List of exoplanet extremes

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The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets. The properties listed here are those for which values are known reliably.

Extremes from Earth's viewpoint[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Most distant SWEEPS-11 / SWEEPS-04 27,710 light years.[1] An analysis of the lightcurve of the microlensing event PA-99-N2 suggests the presence of a planet orbiting a star in the Andromeda Galaxy (2.54 ± 0.11 Mly).[2]
Least distant Proxima Centauri b Proxima Centauri 4.22 light years Also the closest rocky exoplanet, and closest potentially habitable exoplanet known.
Star with the brightest apparent magnitude with a planet Pollux b Pollux[3] Apparent magnitude is 1.14 The evidence of planets around Vega with an apparent magnitude of 0.03 is strongly suggested by circumstellar disks surrounding it. As of 2013, no planets had yet been confirmed.[4]
Largest angular distance separation from its host star GU Piscium b GU Piscium 42 arc seconds[5] WD 0806-661 b has an angular separation of 130.2 arc seconds from WD 0806-661. However, its planetary origin is unknown.

Planetary characteristics[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Most massive DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b[6] DENIS-P J082303.1-491201[7] 28.5±1.9 Jupiter masses[8] Most massive planet in the NASA Exoplanet Archive although, according to most definitions of planet, it may be too massive to be a planet, and may be a brown dwarf instead. It is part of an ultracool binary system.[6]
Least massive PSR B1257+12 A[9][10] PSR B1257+12[9][10] 0.02 MEarth[9][10] Mass of PSR B1257+12 A is based on an assumption of coplanarity with the outer two planets. The least massive exoplanet for which a true mass is known is Gliese 581e with a mass of 2 MEarth.

Kepler-37b may be less massive (assuming Moon-like density), estimated mass >0.01 MEarth,[11] < 6 MEarth[12]

Largest radius HD 100546 b HD 100546 6.90 Jupiter radii The extremely young age of the planet indicates that there is a large amount of heat left from formation. Over time, the planet will shrink to approximately the size of Jupiter.
Smallest radius Kepler-37b Kepler-37 0.30 Earth radii Slightly larger than the Moon.
Most dense PSR J1719-1438 b PSR J1719-1438 ≥23 g/cm3[13] Pulsar planet; minimum density is inferred via Roche limit of the host star.
Least dense Kepler-453b[14] Kepler-453 0–0.7 g/cm3[note 1] The density of Kepler-453b has not been accurately measured, and it has a radius of 6.204 Re
Hottest Kepler-70b Kepler-70 several thousand K[16]
Coldest OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb OGLE-2005-BLG-390L 50 K
Highest albedo Kepler-10b[citation needed] Kepler-10 0.5–0.6 (geometric albedo)
Lowest albedo TrES-2b GSC 03549-02811 Geometric albedo < 1%[17] Best-fit model for albedo gives even 0.04% (0.0004)[17]
Youngest V830 Tau b V830 Tau Myr
Oldest PSR B1620-26 b PSR B1620-26 13 Gyr Orbits in a circumbinary orbit around two stellar remnants – a pulsar and a white dwarf

Orbital characteristics[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Longest orbital period
(Longest year)
2MASS J2126-8140 TYC 9486-927-1 ~1,000,000 years GU Piscium b previously held record at 163,000 years.
Shortest orbital period
(Shortest year)
PSR J1719-1438 b[18] PSR J1719-1438[19] 0.092 days (2.2 hours)[18]
Most eccentric orbit HD 20782 b[20] HD 20782[20] eccentricity of 0.97±0.01 HD 80606 b has an orbital eccentricity of 0.9349,[21] previously held record
Largest orbit around a single star[22][23] HD 106906 b[22] HD 106906[22] ~650 AU[22]
Smallest orbit PSR J1719-1438 b[24] PSR J1719-1438 0.004 AU
Smallest orbit around binary star Kepler-47b Kepler-47AB ≃0.3 AU [25]
Smallest ratio of semi-major axis of a planet orbit to binary star orbit Kepler-16b Kepler-16AB 3.14 ± 0.01 [26]
Largest orbit around binary star DT Virginis c DT Virginis 1,168 AU Star system is also known as Ross 458 AB. The planet was eventually confirmed to be below deuterium burning limit but its formation origin is unknown.
Largest orbit around a single star in a multiple star system Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut 115 AU The second stellar component of the system, TW Piscis Austrini, has a semi-major axis of 57,000 AU from Fomalhaut and the third stellar component, LP 876-10 orbits 158,000 AU away from Fomalhaut.
Largest distance between binary stars with a circumbinary planet FW Tauri AB b FW Tau AB ≈11 AU [citation needed]
Closest orbit between stars with a planet orbiting one of the stars OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LBb OGLE-2013-BLG-0341LB ~12–17 AU
(10 or 14 AU projected distance)[27]
OGLE-2013-BLG-0341L b's semi-major axis is 0.7 AU.[28]
Smallest semi-major axis difference between planets Kepler-70b and Kepler-70c[29] Kepler-70 0.0016 AU (about 240,000 km) During closest approach, Kepler-70c would appear 5 times the size of the Moon in Kepler-70b's sky.
Smallest semi-major axis ratio between planets Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c Kepler-36 11% Kepler-36b and c have semi-major axes of 0.1153 AU and 0.1283 AU respectively, c is 11% further from star than b .

