List of extinct Shia sects

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The following is a list of extinct sects of Shia Islam. These branches of Shia that no longer to have any living followers or practitioners. The sects were created around certain beliefs that were unorthodox or otherwise not held by the majority of Shia Muslims. These sects eventually after their very brief existence had their followers fall into mainstream Shiaism.

Ghulat sects[edit]

Zaydi Shia sects[edit]

  • Mutrafya A Hamdani based sect of the Zaydi Shia led Mutraf bin Shihab that start gaining followers in Yemen after the fall of the Ismaili Zurayids, they were weakened by Sunni Ayyubids & later famously exterminated as heretics by the Zaydi imam Al-Mansur Abdallah for calling for backing a Hamdani imam
  • Dukayniyya– who believed Muhammad’s followers fell into unbelief after his death because they did not uphold the Imamate of Ali.
  • Jarudiyya– who believed the companions were sinful in failing to recognise Ali as the legitimate Caliph. They became extinct in Iran and Iraq but still survive in Yemen under the Hadawi sub-sect.
  • Khalafiyya– who believed in a unique line of Imams after Zayd ibn Ali ibn Husayn Ibn 'Ali Ibn abu Talib, starting with a man named Abd al-Samad and continuing with his descendants.
  • Khashabiyya– who believed that the Imamate must remain only among the descendants of Hasan and Husayn, even if that Imam is ignorant, immoral and tyrannical.
  • Tabiriyya/Butriyya/Salihiyya– who believed the companions, including Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman, had been in error in failing to follow Ali, but it did not amount to sin.

Imami/pre-Twelver Shia sects[edit]

Ismā'īlī Shia sects[edit]

  • Hafizi– who believed the ruler of the Fatimid Empire, Al-Hafiz, was also the Imam of the Time.
  • Seveners–believed that Isma'il ibn Jafar was the seventh and the last Imam (hereditary leader of the Muslim community in the direct line of Ali). They believed his son, Muhammad ibn Isma'il, would return and bring about an age of justice as Mahdi.
  • Qarmatians– a sect of Seveners who believed in a world view where every phenomenon repeated itself in cycles, where every incident was replayed over and over again.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsá Nawbakhtī (2007). Abbas K. Kadhim (ed.). Shi'a Sects: (Kitab Firaq Al-Shi'a). London: ICAS Press. p. 83.
  2. ^ a b Daftary, Farhad (1990). Cambridge University (ed.). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 63.
  3. ^ Momen, Moojan (1985). Yale University (ed.). An Introduction to Shiʻi Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shiʻism. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 51.
  4. ^ Daftary, Farhad (1990). Cambridge University (ed.). The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 72.