass limit (13 Jupiter masses) may make this a brown dwarf. WD 0806-661 b has an angular separation of 130.2 arc seconds from WD 0806-661. However, its planetary origin is also unknown. Not counting either of these, DT Virginis b would be the widest-separated definite exoplanet.|
|Least massive||WD 1145+017 b||WD 1145+017||0.00067 MEarth|
|Most massive||It is difficult to determine the mass boundary between a planet and a brown dwarf, but it is estimated that these are approximately 13 Jupiter masses.|
|Largest radius||GQ Lupi b||GQ Lupi||3.0 ± 0.5 Jupiter radii||The emitting area of the extremely young HD 100546 b, including planet and disk, indicates that there is a large amount of heat left from formation. Over time, the planet will shrink to approximately the size of Jupiter. This candidate could be larger. The unconfirmed planet KIC 2437209 b has a radius of 62.64 ± 19.61 Earth radius.|
|Smallest radius||WD 1145+017 b||WD 1145+017||0.15 Earth radii||The unconfirmed planets PSR B1828-11 b and KOI 115.03 have a smaller radius 0.016 and 0.0258 Earth Radii.|
|Most dense||KELT-1b||KELT-1||23.7 ± 4g/cm3|
|Least dense||Kepler-51c, b and/or possibly d||Kepler-51||~ 0.03 g/cm3||The densities of Kepler-51 b and c have been constrained to be below 0.05 g/cm3 (expected value 0.03 g/cm3 for each). The density of Kepler-51d is determined to be 0.046±0.009 g/cm3.|
|Highest albedo||Kepler-10b||Kepler-10||0.5–0.6 (geometric albedo)|
|Lowest albedo||TrES-2b||GSC 03549-02811||Geometric albedo < 1%||Best-fit model for albedo gives 0.04% (0.0004)|
|Youngest||Proplyd 133-353||Proplyd 133-353||0.5 Myr|
|Oldest||PSR B1620-26 b||PSR B1620-26||13 Gyr||Orbits in a circumbinary orbit around two stellar remnants – a pulsar and a white dwarf. Kapteyn b is the oldest potentially habitable exoplanet at 11 Gyr.|
|Longest orbital period
|2MASS J2126-8140||TYC 9486-927-1||~1,000,000 years||GU Piscium b previously held record at 163,000 years.|
|Shortest orbital period
|SWIFT J1756.9-2508 b||SWIFT J1756.9-2508||0.0339873 days||K2-137b has the shortest orbit around a main-sequence star (an M dwarf) at 4.31 hours.|
|Most eccentric orbit||HD 20782 b||HD 20782||0.956±0.004||Record among confirmed planets. Putative satellite of VB 10 may have higher eccentricity of 0.98.|
|Largest orbit around a single star||2MASS J2126-8140||TYC 9486-927-1||~6,900 AU||The upper mass limit (13 Jupiter masses) may make this a brown dwarf. Next largest are CVSO 30 c with ~660 AU and HD 106906 b with ~650 AU|
|Smallest orbit||WD 1202-024 B||WD 1202-024||0.0021 AU|
|Smallest orbit around binary star||Kepler-47b||Kepler-47AB||≃0.3 AU|||
|Smallest ratio of semi-major axis of a planet orbit to binary star orbit||Kepler-16b||Kepler-16AB||3.14 ± 0.01|||
|Largest orbit around binary star||DT Virginis c||DT Virginis||1,168 AU||Star system is also known as Ross 458 AB. The planet was eventually confirmed to be below deuterium burning limit but its formation origin is unknown.|
|Largest orbit around a single star in a multiple star system||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||115 AU||The second stellar component of the system, TW Piscis Austrini, has a semi-major axis of 57,000 AU from Fomalhaut and the third stellar component, LP 876-10 orbits 158,000 AU away from Fomalhaut.|
|Largest distance between binary stars with a circumbinary planet||FW Tauri AB b||FW Tau AB||≈11 AU||FW Tauri AB b orbits at a distance of 150-300 AU.|
|Closest orbit between stars with a planet orbiting one of the stars||OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LBb||OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LB||~12–17 AU
(10 or 14 AU projected distance)
|OGLE-2013-BLG-0341L b's semi-major axis is 0.7 AU.|
|Smallest semi-major axis difference between consecutive planets||Kepler-70b and Kepler-70c||Kepler-70||0.0016 AU (about 240,000 km)||During closest approach, Kepler-70c would appear 5 times the size of the Moon in Kepler-70b's sky.|
|Smallest semi-major axis ratio between consecutive planets||Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c||Kepler-36||11%||Kepler-36b and c have semi-major axes of 0.1153 AU and 0.1283 AU respectively, c is 11% further from star than b .|
|Largest semi-major axis difference between consecutive planets||PTFO 8-8695 / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c||CVSO 30||~662 AU (about 99,000,000,000 km)||Currently c is at (least) 127 times the separation of Sun-Jupiter from b or 22 times Sun-Neptune (outer solar system planet)|
|Largest semi-major axis ratio between consecutive planets||PTFO 8-8695 b / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c||CVSO 30||7,900,000%||PTFO 8-8695 b / CVSO 30 b and CVSO 30 c have semi-major axes of 0.0084 AU and 662 AU respectively. c is 78,998 times further from the star than b.|
|Highest metallicity||HD 126614 Ab||HD 126614 A||+0.56 dex||Located in a triple star system.|
|Lowest metallicity||Kapteyn b||Kapteyn's Star||−0.99±0.04 dex||BD+20°2457 may be the lowest metallicity planet host ([Fe/H]=−1.00), however the proposed planetary system is dynamically unstable.  After Kapteyn's Star, the next lowest-metallicity system is Kepler-271, at -0.951 dex. Planets were announced around even the extremely low metallicity stars HIP 13044 and HIP 11952, however these claims have since been disproven. |
|Highest stellar mass||HD 13189 b||HD 13189||4.5±2.5 M☉||Margin of error means the star NGC 4349-127 with a stellar mass of 3.9 M☉ is potentially the most massive known planet-harboring star.
