List of extinct Shia sects
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The following is a list of extinct sects of Shia Islam. These branches of Shia are thought no longer to have any living followers or practitioners. The sects were created around certain beliefs that were unorthodox or otherwise not held by the majority of Shia Muslims.
- Bazighiyya– who believed that Ja'far al-Sadiq was God.
- Dhammiyya– who believed that Ali was God and Muhammad was his appointed Messenger and Prophet.
- Ghurabiyya– who believed the angel Gabriel was mistaken when passing on the prophecy to Muhammad instead of Ali.
- Hurufiyya– who believed God is incarnated in every atom, reminiscent of the Alevi-Bektashism.
- Nuqtavites– who believed in a cyclical view of time, reminiscent of the Isma'ili Shia.
- Kaysanites– who believed in the Imamate of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah after the death of Husayn Ibn 'Ali Ibn abu Talib.
- Bayaniyya– the followers of Bayān al-Nahdi, who believed that Abu Hashim was a prophet and would return to rule the world as Mahdi. Bayān claimed prophethood for himself after the demise of Abu Hashim, as well.:83
- Harbiyya– the followers of ʿAbd Allāh ibn al-Harb ibn al-Kindi, who initially taught antinomianism then joined Ibn Mu'awiya's party and later expressed many extremist views about him. Furthermore, Ibn al-Harb introduced some fundamental doctrines including metempsychosis, cyclical history of eras and aeons into the radical branch of Shi'ism.:63 The group claimed that Abu Hashim designated Ibn Mu'awiya as his successor Imam of Hashimiyya.
- Riyahiyya– Harbiyya and pro-Abbasid Hashimiyya disputed over Abu Hashim's will about the imamate and eventually the disputed parties agreed upon the arbitration of their respected leader Abu Riyah, who decided that the imamate should remain in Abbasids. The most of the followers of Harbiyya, who had previosly recognized Ibn Mu'awiya as their imam, seceded and joined to the Abbasid party and they had been called Riyahiyya. Those who stayed in Harbiyya and continued to recognize the imamete of Ibn Mu'awiya subsequently called as Janahiyya.
- Janahiyya– the followers of ʿAbd Allāh ibn Mu'awiya ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Ja'far, who was a descendant of Ja'far ibn Abi Talib known as Dhu'l-Janahayn, believed incarnation of God in a succession of Prophets and imams passing eventually through Ibn al-hanafiya and Abu Hashim to Ibn Mu'awiya; transmigration of the souls; and the allegorical interpretation of the Quran.:51
- Mughiriyya– who influenced by Mandean and Manichean doctrines, founded by the first Shi'i gnostic al-Mughira, who claimed that God is a man of light with a crown of light on his head resembling Mandean doctrine of diety referred to as "king of light". Al-Mughira further added that God has limbs corresponding to the letters of Arabic alphabet reminiscent of the teaching of Marcus the Gnostic.:72
- Soldiers of Heaven– who believed that their former leader Dia Abdul Zahra Kadim (died 2007 CE) was the Mahdi and reincarnation of Ali ibn Abi Talib.
- Ya’furiyya– who believed in reincarnation and that a man named Mu’ammar al-Kufi was their Lord.
Zaydi Shia sects
- Dukayniyya– who believed Muhammad’s followers fell into unbelief after his death because they did not uphold the Imamate of Ali.
- Jarudiyya– who believed the companions were sinful in failing to recognise Ali as the legitimate Caliph. They became extinct in Iran and Iraq but still survive in Yemen under the Hadawi sub-sect.
- Khalafiyya– who believed in a unique line of Imams after Zayd ibn Ali ibn Husayn Ibn 'Ali Ibn abu Talib, starting with a man named Abd al-Samad and continuing with his descendants.
- Khashabiyya– who believed that the Imamate must remain only among the descendents of Hasan and Husayn, even if that Imam is ignorant, immoral and tyrannical.
- Tabiriyya/Butriyya/Salihiyya– who believed the companions, including Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, had been in error in failing to follow Ali, but it did not amount to sin.
Imami/pre-Twelver Shia sects
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- Fathites– who believed Abdullah al-Aftah was the succeeding Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq's death.
- Muhammadites– who believed that Muhammad ibn Ali al-Hadi was the true 11th Imam, rather than Hasan al-Askari.
- Tawussites– who believed that Ja'far al-Sadiq was the Mahdi and that he was alive and did not die.
- Waqifites– who believed in the Imamate of Musa al-Kadhim but refused to accept the Imamate of his successor Ali ar-Ridha.
Ismā'īlī Shia sects
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- Hafizi– who believed the ruler of the Fatimid Empire, Al-Hafiz, was also the Imam of the Time.
- Qarmatians– who believed in a world view where every phenomenon repeated itself in cycles, where every incident was replayed over and over again.
- al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsá Nawbakhtī (2007). Abbas K. Kadhim, ed. Shi'a Sects: (Kitab Firaq Al-Shi'a). London: ICAS Press. p. 83.
- Daftary, Farhad (1990). Cambridge University, ed. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 63.
- Momen, Moojan (1985). Yale University, ed. An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 51.
- Daftary, Farhad (1990). Cambridge University, ed. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 72.