List of New Zealand animals extinct in the Holocene

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This is a list of New Zealand animals extinct in the Holocene. This list only covers extinctions from the Holocene epoch, a geologic epoch that began about 11,650 years before present (about 9700 BCE)[a] and continues to the present day.[1]

New Zealand proper is an independent and sovereign state. New Zealand proper includes the North Island, the South Island, offshore islands, and outlying islands like the Chatham Islands. The Realm of New Zealand also includes Tokelau (a dependent territory); the Cook Islands and Niue (self-governing states in free association with New Zealand); and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica). Only New Zealand proper is represented on this list, not the full Realm of New Zealand.

Location of the Realm of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean and Antarctica.

The list below only includes animal species. Extinct subspecies of living species are not included. Non-animal life is also excluded. The list below includes a total of:

This should be considered a nearly exhaustive list of the New Zealand vertebrate species that became extinct in the Holocene, although future research could render parts of the list outdated. Two invertebrate species are also listed below. However, this list is less exhaustive because invertebrates are more difficult to survey and are less well studied.

All of these extinctions occurred after the human settlement of New Zealand. New Zealand was among the last places on earth that humans settled.[2] The first settlers of New Zealand migrated from Polynesia and became the Māori people.[3] According to archeological and genetic research, the ancestors of the Māori arrived in New Zealand no earlier than about 1280 CE, with at least the main settlement period between about 1320 and 1350,[4][3] consistent with evidence based on genealogical traditions.[5][6] No credible evidence exists of pre-Māori settlement of New Zealand.[3] The arrival of Māori resulted in animal extinctions due to deforestation[2] and hunting.[7] The Māori also brought two species of land mammals, Polynesian rats (Rattus exulans) and a kurī, a breed of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris).[2][8] In pre-human times, bats were the only land mammals found in New Zealand.[9] Polynesian rats definitely contributed to extinctions,[2] and kurī might have contributed as well.[10][11] Species that became extinct after Māori settlement but before European settlement are marked as "prehistoric" in the list below.

A Polynesian rat, introduced to New Zealand by the Māori.

In 1642, the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman became the first European explorer known to visit New Zealand.[12] In 1769, British explorer James Cook became the first European to map New Zealand and communicate with the Māori.[13][14] From the late 18th century, the country was regularly visited by explorers and other sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers. In 1840, the Treaty of Waitangi annexed New Zealand into the British Empire and gave the Māori all of the rights of British citizens, although the exact meaning of the treaty remains controversial today.[15][16][17] As a result of the influx of settlers, the population of Pākehā (European New Zealanders) grew explosively from fewer than 1,000 in 1831 to 500,000 by 1881.[18] Like the Māori settlers centuries earlier, the European settlers hunted native animals and engaged in habitat destruction. They also introduced numerous invasive species.[19] A few examples are black rats (Rattus rattus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus),[20] domestic cats (Felis catus),[21] stoats (Mustela erminea),[22] and common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).[23] Species that became extinct after European settlement are marked as "historic" in the list below.

Mammals (class Mammalia)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
New Zealand greater short-tailed bat Mystacina robusta[24] 1965 New Zealand --

Birds (class Aves)[edit]

Moa (order Dinornithiformes)[edit]

Giant moa (family Dinornithidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
North Island giant moa Dinornis novaezealandiae North Island,[25] Great Barrier Island[26] (prehistoric) Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans for food. Moa chicks may have also been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri)."[26] North Island giant moa
South Island giant moa Dinornis robustus South Island, Stewart Island,[25] D'Urville Island[28] (prehistoric) Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "Giant moa were rapidly hunted to extinction by early Maori. Their bones are widespread in middens, and were also shaped into tools and ornaments. Estimates of the number of individual moa remains in 1,200 open ovens and middens surveyed in the vicinity of the Waitaki River mouth during the 1930s range from 29,000 to 90,000. Moa chicks may also have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri). Burning of the giant moa's dry forest and shrubland habitat is also likely to have reduced their numbers."[28] South Island giant moa

