List of European animals extinct in the Holocene

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from List of extinct animals of Europe)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Map of Europe

This list of European animals extinct in the Holocene features animals known to have become extinct in the last 12,000 years on the European continent and its surrounding islands.

Dependent territories of European countries in other continents, like Greenland, are not included, as they should be found in their pertaining list. The Açores are included but not other Macaronesian islands, which are in the List of African animals extinct in the Holocene. Likewise, all large islands in the Mediterranean Sea are included except for Cyprus, which is in the List of Asian animals extinct in the Holocene.

Many extinction dates are unknown due to a lack of relevant information.



Holocene extinctions of unknown date
Common name/scientific name Range Image
Steppe bison
Bison priscus
Northern Eurasia and North America[A] Prazubr rysunek 600.jpg


Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Corsican giant shrew
Asoriculus corsicanus
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica, France Fossil jawbones of Asoriculus corsicanus.jpg
Sardinian giant shrew
Asoriculus similis
3050 BCE[3] Sardinia, Italy
Woolly rhinoceros
Coelodonta antiquitatis
8770-7770 BCE[4] Northern Eurasia Coelodonta antiquitatis by Benjamin Langlois.jpg
European dhole
Cuon alpinus europaeus
7050-6550 BCE[5] Central and southern Europe; Caucasus?[6] Cuon alpinus Cova Negra.jpg
Sardinian dhole
Cynotherium sardous
9500-9300 BCE[7] Corsica and Sardinia Cynotherium sardous restoration.jpg
European wild ass
Equus hemionus hydruntinus
3200-2500 BCE[8] Europe and southwest Asia Drawing of a hydruntine.jpg
Majorcan giant dormouse
Hypnomys morpheus
4840-4690 BCE[9] Gymnesian Islands, Spain Hypnomys by L.Meslin.png
Woolly mammoth
Mammuthus primigenius
7245-6915 BCE[4] Northern Eurasia and North America Victoria.Mammut.P1033804.jpg
Irish elk
Megaloceros giganteus
6085-5995 BCE[10] Europe and southern Siberia Megaloceros.jpg
Balearic Islands cave goat
Myotragus balearicus
2830-2470 BCE[11] Gymnesian Islands, Spain Myotragus balearicus.JPG
Balearic giant shrew
Nesiotites hidalgo
3030-2690 BCE[9] Gymnesian Islands, Spain Asoriculus hidalgo.jpg
Tilos dwarf elephant
Palaeoloxodon tiliensis
3040-1840 BCE[12] Tilos, Greece Purported representation of a dwarf elephant in an Egyptian painting
Sardinian giant deer
Praemegaceros cazioti
5550 BCE[13] Corsica and Sardinia[14] Praemegaceros cazioti A6 digital.jpg
Sardinian pika
Prolagus sardus[15]
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica and Sardinia Prolagus3.jpg
Tyrrhenian field rat
Rhagamys orthodon
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica and Sardinia Rhagamys orthodon lower hemimandibles, Pleistocene of Corsica.jpg
Tyrrhenian vole
Tyrrhenicola henseli
348 BCE - 283 CE[2] Corsica and Sardinia


Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Caucasian Moose
Alces alces caucasicus
c. 1900[16] Northern Caucasus and Transcaucasian coast of the Black Sea Elch.PNG
Caucasian wisent
Bison bonasus caucasicus
1927[17] Caucasus Mountains Кавказский зубр.jpg
Eurasian aurochs
Bos primigenius primigenius
1627[18] Mid-latitude Eurasia Aurochs reconstruction.jpg
Sicilian wolf
Canis lupus cristaldii
1970[19] Sicily, Italy Canis lupus cristaldii subsp. nov.png
Portuguese ibex
Capra pyrenaica lusitanica
c. 1890[20] Portuguese-Galician border Ilustração Portugueza, n 131, Lisboa, 24-8-1908 0017 Capra pyrenaica lusitanica (cropped).jpg
Pyrenean ibex
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica
Pyrenees and possibly Cantabrian Mountains[22] Pyrenean Ibex.png
Equus ferus ferus
1909[23] Europe Kherson tarpan.jpg
St. Kilda house mouse
Mus musculus muralis
1930[24] St Kilda, Scotland MusMuralisSmit.jpg
Caspian tiger
Panthera tigris virgata
1922[25] Caucasus, western and Central Asia Caspian tiger.JPG