Stellar characteristics[edit]

Title Planet Star Data Notes
Highest metallicity HD 126614 Ab HD 126614 A +0.56 dex Located in a triple star system.
Lowest metallicity Kepler-271b, c Kepler-271 −0.951 dex BD+20°2457 may be the lowest metallicity planet host ([Fe/H]=−1.00), however the proposed planetary system is dynamically unstable. [2] The next lowest-metallicity system is Kepler-271. Planets were announced around even the extremely low metallicity stars HIP 13044 and HIP 11952, however these claims have since been disproven. [3]
Highest stellar mass HD 13189 b[30] HD 13189[30] 4.5±2.5 M[30] Margin of error means the star NGC 4349-127 with a stellar mass of 3.9 M is potentially the most massive known planet-harboring star.[31]
Lowest stellar mass (main sequence) 2MASS J1119-1137 2MASS J1119–1137 0.0033 M The system 2MASS J1119-1137 AB is a pair of binary rogue planets approximately 3.7 Jupiter masses each.[32]
Lowest stellar mass (brown dwarf) 2M J044144 b[33] 2M J044144[33] 0.02 M[33]
Largest stellar radius HD 208527 b[34] HD 208527 51.1 (± 8.3) R Star is a red giant.
Smallest stellar radius (main sequence star) Kepler-42 b[35] Kepler-42 0.17 (± 0.05) R
Smallest stellar radius (brown dwarf) 2M 0746+20 b[36] 2M 0746+20 0.089 (± 0.003) R Planet's mass is very uncertain at 30.0 (± 25.0) Mjup.
Smallest stellar radius (pulsar) PSR J1719-1438 b[37] PSR J1719-1438 0.04 R
Oldest star HD 164922 b HD 164922[38] 13.4 billion years[38]
Hottest star with a planet NY Virginis b NY Virginis[39] 33247 K This star is a subdwarf B star and has a red dwarf companion of 0.14 solar masses with a semi-major axis of slightly under 4 million kilometers from the primary component.
Hottest main-sequence star with a planet Fomalhaut b Fomalhaut[40] 8590 K HIP 78530 has a surface temperature of 10500K, but it is uncertain whether the orbiting companion is a brown dwarf or planet.

System characteristics[edit]

Title System Planet(s) Star(s) Notes
System with most (confirmed) planets HD 10180 7 1 The planets are HD 10180 b, c, d e, f, g and h. This system has 2 unconfirmed planets, and more data is needed to confirm their existence.[41][42]
System with most stars Kepler 64 PH1b (Kepler 64b) 4 PH1 has a circumbinary orbit.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ NASA does not give a direct density value, however both mass and radius values are given. Using the PHL density Calculator mass value of 0–30 Me and 6.204 Re were used and gave a result of 0–0.7 g/cm which may or may not be lower than Kepler-51d's density depending on the radius of Kepler-52d and the mass of Kepler-453b. The volume of Kepler-51d may be an order of magnitude smaller, or somewhat larger, than that of Jupiter, with possible densities between 10 and about 500 grams per liter.[15]