Lesser moa (family Emeidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
Bush moa Anomalopteryx didiformis North Island, South Island, Stewart Island (prehistoric)[25] Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans for food. Moa chicks may also have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri)."[29] Bush moa
Eastern moa Emeus crassus South Island (prehistoric)[25] Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans for food. The remains of moa are widespread in middens, along with specialised tools used to cut up carcasses and to work bones into tools. Middens dating from the thirteenth century, surveyed at the Wairau River bar in the Marlborough district, contained remains of more than 4,000 individual moa and large numbers of moa eggs. Eastern moa was the second most abundant species recorded at the site after [broad-billed] moa. Moa chicks may have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri). Burning of the eastern moa's forest and shrubland habitat is also likely to have reduced its numbers."[30] Eastern moa
Broad-billed moa Euryapteryx curtus North Island, South Island,[25][b] Great Barrier Island[31] (prehistoric) Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans. The remains of moa are widespread in middens, along with specialised tools used to cut up carcasses and to work bones into tools. Moa chicks may have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri). Burning of the [broad-billed] moa's forest and shrubland habitats is also likely to have reduced its numbers."[31] Coastal moa
Heavy-footed moa Pachyornis elephantopus South Island, Stewart Island (prehistoric)[25] Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans. Moa chicks may also have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri). Burning of eastern dryland forests and shrublands is likely to have reduced the extent of suitable habitat."[32] Heavy-footed moa
Mantell's moa Pachyornis geranoides North Island (prehistoric)[25] Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans. Moa chicks may also have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri)."[33] Mantell's moa
Crested moa Pachyornis australis South Island (prehistoric)[25] Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was probably overhunting by humans for food. Crested moa chicks may also have been eaten by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri)."[34] Crested moa

Upland moa (family Megalapterygidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
Upland moa Megalapteryx didinus South Island (prehistoric)[25] Moa were totally extinct by about AD 1500.[27] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The main cause of extinction was overhunting by humans for food. The remains of moa are widespread in middens, along with specialised tools used to cut up moa carcasses and to work bones into tools. Moa chicks may have been killed by the introduced Polynesian dog (kuri)."[35] Upland moa

Waterfowl (order Anseriformes)[edit]

Ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
North Island goose Cnemiornis gracilis North Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "Like the various moa species, the North Island goose would have been an easy target for early Polynesian hunters. It became extinct soon after Polynesians arrived."[36] Cnemiornis spp
South Island goose Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "Due to their large size and flightlessness, South Island geese were much hunted by early Polynesian settlers. Their remains are widespread in midden deposits. Over-hunting is the most likely cause of their extinction, which occurred long before European[s] arrived in New Zealand."[37] Cnemiornis spp
New Zealand swan Cygnus sumnerensis South Island, Chatham Islands (prehistoric) Judging by the presence of their bones in middens, New Zealand swans were driven to extinction by the first Polynesian settlers before AD 1450 on the mainland and before AD 1650 on the Chatham Islands.[38]
Finsch's duck Chenonetta finschi North Island, South Island (prehistoric)[39] Extinct by the 17th century[39] Finsch's duck
Chatham duck Anas chathamica Chatham Islands (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The species became extinct prehistorically through hunting. As it was large and flightless, the [Chatham duck] would have been a good food source for the earliest Polynesian settlers on the Chatham Islands."[40]
Scarlett's duck Malacorhynchus scarletti North Island, South Island, Chatham Islands (prehistoric)[41][25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "Scarlett’s duck became extinct sometime after Polynesian arrival. It was hunted by Maori, and its nests were possibly susceptible to predation by Pacific rats."[41]
New Zealand musk duck Biziura delautouri North Island, South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The New Zealand musk duck became extinct in prehistoric times, and so no records of live birds exist. One bone was found in a human food midden, and hunting for food by people is the most likely cause of its demise."[42]
New Zealand merganser Mergus australis Aukland Islands (historic);[25]

North Island, South Island, Stewart Island (prehistoric)[25][c]

Extinct primarily due to hunting. Last recorded in 1902.[43] Mergus australis
Chatham merganser Mergus milleneri Chatham Island in the Chatham Islands (prehistoric)[44] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The [Chatham merganser] became extinct in prehistoric times, and so no records of live birds exist. A few bones have been found in human food middens, and hunting for food by people is the most likely cause of the species’ demise."[44]
New Zealand stiff-tailed duck Oxyura vantetsi North Island, South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The New Zealand [stiff-tailed] duck became extinct before European contact, and so no records of live birds exist. Hunting for food by humans is the most likely cause of its demise and the South Island bone may have been from a human food midden."[45]

Landfowl (order Galliformes)[edit]

Pheasants and allies (family Phasianidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
New Zealand quail Coturnix novaezelandidae North Island, South Island, Great Barrier Island (historic)[25] Extinct in 1875[46] New Zealand quail

Owlet-nightjars (order Aegotheliformes)[edit]

Owlet-nightjars (family Aegothelidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novazelandiae North Island, South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The New Zealand owlet-nightjar was probably extinct by the 13th Century due to predation by the Pacific rat (kiore, Rattus exulans) introduced when Polynesian settlers first arrived about a thousand years ago."[47]

