List of exoplanets
This is a list of exoplanets. As of 10 June 2017[ref] there are 3,496 confirmed exoplanets. The majority of these planets were discovered by the Kepler spacecraft. In addition to the confirmed exoplanets, there are 4,496 potential exoplanets from its first mission, and 391 from its "Second Light" mission.
For yearly lists on physical, orbital and other properties, as well as on discovery circumstances and other aspects, see § Specific exoplanet lists
The convention for designating exoplanets is an extension of the system used for designating multiple-star systems as adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). For exoplanets orbiting a single star, the designation is normally formed by taking the name or, more commonly, designation of its parent star and adding a lower case letter. The first planet discovered in a system is given the designation "b" (the parent star is considered to be "a") and later planets are given subsequent letters. If several planets in the same system are discovered at the same time, the closest one to the star gets the next letter, followed by the other planets in order of orbital size. A provisional IAU-sanctioned standard exists to accommodate the designation of circumbinary planets. A limited number of exoplanets have IAU-sanctioned proper names. Other naming systems exist.
Methods of detection
- Astrometry: 1 (0.0%)
- Imaging: 44 (1.3%)
- Radial Velocity: 632 (18.1%)
- Transit: 2,729 (78.2%)
- Transit-timing variations: 15 (0.4%)
- Eclipse timing variations: 8 (0.2%)
- Microlensing: 46 (1.3%)
- Pulsar timing variations: 5 (0.1%)
- Pulsation timing variations: 2 (0.1%)
- Orbital brightness modulations: 6 (0.2%)
About 97% of all the confirmed exoplanets have been discovered by indirect techniques of detection, mainly by radial velocity measurements and transit monitoring techniques. The following methods have proved successful for discovering a new planet or confirming an already discovered planet:
- Radial velocity
- Gravitational microlensing
- Direct imaging
- Transit photometry
- Reflection/emission modulations
- Light variations due to relativistic beaming
- Light variations due to ellipsoidal variations
- Timing variations
- Pulsar timing
- variable star timing
- Transit timing variation method
- Transit duration variation method
- Eclipsing binary minima timing
Specific exoplanet lists
- Full list of exoplanets
- List of exoplanets discovered before 2000
- List of exoplanets discovered between 2000–2009
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2010
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2011
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2012
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2013
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2014
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2015
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2016
- List of exoplanets discovered in 2017
- List of potentially habitable exoplanets
- List of exoplanet firsts
- List of exoplanetary host stars
- List of exoplanets discovered using the Kepler spacecraft
- List of extrasolar candidates for liquid water
- List of exoplanet extremes
- List of multiplanetary systems
- List of nearest exoplanets
- List of nearest terrestrial exoplanet candidates
- "NASA Exoplanet Archive". exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "Exoplanet Archive Planet Counts". exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
- "International Astronomical Union | IAU". www.iau.org. Retrieved 2017-01-29.
- Ollivier, Marc; Maurel, Marie-Christine (2014). "Planetary Environments and Origins of Life: How to reinvent the study of Origins of Life on the Earth and Life in the" (PDF). BIO Web of Conferences 2. 2: 00001. doi:10.1051/bioconf/20140200001. Retrieved 2015-09-11.
- Ollivier M., Encrenaz T., Roques F., Selsis F., Casoli F., Planetary Systems - Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets, Springer, Berlin (2008)
- The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — Catalog Listing accessed in 2015-09-28
- Exoplanet Data Explorer accessed in 2015-09-28
- "Open Exoplanets Catalogue". Retrieved 2017-02-27.
- Wright, J. T.; Fakhouri, O.; Marcy, G. W.; Han, E.; Feng, Y.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A. (2011-04-01). "The Exoplanet Orbit Database". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 123: 412–422. Bibcode:2011PASP..123..412W. ISSN 0004-6280. arXiv: . doi:10.1086/659427.