Locally extinct and extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
Lowland wisent
Bison bonasus bonasus
1919[26] Central Europe to southern Siberia 1946[27] European Bison.JPG
Gray whale
Eschrichtius robustus
550[28] North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and northern Pacific Ocean[29] Eschrichtius robustus1.jpg
Ovibos moschatus
7050 BCE[30] Northern Eurasia and North America 1947[31][32] Muskus.jpg
Panthera leo
4th century (Balkans)[33]
10th century (Caucasus)[34]
Africa, the Middle East, northern India, and southeastern Europe Receive Great honour MUFASA, my Love & the King of our Kingdom.jpg


Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range
Mediterranean brown fish owl
Ketupa zeylonensis lamarmorae
7433-7035 BCE[2] Corsica, Sardinia, and Crete[35]
São Miguel scops owl
Otus frutuosoi
49 BCE - 125 CE[36] São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal
Ibiza rail
Rallus eivissensis
5295-4848 BCE[37] Ibiza, Spain
Pico rail
Rallus montivagorum
1400-1450[38][39] Pico Island, Açores, Portugal

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Great auk
Pinguinus impennis
1844[40] Northern Atlantic and western Mediterranean PinguinusImpennus.jpg
Pied raven
Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus
1902[41] Faroe Islands, Denmark Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus.jpg

Possibly extinct
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Slender-billed curlew
Numenius tenuirostris
2001[42] Western Eurasia and North Africa Numenius tenuirostris.jpg

Locally extinct and extinct in the wild
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Reintroduction Image
Northern bald ibis
Geronticus eremita
16th century Mediterranean region 2004[43] Waldrapp von Burghausen.jpg
Common buttonquail
Turnix sylvaticus
1981[44] Africa, southern Asia, southwestern Iberian Peninsula, and Sicily Turnix sylvaticus 64607517.jpg


Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)
Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Ratas Island lizard
Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi
1935[45] Ratas Island off Mahón, Spain Podarcis lilfordi rodriquezi.jpg
Santo Stefano lizard
Podarcis sicula sanctistephani
c. 1965[46] Santo Stefano Island, Italy


Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chondrostoma scodrense[47] late 19th century
Albania and Montenegro --
Coregonus bezola[48] 1960s
France (Lac du Bourget) --
Coregonus fera[49] 1950
France and Switzerland Coregonus fera
Coregonus restrictus[50] 1890
Switzerland (Lake Morat) --
Coregonus hiemalis[51]
France and Switzerland Gravenche
Coregonus oxyrinchus[52]
Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom Houting
Lake Constance whitefish
Coregonus gutturosus[53]
Austria, Germany and Switzerland Lake Constance whitefish
Danube delta gudgeon[54] 1890
Romania and Ukraine (the Lower Danube) Danube delta gudgeon
Salvelinus neocomensis[55] 1904
Switzerland (Lake Neuchâtel) --
Techirghiol stickleback
Gasterosteus crenobiontus[56]
Romania (Lake Techirghiol) --
Ukrainian migratory lamprey
Eudontomyzon sp. nov. 'migratory'[57]
Moldova, Russia and Ukraine --


Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
British large copper
Lycaena dispar dispar[58]
England --
Silver-studded blue subsp. masseyi
Plebejus argus masseyi[59]
1940s England (Cumbria and Lancashire) --
Scarce large blue subsp. burdigalensis
Phengaris teleius burdigalensis
? France --
Perrin's cave beetle
Siettitia balsetensis[60]
France --
Tobias' caddisfly
Hydropsyche tobiasi[61]
Germany --

Sea anemones[edit]

