List of European animals extinct in the Holocene

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Map of Europe

This list of European animals extinct in the Holocene features animals known to have become extinct in the last 12,000 years on the European continent and its surrounding islands.

Dependent territories of European countries in other continents, like Greenland, are not included, as they should be found in their pertaining list. The Açores are included but not other Macaronesian islands, which are in the List of African animals extinct in the Holocene. Likewise, all large islands in the Mediterranean Sea are included except for Cyprus, which is in the List of Asian animals extinct in the Holocene.

Many extinction dates are unknown due to a lack of relevant information.

Mammals[edit]

Undated[edit]

Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Steppe bison
Bison priscus
Northern Eurasia and North America[A] Prazubr rysunek 600.jpg

Prehistoric[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Corsican giant shrew
Asoriculus corsicanus
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica, France Fossil jawbones of Asoriculus corsicanus.jpg
Sardinian giant shrew
Asoriculus similis
3050 BCE[3] Sardinia, Italy
Woolly rhinoceros
Coelodonta antiquitatis
8770-7770 BCE[4] Northern Eurasia Coelodonta antiquitatis by Benjamin Langlois.jpg
European dhole
Cuon alpinus europaeus
7050-6550 BCE[5] Central and southern Europe; Caucasus?[6] Cuon alpinus Cova Negra.jpg
Sardinian dhole
Cynotherium sardous
9500-9300 BCE[7] Corsica and Sardinia Cynotherium sardous restoration.jpg
European wild ass
Equus hemionus hydruntinus
3200-2500 BCE[8] Europe and southwest Asia Drawing of a hydruntine.jpg
Majorcan giant dormouse
Hypnomys morpheus
4840-4690 BCE[9] Gymnesian Islands, Spain Hypnomys by L.Meslin.png
Woolly mammoth
Mammuthus primigenius
7245-6915 BCE[4] Northern Eurasia and North America Victoria.Mammut.P1033804.jpg
Irish elk
Megaloceros giganteus
6085-5995 BCE[10] Europe and southern Siberia Megaloceros.jpg
Balearic Islands cave goat
Myotragus balearicus
2830-2470 BCE[11] Gymnesian Islands, Spain Myotragus balearicus.JPG
Balearic giant shrew
Nesiotites hidalgo
3030-2690 BCE[9] Gymnesian Islands, Spain Asoriculus hidalgo.jpg
Tilos dwarf elephant
Palaeoloxodon tiliensis
3040-1840 BCE[12] Tilos, Greece Purported representation of a dwarf elephant in an Egyptian painting
Sardinian giant deer
Praemegaceros cazioti
5550 BCE[13] Corsica and Sardinia[14] Praemegaceros cazioti A6 digital.jpg
Sardinian pika
Prolagus sardus[15]
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica and Sardinia Prolagus3.jpg
Tyrrhenian field rat
Rhagamys orthodon
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica and Sardinia Rhagamys orthodon lower hemimandibles, Pleistocene of Corsica.jpg
Tyrrhenian vole
Tyrrhenicola henseli
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica and Sardinia

Recent[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Caucasian Moose
Alces alces caucasicus
c. 1900[16] Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasian coast of the Black Sea Elch.PNG
Caucasian wisent
Bison bonasus caucasicus
1927[17] Caucasus Mountains Кавказский зубр.jpg
Eurasian aurochs
Bos primigenius primigenius
1627[18] Mid-latitude Eurasia Aurochs reconstruction.jpg
Sicilian wolf
Canis lupus cristaldii
1970[19] Sicily, Italy Canis lupus cristaldii subsp. nov.png
Portuguese ibex
Capra pyrenaica lusitanica
c. 1890[20] Portuguese-Galician border Ilustração Portugueza, n 131, Lisboa, 24-8-1908 0017 Capra pyrenaica lusitanica (cropped).jpg
Pyrenean ibex
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica
2000[B]
Pyrenees and possibly Cantabrian Mountains[22] Pyrenean Ibex.png
Tarpan
Equus ferus ferus
1909[23] Europe Kherson tarpan.jpg
St. Kilda house mouse
Mus musculus muralis
1930[24] St Kilda, Scotland MusMuralisSmit.jpg
Caspian tiger
Panthera tigris virgata
1922[25] Caucasus, western and Central Asia Caspian tiger.JPG

Local[edit]