Rails and cranes (order Gruiformes)[edit]

Adzebills (family Aptornithidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
North Island adzebill Aptornis otidiformis North Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The North Island adzebill was extinct before European settlement. The presence of adzebill bones in middens indicates that early Polynesian settlers hunted the species, and this is the most likely cause of the bird’s extinction."[48] North Island adzebill
South Island adzebill Aptornis defossor South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The South Island adzebill became extinct before European settlement. The presence of adzebill bones in middens indicates that early Polynesian settlers hunted the species, and this is the most likely cause of the bird’s extinction."[49] South Island adzebill

Rails (family Rallidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
Chatham rail Cabalus modestus Chatham Islands (historic)[25] According to the IUCN Red List, "Extinct between 1893 and 1895. It is thought that invasive species are responsible, both through direct predation and habitat modification."[50] Chatham Islands rail
Dieffenbach's rail Hypotaenidia dieffenbachii Chatham Islands (historic)[25] According to the IUCN Red List, this species was "driven to extinction by the depredations of introduced species. The type material was collected in 1840, and it was Extinct by 1872."[51] Dieffenbach's rail
Snipe-rail Capellirallus karamu North Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "Excavations of a stratified fossil bed at Lake Poukawa, Hawke’s Bay showed that although previously common, snipe-rails were drastically reduced in numbers during the last 1000 years of the records. This decline coincided with Maori occupation of New Zealand and the vegetation of the site changing from podocarp forest to bracken and scrub, which suggests fires were lit about that time. The key factor, however, was probably the introduction of the Polynesian rat or kiore which might have attacked the adults but certainly would have destroyed the eggs and chicks of these birds, which were extinct by the time of European settlement."[52]
Hawkins's rail Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Chatham Islands (prehistoric[25] or historic[53]) According to the IUCN Red List, this species "is now Extinct as a result of hunting. It is thought to have persisted until at least 1895 when it was described in a letter."[53] Hawkins's rail
Hodgens's waterhen Tribonyx hodgenorum North Island, South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to the IUCN Red List, "This species likely became Extinct during the 17th century as a result of predation by rats and hunting by human settlers."[54]
New Zealand coot Fulica prisca North Island, South Island (prehistoric)[25] According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The New Zealand coot became extinct in prehistoric times due to over-hunting by early Maori. Its bones are common in two archaeological middens in coastal Marlborough, where some coot bones were shaped into tools."[55]
Chatham coot Fulica chathamensis Chatham Island in theChatham Islands (prehistoric[25] or historic[56]) According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The Chatham Island coot became extinct in historic times because of over-hunting by man and possibly predation of eggs and chicks by the introduced Pacific rat. Its bones are common in middens as well as natural deposits, indicating that it was frequently taken for food."[56]
North Island takahē Porphyrio mantelli North Island (historic)[25] According to the IUCN Red List, this species "has been driven Extinct by human-induced habitat changes. There has been only one historical record of the species, in 1894."[57]

Shorebirds (order Charadriiformes)[edit]

Sandpipers (family Scolopacidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
North Island snipe Coenocorypha barrierensis Little Barrier Island (historic);[58]

Browns Island (historic, reputedly);[58]

North Island (prehistoric)[58]

Known from fossil records across the North Island. It presumably was extirpated from the North Island in the prehistoric era by the introduced Polynesian rat. Historically known only from a single specimen collected on Little Barrier Island in 1870. It appears to have been extirpated there in the 1870s by introduced cats. Another was reputedly shot in 1820 on Browns Island (Motukorea) near Auckland.[58] North Island snipe
South Island snipe Coenocorypha iredalei Jacky Lee Island, Big South Cape Island (historic), offshore of Stewart Island;[59]

Various other islands offshore of Stewart Island (Pukeweka, Solomon, Mokoiti, Herekopare, Mokinui, Kundy, Green / Rukawahakura, and Breaksea / Wharepuiataha) (historic, reputedly);[59]

Dusky Sound, Fiordland (possible record);[59]

South Island, Stewart Island, Ruapuke Island, Native Island (prehistoric)[59]

The South Island snipe was extirpated from the South Island and Stewart Island by the Polynesian rats introduced by the Māori. The species survived into historic times on Jacky Lee Island, Taukihepa / Big South Cape Island, and possibly other islands offshore of Stewart Island. The species became extinct in 1964 following a black rat (ship rat) invasion of Big South Cape Island and a failed relocation attempt.[59]
Forbes's snipe Coenocorypha chathamica Chatham Island in the Chatham Islands (prehistoric)[60]