Common name/scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Ivell's sea anemone
Edwardsia ivelli [62]
United Kingdom (Widewater Lagoon) Ivell's sea anemone


22 species and three subspecies of gastropods have become extinct in Europe since 1500.[63] No species of bivalves are known to have become extinct in Europe after 1500.[63]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Present in Europe along with the living European bison (B. bonasus) and different at genetic level, but almost impossible to distinguish on morphology unless comparing complete skeletons, which makes unclear when B. priscus disappeared from Europe. In Asia, B. priscus survived in the northern Angara River basin until at least 2550-2450 BCE.[1]
  2. ^ A single cloned individual was born on July 30, 2003, but died several minutes later.[21]


  1. ^ Markova, A. K., Puzachenko, A. Y., Van Kolfschoten, T., Kosintsev, P. A., Kuznetsova, T. V., Tikhonov, A. N., ... & Kuitems, M. (2015). Changes in the Eurasian distribution of the musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) and the extinct bison (Bison priscus) during the last 50 ka BP. Quaternary International, 378, 99-110.
  2. ^ a b c d e Vigne, Jean-Denis, Salvador Bailon, and Jacques Cuisin. "Biostratigraphy of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals in Corsica and the role of man in the Holocene faunal turnover." Anthropologica 25.26 (1997): 587-604.
  3. ^ Louys, J.; Braje, T. J.; Chang, C.-H.; Cosgrove, R.; Fitzpatrick, S. M.; Fujita, M.; Hawkins, S.; Ingicco, T.; Kawamura, A.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; McDowell, M. C.; Meijer, H. J. M.; Piper, P. J.; Roberts, P.; Simmons, A. H.; van den Bergh, G.; van der Geer, A.; Kealy, S.; O'Connor, S. (2021). "No evidence for widespread island extinctions after Pleistocene hominin arrival". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118 (20): e2023005118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11823005L. doi:10.1073/pnas.2023005118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8157961. PMID 33941645.
  4. ^ a b Markova, A. K., Puzachenko, A. Y., Van Kolfschoten, T., Van der Plicht, J., & Ponomarev, D. V. (2013). New data on changes in the European distribution of the mammoth and the woolly rhinoceros during the second half of the Late Pleistocene and the early Holocene. Quaternary International, 292, 4-14.
  5. ^ Ripoll, M. P., Perez, J. V. M., Serra, A. S., Tortosa, J. E. A., & Montanana, I. S. (2010). Presence of the genus Cuon in upper Pleistocene and initial Holocene sites of the Iberian Peninsula: new remains identified in archaeological contexts of the Mediterranean region. Journal of Archaeological Science, 37(3), 437-450.
  6. ^ Ghezzo, E., & Rook, L. (2014). Cuon alpinus (Pallas, 1811)(Mammalia, Carnivora) from Equi (Late Pleistocene, Massa-Carrara, Italy): anatomical analysis and palaeoethological contextualisation. Rendiconti Lincei, 25(4), 491-504.
  7. ^ Turvey, Sam (2009). Holocene extinctions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953509-5. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  8. ^ Crees, Jennifer J.; Turvey, Samuel T. (May 2014). "Holocene extinction dynamics of Equus hydruntinus, a late-surviving European megafaunal mammal". Quaternary Science Reviews. 91: 16–29.
  9. ^ a b Bover, P. (2011). La paleontologia de vertebrats insulars de les Balears: la contribució de les excavacions recents. Endins: publicació d'espeleologia, 299-316.
  10. ^ Stuart, A. J., Kosintsev, P. A., Higham, T. F., & Lister, A. M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature, 431(7009), 684-689
  11. ^ Bover, P., et al. (2016). Closing the gap: new data on the last documented Myotragus and the first human evidence on Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea). The Holocene, 26(11), 1887-1891.
  12. ^ Masseti, M. (2008). The most ancient explorations of the Mediterranean. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4th Ser, 59(Suppl I), 1-18.
  13. ^ Benzi, V. et al. (2007). Radiocarbon and U-series dating of the endemic deer Praemegaceros cazioti (Depéret) from "Grotta Juntu", Sardinia. Journal of archaeological science, 34(5), 790-794.
  14. ^ Melis, S., Salvadori, S., & Pillola, G. L. (2010). SARDINIAN DEER: DERIVATIONS, FOSSIL DISCOVERIES AND CURRENT DISTRIBUTION. Present Environment & Sustainable Development, 4(2).
  15. ^ Smith, A.T. & Johnston, C.H. (2008). "Prolagus sardus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T18338A8103116. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T18338A8103116.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  16. ^ Boeskorov, G.G. (2003) The genetics of the modern moose and a review of its taxonomy. Cranium 20, Vol. 2: 31-45.