Mirfak (8.4 M☉ hypothetically has one planet, but this remains unproven. The extremely massive stars R66 (70 M☉) and R126 (30 M☉) have protoplanetary disks but it is unknown if there is planets in this system.
|Lowest stellar mass (main sequence)||2MASS J1119-1137||2MASS J1119–1137||0.0033 M☉||The system 2MASS J1119-1137 AB is a pair of binary rogue planets approximately 3.7 Jupiter masses each.
The least massive main sequence star with known planets is TRAPPIST-1, at 0.089 M☉.
|Lowest stellar mass (main sequence star)||VHS 1256-1257 b||VHS 1256-1257||0.07 M☉|
|Lowest stellar mass (brown dwarf)||2M J044144 b||2M J044144||0.02 M☉|
|Largest stellar radius||R Leonis b||R Leonis||299 or 320-350 R☉||Star is a Mira variable.|
|Smallest stellar radius (main sequence star)||VB 10 b||VB 10||0.102 R☉|
|Smallest stellar radius (brown dwarf)||2M 0746+20 b||2M 0746+20||0.089 (± 0.003) R☉||Planet's mass is very uncertain at 30.0 (± 25.0) Mjup.|
|Smallest stellar radius (pulsar)||PSR J1719-1438 b||PSR J1719-1438||0.04 R☉|
|Oldest star||HD 164922 b||HD 164922||13.4 billion years|
|Hottest star with a planet||NY Virginis b||NY Virginis||33,247 K||This star is a subdwarf B star and has a red dwarf companion of 0.14 solar masses with a semi-major axis of slightly under 4 million kilometers from the primary component. The NN Serpentis system has two exoplanets (NN Serpentis c and NN Serpentis d), with the star at ~57,000K.|
|Hottest main-sequence star with a planet||Fomalhaut b||Fomalhaut||8,590 K||HIP 78530 has a surface temperature of 10,500K, but it is uncertain whether the orbiting companion is a brown dwarf or planet.|
|Coldest star with a planet||TRAPPIST-1b, c, d, e, f, g, and h.||TRAPPIST-1||2,511 K||Technically Oph 162225-240515, CFBDSIR J145829+101343, and WISE 1217+1626 are colder, but are classified as brown dwarfs.|
|System with most (confirmed) planets||HD 10180, Kepler-90, Solar System||9 (8)||1||The planets are HD 10180 b, c, d e, f, g and h, with 2 unconfirmed planets in the HD 10180 system, and more data is needed to confirm their existence. Kepler-90 has eight confirmed planets.|
|System with most planets in habitable zone||TRAPPIST-1||7||1||Three planets in this system (e, f and g) orbit within the habitable zone.|
|System with most stars||Kepler 64||PH1b (Kepler 64b)||4||PH1 has a circumbinary orbit.|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest mean semi-major axis (planets are nearest to their star)||Kepler 42
|b, c, d
b, c, d?
|Kepler-42 b, c, and d have a semimajor axis of only 0.0116, 0.006, and 0.0154 AU, respectively.|
Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have a semimajor axis of only 0.006, 0.0076, and ~0.0065 AU, respectively.
|Multiplanetary system with largest mean semi-major axis (planets are farthest from their star)||HR 8799||b, c, d, e||1||HR 8799 b, c, d, and e have a semimajor axis of 68, 38, 24, and 14.5 AU, respectively.|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest range of semi-major axis (smallest difference between the star's nearest planet and its farthest planet)||Kepler-70||b, c, d?||1||Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have a semimajor axis of only 0.006, 0.0076, and ~0.0065 AU, respectively. The separation between closest and furthest is only 0.0016 AU.|
|Multiplanetary system with largest range of semi-major axis (largest difference between the star's nearest planet and its farthest planet)||HR 8799||b, c, d, e||1||HR 8799 b, c, d, and e have a semimajor axis of 68, 38, 24, and 14.5 AU, respectively. The separation between closest and furthest is 53.5 AU.|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest mean difference in semi-major axis between neighboring planets (orbits are most closely spaced to each other)|
|Multiplanetary system with largest mean semi-major axis between neighboring planets (orbits are most spread out with respect to each other)|
|System with smallest total planetary mass||Kepler-70||b, c, d?||1||Kepler-70 b, c, and d (unconfirmed) have masses of 0.440, 0.655, and ~0.222 Earth masses, respectively.|
|System with largest total planetary mass||Kepler-52?||b, c, d||1||Kepler-52 b and c have masses of 8.7 and 10.41 Jupiter Masses, respectively. The mass of Kepler-52 d is not known.|
|System with smallest ratio of total planetary mass to stellar mass|
|System with largest ratio of total planetary mass to stellar mass|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest mean planetary mass|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest ratio of mean planetary mass to stellar mass|
|Multiplanetary system with largest mean planetary mass|
|Multiplanetary system with largest ratio of mean planetary mass to stellar mass|
|Multiplanetary system with smallest range in planetary mass (smallest difference between the most and least massive planets)|
|Multiplanetary system with largest range in planetary mass (largest difference between the most and least massive planets)|
- Extremes on Earth
- List of lists of exoplanets
- List of stars with proplyds
- Methods of detecting exoplanets
- Terrestrial exoplanets
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these projected separations are good proxies for the semi-major axis (afterupward adjustment by to correct for projection effects)
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