Pitt Island in the Chatham Islands (estimated extinction in the late 1800s, despite no historic records)[60]

According to New Zealand Birds Online, "[Forbes's] snipe are presumed to have been extirpated by Pacific rats on Chatham Island between 1500 and 1800 A.D., and by feral cats on Pitt Island by the late 1800s."[60]

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes)[edit]

Penguins (family Spheniscidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Location Comments Pictures
Waitaha penguin Megadyptes waitaha South Island,[25][61] Stewart Island,[61] Codfish Island[25] (prehistoric) According to New Zealand Birds Online, "The presence of Waitaha penguin remains in archaeological contexts indicates that early Polynesian settlers hunted the species and that this, perhaps with additional predation pressure from kiore (Pacific rats) or kuri (Polynesian dogs), was a probable cause of its rapid extinction around 1500 AD."[61]
Chatham penguin Eudyptes warhami Chatham Islands (prehistoric)[62] The Chatham Islands were settled by Polynesians around 1450 AD and the Chatham penguin was probably hunted to extinction within 150–200 years.[63] It was almost certainly extinct before Europeans arrived in the Chatham Islands.[64] Other species of crested penguin (Eudyptes spp.) continue to visit the Chatham Islands today. A crested penguin captured in the Chatham Islands around 1871 or 1872 was probably a visiting member of another species in the genus, not a late-surviving example of the Chatham penguin.[65][66] Chatham penguin

Albatrosses and petrels (order Procellariiformes)[edit]

Petrels and shearwaters (family Procellariidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Imber's petrel Pterodroma imberi New Zealand (Chatham Islands)
Scarlett's shearwater Puffinus spelaeus 13th century New Zealand (South Island) --

Pelicans, herons, and ibises (order Pelecaniformes)[edit]

Herons (family Ardeidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
New Zealand bittern Ixobrychus novaezelandiae 1890s New Zealand New Zealand little bittern

Hawks and relatives (order Accipitriformes)[edit]

Vultures, eagles, harriers, hawks, and kites (family Accipitridae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Eyles's harrier Circus teauteensis 1400s New Zealand --
Haast's eagle Hieraaetus moorei 15th century New Zealand (South Island) Haast's eagle (Upper Left)

Owls (order Strigiformes)[edit]

True owls (family Strigidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Laughing owl Ninox albifacies 1914, July 5 New Zealand Laughing owl

Parrots (order Psittaciformes)[edit]

Kea and kākā (family Nestoridae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chatham kākā Nestor chathamensis New Zealand (Chatham Islands)

Passerines (order Passeriformes)[edit]

New Zealand wrens (family Acanthisittidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Lyall's wren Traversia lyalli 1894 New Zealand Lyall's wren
Bushwren Xenicus longipes 1972 New Zealand Bush wren
South Island stout-legged wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni 11th century New Zealand (South Island)
North Island stout-legged wren Pachyplichas jagmi 11th century New Zealand (North Island)
Long-billed wren Dendroscansor decurvirostris 14th century New Zealand (South Island) --

Honeyeaters (family Meliphagidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chatham bellbird Anthornis melanocephala 1906 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham bellbird

Old World orioles (family Oriolidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
North Island piopio Turnagra tanagra 1955 New Zealand (North Island) North Island piopio (front)
South Island piopio Turnagra capensis 1963 New Zealand (South Island) South Island piopio (rear)

Corvids (family Corvidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
New Zealand raven Corvus antipodum 16th century New Zealand --
Chatham raven Corvus moriorum 8000 BCE New Zealand (Chatham Islands) --

New Zealand wattlebirds (family Callaeidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
South Island kōkako Callaeas cinereus Officially classified as a possibly extinct species. Potential sightings continue South Island
Huia Heteralocha acutirostris 1907, December 28 New Zealand (North Island) Huia

Grassbirds and allies (family Locustellidae)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
Chatham fernbird Poodytes rufescens 1895 New Zealand (Chatham Islands) Chatham fernbird

Reptiles (class Reptilia)[edit]

Amphibians (class Amphibia)[edit]

Ray-finned fish (class Actinopterygii)[edit]

Common name Scientific name Extinction date Range Image
New Zealand grayling Prototroctes oxyrhynchus[68] 1930s New Zealand New Zealand grayling