  17. ^ Bashkirov, I. S. (1939). "Caucasian European Bison". Moscow: Central Board for Reserves, Forest Parks and Zoological Gardens, Council of the People's Commissars of the RSFSR: 1–72. [In Russian.]
  18. ^ Van Vuure, C., & van Vuure, T. (2005). Retracing the aurochs: history, morphology and ecology of an extinct wild ox. Pensoft Pub.
  19. ^ Angelici, F. M.; Rossi, L. (2018). "A new subspecies of grey wolf (Carnivora, Canidae), recently extinct, from Sicily, Italy" (PDF). Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Verona. 42: 3–15.
  20. ^ Acevedo, P., & Cassinello, J. (2009). Biology, ecology and status of Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica: a critical review and research prospectus. Mammal Review, 39(1), 17-32.
  21. ^ J. Folch; J. Cocero; M. J. Chesne; P. Alabart; J. K. Dominguez; V. Congnie; Y. Roche; A. Fernández-Árias; A. Marti; J. I. Sánchez; P. Echegoyen; E. Beckers; J. F. Sánchez; A. Bonastre; X. Vignon (2009). "First birth of an animal from an extinct subspecies (Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica) by cloning". Theriogenology. 71 (#6): 1026–1034. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2008.11.005. PMID 19167744.
  22. ^ Ríu, J. U. (1959). El "mueyu", "capra pyrenaica" asturiana extinguida a comienzos del siglo pasado. Archivum: Revista de la Facultad de Filología, (9), 361-375.
  23. ^ Tadeusz Jezierski, Zbigniew Jaworski: Das Polnische Konik. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei Bd. 658, Westarp Wissenschaften, Hohenwarsleben 2008
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ Rossi, L., Scuzzarella, C. M., & Angelici, F. M. (2020). Extinct or Perhaps Surviving Relict Populations of Big Cats: Their Controversial Stories and Implications for Conservation. In Problematic Wildlife II (pp. 393-417). Springer, Cham.
  26. ^ Plumb, G.; Kowalczyk, R.; Hernandez-Blanco, J.A. (2020). "Bison bonasus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T2814A45156279. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T2814A45156279.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  27. ^ Sipko, T. P. (2009). European bison in Russia–past, present and future. European Bison Conservation Newsletter, 2, 148-159.
  28. ^ Jones, M.L. et al. (2012) The Gray Whale: Eschrichtius robustus. Academic Press, 600 pages.
  29. ^ IUCN.
  30. ^ Peter C. Lent (1999). Muskoxen and Their Hunters: A History. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3170-2. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  31. ^ Jorgensen, D. (2019) Recovering lost species in the modern age: Histories of longing and belonging. MIT Press, 256 pages.
  32. ^ Previous attempts at introduction in Norway and Svalbard (outside the muskox's prehistoric range) failed (Lent, 1999).
  33. ^ Hughes, J. D. (2003). Europe as consumer of exotic biodiversity: Greek and Roman times. Landscape Research, 28(1), 21-31.
  34. ^ Heptner, V. G.; Sludskiy, A. A. (1992) [1972]. "Lion". Mlekopitajuščie Sovetskogo Soiuza. Moskva: Vysšaia Škola [Mammals of the Soviet Union, Volume II, Part 2]. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. pp. 83–95. ISBN 978-90-04-08876-4.
  35. ^ Mlíkovský, J. (2003). Brown Fish Owl (Bubo zeylonensis) in Europe: past distribution and taxonomic status. pg. 61-65
  36. ^ Rando, J.C. et al. (2013) A new species of extinct scops owl (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae: Otus) from São Miguel island (Azores archipelago, north Atlantic ocean). Zootaxa, 3647(2), 343-357.
  37. ^ Guerra Rodríguez, Carmen. "Avifauna del pleistoceno superior-holoceno de las Pitiusas: passeriformes y sus depredadores." (2015). Unpublished.
  38. ^ Hume, J.P. (2017) Extinct Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing, 560 pages.
  39. ^ Fukui, D. & Sano, A. (2020). "Pipistrellus sturdeei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T17365A22123157. Retrieved 10 July 2020.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  40. ^ BirdLife International (2016). "Pinguinus impennis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T22694856A93472944. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22694856A93472944.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  41. ^ Robischon, Marcel (February 2015). "Blue Tigers, Black Tapirs, & the Pied Raven of the Faroe Islands: Teaching Genetic Drift Using Real-Life Animal Examples". The American Biology Teacher. 77 (2): 108–112. doi:10.1525/abt.2015.77.2.5. JSTOR 10.1525/abt.2015.77.2.5. S2CID 85886338.
