List of extinct plants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following is a list of extinct plants only.

Prehistoric extinctions[edit]

Extinct plants by geologic period[edit]














Modern extinctions[edit]


Saint Helena olive (Nesiota elliptica)





Plants extinct in the wild[edit]

Encephalartos woodii
Sophora toromiro






Extinct plant cultivars[edit]

The "Ansault" pear

Plants previously thought extinct and subsequently rediscovered[edit]

See Lazarus species

  • Badula ovalifolia – from Mauritius. Known in 1830s; collected in 1970 and 1997 but undetermined (Page and D'Argent 1997, IUCN report)/confirmed identity in 2008 (Florens et al., Kew Bulletin)
  • Café marron (Ramosmania rodriguesii) – rediscovered on Rodrigues in 1979
  • Jellyfish tree (Medusagyne oppositifolia) – rediscovered in Seychelles in the 1970s
  • Sichuan Thuja (Thuja sutchuenensis) – rediscovered 1999 (Sichuan, China)
  • Gibraltar Campion (Silene tomentosa) – rediscovered on Gibraltar in 1994
  • Astragalus nitidiflorus (1909, Spain) – rediscovered 2004 (Cartagena, Spain)

Extinct algae[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ F. H. Knowlton (1889), "New species of fossil wood (Araucarioxylon arizonicum) from Arizona and New Mexico", Proceedings of the United States National Museum
  2. ^ a b c Mary Gordon Calder (1953). "A coniferous petrified forest in Patagonia". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Geology. 2 (2): 243. Bibcode:1954Natur.173R.243.. doi:10.1038/173243b0. S2CID 4225693.
  3. ^ Channing, A.; Zamuner, A.; Edwards, D.; Guido, D. (2011). "Equisetum thermale sp. nov. (Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustin hot spring deposit, Patagonia: Anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology". American Journal of Botany. 98 (4): 680–697. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000211. PMID 21613167.
  4. ^ a b Bogner, J.; Johnson, K. R.; Kvacek, Z.; Upchurch, G. R. (2007). "New fossil leaves of Araceae from the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene of western North America" (PDF). Zitteliana. A (47): 133–147. ISSN 1612-412X.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Wolfe, J.A.; Tanai, T. (1987). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Acer (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America". Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and Mineralogy. 22 (1): 1–246. Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
  6. ^ Manchester, S.R.; Xiang, X-P.; Xiang, Q-Y (2010). "Fruits of Cornelian Cherries (Cornaceae: Cornus Subg. Cornus) in the Paleocene and Eocene of the Northern Hemisphere" (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 171 (8): 882–891. doi:10.1086/655771.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ a b c Hickey, Leo (1977). Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of Western North Dakota. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. ISBN 978-0-8137-1150-8.
  8. ^ Zhou, Z.; Quan, C.; Liu, Y-S (2012). "Tertiary Ginkgo ovulate organs with associated leaves from North Dakota, U.S.A., and their evolutionary significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 173 (1): 67–80. doi:10.1086/662651. S2CID 86289858.
  9. ^ Stockey, R. A.; Rothwell, G. W.; Falder, A. B. (2001). "Diversity among Taxodioid Conifers: Metasequoia foxii sp. nov. from the Paleocene of Central Alberta, Canada". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 162 (1): 221–234. doi:10.1086/317914. JSTOR 10.1086/317914.
  10. ^ a b Herrera, F.A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Dilcher, D.L.; Wing, S.L.; Gómez-N, C. (2007). "Fossil Araceae from a Paleocene neotropical rainforest in Colombia". American Journal of Botany. 95 (12): 1569–1583. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800172. PMID 21628164. S2CID 207654872.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Manchester, S.R. (1994). "Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon". Palaeontographica Americana. 58: 30–31.
  12. ^ Arnold, C. A. (1955). "A Tertiary Azolla from British Columbia" (PDF). Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan. 12 (4): 37–45.
  13. ^ Schorn, Howard; Wehr, Wesley (1986). "Abies milleri, sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington". Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History (1): 1–7.
  14. ^ Kotyk, M.E.A.; Basinger, J.F.; McIlver, E.E. (2003). "Early Tertiary Chamaecyparis Spach from Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic". Canadian Journal of Botany. 81 (2): 113–130. doi:10.1139/B03-007.
  15. ^ a b Radtke, M.G.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2005). "Fossil Corylopsis and Fothergilla Leaves (Hamamelidaceae) from the Lower Eocene Flora of Republic, Washington, U.S.A., and Their Evolutionary and Biogeographic Significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 166 (2): 347–356. doi:10.1086/427483. S2CID 20215269.
  16. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Manchester S.R.; Wehr W.C. (2003). "Corylus, Carpinus, and Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae) from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain and Allenby Formations of Northwestern North America". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 164 (5): 807–822. doi:10.1086/376816. S2CID 19802370.
  17. ^ Manchester, S.; Pigg, K. (2008). "The Eocene mystery flower of McAbee, British Columbia". Botany. 86 (9): 1034–1038. doi:10.1139/B08-044.
  18. ^ a b c d Call, V.B.; Dilcher, D.L. (1997). "The fossil record of Eucommia (Eucommiaceae) in North America" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 84 (6): 798–814. doi:10.2307/2445816. JSTOR 2445816. PMID 21708632.