Invertebrates[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The source gives "11,700 calendar yr b2k (before AD 2000)". But "BP" means "before AD 1950". Therefore, the Holocene began 11,650 BP. Doing the math, that is c. 9700 BCE.
  2. ^ This 2010 source treats Euryapteryx curtus and Euryapteryx gravis as separate species. Now they are generally treated as synonyms.
  3. ^ This 2010 source also mentions Chatham Islands localities. The source adds, "Chatham Island fossils may represent an undescribed taxon, a suggestion yet to be investigated." This apparently refers to what we now call the Chatham merganser (Mergus milleneri), which was described in 2014. Since this list includes the Chatham merganser separately, the alleged Chatham Islands localities of the New Zealand merganser are disregarded.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Walker, Mike; Johnsen, Sigfus; Rasmussen, Sune Olander; Popp, Trevor; Steffensen, Jorgen-Peder; Gibrard, Phil; Hoek, Wim; Lowe, John; Andrews, John; Bjo Rck, Svante; Cwynar, Les C.; Hughen, Konrad; Kersahw, Peter; Kromer, Bernd; Litt, Thomas; Lowe, David J.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Newnham, Rewi; Schwander, Jakob (2009). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records" (PDF). Journal of Quaternary Science. 24 (1): 3–17. Bibcode:2009JQS....24....3W. doi:10.1002/jqs.1227. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Anderson, Atholl J.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Worthy, Trevor H. (3 June 2008). "Dating the late prehistoric dispersal of Polynesians to New Zealand using the commensal Pacific rat". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (22): 7676–7680. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801507105. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2409139. PMID 18523023.
  3. ^ a b c Walters, Richard; Buckley, Hallie; Jacomb, Chris; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth (7 October 2017). "Mass Migration and the Polynesian Settlement of New Zealand". Journal of World Prehistory. 30 (4): 351–376. doi:10.1007/s10963-017-9110-y.
  4. ^ Jacomb, C.; Holdaway, R. N.; Allentoft, M. E.; Bunce, M.; Oskam, C. L.; Walter, R.; Brooks, E. (2014). "High-precision dating and ancient DNA profiling of moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) eggshell documents a complex feature at Wairau Bar and refines the chronology of New Zealand settlement by Polynesians". Journal of Archaeological Science. 50: 24–30. ISSN 0305-4403.
  5. ^ Roberton, J. B. W. (1956). "Genealogies as a basis for Maori chronology". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 65 (1): 45–54.
  6. ^ Te Hurinui, Pei (1958). "Maori genealogies". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 67 (2): 162–165.
  7. ^ Yirka, Bob; Phys.org. "DNA evidence suggests humans hunted moa to extinction". phys.org. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
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  9. ^ "Bats/pekapeka". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  10. ^ "Gone to the dogs". New Zealand Geographic. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  11. ^ "The dog is in the henhouse: did the kurī (Polynesian dog) have an impact on New Zealand's wildlife?". Sciblogs. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  12. ^ Wilson, John. "European discovery of New Zealand – Abel Tasman". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. New Zealand. Retrieved 16 January 2010. 'On 13 December 1642 the Dutch sighted "a large land, uplifted high" – probably the Southern Alps ...'
  13. ^ Salmond, Anne (1991). Two worlds : first meetings between Māori and Europeans, 1642–1772. Auckland, N.Z.: Viking. ISBN 0-670-83298-7. OCLC 26545658.
  14. ^ Cook's Journal, 7 October 1769, National Library of Australia, http://southseas.nla.gov.au/journals/cook/17691007.html, visited 20120409
  15. ^ "Treaty events 1800-49 - Treaty timeline | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  16. ^ Orange, Claudia (20 June 2012). "Treaty of Waitangi - Interpretations of the Treaty of Waitangi". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  17. ^ Orange, Claudia (20 June 2012). "Honouring the treaty – 1940 to 2000s". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  18. ^ James Belich, Making Peoples (1996) 278-80
  19. ^ "Animal pests and threats A - Z". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  20. ^ "Rats". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  21. ^ "Feral cats". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  22. ^ "Stoats". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  23. ^ "Possums". www.doc.govt.nz. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
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  26. ^ a b "North Island giant moa | New Zealand Birds Online". www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i Perry, George L.W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M. (1 December 2014). "A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)". Quaternary Science Reviews. 105: 126–135. Bibcode:2014QSRv..105..126P. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.09.025. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
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  29. ^ "Little bush moa | New Zealand Birds Online". www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  30. ^ "Eastern moa | New Zealand Birds Online". nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
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  32. ^ "Heavy-footed moa | New Zealand Birds Online". nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
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  35. ^ "Upland moa | New Zealand Birds Online". www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  36. ^ "North Island goose | New Zealand Birds Online". nzbirdsonline.org.nz. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]