  42. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Numenius tenuirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22693185A131111201. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22693185A131111201.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  43. ^ BirdLife International (2018). "Geronticus eremita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22697488A130895601. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22697488A130895601.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  44. ^ Andalusian Buttonquail declared extinct in Spain
  45. ^ Salvador, A. (2009). Lagartija balear–Podarcis lilfordi (Günther, 1874). Enciclopedia Virtual de los Vertebrados Españoles. Madrid, Spain: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. http://www. vertebradosibericos. org/(10 May 2018).
  46. ^ Day, D. (1989). Vanished species. Popular Culture Ink.
  47. ^ Crivelli, A.J. (2006). "Chondrostoma scodrense". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61345A12465545. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61345A12465545.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  48. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus bezola". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135556A4144562. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135556A4144562.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  49. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus fera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135627A4165119. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135627A4165119.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  50. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus restrictus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135570A4149314. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135570A4149314.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  51. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus hiemalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135671A4175929. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135671A4175929.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  52. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus oxyrinchus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T5380A11126034. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T5380A11126034.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  53. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Coregonus gutturosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135506A4134620. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135506A4134620.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  54. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Romanogobio antipai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135636A4167651. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135636A4167651.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  55. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Salvelinus neocomensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135421A4127253. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135421A4127253.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  56. ^ Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Gasterosteus crenobiontus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135637A4167779. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135637A4167779.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  57. '^ Freyhof, J.; Kottelat, M. (2008). "Eudontomyzon sp. nov. 'migratory". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T135505A4134478. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135505A4134478.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  58. ^ Thomas, J., R. Lewington, 2010. The Butterflies of Britain & Ireland. British Wildlife Publishing, Milton on Stour, U.K..
  59. ^ Emmet, A.M., J. Heath et al. (Ed.), 1990. The Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland Vol. 7 Part 1 (Hesperiidae to Nymphalidae). Harley Books, Colchester, U.K.. 370p.
  60. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Siettitia balsetensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T20207A9179037. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T20207A9179037.en. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  61. ^ Malicky, H. (2014). "Hydropsyche tobiasi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2014: e.T10332A21426347. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T10332A21426347.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  62. ^ "Missing: Possibly Extinct, The Sixth Extinction". The Sixth Extinction. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Fontaine B., Bouchet P., Van Achterberg K., Alonso-Zarazaga M. A., Araujo R. et al. (2007). "The European union’s 2010 target: Putting rare species in focus." Biological Conservation 139: 167-185. Table 2 on the page 173. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.012. PDF.

External links[edit]