List of extinct Shia sects
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The following is a list of extinct sects of Shia Islam. These branches of Shi'i are thought no longer to have any living followers or practitioners.
- Bazighiyya– who believed that Ja'far al-Sadiq was God.
- Dhammiyya– who believed that Ali was God and Muhammad was his appointed Messenger and Prophet.
- Ghurabiyya– who believed the angel Gabriel was mistaken when passing on the prophecy to Muhammad instead of Ali.
- Ya’furiyya– who believed in reincarnation and that a man named Mu’ammar al-Kufi was their Lord.
- Kaysanites– who believed in the Imamate of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah after the death of Husayn Ibn 'Ali Ibn abu Talib.
- Hurufiyya– who believed God is incarnated in every atom, reminiscent of the Alevi-Bektashism.
- Nuqtavites– who believed in a cyclical view of time, reminiscent of the Isma'ili Shia.
- Soldiers of Heaven– who believed that their former leader Dia Abdul Zahra Kadim (died 2007 CE) was the Mahdi and reincarnation of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
Zaydi Shia sects
- Dukayniyya– who believed Muhammad’s followers fell into unbelief after his death because they did not uphold the Imamate of Ali.
- Jarudiyya– who believed the companions were sinful in failing to recognise Ali as the legitimate Caliph. They became extinct in Iran and Iraq but still survive in Yemen under the Hadawi sub-sect.
- Khalafiyya– who believed in a unique line of Imams after Zayd ibn Ali ibn Husayn Ibn 'Ali Ibn abu Talib, starting with a man named Abd al-Samad and continuing with his descendants.
- Khashabiyya– who believed that the Imamate must remain only among the descendents of Hasan and Husayn, even if that Imam is ignorant, immoral and tyrannical.
- Tabiriyya/Butriyya/Salihiyya– who believed the companions, including Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, had been in error in failing to follow Ali, but it did not amount to sin.
Imami/pre-Twelver Shia sects
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- Fathites– who believed Abdullah al-Aftah was the succeeding Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq's death.
- Muhammadites– who believed that Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi was the true 11th Imam, rather than Hasan al-Askari.
- Tawussites– who believed that Ja'far al-Sadiq was the Mahdi and that he was alive and did not die.
- Waqifites– who believed in the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim but refused to accept the Imamate of his successor Ali ar-Ridha.
Ismā'īlī Shia sects
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- Hafizi– who believed the ruler of the Fatimid Empire, Al-Hafiz, was also the Imam of the Time.
- Qarmatians– who believed in a world view where every phenomenon repeated itself in cycles, where every incident was replayed over and over again.