  1. ^ "HEC: Top 10 Exoplanets". University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo. 5 December 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2017. 
  2. ^ Schneider, J. "Notes for star PA-99-N2". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2010-08-06. 
  3. ^ Lee, T. A. (October 1970), "Photometry of high-luminosity M-type stars", Astrophysical Journal, 162: 217, Bibcode:1970ApJ...162..217L, doi:10.1086/150648 
  4. ^ "NASA, ESA Telescopes Find Evidence for Asteroid Belt Around Vega" (Press release). Whitney Clavin, NASA. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  5. ^ "GU Psc b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. 
  6. ^ a b Sahlmann, J.; Lazorenko, P. F.; Ségransan, D.; Martín, E. L.; Queloz, D.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S. (August 2013). "Astrometric orbit of a low-mass companion to an ultracool dwarf". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 556: A133. Bibcode:2013A&A...556A.133S. arXiv:1306.3225Freely accessible. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321871. 
  7. ^ Staff (8 March 2014). "DENIS-P J082303.1-491201". SIMBAD. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  8. ^ Staff. "DENIS-P J082303.1-491201 b". Caltech. Retrieved 8 March 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c New Scientist, "Smallest known exoplanet may actually be Earth-mass", Stephen Battersby, 19 January 2009 (accessed 5 August 2010)
  10. ^ a b c "Planets Around Pulsars", Alex Wolszczan (accessed 5 August 2010)
  11. ^ [NULL]. "Kepler: Discovery: Kepler-37b, a planet only slightly larger than the Moon". 
  12. ^; 2.78 ± 3.7 MEarth means 0 to 6 MEarth at 1 sigma
  13. ^ Hirschler, Ben (25 August 2011). "Astronomers discover planet made of diamond". Reuters. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  14. ^ "Kepler-453 b". 
  15. ^ HEC, Calculator (8 October 2015). "Exoplanet Calculator". PHL. Retrieved 8 Oct 2015. 
  16. ^ S. Charpinet et al.: A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star, Nature 480, 496–499, supplementary material (online)
  17. ^ a b David M. Kipping; et al. "Detection of visible light from the darkest world" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 417: L88–L92. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.417L..88K. arXiv:1108.2297Freely accessible. doi:10.1111/j.1745-3933.2011.01127.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 2011-08-12. 
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  19. ^ koi-55-ex-pl-encyc>"Notes for star KOI-55". Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  20. ^ a b [1], (accessed 29 May 2014)
  21. ^ ScienceDaily, "Students Find Jupiter-Sized Oddball Planet", 22 April 2009 (accessed 5 August 2010)
  22. ^ a b c d Chow, Denise (6 December 2013). "Giant Alien Planet Discovered in Most Distant Orbit Ever Seen". Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  23. ^ Bailey, Vanessa; et al. (January 2014). "HD 106906 b: A planetary-mass companion outside a massive debris disk". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 780 (1): L4. Bibcode:2014ApJ...780L...4B. arXiv:1312.1265Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/780/1/L4. L4. 
  24. ^ Bailes, M.; Bates, S. D.; Bhalerao, V.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; d'Amico, N.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. J.; et al. (2011). "Transformation of a Star into a Planet in a Millisecond Pulsar Binary" (PDF). Science. 333 (6050): 1717–20. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1717B. PMID 21868629. arXiv:1108.5201Freely accessible. doi:10.1126/science.1208890. 
  25. ^ OROSZ J.; WELSH W.; CARTER J.; FABRYCKY D.; COCHRAN W.; et al. (2012). "Kepler-47: A Transiting Circumbinary Multi-Planet System". Science. 337 (6101): 1511–4. Bibcode:2012Sci...337.1511O. PMID 22933522. arXiv:1208.5489Freely accessible. doi:10.1126/science.1228380. 
  26. ^ Laurance R. Doyle; Joshua A. Carter; Daniel C. Fabrycky; Robert W. Slawson; Steve B. Howell; Joshua N. Winn; Jerome A. Orosz; Andrej Prsa; William F. Welsh; et al. (2011). "Kepler-16: A Transiting Circumbinary Planet". Science. 333: 1602–1606. Bibcode:2011Sci...333.1602D. PMID 21921192. arXiv:1109.3432v1Freely accessible [astro-ph.EP]. doi:10.1126/science.1210923. 
  27. ^ A. Gould; et al. "A Terrestrial Planet in a ~1 AU Orbit Around One Member of a ~15 AU Binary". Science. 345: 46–49. Bibcode:2014Sci...345...46G. arXiv:1407.1115Freely accessible. doi:10.1126/science.1251527. ; "these projected separations are good proxies for the semi-major axis (afterupward adjustment by to correct for projection effects)"
  28. ^ A. Gould et al. (2014-07-04). "A terrestrial planet in a ~1-AU orbit around one member of a ∼15-AU binary". Science. 345 (6192): 46–49. Bibcode:2014Sci...345...46G. arXiv:1407.1115Freely accessible. doi:10.1126/science.1251527. 
  29. ^ J. H. Telting, S. Charpinet. "A compact system of small planets around a former red-giant star". Nature. 480: 496–499. Bibcode:2011Natur.480..496C. doi:10.1038/nature10631. Retrieved 23 April 2013. 
  30. ^ a b c "Notes for planet HD 13189 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  31. ^ "Notes for planet NGC 4349-127 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2017-08-28. 
  32. ^ "Notes for planet 2MASSS J1119-1137 AB". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2017-08-29. 
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  34. ^ "HD 208527 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. 
  35. ^ "Kepler-42 b". The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. 
  36. ^ "The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — 2M 0746+20 b". 
  37. ^ "PSR J1719-1438 b". 
  38. ^ a b "HD 164922 b". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2012-12-19. 
  39. ^ Joe Bauwens. "Sciency Thoughts: Planets in the NY Virginis system.". 
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  42. ^ "HD 10180 j". The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2012-12-24. 

External links[edit]