  19. ^ Mustoe, G.E. (2002). "Eocene Ginkgo leaf fossils from the Pacific Northwest". Canadian Journal of Botany. 80 (10): 1078–1087. doi:10.1139/b02-097.
  20. ^ a b c d Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1987). "Middle Eocene dicotyledonous plants from Republic, northeastern Washington". United States Geological Survey Bulletin. 1597: 1–25.
  21. ^ MADELINE M. HARLEY A summary of fossil records for Arecaceae Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 151, Issue 1
  22. ^ DeVore, M.L.; Moore, S.M.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2004). "Fossil Neviusia leaves (Rosaceae: Kerrieae) from the Lower Middle Eocene of Southern British Columbia". Rhodora. 12 (927): 197–209. JSTOR 23314752.
  23. ^ Stockey, R.S. (1983). "Pinus driftwoodensis sp.n. from the early Tertiary of British Columbia". Botanical Gazette. 144 (1): 148–156. doi:10.1086/337355. JSTOR 2474678.
  24. ^ Heinrichs, J; Hedenäs, L; Schäfer-Verwimp, A; Feldberg, K; Schmidt, AR (2014). "An in situ preserved moss community in Eocene Baltic amber". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 210: 113–118. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2014.08.005.
  25. ^ Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1988). "Rosaceous Chamaebatiaria-like foliage from the Paleogene of western North America". Aliso. 12 (1): 177–200. doi:10.5642/aliso.19881201.14.
  26. ^ Poinar, George; Rasmussen, Finn N. (March 2017). "Orchids from the past, with a new species in Baltic amber". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 183, Issue 3: 327–333. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/bow018.
  27. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Dillhoff, R.M.; DeVore, M.L.; Wehr, W.C. (2007). "New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and Northeastern Washington State, United States". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 168 (4): 521–532. doi:10.1086/512104. S2CID 86524324.
  28. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C.; Ickert-Bond, S.M. (2001). "Trochodendron and Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae) from the Middle Eocene of Washington State, U.S.A." International Journal of Plant Sciences. 162 (5): 1187–1198. doi:10.1086/321927. S2CID 45399415.
  29. ^ Manchester, S.R. (1987). "The fossil history of the Juglandaceae". Monographs in Systematic Botany. 21: 1–137.
  30. ^ a b Conran, John G; Bannister, Jennifer M; Lee, Daphne E (February 2009). "Earliest Orchid Macrofossils: Early Miocene Dendrobium and Earina (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae) from New Zealand". American Journal of Botany. 96 (2): 466–474. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800269.
  31. ^ a b Poinar, George Jr. (March 2016). "Orchid pollinaria (Orchidaceae) attached to stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Dominican amber". N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 279 (3): 287–293. doi:10.1127/njgpa/2016/0556.
  32. ^ a b Calvillo-Canadell, L.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S.; Rico-Arce, L. (2010). "Miocene Hymenaea flowers preserved in amber from Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology. 160 (3–4): 126–134. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2010.02.007.
  33. ^ Santiago R. Ramírez; Barbara Gravendeel; Rodrigo B. Singer; Charles R. Marshall; Naomi E. Pierce (30 August 2007). "Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator". Nature. 448 (7157): 1042–5. Bibcode:2007Natur.448.1042R. doi:10.1038/nature06039. PMID 17728756. S2CID 4402181.
  34. ^ Miller, C.N. jr. (1982). "Osmunda wehrii, a New Species Based on Petrified Rhizomes from the Miocene of Washington". American Journal of Botany. 69 (1): 116–121. doi:10.2307/2442836. JSTOR 2442836.
  35. ^ a b Poinar, G. (2002). "Fossil palm flowers in Dominican and Baltic amber". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 139 (4): 361–367. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00052.x.
  36. ^ Axelrod, D. (1980). Contributions to the Neogene paleobotany of central California. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences. 121. pp. 1–212. ISBN 9780520096219.
  37. ^ Pigg, K.B. (2001). "Anatomically preserved Woodwardia virginica (Blechnaceae) and a new Filicalean fern from the Middle Miocene Yakima Canyon Flora of central Washington, USA". American Journal of Botany. 88 (5): 777–787. doi:10.2307/2657030. JSTOR 2657030. PMID 11353703.
  38. ^ McKown, A.D.; Stockey, R.A.; Schweger, C.E. (2002). "A New Species of Pinus Subgenus Pinus Subsection Contortae From Pliocene Sediments of Ch'ijee's Bluff, Yukon Territory, Canada" (PDF). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 163 (4): 687–697. doi:10.1086/340425. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2013-01-18.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an Red List of South African Plants
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Knapp, Wes; Frances, Anne; Noss, Reed; Naczi, Robert; Weakley, Alan; Gann, George; Baldwin, Bruce; Miller, James; McIntyre, Patrick; Mishler, Brent; Moore, Gerry (28 August 2020). "Vascular plant extinction in the continental United States and Canada". Conservation Biology. doi:10.1111/cobi.13621. PMID 32860266.
  41. ^ Newsletter of the Southern Appalachia Botanical Society
  42. ^ IUCN (September 4, 2016). "Four out of six great apes one step away from extinction – IUCN Red List". Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links[edit]