Locally extinct and extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
Lowland wisent
Bison bonasus bonasus
1919[26] Central Europe to southern Siberia 1946[27] European Bison.JPG
Gray whale
Eschrichtius robustus
550[28] North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and northern Pacific Ocean[29] Eschrichtius robustus1.jpg
Muskox
Ovibos moschatus
7050 BCE[30] Northern Eurasia and North America 1947[31][32] Muskus.jpg
Lion
Panthera leo
4th century (Balkans)[33]
10th century (Caucasus)[34]
Africa, the Middle East, northern India, and southeastern Europe Receive Great honour MUFASA, my Love & the King of our Kingdom.jpg

Birds[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Mediterranean brown fish owl
Ketupa zeylonensis lamarmorae
7433-7035 BCE[2] Corsica, Sardinia, and Crete[35]
São Miguel scops owl
Otus frutuosoi
49 BCE - 125 CE[36] São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal
Ibiza rail
Rallus eivissensis
5295-4848 BCE[37] Ibiza, Spain
Pico rail
Rallus montivagorum
1400-1450[38][39] Pico Island, Açores, Portugal


Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Great auk
Pinguinus impennis
1844[40] Northern Atlantic and western Mediterranean PinguinusImpennus.jpg
Pied raven
Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus
1902[41] Faroe Islands, Denmark Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus.jpg


Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Slender-billed curlew
Numenius tenuirostris
2001[42] Western Eurasia and North Africa Numenius tenuirostris.jpg


Locally extinct and extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
Northern bald ibis
Geronticus eremita
16th century Mediterranean region 2004[43] Waldrapp von Burghausen.jpg
Common buttonquail
Turnix sylvaticus
1981[44] Africa, southern Asia, southwestern Iberian Peninsula, and Sicily Turnix sylvaticus 64607517.jpg

Reptiles[edit]

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Ratas Island lizard
Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi
1935[45] Ratas Island off Mahón, Spain Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi.jpg
Santo Stefano lizard
Podarcis sicula sanctistephani
c. 1965[46] Santo Stefano Island, Italy

Fish[edit]

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chondrostoma scodrense[47] late 19th century
Albania and Montenegro --
Coregonus bezola[48] 1960s
France (Lac du Bourget) --
Coregonus fera[49] 1950
France and Switzerland Coregonus fera
Coregonus restrictus[50] 1890
Switzerland (Lake Morat) --
Gravenche
Coregonus hiemalis[51]
1950
France and Switzerland Gravenche
Houting
Coregonus oxyrinchus[52]
1940
Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom Houting
Lake Constance whitefish
Coregonus gutturosus[53]
1930s
Austria, Germany and Switzerland Lake Constance whitefish
Danube delta gudgeon[54] 1890
Romania and Ukraine (the Lower Danube) Danube delta gudgeon
Salvelinus neocomensis[55] 1904
Switzerland (Lake Neuchâtel) --
Techirghiol stickleback
Gasterosteus crenobiontus[56]
1960s
Romania (Lake Techirghiol) --
Ukrainian migratory lamprey
Eudontomyzon sp. nov. 'migratory'[57]
Unknown
Moldova, Russia and Ukraine --

Insects[edit]

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
British large copper
Lycaena dispar dispar[58]
1864
England --
Silver-studded blue subsp. masseyi
Plebejus argus masseyi[59]
1940s England (Cumbria and Lancashire) --
Scarce large blue subsp. burdigalensis
Phengaris teleius burdigalensis
? France --
Perrin's cave beetle
Siettitia balsetensis[60]
Unknown
France --
Tobias' caddisfly
Hydropsyche tobiasi[61]
1938
Germany --

Sea anemones[edit]

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Ivell's sea anemone
Edwardsia ivelli [62]
1983
United Kingdom (Widewater Lagoon) Ivell's sea anemone

Molluscs[edit]

22 species and three subspecies of gastropods have become extinct in Europe since 1500.[63] No species of bivalves are known to have become extinct in Europe after 1500.[63]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Present in Europe along with the living European bison (B. bonasus) and different at genetic level, but almost impossible to distinguish on morphology unless comparing complete skeletons, which makes unclear when B. priscus disappeared from Europe. In Asia, B. priscus survived in the northern Angara River basin until at least 2550-2450 BCE.[1]
  2. ^ A single cloned individual was born on July 30, 2003, but died several minutes later.[21]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d e Vigne, Jean-Denis, Salvador Bailon, and Jacques Cuisin. "Biostratigraphy of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in Corsica and the role of man in the Holocene faunal turnover." Anthropologica 25.26 (1997): 587-604.
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External links[edit]